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Enumerator Instructions
Venezuela 2001

Manual of technical definitions
Population and Housing Census, 2001

[Pages 1-15 omitted]

[p. 16]

5. Domains ("Ámbitos")

5.1 Population domain

In the population census, all those who have established their usual residence in the country are included; these persons constitute the de jure population. For the different themes investigated, there will be some variations concerning the persons about whom information is requested, depending on the age and/or sex. For example, economic activity characteristics will only be investigated for the population 10 years of age and older and fertility information will only be requested for women 12 years of age and older.

All usual residents are registered for each dwelling at the time of enumeration.

The person who usually lives in the enumerated dwelling and constitutes or forms part of a household is considered to be a usual resident.

The following persons are considered to be usual residents of the household:

Those that normally live in the dwelling and are present at the time of enumeration.

Those that normally live in the dwelling but at the time of enumeration are absent [from the dwelling] or out of the country for work, vacation, illness, surgical operation, or another reason, and will return to the dwelling.

Those with no fixed place of usual residence in another place that are in the dwelling at the time of enumeration.

The head of household and his/her spouse or partner are always considered to be usual residents, even if they live at their workplace most of the time.

A foreigner who has lived in the country for more than one year and is the process of establishing residence.

A person who lives in more than one dwelling but who sleeps and spends the majority of his/her time in the enumerated dwelling.

The object of the census, or the de jure population, is:

Usual residents in the country, whether or not present at the time of the interview.

In addition to those identified with the households, there are others who live together for religious, work, discipline, educational, etc. reasons. These persons constitute the population in collectives and are also examined in the census.

Persons who wander and spend the night in the street without any fixed place of residence. These persons will be the object of a concerted operation with the appropriate authorities to carry out their enumeration.
[p. 17]
Foreigners who are not usual residents and who have come with the intention of establishing permanent residence in the country [Venezuela].

Foreign diplomatic personnel and their families with official business in the country.

Merchant seamen and fishermen -- including those who reside in their vessels -- who usually reside in the country but are at sea on the Census day.

Usual residents of the country [Venezuela] who are temporarily abroad.

Those belonging to an indigenous group residing in geographical regions that are difficult to access. They will be the objects of a special enumeration operation immediately after the general enumeration.

Excluded are:

National diplomatic personnel and their families with official business abroad.
Foreigners, civilians or not, who are temporarily in the country.

Persons passing through international ports and airports.
5.2 Geographical domain

The enumeration will take place in all of the national territory in two phases. The first phase, the general enumeration, will take place in the months of October and November 2001. The second phase, the special enumeration, will take place simultaneously and is considered special because a modified questionnaire will be used. The indigenous population in jungle areas difficult to access, previously located, will be enumerated in this [second] phase.

The census will cover all dwelling structures and other buildings that, according to the de jure criteria function as places of usual residence for persons at the time of enumeration -- occupied dwellings and collective dwellings - . Occasional use family dwellings, unoccupied or under construction will also be enumerated but only the "type of dwelling" is investigated.

5.3 Temporal scope

In the census, as in all statistical research, it is necessary to establish a date of reference for the counting of persons and dwellings in order to provide a numeric base for the calculation of intercensal indices. Therefore, a census moment is required to avoid ambiguities concerning births and deaths on the date of reference.

[p. 18]

For the enumeration of dwellings, households, and persons, the reference date for this census will be that in which the enumeration takes place. This date will be recorded on the census questionnaire. Therefore, the census moment has been established which corresponds to midnight of the day in which each dwelling is enumerated. Children born after this moment are not included and persons who passed away before this moment are counted.

The investigation of other characteristics will refer to either the same day or to another period of time defined in the questionnaire. Therefore, the information related to migration will refer to October 1996. The following periods have been established for the characteristics of the population's economic activity: the week (Sunday to Saturday) prior to the interview for determining the workforce situation; the previous month (calendar) to quantify the amount of income coming from work and other sources.

The reference date of the Census will correspond to the day in which half of the population has been enumerated. This will be determined through the date of the interview of each registered dwelling in the census questionnaire.

[p. 19]

Part II: Units of enumeration

[Page 20 is blank in the original]

[p. 21]

II. Units of enumeration

Individual enumeration is one of the four characteristics typical of a census (the others are: universality, periodicity, and simultaneity). Because of this, the definition of the units of enumeration, or the entities for which information will be gathered and statistics generated, is fundamental.

In population and housing censuses the persons and the dwellings make up the primary units of enumeration. At the same time, persons living together in homes or collective dwellings make up the third unit of enumeration: the household. Each of these units of enumeration is defined below.

1. The persons

For the purposes of the census, the person is each of the individuals inside the population domain (I.1.1). A person can be identified as belonging to the population that lives in homes or [the population] that lives in collective dwellings. There is also a minority group that does not have a fixed residence in any dwelling; this group is the object of a special operation.

2. The dwellings

Dwellings are places of abode that are structurally separate (a structural unit by itself), independent (with access from a pubic route or through a common circulation area), and that have internal spaces exclusive to the dwelling, with walls or separations that allow them to be differentiated from other buildings.

Dwellings, thus defined, can be constructed, transformed, or arranged for human habitation or for commercial, industrial, or service purposes. In any case, they will be the object of the census as long as they are used for human habitation at the time of the census.

The structure of the dwelling is used as a unit of enumeration because it makes it possible to:

Determine, more reliably, the habitability conditions of two or more households in the dwelling.
Improve the investigation of overcrowding of housing.
Determine, in a more reliable manner, the inventory of family dwellings occupied in the country.

[p. 22]

3. The households

The definition of Household adopted for this census is that of a domestic unit, formed by one person or a group of two or more persons, related or not, who live together in the same dwelling, share the same services, and maintain a common food budget. This constitutes the general framework within which persons will be identified.

The usual resident population, present or absent at the time of the census, is included in the Household (criteria for a de jure or "de derecho" census).

A household may occupy part or all of a dwelling, but it can also live in encampments, tenements, boarding houses, or refuges. They can also be the administrative, maintenance, or security personnel of an institution. They may also not have any place of abode.

In the presentation of the census results and according to size, households will be classified into:

One-person household: Household formed by one person who lives alone in all or part of the dwelling and does not share a food budget with anyone else.

Multi-person household: Household constituted by two or more persons. At the same time, multi-person households, according to the family relationship of the members to the head ("Jefe o Jefa") of household, are classified as:

Nuclear households: A concept restricted to family, limited to the closest family relationships. Four types of nuclear families can be conceived:
Married couple without children.
Married couple with one or more children.
Father with one or more children.
Mother with one or more children.

To form part of the nucleus, a child should be unmarried and not have a partner.

Nuclear families can also be classified according to the following types:

Primary: The family nucleus formed by the head of household, his/her spouse or partner, children, whether or not they are children of the partner with whom the head lives, legally adopted children, "hijos de crianza" [children being raised by the head who are not biological children] (if, in fact, recognized as such), and children from a previous marriage, only when they are recognized by the Head and are unmarried without children.

Secondary: Nuclear family formed by members of the household who do not belong to the primary family nucleus.

-- Extended households: Households formed by a nuclear Household and other persons related to the head of household; e.g. a mother or father with a child (or children) and another family member
[p. 23]
(or other family members) or a married couple with another family member (or other family members). A household made up by a group of relatives that does not correspond to the definition of nuclear household is also considered to be an extended household; e.g. two or more persons who are related to each other, but neither one constitutes a nuclear family.

-- Compound households: Those households formed by nuclear or extended households and other persons not related to the head of household. A group of unrelated persons living together also constitute a compound household; e.g. two or more nuclear families not related to each other, with or without another person; or two or more related persons not forming a nuclear household living with other unrelated persons.

Even though the household is the basic unit of enumeration, the concept of family, internal to household, is also interesting for the purposes of analysis. The members of the Household that are related, up to a certain point, by blood, adoption, or marriage are included as family.

The differences between household and family are:

-- A household can be one person, while a family should be made up of at least two related members.

-- The members of a multi-person household do not necessarily have to be related, while the members of a family do.

-- A household can be made up of related persons, as well as others who are not. Such is the case of a domestic employee who spends the night in the dwelling and the persons who are not related to the head of household who reside permanently in the dwelling.

[Page 24 is blank in the original]

[p. 25]

Part III: Variables investigated in the Census questionnaire

[p. 27]

III. Variables investigated in the census questionnaire

1. Dwelling information

This is the study and classification of dwellings according to their morphological characteristics and the predominant construction materials in their exterior walls, roof and floor as well as the public services and their comfort.

1.1. Type of dwelling:

A) Family [dwelling]

Every structure meant to be the shelter for one or more persons, related or not, who make up one or more households.

Unoccupied dwellings, those under construction, or dwellings for occasional use at the time of enumeration are also registered in the census questionnaire but only the type of dwelling is investigated. On the other hand, buildings initially constructed as family dwellings but that, at the time of enumeration, are used exclusively for other purposes (offices, workshops, factories, etc.) are not included.

In spite of not meeting the strict definition, those places of abode that were not initially built for residential use but that are used for that purpose at the moment of enumeration are also considered to be family dwellings. Such is the case of refuges used as the consequence of natural disasters, the spaces under an overpass, areas and other spaces whose original use is different from that of a dwelling but are also used for residential purposes; e.g. commercial buildings, factories, workshops, or garages, etc.

The different types [of family dwellings] are listed below:

-- Mansion: A building used as a family dwelling constructed with luxury materials, such as: plastered brick or block, concrete or "machihembrado" [mortise and tenon joint] in the walls; "platabanda" [flat reinforced concrete roof], tile, wood (mahogany, oak) in the roof; marble, tile, granite, parquet in the floors. Mansions have extensive gardens and are very well maintained in front of, behind, and to the sides of the building. They have ample recreational and family use space.

-- Quinta or "casaquinta" [house with yard/garden]: A building used as a family dwelling constructed of plastered brick or block, concrete or sawn wood in the walls; reinforced concrete, tile, or asbestos in the roof; tile, granite, and similar materials in the floors. It has a garden in front.

-- House: A building used as a family dwelling constructed with materials such as: plastered or unplastered block or brick, concrete, sawn wood, adobe, plastered mud or stick and mud in the walls; reinforced concrete, tile, asbestos, or metal sheets in the roof; tile, granite and similar, or cement in the floor. Included here are traditional houses of mud and tile, houses built with
[p. 28]
modern materials, "la vivienda rural de Mariología", or the houses constructed by the "INAVI" [Instituto Nacional de la Vivienda -- National Dwelling Institute], other regional or municipal institutes and neighborhood houses.

-- Apartment in building: Space used as a family dwelling that forms part of the structure of a building and has access from a common area of circulation.

-- Apartment in quinta, "casaquinta", or house: Space that forms part of another dwelling and has exclusive kitchen appliances and toilet services. Has access that is independent or through a common area of circulation.

-- Tenement: Structure that has various rooms or quarters used as family dwellings, where toilet services and water storage are outside of the rooms. Also have internal common areas.

-- Rancho [hut/shack]: Building used as a family dwelling made of waste/discarded materials such as boards, cardboard, "caña" (cane) and similar.

-- Refuge: Building converted to house persons or families who have had to abandon their dwellings before the occurrence of natural phenomena, war, etc.

-- Other type of dwelling: Structure not built for human habitation that, at the time of enumeration, is found to be temporarily or permanently inhabited; such as: workplaces, storage sheds, trailers, vessels, caves, tents, or other shelters.
B) Collective

Building or group of buildings meant to be the place of abode for a group of unrelated persons who usually live together for reasons of health, education, religion, discipline, work, or other causes.

For the purposes of the census, boarding houses, student residences, and hotels where people live permanently, institutional collective dwellings, prisons, bases, welfare institutions, convents, worker residences, hospitals, etc., and other analogous establishments are included in this category.

When family dwellings, as defined above, are found within a collective, they are enumerated separately, as family dwellings. This may be the case of administrative, managing, or service personnel of the collective.

Collective dwellings can be located in:

-- Hotels, motels, boarding houses: Family boarding houses are also included.

-- Student residences.

-- Educational and religious institutions: This comprises colleges and high schools with residents, farm schools, military schools, convents, seminaries, religious congregations.

-- Long-term care or psychiatric hospitals: This includes asylums and psychiatric wards, sanatoriums for the mentally ill, tuberculosis hospitals, hospitals, clinics, and sanatoriums
[p. 29]
for long-term care of the chronically ill, general hospitals and clinics, medical rehabilitation centers.

-- Homes for the disabled and welfare institutions ["asilos"]: This includes homeless shelters, homes and schools for the deaf and mute, homes for the elderly, homes and schools for other disabled persons.

-- Other assistance institutions for children, youth, or adults: This includes homes, workshops, immediate care centers, intensive care centers, children's centers, nurseries, kindergartens, orphanages, and other unspecified institutions.

-- Penal institutions: This includes jails, penitentiaries, prisons, penal colonies, and judicial reformatories.

-- Military institutions: Bases, encampments, garrisons, air bases, naval bases, commands, military positions, military farms.

-- Other type of collective: This includes vessels, worker's camps, brothels, and other unspecified collectives.

1.2 Occupancy:

Occupancy is the functional relationship of habitability that is established in the family dwelling. The following categories are considered:

Occupied:

--With present occupants: When the persons who reside in the dwelling are present at the time of enumeration.

-- With absent occupants: When there are indications that persons reside in the dwelling but no one is present at the time of enumeration.

Such indications can be: The existence of curtains in the windows, interior lights turned on, furniture in internal areas, clothes hanging in the patio, the presence of domestic animals, etc.

Unoccupied:

When no one in the dwelling responds and it is verified through the neighbors that no one lives there.

-- Under construction: When the dwelling is in the process of being built, and is almost finished, meaning that there are at least doors and windows at the time of enumeration.

[p. 30]

1.3 Use of the dwelling:

The use of the dwelling can be:

-- Permanent: When the dwelling is occupied for all or most of the year as a place of usual residence for one or more persons (present or not at the time of enumeration).

-- Occasional: When the dwelling is temporarily occupied for vacations, weekends, seasonal employment, etc.

1.4. Predominant construction materials for walls, roof, and floor

The materials used most in the construction of the exterior walls, roof, and floor of a dwelling:

-- Exterior walls: The sides or facades that close in the dwelling.

-- Roof: The upper part that covers and encloses the dwelling.

-- Floor: Floor of the dwelling that can be natural or artificial.

The following materials are included for the exterior walls:

-- Finished [plastered] cement block or brick: Baked clay mixture molded into a rectangular form, solid or hollow and covered with a plaster consisting of cement, sand, or plaster and lime.

-- Unfinished cement block or brick: The same concept as "Finished cement block or brick" but without any kind of exterior covering.

-- Concrete: Wall constructed with cement, rock, mortar, wire and iron bars.

-- Sawn wood, Formica, fiberglass, and similar: Construction materials of good quality, manufactured or processed, including novel, durable, resistant, and prefabricated materials.

-- Finished adobe, mud or stick and mud: Wall made with: mixture of clay, mud and straw molded into a rectangular form and covered with materials such as clay or cement.

-- Unfinished adobe, mud or stick and mud: The same concept as "Finished adobe, mud or stick and mud" but without any kind of exterior covering.

-- Other: Poor quality or discarded/waste construction materials, such as tin, cardboard, palm, boards, or similar.

The following materials are included for the roof:

-- "Platabanda": Strip constructed with iron, cement, and usually, cement blocks, planks, long clay bricks or tabelones or bricks.

-- Tile: Semicircle upper covering of baked mud placed in the upper part of "platabanda" [reinforced concrete] roofs, reed, or any other good quality construction material.
[p. 31]
-- Asphalt sheet: Any sheet manufactured with asphalt materials covered in reflective materials.

-- Metallic sheet (corrugated iron and similar): Any metallic sheet used as a roof.

-- Asbestos and similar: Mineral sheets of grayish color, used as a roof.

-- Other: Poor quality or discarded/waste construction materials, such as palm, boards, or similar.

The following materials are considered for floors:

-- Marble, tile, granite, vinyl, ceramic, brick, terracotta, parquet, carpet, and similar: Artificial floors covered by materials considered to be of good quality, that can be processed natural materials or synthetic materials or natural fabrics.

-- Cement: Artificial floor constructed with processed lime, mixed with sand and water.

-- Earth: Natural floor without the addition of any other construction material.

-- Other: Floor constructed with materials not contemplated in the above categories, considered as waste/discarded materials.

1.5 Location of kitchen

A kitchen is an equipped place in the dwelling that is meant for the preparation of food. The location of the kitchen reflects part of the structural conditions and the habitability of the dwelling. The following forms may be encountered:

-- Room only: A space, with complete walls, equipped for food preparation and meant for this exclusive use, inside or outside of the dwelling. May also function as a place to eat.

-- Living room/dining room: Social area of the dwelling where the necessary equipment for food preparation is also located without being separated by complete walls.

-- Other site: Area not contemplated in the above categories.

1.6 Cooking fuel

This refers to the energy source or fuel normally used for food preparation or heating in the dwelling. The following options are presented:

-- Gas: When gas is used as a cooking fuel in the dwelling.

-- Electricity: When electric energy is used as a source for cooking in the dwelling.

-- Kerosene: When this is used as a cooking fuel in the dwelling.
[p. 32]
-- Others (wood, charcoal, etc.): Fuels used for cooking not contemplated in the above categories.

1.7 Public services

Water supply

The principal means by which the inhabitants of the dwelling are normally provided with water from the outside. The following options are presented:

-- Aqueduct or plumbing: Water arrives to the dwelling through pipes directly connected to the public water system.

-- Water truck: Truck equipped with a tank that provides water to the persons in the dwellings.

-- Public fountain or pond: Reservoir of water drawn from the public system, mechanically from a well or from a water truck from which the persons are supplied with water.

-- Well with plumbing or pump: Hole made in the earth drilled until a vein of water is found. This water is pumped mechanically for its use in the dwelling.

-- Protected well or spring: Hole made in the earth drilled until a vein of water is found, which is then protected by a ring constructed of cement or brick. This water is pumped mechanically for its use in the dwelling.

-- Other sources: The dwelling does not have any of the above water supply systems and the water used in the dwelling is obtained from cisterns or "jagüeyes" [dry steams filled with rain water], rivers, streams, rain water, etc.

Electricity service

This refers to whether or not the dwelling has electricity from the service system, which can be a public or private company. A private electric plant is not considered as such.

Fixed telephone

This refers to the availability or unavailability of basic telephone service in the household. This includes traditional telephone service in dwellings and the new service provided through the electrical plug.

Garbage or solid waste removal service

This refers to the way the inhabitants of the dwelling eliminate the waste generated there. The following options are presented:

-- Collected by the urban sanitation service: When the dwelling counts on a public garbage collection service, provided directly by the municipality, or through contracting companies.
[p. 33]
-- Deposited into a collective container: When the inhabitants of the dwellings on one street, block, or area take the garbage to a recipient or metal container where it accumulates and is collected later by the urban sanitation service.

-- No urban sanitation service: When the dwelling does not count on the previous services and the inhabitants use alternative methods for the removal of waste; such as, burying, burning, depositing in vacant lots, rivers, streams, etc.

1.8 Room

This refers to each of the rooms or areas in a dwelling that are separated by complete walls and are used for social purposes (living room and/or dining room), or for rest (room). Divisions made with folding screens or partitions are not considered to be separate rooms. Bathrooms, washrooms, hallways, kitchens, balconies, or spaces in the dwelling used as an office, storage shed, workshop, salon, etc., are not counted.

1.9 Bathroom with shower

This refers to the space, inside or outside of the dwelling, meant for personal hygiene and equipped with a shower.

1.10 Human waste elimination

The type of installation in the dwelling for the elimination of human wastes; including the form in which they are eliminated. The following options are presented:

-- Toilet connected to sewer: Recipient designed for the elimination of human waste which is taken to the sewer system or treatment plant by means of pressurized piped water.

-- Toilet connected to septic tank: Recipient designed for the elimination of human waste which is taken to a special tank called a drain by means of pressurized piped water.

-- Toilet without connection to sewer or septic tank: Recipient designed for the elimination of human waste which is taken out of the dwelling by means of a pipe.

-- Pit toilet or latrine: A shallow excavation made outside of the dwelling for the deposit of human wastes. It can be in the open air or surrounded by any type of materials.

-- No toilet: This refers to the inexistence of any of the above mentioned systems for human waste removal.

[p. 34]

2. Household information

2.1 Tenure

This variable refers to the type of arrangement the household has in occupying the dwelling.

The contemplated categories are the following:

-- Owned, completely paid: When the dwelling has been acquired by the Head of Household or another member of the household and has been completely paid for by the time of enumeration.

-- Owned, still in payment: When the dwelling has been acquired by the Head of Household or another member of the household and is in the process of being paid for by the time of enumeration. This is, there is a written or verbal agreement to make payments for the acquisition of the dwelling (e.g. a mortgage or loan of any other kind linked to the acquisition of the dwelling). The amount paid monthly to cancel this debt is also investigated.

-- Rented: When the household inhabiting the dwelling pays a monthly rent in order to live in all or part of it. Included here are rent contracts, comodato [a type of contract that allows the use of something and requires the return of the object], or monthly payments for the occupation of the dwelling, even when there is no explicit contract. The amount of the monthly payment the household needs to cancel is also investigated.

-- Loaned: When the household inhabiting the dwelling does not pay rent because the dwelling is provided as part of a salary or by social services because of a natural disaster, or because it is the property of a family member or friend of the household.

-- Other: Any other form of occupation of the dwelling that is not ownership, loan, or rent. Included in this category are "invaded" dwellings.

2.2 Sleeping rooms

This refers to each of the rooms or spaces of the dwelling that are separated by complete walls and are used for sleeping by the members of the enumerated household.

2.3 Private use vehicles

This refers to the vehicles for private use possessed by the enumerated household. Vehicles not included are: official-use automobiles, motorcycles, or bicycles; taxis, "moto-taxis" [motorcycle taxis], "carros por puesto" [a type of paid transportation where each passenger pays for their seat in the car/van -- similar to a taxi but used more for transportation between cities]; delivery bicycles or motorcycles; cargo vehicles, and other vehicles for private work or for a company or exclusively recreational or sport vehicles.

-- Bicycle: Human powered vehicle ["vehículo a tracción de sangre"], with two wheels of equal size whose pedals transfer movement via two pinions and a chain.
[p. 35]
-- Motorcycle: Automotive vehicle with two or three wheels and one or two seats that uses gasoline as a fuel.

-- Car (automobile): Vehicle designed for the transportation of persons, with four wheels, that uses gasoline, diesel, or gas as a fuel.

2.4 Household appliances

Through the appliances available to households, it is possible to study the levels of comfort and quality of life of the population. This question refers to the possibility of availability, or lack thereof, of appliances. The following appliances are contemplated:

-- Refrigerator: Closet lined with insulating material and equipped with an ice receptacle for the cooling and conservation of food and drink. Runs with electricity or kerosene.

-- Water filter: Appliance that allows the filtration and elimination of impurities in water used for drinking.

-- Radio: Apparatus that receives transmissions with a modulated and amplified frequency, providing diversion [entertainment] and information to the members of the household.

-- Television: Apparatus that simultaneously receives sounds and images providing entertainment and information to the members of the household.

-- [Clothes] Washer: Machine designed to wash the clothes of the household members.

-- [Clothes] Dryer: Machine designed to dry the clothes of the household members.

-- Water heater: Fixed gas or electric appliance that provides hot water in the dwelling; either centrally or individually. Showerheads that provide instant hot water are included.

-- Air conditioning: Electric appliance that allows the temperature in all or part of the dwelling to be lowered. Fans are not included.

-- Microwave: Closed appliance provided with a system that generates high-frequency electromagnetic waves in which food meant for human consumption is heated.

-- Mobile or cellular phone: Telephonic device with mobile cellular technology that transmits the voice. Only counted when the device stays in the household and is used by the household members.

-- Cable television: Fixture that allows access to the different television channels from around the world. This includes satellite reception and other subscription services.
[p. 36]
-- Computer: Automated machine, used in the treatment of information that obeys programs formed by successive arithmetic and logical operations, used by the household members.

-- Internet access: Electronic mail system that is connected through computers, cellular phones, or a satellite television system, with different addresses for the persons or institutions subscribing to this global service.

3. General demographic characteristics

3.1 Relationship to the head of household

The question referring to relationship is the base for determining the family composition of the household. Through this it will be possible to identify the Head of Household and determine his/her relationship with the other members of the household. Therefore, the hierarchical registration of the household members by the order of relation is useful for the indirect collection of data of the family nuclei. In the construction of these nuclei the relationship of paternity (descending relationship) will prevail over the relationship of filiations (ascending relationship). For example, when someone in a household forms part of two family nuclei, preference is given to his/her family group of procreation and not his/her group of origin.

The following relationships are included:

-- Head of household: Household member, man or woman, that the others in the household consider to be the head for reasons of authority, relationship, age, respect, or for economic dependence, or any other reason considered by the household members.

-- Spouse or partner: The person united to the Head of Household through marriage or consensual union.

-- Child, step-child: Direct descendent, in the first degree, of the Head of Household and or his/her spouse. Stepchildren, children, adopted children, and children being raised by the head who are not biological children are all included.

-- Grandchild: Direct descendent, in the second degree, of the Head of Household.

-- Son/Daughter-in-law: Spouse or partner of the child of the Head of Household.

-- Parent, father/mother-in-law: Progenitor of the Head of Household, spouse or partner. Step-fathers and step-mothers are included in this category.
[p. 37]
-- Sibling, brother/sister-in-law: Person born of the same father and/or mother of the Head of Household or his/her spouse or partner. Step-brothers/sisters, i.e. the child of the step-father or step-mother of the Head of Household, are included in this category.

-- Niece, nephew: Child of the sibling of the Head of Household or of his/her spouse or partner.

-- Other relative: Relative of the Head of Household or his/her spouse or partner not included in any of the above categories.

-- Not related: Household member that is not related to the Head of Household or his/her spouse or partner.

-- Domestic employee: Household member who carries out domestic duties, remunerated in money and/or maintenance, paid by the Head of Household or his/her spouse or partner. Is only counted when he/she sleeps in the dwelling.

-- Relative of domestic employee: Household member who resides in the enumerated dwelling because of his/her relationship to a domestic employee. Is only counted when he/she sleeps in the dwelling.

-- Person in collective dwelling: The category assigned to the person residing in a institutional or other type of collective. This is not a family relationship, per se, but it is included in order to identify those who claim to be usual residents of a collective dwelling in question 1 in Section II, "Dwelling information".

3.2 Sex

This refers to the biological condition, determined before birth, which distinguishes men from women.

3.3 Age

The age of the enumerated person is investigated through a dual question that solicits both the "Date of Birth", because it provides more precise information, as well as the Age completed in years. In this way, the cases in which persons to not know their exact date of birth can be avoided and the enumerator can identify the person by cohort "los cortes de edad". The concepts used in the treatment of these variables are the following:

-- Date of birth: This refers to the precise date (day, month, and year) on which the enumerated person was born.

-- Age completed in years: The period of time between the person's date of birth and the day of enumeration, expressed in whole years.

[p. 38]

3.4 Number of persons under the age of 18 in the Household who have not been registered in the Civil Registry.

This refers to the number of persons under the age of 18 who are residents of the household and who have not been registered in any Civil Registry, Court, Mayoralty, Consulate, Hospital, Clinic, Health Center, etc. with the purpose of complying with the Civil Code in obtaining a birth certificate or legal document that confirms the identity of the person.

3.5 Current marital status

This refers to the enumerated person's situation relating to the marriage laws and customs of the country. The person's concrete situation is investigated and not the person's legal civil status.

The following situations are considered for the investigation of this variable:

-- In union: A person of any legal status who lives in a marital state without having been legally married to the person with whom he/she lives.

-- Married: A person who has been legally married according to the law and who lives with his/her spouse.

-- Unmarried: A person who has never been married and who does not live in a marital state with another person.

-- Separated from union or marriage: A person who is separated from his/her spouse or partner and who does not live in a marital state with another person.

-- Divorced: A person who has legally dissolved his/her marriage and who has not remarried and does not live with another person in a marital state.

-- Widowed from union or marriage: A person who has not remarried and does not live with anther person in a marital state after the death of his/her spouse.

3.6 Indigenous group:

This refers to the spontaneous declaration by an individual born in the national territory about his/her identification with an indigenous group.

3.7 Indigenous language spoken:

This refers to whether or not the person speaks the language spoken by the indigenous group to which he/she belongs.

3.8 Deficiencies, problems, or disabilities:

This refers to any loss of or anomaly in one or more organs or limbs, or to the functioning of the organs or limbs that has caused one or more disabilities.

[p. 39]

It also refers to the limitations produced by illnesses that permanently affect the activity of the enumerated person. A person who has overcome a disability with the use of external technical assistance is still considered to have a disability.

The following categories are considered for the investigation of this variable:

-- Total blindness: This refers to the person who cannot perceive light in either eye.

-- Total deafness: This refers to the person who is not able to receive any sound, even when it is amplified.

-- Mental retardation: Deficiency in the general and specific mental functions.

-- Loss or disablement of upper limbs: Included are those who have suffered paralysis, amputation, or limited movement in the arms.

-- Loss or disablement of lower limbs: Included are those who have suffered paralysis, amputation, or limited movement in the legs.

-- Other: This refers to other limitations that affect the psychological, motor, or sensory well-being in the normal activity of a person.

3.9 Wheelchair use required

This refers to the enumerated person's need for a wheelchair in order to move inside or outside of the dwelling because of illness, advanced age, accident, or other causes.

4. Migration characteristics

Migration is the movement of population that implies a change in place of usual residence crossing some kind of political or administrative border.

Internal migrations refer to changes of place of usual residence within the country. International migrations refer to changes of place of usual residence where there are moves across national borders, either through people coming into the country (international in-migration) or through people leaving the country (international emigration).

For the study of internal migration, this census will adopt the Municipality as the area that defines migration, that is, the smallest administrative agency from which changes in residence are considered to be migratory movements. This means that when there is a change of place of usual residence between populated areas or parishes of the same state, the migration is not detected. With respect to international migration, only in-migration is studied, investigating the country of birth and the first level of the corresponding Political-Territorial Division.

[p. 40]

4.1 Migrant

A migrant is a person who has changed places of usual residence from the time of birth to the date of the interview (lifetime migrations) or in a defined interval between a fixed date and the date of the interview (fixed-term or period(s) migrations). The following information can be determined from the relationship between the questions:

-- Not migrant.

-- Returning migrant.

-- Recent, old, multiple, or returning migrant.

Persons born abroad who have established residence in Venezuela (external in-migrants) can be characterized in the tabulation or analysis of the information because the census questionnaire investigates the place of birth (origin) of the residents at the time of enumeration. Also investigated are the year of arrival and other socio-demographic characteristics and the economic activity of this population.

4.2 Place of birth

Place of birth information is principally used to investigate internal migration and is crossed with the place of usual residence. This information permits the classification of the population who resides within the national territory as either Born in Venezuela or Born abroad.

Place of birth refers to the geographical place where the enumerated person was born. For the purposes of the census, the enumerated person's place of birth, to the level of Federal Entity [State], is requested of those born in Venezuela; for those born abroad, the corresponding country of birth, province, department or region, is requested as well as the year of arrival to Venezuela.

4.3 Place of usual residence in October of 1996

This refers to the geographical area where the enumerated person normally resided in October of 1996. Information will be gathered through this question that will allow the specification and identification of both the interval of migrations and the place of origin and destination. The relative intensity of emigration and internal immigration can be measured in this way. This will make it possible to specify the migratory flows and will provide the basic data for the calculation of migration rates in a determined period of time.

The following situations are considered:

-- Was not born: All persons who had not been born by October 1996, i.e. those who were born in the months and years after November and December of 1996 (97, 98, 99, 2000, and 2001).
[p. 41]
-- In the same municipality: This corresponds to the person who, in October of 1996, resided in the same municipality where he/she is being enumerated.

-- In another municipality in the country [país]: This corresponds to the person who, in October of 1996, did not reside in the same municipality where he/she is being enumerated, rather they lived in another municipality in the same or different state in Venezuela. The name of the municipality is also requested.

-- In another country: This corresponds to the person who, in October of 1996, resided in a country other than Venezuela. The name of the country is also requested. This will allow immigration flow to be characterized according to the country of origin.

4.4 Legal nationality

This refers to whether the enumerated person is a national or foreigner according to the process by which a foreigner acquires legal citizenship or nationality in the country [país] where the census takes place.

The nationality data is used as an indicator of the foreign population's level of integration. The nationality data of those born abroad, distinguishing for country of birth, will allow the visualization of the variations among the different migratory trends regarding the practice of adopting Venezuelan nationality as a mechanism of assimilation into the accepted society.

The following categories are distinguished:

-- Naturalized Venezuelan: The person who was born abroad and who has been conferred Venezuelan citizenship according to the law.

-- Venezuelan, born abroad to mother and/or father who are Venezuelan by birth or naturalization: The person who was born abroad and has been conferred Venezuelan citizenship for being the child of a mother and/or father who are Venezuelan by birth or naturalization.

-- Foreigner: The person who was born abroad and who has not acquired Venezuelan citizenship.

5. Educational characteristics

The study of educational characteristics in the XIII [thirteenth] General Population Census is oriented, for one part, towards the collection of data concerning the population's literacy level and level of instruction attained in the formal educational system of the country. It is also oriented towards the collection of data of those who are studying at the time of enumeration.

[p. 42]

5.1 Literacy

Literacy is the ability to read and write a simple paragraph in any language. UNESCO recommends that literacy be studied in the population 10 years of age and older.

5.2 School attendance

This refers to the student's attendance, or lack thereof, at any formal accredited educational establishment, official or private, in order to take classes in any grade, year, or semester, and at any educational level at the time of enumeration.

5.4 Type of institution

This refers to the type of educational establishment that the enumerated person is attending. The contribution of the public ["official"] sector and that of the private sector in the education of the student population is studied through this question.

The type of institution attended by the enumerated person can be:

-- Official: Educational institutions that are the direct responsibility of the Ministry of Education or Regional/Municipal Governments and [where students] are exempt from monthly payments for services rendered.

-- Private: Educational institutions registered with the Ministry of Education that is the responsibility of a private administration and [where students] are charged a monthly fee for services rendered.

5.4 Level of education attained

This refers to the last grade, year, or semester completed by the enumerated person in Venezuela's formal system of education.

The following levels are considered:

-- None: When the person has not completed any grade.

-- Preschool education: The first obligatory level in the educational system; the phase prior to basic education. The different levels making up this type of education are considered "years" (1st, 2nd or 3rd level or kindergarten and preparatory). Children attend at 3 years of age.

-- Basic/primary [elementary] education: The second obligatory level in the educational system. It is made up of 9 years of study distributed into three stages with three school years in each stage. Students attend at 6 years of age. Included in this level are what in the past was established as Primary education (1st through 6th grades) and Common Basic Cycle or Secondary (1st through 3rd years).
[p. 43]
-- Special education: Type of education designed, through special methods and resources, to attend to those persons whose physical, intellectual, or emotional characteristics impede them from adapting to and progressing through the programs of the educational system. Specialized attention to those who have superior abilities who stand out in one or more areas of human development is also considered here.

-- Intermediate education: The second or third level in the educational system. It is designed for the training of high school graduates and "técnicos medios" in their corresponding specialties. This level should include what was established in the past as 4th, 5th, and 6th years of "bachillerato" (high school) or secondary.

-- "Técnico Medio": Title or certificate [diploma] given in the specialty area to those who completed intermediate education [high school].

-- "Bachillerato" [high school]: Third level of the previous educational system that provided 5 years of training for "bachilleres" [high school students].

-- Superior technical: The fourth level in the educational system that provides professional technical training. This education is provided by Colleges or University Institutes and has duration of 3 years.

-- University: The fourth level in the educational system that provides professional training. This education is provided by Universities, Pedagogical Institutions, Armed Forces Officer Training Institutes, and "Institutos Superiores de Formación de Ministros del Culto".

5.5 Superior education degree/title

The degree or certification awarded, whether in Venezuela or abroad, once the legal requirements for the corresponding "carrera" [major/specialty], at the level of superior education, are completed.

5.6 Graduate studies

This refers to studies carried out, by those who have previously received a university degree, at national or foreign institutions authorized to provide post-graduate studies and degrees.

[p. 44]

6. Economic characteristics

6.1 Economic activity

The process, or combination of activities, that results in the generation of a certain set of products. In carrying out an economic activity, a combination of resources such as equipment, labor, raw materials, and process engineering ["técnica de fabricación"] have a place in obtaining certain goods and services for the market.

6.2 Workforce or economically active population

All persons 10 years of age and older who, the week prior to the interview (Sunday to Saturday), supply or are able to supply labor for the production of goods and services for the market. Both unemployed and employed persons are included in this category. For the purposes of the census, the week prior to the census is taken as the point of reference in the quantification of this variable.

6.3 Workforce situation

The situation that distinguishes those 10 years of age and older according to whether or not they carry out an economic activity the week prior to the interview. According to the type of activity carried out, the persons are classified as either economically active or economically inactive.

Employed [persons] are those 10 years of age or older who were in one of the following situations the week prior to the interview:

-- Working: One who carried out, during the week prior to the interview, any economic activity for which monetary or in-kind compensation was received or will be received. For example: persons who work for a company, organization, or business; persons who sell lottery tickets, "terminales" [a type of lottery ticket], or magazines; persons who carry out military duty, prepare food or make "arepas" [Venezuelan corn cakes] to sell, those who carry out "costura para la calle" [sew on the street????], or persons who are domestic employees all are considered to be working.

-- Not working, but employed: A person who has employment, work, or a business but during the week prior to enumeration was not working because of vacation, leave, pre or post natal rest, illness, strike, etc.

Unemployed [persons] are those 10 years of age or older who were in one of the following situations the week prior to the interview:

-- Looking for employment having been previously employed: Unemployed person who was making an effort to find work during the week prior to enumeration.

-- Looking for employment for the first time: Person who has never worked and who was making an effort to find work during the week prior to enumeration.
[p. 45]

6.4 Economically inactive population

Comprised of those persons, 10 year of age and older, who were not working or looking for work during the week prior to enumeration. The persons in one of the following situations are counted in this group:

-- Household duties: One who exclusively took care of the household and did not carry out a productive activity of any kind during the week prior to enumeration.

-- Studying and not working: One who was only studying during the week prior to enumeration and did not carry out a productive activity of any kind.

-- Retiree or pensioner not working: One whose only income comes from a pension that could be because of advanced age, widowhood, orphanhood, disability, or retirement due to age and/or years of service.

-- Permanently disabled: One who cannot carry out any productive activity because of a permanent disability caused by an illness, accident, or advanced age.

-- Other situation: One who cannot be included in any of the above categories; for example, a person who is not looking for work or does not want to work or is not interested in working, a person who works when he/she wants to, and the person who cannot work because of a temporary disability or illness, a person who receives income from corporate profit investments, real estate (rentier).

6.5 Occupational group

This refers to the type or class of principal work that the person carries or carried out during the week prior to enumeration, independent of the industry or employment status.

The tabulations concerning employment will be made based on the International Uniform Classification of Occupations ["Clasificación Internacional Uniforme de Ocupaciones"] (CIUO 88), adapted to the national reality.

6.6 Industry

This refers to the activity or the kind of goods and services produced by the business, organization, or company where the person works or worked.

The tabulations concerning industry will be made based on the International Uniform Industrial Classification ["Clasificación Industrial Internacional Uniforme"] (CIIU Rev. 3).

[p. 46]

6.7 Number of persons working in the business, organization, or company

The size of the establishment will be determined through the number of workers who work in the organization, company, establishment, or business where the enumerated person works.

6.8 Employer sector

This refers to the name or the social reason (economic sector) by which the business, organization, or company that the enumerated person works for is known. The following categories are distinguished:

-- Private sector: Businesses, organizations, or companies whose capital comes from private sources; can be for-profit or non-profit.

-- Public administration: Organization that depends on some government authority, federal, state, or municipal; universities and superior educational institutions belonging to the Venezuelan state; companies whose capital mostly belongs to the state, e.g. petroleum companies, petrochemical companies, etc.

6.9 Registration in the "Registro Mercantil" [mercantile registry]

This refers to whether of not the company or business where the enumerated person works or worked is legally registered for the practice of the economic activity, known as the "Registro Mercantil" [mercantile registry].

6.10 Employment status

The economically active person's labor condition within the economic unit, company, or establishment.

The following groups are considered in this category:

-- Permanent employee or laborer: One who works permanently for a private or public business, organization, or company, enjoying the benefits of the Labor Law and who receives income weekly, in the case of laborers, or monthly, in the case of employees (bi-weekly pay is considered to be an advance of the monthly salary).

-- Contract employee or laborer: One who works for a private or public business, organization, or company who has a contract with explicit or implicit terms for which a monthly or weekly wage is received (bi-weekly pay is considered to be an advance of the monthly salary).

-- Occasional employee or laborer: One who works for a private or public business, organization, or company who has a short-term contract and who receives a temporary wage.
[p. 47]
-- Own-account worker (does not have employees or laborers): One who does not depend on an employer and who does not have employees or laborers in his/her charge. This person directly offers and charges for services without using intermediaries.

-- Employer: One who directs his/her own company, irrespective of size, and who employs at least one remunerated employee or laborer.

-- Member of a cooperative: One who works in a voluntary association of individuals united by a common interest based on solidarity, equality, and justice in which each individual has one vote, irrespective of the amount of capital provided to the association. This refers to the member and or worker in a cooperative that produces goods and services. Cooperatives are classified, paying attention to the service provided to the associates, as cooperatives that obtain goods and services, cooperatives that produce goods and services, and mixed [cooperatives].

-- Unpaid family worker: One who works or worked, for at least 15 hours during the week prior to enumeration, in the company or business of a family member without receiving monetary or in-kind remuneration. The maintenance that the person might receive is not considered to be income.

-- Domestic employee: One who works in the home of a family, carrying out domestic duties for which remuneration is received. This person should sleep in the dwelling in which the work is carried out. Included in this category are: gardeners, chauffeurs, cooks, nannies, etc. Domestic employees who do not sleep in the dwelling of the employer are considered to be "own-account workers".

6.11 Place of work

The building, establishment, place, or any other location where the enumerated person carries out, or carried out, his/her principal productive activity.

The following categories are included:

-- Inside the home: When the enumerated person produces goods or services meant for the market inside the dwelling of usual residence.

-- Building attached to dwelling: When the enumerated person sets apart a part of the dwelling of usual residence exclusively for the production of goods or services meant for the market.

-- Exclusive building or location: When the enumerated person has to travel from his/her residence to another place where his/her productive activities take place. Also included in this category are those persons who work for a company but do not carry out their activities in the offices of the company; rather they spend the majority of their time in the street (e.g. medical representatives, employees of telecommunications companies, etc.).
[p. 48]
-- Street (peddler): When the enumerated person sells products in the public thoroughfares (streets, avenues, sidewalks).

-- Kiosk: When the enumerated person carries out his/her economic activity in a small construction, located in the street or public area, to sell newspapers, flowers, food, and other merchandise.

-- Market: When the enumerated person carries out his/her economic activity selling merchandise in a stall inside the geographical area of the market.

-- Vehicle: When the enumerated person carries out his/her economic activity selling merchandise (sometimes produced by the same person) in a vehicle parked in the street.

-- House calls ["servicio a domicilio"]: When the enumerated person carries out his/her economic activity in the dwelling of the person who solicited the services. E.g. plumbers, house painters, a person who repairs "white goods" [domestic linens] or electronic appliances who does not have an office designed for this work.

6.12 Occupational training

This refers to the training received by workers, outside of formal education, that has contributed to the improved performance in the trade that person currently carries out, or carried out in the last job. It consists in the improvement of labor training.

6.13 Hours worked

This refers to the total number of hours that the enumerated person dedicates or dedicated to carrying out all of his/her jobs during the week prior to enumeration.

6.14 Income received for work the month prior to the interview

This refers to the total monetary remuneration earned by the worker for the work completed in all of the jobs performed during the month prior to enumeration or in the last month worked. Included here are salaries and wages, cooperative member's income, employer's company income, income of an own-account worker who operates a business or company not registered as "sociedades de capital" [incorporated companies?]. Income from rents, pensions, retirements, grants, etc., is not counted.

For workers with dependent employment, or subordinates, the pay is the net salary or wage without deductions (taxes, social security, savings, and other deductions), plus bonuses, premiums or cash compensations, fixed allowances, tips, commissions, and "cesta tickets" [food stamps or coupons that can be traded for food given to government employees as a benefit].

For independent workers, this refers to: income less expenses, honorariums received by professionals and specialists in the free exercise of their profession, monthly salary income given to an employer [by the employer him/herself], normal money withdrawals by business owners because of earnings or profits.

[p. 49]

6.15 Terms of income

This refers to the form in which the person receives or received income from his/her principal employment. This can be monthly, weekly, or daily.

6.16 Income from other sources

This refers to income that the enumerated person receives that does not come from working, irrespective of the person's employment status. E.g. pension, retirement, rent, public or private scholarships or grants, among others.

-- Interest: Income received by the enumerated person through the renting of dwellings, offices, or through bank interest etc.

-- Pension: Monthly income received by the enumerated person who receives a pension from a public institution either because of the completion of the required number of years of service, reaching the age limit, or because of a permanent disability that impedes working.

-- Retirement: Monthly income received by the enumerated person who has been retired by a public or private institution because of the completion of the required number of years of service or has reached the working-age limit.

-- Public or private grants: Monetary or in-kind income the enumerated person receives periodically from a public or private institution.

-- Public or private assistance: Monetary or in-kind income the enumerated person receives periodically from a public or private institution, family, or friends.

-- Unemployment insurance: Temporary income received by the enumerated person for the loss of employment.

-- Alimony: Income received by the legal representative [guardian] of a minor, provided by one of the parents for his/her maintenance.

-- Other: Any other type of income received by the enumerated person not listed in any of the above categories.

-- None: When the enumerated person does not receive income from any of the above categories.

7. Fertility characteristics

7.1 Fertility

The information requested of women 12 years of age and older allows the study of fertility at the geographical levels within the reach of the census. Through questions about the accumulated and recent birthrate, an estimate can be made of specific indicators of the effective reproductive capacity of the population, such as global fertility rates and those grouped by age. Also, through crossing this data with that corresponding to other variables investigated in the Census, social and other determinants of levels and changes that have taken place over time can be studied.

[p. 50]

Through questions, presented to women 12 years of age and older, about the total number of children born and about the children born in the last year, it is possible to estimate, through indirect methods, fertility rates for all of the geographical levels within the reach of the census.

7.2 Total children born alive

This refers to the total number of children born alive to all women 12 years of age and older; fetal deaths are excluded.

7.3 Live birth

A child born alive is a newborn, who has been pushed out of or extracted from the body of the mother, regardless of the duration of the pregnancy, who, after this separation, breathes or shows any sign of life, such as a heartbeat, a pulsation of the umbilical cord, or any voluntary muscle contraction whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut, attached or unattached to the placenta. Also included are children born alive who passed away immediately after birth, those who are not currently alive, and those who are currently alive whether or not they live with the mother at the time of enumeration.

7.4 Date of birth of last child born alive

This refers to the month and year of birth of the last child born alive to the woman, 12 years of age or older, at the time of enumeration. The last child born alive can be a newborn or an adult depending on the age of the mother, the child can also currently be alive or dead.

7.4 Children currently alive

This refers to the children born alive during the life of the enumerated woman who at the time of the interview are alive.