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[Venezuela]
Tenth General Housing and Population Census
Enumerator's Manual
(CPV-05)

Caracas, January 1971

[Pages 1-11 were not translated into English]

[p. 12]

2. Enumeration area

2.1. Definition of Enumeration Area.

An Enumeration Area (E.A.) (Segmento de Enumeración - S.E.) is the specific area assigned to the enumerator. It is made up of a variable number of dwellings and should be covered during the normal period of enumeration, whether urban or rural. There are two principal types of areas:

2.2. Urban Enumeration Area.

An urban E.A. is made up of a group of approximately 100 to 150 dwellings that are usually organized by blocks. An urban E.A. can cover one or more blocks of houses or apartments, depending on the number of dwellings or inhabitants. E.A.'s are usually set apart by streets and avenues but some may be set apart by the topography of the terrain. Urban E.A.'s are divided into the three following categories:

2.3. a. Urbanized

The type of area where permanent constructions predominate, e.g. houses, houses with yards/gardens (quintas), apartment buildings, and are grouped together in urbanizations and residential areas in the center our outlying areas of the city. Urbanized areas usually have basic services [p. 13] such as electricity, water, sewers, and paved streets, even though some services may be missing in certain cases.
2.4. b. Sub-Urban
This type of area principally exists in smaller or intermediate sized cities. They usually form in the outskirts due to city growth or due to rural localities incorporating into the city through reciprocal expansion. These areas can sometimes make up all or most of some cities. In these cases, basic services do not cover all of the area but only part. These areas are usually made up of constructions somewhere between the quality of those in Urbanized areas and those in Marginal neighborhoods, similar to improved huts/ shacks (ranchos) or stick and mud houses, that is, semi-permanent dwellings.
2.5. c. [Areas of] improvised huts (De Ranchos)
This area is predominantly made up of rustic or improvised constructions (ranchos) grouped into neighborhoods (Marginal neighborhoods) characterized by their lack of basic services and temporary/rustic construction. This type of area is usually characteristic of larger cities, being formed on hills, ravines, or under bridges, but can also be found in medium and smaller sized cities.
2.6. Rural Enumeration Area.

A Rural E.A. is made up of [p. 14] approximately 200 dwellings or less depending on distances, lines of communication, topography, etc. This type of area usually does not have dwellings divided into blocks and predominates areas commonly called "campo" [country]. These E.A.'s are usually demarcated by highways, paths, trails, rivers, ravines, and other natural barriers. However, sometimes the boundaries are not visible in the terrain and can be identified with the help of the inhabitants of the area.

[Pages 15-19 were not translated into English]

[p. 20]

3. How to cover and report on the Enumeration Area

What it means to cover and report on the Enumeration Area.

Covering and reporting on the Enumeration Area means to systematically travel over it looking for all of the sites on each block, street, path, or highway where people live, or can live. For the reasons that follow, it is essential the trip around the E.A. be complete, systematic, and correct

a) It is the only way to ensure that every dwelling unit in the E.A. has been located.

b) It will make it possible for the enumerator to find the way to a dwelling unit that requires an additional visit.

3.2. Purpose of the report

Reporting (Listar) means entering the address or location of each place within the E.A. where people live or could live, in the order in which they were visited, occupied or not, into the Enumeration Control Book (CPV-03). The reporting takes place at the same time as the trip for recollection of information (recorrido) around the E.A. Therefore, the enumeration and reporting [listing of dwelling units] will take place simultaneously. As seen in the following outline, the complete enumeration of the census is a combination of the recorrido [trip around the E.A.], listing of dwelling units, [p. 21] enumeration, and sample.

1. Covering [the area] (recorrido) - Locate all of the places within the Enumeration Area where people live, or could live.

2. Recording [the information] - Record the addresses or locations of each place in the Control Book in the order visited.

3. Enumeration - Write down the census information referring to all of the dwellings and people that live in them, in the same order that the dwellings were listed.

4. Sample: Fill in the Sample "A" Questionnaire (CPV-02) for every dwelling marked "A" in the General Questionnaire (CPV-01) and in the collectives according to the instructions given below.
3.3. General rules for covering [the area] and recording [the information].

The methods used for the route depend on the type of E.A., but certain rules apply to all areas:

a) Write down the address of each dwelling unit or collective shelter, occupied or unoccupied, in the order in which the trip around the area was made.

b) Cover each floor separately in apartment buildings where there are dwelling units on more than one floor and list them in the following order:

[Pages 22-28 were not translated into English]

[p. 29]

5. The General Enumeration Book (CPV-01)

In this X [tenth] General Population and Housing Census three principal questionnaires will be used.

a. General Questionnaire (CPV-01)

b. Sample "A" Questionnaire (CPV-02)

c. Individual Enumeration Questionnaire (CPV-04)

5.1. The General Questionnaire will be used in all family or collective dwelling units, occupied or unoccupied. This questionnaire contains only basic questions about population and housing.

Sample "A" Questionnaire will be used as an additional questionnaire for each of the family dwellings marked with the letter "A" in both the Enumeration Control Book and the General Questionnaire. This means that two questionnaires, the General and the Sample "A", will be filled out for all dwellings marked "A".

The Sample Questionnaire contains the same basic questions as the general in addition to a set of complementary questions of a different social and economic nature. Instructions on how to use this questionnaire in family dwellings as well as in collectives can be found below.

5.3. The Individual Enumeration Questionnaire will be used in both family dwellings and collectives, according to the instructions [p. 30] found in chapter 9 of this manual.

General Enumeration Book (CPV - 01).

[This paragraph was not translated into English]

Section I. Geographic location.

In this section, the complete name of the Municipality, District, and the Federal Entity [state] where the enumeration takes place is recorded.
The area number and segment number, the type of area (Urban or Rural), and the name of the locality, if an Urban area, should be recorded.

To mark the area type box [urban/rural], follow the instructions found in the paragraphs 2.1. - 2.6. in the manual. In the case that more than one book is needed for one area, repeat all of the identification information.

Starting code letter.

The Census chief of the Municipality will assign a starting code letter (A, B, C, or D) for each urban or rural enumerator. This letter is also indicated on the title page of (CPV-03). The assigned letter indicates how to start the enumeration, using this letter for the first dwelling enumerated.

When filling out the first Questionnaire in the book, extreme care should be used to mark the starting code letter and to follow systematically and consecutively the letters that follow, as the letters are assigned in the Control Book.

Remember that code letters are not used for collective dwellings, rather an "X" is used and the sequence of letters A, B, C, and D is not interrupted.

5.7. General summary of the book (6).

The general summary of the book will be done after finishing the area's enumeration. Instructions for completing the summary can be found in the book. When more than one book is used for an area, the summary is completed in the first.

[Paragraphs 5.8 - 5.10 were not translated into English]

[p. 32]

5.11. How to fill in Section II.

To begin this section, first record the block number in the corresponding space (when in an Urban area) or the Name of the Populated Area [locality] (when in a Rural area).
Continuously record the Order Number of the dwelling, which should be the same as the number assigned to this dwelling in the 1st column of the Enumeration Control Book (CPV-03). Remember that the Order Number is correlative and systematic in each area starting with 1 and following to the last dwelling listed in the Control Book.

[p. 33]

5.12. How to mark the sample code letter.

As mentioned above, the cover letter of the Enumeration Control Book indicates a code letter (A, B, C, or D) that is used to initiate the enumeration of family dwellings. The assigned letter is written in column 8 for the first dwelling in the Control Book. Later, the next dwelling is marked with the following letter until the fourth dwelling is reached. After reaching the fifth dwelling, the enumerator should return to the first letter, following this pattern successively until the Area is enumerated.

[There is an example.]

The same letters that are successively assigned in column 8 of the Control Book should also be marked in the respective General Questionnaire. This mark is made [p. 34] over the corresponding letter in the upper part of the Questionnaire. For every dwelling marked "A" the General Questionnaire is filled out and then the Sample "A" Questionnaire is filled out.

Concerning collective dwellings.

When the enumerator encounters a collective dwelling unit in the enumeration area (see explanation of collective dwellings on p. 64 [of original]) no letter should be marked, rather an "X" should be written in the following space.
The enumerator should not interrupt the sequence of the code letters when a collective dwelling is encountered.

[There is an example.]

Be aware of the instructions for enumerating collective dwellings which are found in Chapter 9 of the manual.

How to proceed with the household composition.

When beginning the interview with household members, the enumerator should follow the six steps listed in this section II.

[p. 35]

These steps are to be repeated every time the enumerator goes from one dwelling to another. Do not forget to fill in the corresponding boxes at each step.

5.15. How to determine the number of households in a dwelling.

A dwelling is usually occupied by one family or household, in which case there is no problem; only one questionnaire is filled out for this dwelling.

However, there may be dwellings that, while appearing to have only one family/household, can contain two or more dwelling/family units. These separate dwelling units should be enumerated with separate questionnaires. In order to correctly deal with this situation, various instructions are given in the upper part of Section II, "Household Composition". These instructions should be followed with exactness at every dwelling visited.

The first step is to ask: "How many families live in this dwelling?" If the answer is "only one", the first arrow indicates that you should go to point #2. If the answer is "two or more", the second arrow that refers to verifying whether each family is independent or not should be followed.

If the answer is that the families live jointly, go to point #2. If the answer is that the families live independently, separate questionnaires need to be used for each family living independently in the same dwelling. These are considered to be separate households.

[p. 36]

5.16. Families living independently

A family/dwelling unit is considered independent when its occupants, even while living in the same dwelling, live a separate life according to one or both of the following characteristics:

a. Direct access to the exterior or access through a common hallway,

b. A kitchen, or cooking equipment, separate from the principal household, for exclusive use by the occupants.

5.17. Examples of independent dwellings.

Usually a dwelling unit is a house, apartment, rancho [hut, shack], or quinta [house with a yard/garden]. Sometimes it can be a trailer or a room in a hotel, tenement, house or apartment. However, a building used primarily for business or other non-residential uses can contain a dwelling unit. The following, for example, are considered dwellings for the purposes of the census: a room in a warehouse or industrial complex where the night watchman lives, or the back part of a store where the owner/employee/watchman/etc. lives. A railcar, a truck, a cave, etc, are also classified as dwellings if inhabited by people.

Examples of more common dwelling arrangements are included below.

a. One family or a person living alone

A house, apartment or flat completely occupied by one [p. 37] family or by one person is a dwelling unit.

b. Two or more families

A house, apartment or flat occupied by two or more families who live and eat together constitutes one dwelling unit.

c. Groups of unrelated people

A house, apartment or flat where four or fewer people, unrelated to the head of household, live together like a family is considered one dwelling unit.

d. Families with friends or guests

A house, apartment, or flat occupied by a family that has four or fewer people, not related to the head of household, as guests who share all of the facilities of the dwelling is considered a dwelling unit.

5.18. Problems with the classification of Dwelling Units

The great majority of the cases will be similar to the examples given above and the identification and classification of dwelling units will be easy.

However, the following examples show that there are similar situations that can be classified differently:

a. A family rents two bedrooms to two or up to four guests. The guests share the living room with the family [p. 38] and go through the living room in order to get to their rooms. The guests do not prepare meals in their rooms. This house is classified as one dwelling unit because the house is shared by all of the occupants.

b. If instead of two guests there were five or more and the other conditions were equal to those described above [in a.], this house would not be classified as a dwelling unit, rather as a collective (family boarding house).

c. If the guests do not share the use of the living room and do not pass through it to get to their rooms, but have direct access through a common hallway, they are counted separately from the family. The space occupied by the family members is considered a dwelling unit and the space occupied by each one of the guests with direct access is enumerated as a separate dwelling unit.

5.19. Guides for applying the definition of Dwelling Unit.

Basic common rules for determining what constitutes a dwelling unit are given below:

a. Decisions should be made based on the occupants' living arrangements and not on their relationships. E.g. three women who are not related can rent an apartment and maintain the dwelling together. This apartment is only one dwelling unit. On the contrary, two married couples related to each other (e.g. a married couple living with their in-laws) [p. 39] can live in the same house and have, however, independent arrangements such as kitchen or direct access. If this is the case, the married couples constitute two independent dwelling units.

b. The manner in which the houses and apartments are used, and not the form of construction, should be considered. In cities, especially in heavily populated areas, there are large apartments in which rooms are rented separately but the renters eat outside of the room. There are other occasions when one or more families occupy only one or two rooms. Each of the separately rented spaces constitutes a dwelling unit. On the contrary, a house meant for two families can be occupied by only one family that uses all of the rooms and eats and cooks together. This house is enumerated as one dwelling.

c. Apply the census criteria with regards to separation: direct access and private kitchen or cooking equipment when the persons declare that they live apart. If the persons declare that they live and eat together, as if they were a family, there is no need to ask questions to determine if they live apart.

5.20.
The second step is to ask: "What is the name of the Head of this Household?" The name should be written down in the first line of column 2. Later, "Jefe" [Head] is written in column 3 and the sex in column 4.

[p. 40]

5.21.
The third step is to ask "What are the names of the other people who normally reside in this dwelling and form part of this household, related or not to the Head"? As soon as the dwelling unit has been identified and the Head's information written down, the other persons who normally reside in the dwelling unit are enumerated. Those who are temporarily absent and those who are present at the time of the census but have no usual place of residence should be enumerated here.

After the head, the names of the other persons, related or not to the head, are recorded in the following lines. At the same time, the relationship to the Head and gender is requested and written down in columns 3 and 4 according to the instructions. The persons' information is recorded in the order specified in the part above column 2.

When the name of someone in the category of "other relatives" or "other persons" is received, stop and verify if they are usual residents of the dwelling. Rules of residence are given in paragraph 5.24 and those following.

If domestic employees, for example, work all day but do not sleep in the dwelling they are not enumerated in the dwelling, but rather in the place where they sleep.

Similarly, persons in a home temporarily for tourism, vacations, etc. are not enumerated in the dwelling where found, rather in the dwelling where they normally reside.

5.22. Fourth: Verify the listed [person]. In order to be absolutely sure that [p. 41] all of the residents in the dwelling have been enumerated, according to the rules of the census, ask the question specified in the fourth step: "Is there any other person who is temporarily absent but who resides here normally?". If the answer is in the affirmative, determine if the person should be added to the household list according to the "rules of residency".

If the answer is in the negative go to point #5 and ask: "Is there anyone on this list that is a normal resident in another dwelling or that is here temporarily?"

If the answer is in the affirmative and the person's information has been recorded, cross out the information and ask them to fill out an Individual Questionnaire (CPV-04). Complete the Individual Questionnaire only if there is no one at the place of usual residence who can provide the information; if someone can provide the appropriate information at the place of usual residence do not fill out the Individual Questionnaire and go to point #6.

If the answer is "no", skip to point #6.

Finally, verify with the informant that the rules of the census regarding place of usual residence have been followed and that all of the people have been recorded correctly.

5.23. Total number of persons in Section II.

In Section II there are 12 lines for writing down the household member's information. When a household has more than 12 members, the questionnaire or additional questionnaires should be used, according to the case. If it is necessary that one or more additional questionnaires be used [p. 42] for the same dwelling, the enumerator should only repeat the dwelling's same order number.

Number the persons, starting with 1, in column number ... [number missing]. If more than one questionnaire is used for one household, do not start at 1 with each questionnaire; rather, continue the numbering from the previous questionnaire since only one household is being recorded.

5.24. Rules of residence for determining the members of the household.

For the purposes of the census, people will be encountered that should be recorded in the General Questionnaire in each dwelling; others will be encountered that should not be included in this Questionnaire and finally, there will possibly be persons who are absent and are appear to be, or not to be, members of the household. The decision will have to be made as to whether or not to include them in the questionnaire according to the information given by the informant.

In order to facilitate this work, the following are the most important and common general rules for determining the residency status of each person in the dwelling, that is, who should or should not be enumerated as a household member.

1. Persons who are members of the household and therefore are recorded on the questionnaire:

a. Members of the household who normally reside therein and are found present on the Census day.
[p. 43]
b. Members who normally reside in the household, but are found to be "temporarily absent" on the Census day.

c. Persons who are present in the household, even if not normal residents that "do not have another place of normal residence".

2. Persons who are not members of the household who should therefore not be included in the questionnaire:

a. Persons who have another place of normal residence in another part [of the country], but are temporarily present on the Census Day.

b. Persons who generally reside in the household all or most of the day because of work or school but who normally sleep in another dwelling.

c. Persons who generally and normally reside in the household, but are in groups within the Armed Forces most of the time, or those who are patients or boarders/inmates in institutional collective households (see the attached list of institutions).

5.25. Normal residents included in the household:

Those persons who regularly sleep in the dwelling considered to be the person's home because it is the principal family or business establishment are considered to normal residents. These persons do not cease to be members if they are found to be temporarily absent because of sickness, vacation, [p. 44] tourism, work, etc. and will return to the normal dwelling once the circumstances that keep them away at the time of the Census are alleviated.

The most frequent cases of absent normal residents that should be included in the questionnaire are the following:

a. A person who is temporarily absent because of a visit to another place because of a business trip, tourism, vacation, or because of work (traveling salesman, police officer, military officer, nurse, guard, medical doctor or other person). One who sleeps in the dwelling but was not there the night of the Census.

b. Persons who live or reside in the dwelling but are absent because of a temporary illness or surgery in a hospital or general medical clinic for a more or less brief or definite period of time.

c. The head of household, or his wife or partner, who works and resides all or part of the week outside of the home but commonly spends the weekend in the normal dwelling-household.

d. Domestic employee or other household employee, except for a Head of household or his wife or partner, that sleeps in the dwelling all week, even if they sleep in their own house on the weekend.

Persons abroad temporarily for business trips, tourism, health, etc.
[p. 45]
e. A person detained temporarily because of minor infractions or offenses not yet tried in the courts.

5.26. Absent persons who should be excluded:

There are other persons, apparent normal residents, who may be absent from the dwelling on the Census Day who must be excluded from the questionnaire because they become members of another household and can be counted twice. The following are the most frequent cases:

a. Persons who, due to work or profession, reside or are based permanently in an institution (soldiers, priests, nuns), even if they apparently have another normal place of residence.

b. Students boarding at a school in the same or different locality or a non-boarding student who permanently lives and studies in another locality.

c. A person imprisoned in or admitted to a welfare institution, for a more or less long or indefinite period of time, e.g. hospitals or clinics for those with chronic or incurable disease (mental hospitals, tuberculosis clinic, leprosy clinic, oncology clinic, polio clinics and similar institutions), or in other institutions such as penitentiaries and prisons.

d. Domestic employees who do not sleep in the dwelling where they work.
[p. 46]
e. A person who lives abroad.

f. Children or young persons in reform schools or orphanages and elderly or incapacitated persons in similar welfare institutions.

g. Members of religious orders who live in convents, schools, presbyteries or seminaries.

Other cases not contemplated [above] can be assimilated to similar situations, but in the case of uncertainty in classifying a certain person it is preferable to consult the area Supervisor.

5.27. More common cases:

The following is a summary of the most common cases that present some confusion in determining whether a person is included or not as a member of the household.

a. General rule. According to census practices, each person is counted as an inhabitant of his/her place of usual residence. - This residence is ordinarily the place that the person names when asked "Where do you live?" or the place considered to be home. As a general rule, it will be the dwelling where the person usually sleeps. This place is will not necessarily be the person's legal residence, or domicile, even though for the majority of persons these places will be one in the same. Those who do not have a usual place of residence are enumerated as inhabitants of the place in which they are found at the time of enumeration.
[p. 47]

b. Rules for special cases:

Type of person Enumerate in
1. One who resides in the dwelling but is temporarily absent for a business trip, vacation, tourism, work, on call duty. The dwelling where they normally live.
2. One who resides in the dwelling but is in a general hospital or clinic because of injuries, giving birth, operation, medical check-up, short illness.. The dwelling where they normally live.
3. One who is in the dwelling on the Census Day and does not have a normal place of residence in another place The dwelling where found.
4. Members of the Armed Forces:
  a. Based permanently at a Military installation The Military Collective.
  b. Based at a Military installation but lives outside or sleeps there while on duty The dwelling where they normally live.
5. Officer or crew member of a coastal, inter-coastal, or international vessel:
  a. If lives on the vessel The vessel.
  b. If has a place of residence on land The dwelling on land.
6. Students:
  a. Students living at school Institute where studying.
  b. Students not living at school but living in other city or town The dwelling where they live
7. Nurse who lives at the hospital, clinic, nurse's home, etc The dwelling where the hospital, clinic, nurse's home, etc. is located.
8. A person who lives in more than one dwelling and splits time between the two. The dwelling where they live most of the time.
9. A person who lives mostly at a place of work and spends weekends at home but is not the head of household or spouse. The dwelling in which they live while working.
10. A Venezuelan living abroad:
  a. Abroad temporarily for vacations or work The dwelling in Venezuela.
  b. Living abroad Do not enumerate.
11. Foreigners:
  a. A foreigner passing through Venezuela for any reason Do not enumerate.
  b. A recently arrived foreigner in the process of establishing residence. The dwelling where found at the time of the Census.
  c. A foreigner living in Venezuela permanently. The dwelling where they normally live.

5.28. Relationship with the head of household and gender (columns 3 and 4).

Once the information for the members of the household is recorded in column 2, do not forget to fill in the information in columns 3 and 4 for each person.

[p. 49]

5.29. Name and surnames (column 2).

a. Who should be recorded. In column 3, write down the names and surnames of all persons who are members of the household according to the previous instructions.

b. Order in which names should be written down.

Write down the names of the persons in this order:

Head of household

His wife or partner

Unmarried sons and daughters according to age, starting with the oldest, including newborns

Married sons and daughters and their families

Other relatives (mother, father, aunts/uncles, siblings, etc.) and their relatives (if they live there)

Other persons such as: guests, boarders, servants, employees and their families (if they live there)

c. How to write the names

First write down the paternal surname and then write down the maternal surname (if used by the person). Lastly, write down the full given name. When dealing with a married woman, first write down the paternal surname, then the paternal surname of the husband and lastly the full given name. If the paternal and maternal surnames of an individual are the same as the names of the person listed in the previous line, in a [dwelling] unit, indicate the surnames with quotation marks [p. 50] then write the full given name. In the case of newborns that do not yet have given names, write down "newborn".

5.30. Relationship to head of household (col. 3).

Follow the following definitions:

a. Head of household. Write down head (jefe) for the person considered as such by the members of the household for reasons of relationship, age, authority, or respect. For the persons that follow, the relationship between the Head and the other members of the household should be written down.

b. Wife of head or partner. The term "wife or partner" is used for la mujer (the wife or partner) of the head of household. It is possible that more than one married couple live in the same dwelling, but the term "wife or partner" is not used for other women in the household except, for example, when writing down wife of son, wife of uncle, etc.

c. Son or daughter of head. Write down "son or daughter" for the son or daughter of the Head of the family, not taking into account the age. Adopted or step children are considered to be children of the Head; hijos de crianza [children raised by the head but not biological child] or minors in the custody of the Head are also classified as children.

d. Other relatives. Specify the exact relationship between the Head and the family and any other member of the household, relatives or not. [p. 51] E.g. mother, sister, mother-in-law, son-in-law, guest, boarder, "hijo de crianza", servant, etc., always listing the relationship to the head.

Note: The X found in various questions in the questionnaire is replaced by the name of the person being interviewed or to the person whose information is being solicited.

5.31. Sex (col. 4).

Mark an "X" in the corresponding box, whether the person is masculine or feminine. Generally the sex can be determined by the given name or by the annotation concerning the relationship to the head. However, when the name is common for both sexes, e.g. Dolores, Concepción, etc., one should ask the sex of the person to avoid confusion.

5.32. How to continue the interview.

Once Section II, Household Composition, is completed and columns 3 and 4 are completed for each person, the information in columns 5 through 9 should be filled in.

5.33. Information in Columns 5 through 9

In order to fill out the information in columns 5 through 9 for each person, proceed according to the following instructions:

[p. 52]

Columns 5 and 6. Date of birth or age.

Ask for the date on which the person was born. Write down the day, month, and year of birth in the space provided. If the exact date is not known, request that the year, approximate date, or estimated age be provided.

If the person gives the date of birth, do not ask the age. Try to receive the person's exact date of birth.

For children younger than one year of age, write down 00 in column 6. For those 100 years of age and older, write down 99 in column 6.

Always convert the date of birth into years completed according to the attached table [p. 53]. Other questions in the questionnaire require this piece of information.

5.34. How to use the age conversion table

In order to convert a date of birth to the correct age, look for the year in the first column and according to the month found in the second or third column the number of years is the age. The number obtained from the table is written down in column 6.

5.35. Current marital status (column 7).

When to ask the question. This question is asked to every person four years of age and older. When the person is younger than 4 years of age, mark single without asking. \

[Page 53 (conversion table) was not translated into English]

Do not try to [p. 54] doubt the information received or suggest information, even if the person is known. Never ask the marital status of the woman who has claimed to be the wife of the Head of household.

Definitions:

1. Married: Mark "married" for the person who has entered into marriage according to the Law, even if currently separated from their spouse, in the process of divorce or not.

2. In Union: Mark "in union" (Unido) for those who are not legally married but who live together forming a stable conjugal union.

3. Widowed: Mark "widow" for the person whose legal spouse has passed away and who has not remarried or entered into a consensual union.

4. Divorced: Mark "divorced" for the person who is legally divorced and has not remarried or entered into a consensual union.

5. Single: Mark "single" for each person who has never entered into a legal marriage, is not in a consensual union or whose marriage has been annulled.

5.36. Country of birth (column 8).

This question is asked to every person regardless of age or sex. If the person was born in Venezuela mark the box "in country" (1-2) and ask the name of the Federal Entity (State, Federal District, or Territory) where born. Write the name [p. 55] clearly (or abbreviating with the first three letters) in the space provided. If the person was born abroad, mark the box "abroad" (3) and ask for the name of the country, territory or foreign area of birth. Write the name clearly in the space provided.

5.37. Literacy (column 9)
[This corresponds to column 17 in the scan of the enumeration form]

Literacy is understood to be the ability of the person to read and write a simple paragraph in any language. Those who claim to only read or write are not considered literate, therefore the "no" box is checked. The "yes" box is checked for those who claim to both read and write.

5.38. How to proceed with the [census] work

The previous instructions refer to Sections I and II of the General Questionnaire. Section III follows.

[p. 56]

6. Dwelling information (section III)
[This corresponds to Section II in the scan of the enumeration form]

The information referring to the enumerated household's dwelling is recorded in this section. As mentioned above, a dwelling unit is generally occupied by one household but that there are cases in which a dwelling may contain two or more separate households, according to the previous instructions. Therefore, it is very important that the enumerator enumerate these households using independent questionnaires.

When a dwelling in this situation is encountered, care should be taken when recording the "number of rooms" (Question 6) and "number of occupants" (Question 7) in Section III because the grave error of duplication can occur. This means that when two or more questionnaires are used for one dwelling, the information on the number of rooms and number of occupants for each [household] should remain separate.

6.1. How to record the dwelling information

In some cases questions should be asked in order to obtain the dwelling information, in other cases information will be obtained through observation. Most answers will be recorded by checking the appropriate box. In the case of collective dwellings, [p. 57] only the number of occupants, with the sex specified, is recorded in the question 7. The name and type of collective is recorded in question []-B. The other spaces should remain blank.

In the case that two or more questionnaires are used for the same dwelling unit, the information is only recorded on the first questionnaire. On the following questionnaires only the identification information is recorded on the upper part of the questionnaire.

For the purposes of the census, the following basic dwelling definitions will be used:

6.2. Definition of building or structure.

A building or structure is any independent construction that has one or more rooms, bedrooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and normally surrounded by exterior walls that go from the foundations to the roof that separate it from other neighboring or contiguous buildings. In some cases, a building can be a roof with only the supporting structure, or in other words, without walls. In other cases, a building can be made up of a structure with no roof, formed by a space closed in by walls.

The important point is that the construction, finished or not, be differentiated from the other neighboring or contiguous constructions particularly by the existence of an independent entrance or door, even if the entrance is not numbered. A building can be used or be meant for residential, commercial, industrial, or service purposes. Therefore [p. 58] it can be a house, hut/ shack (rancho), factory, workshop, hospital, military base, tenement, apartment building, warehouse, garage, etc.

6.3. Definition of dwelling.

A dwelling is a place of abode for persons that is structurally separate and independent. There are two possibilities: (a) that it has been constructed, built, converted, or made available for shelter for people, only if it is not being used for entirely different purposes at the time of the census, and is occupied by persons the night before the Census Day in the case of an improvised or mobile shelter. The other possibility is (b) a building that is not meant for human habitation but is being used in that capacity at the time of the census.

Therefore, a housing unit can be first, a house, quinta, apartment, independent room or group of independent rooms, a country hut (rancho), or an urban hut (rancho) and secondly, a trailer, hotel, tent, granary, factory, cave, or any other refuge occupied and used as a dwelling the night before the Census Day.

The dwelling can be made up of a room or group of independent rooms meant for shelter for one person or a group of persons.

Rooms or spaces meant for other uses such as sheds, garages, offices, workshops etc [p. 59] are not considered to be part of the dwelling unless they are also used as sleeping quarters.

Dwellings are classified into two groups: private habitation units and collective habitation units.

6.4. Family dwelling or private habitation unit

A dwelling used, or meant to be used, as a separate and independent domicile or place of abode for one or more families or other group of persons, related or not, living together in a family-like system or a person who lives alone.

Collective dwelling or (collective).

A dwelling made up of a building or group of buildings used, or meant to be used, as a place of lodging for a group of people, usually not related, who live together for reasons of health, education, religion, discipline, work and others. Collective dwellings usually have common services for the occupants such as kitchen, toilets, bathrooms, and living rooms and bedrooms.

Dwellings under construction.

Dwellings under construction, those without installed windows or doors, or those in the process of demolition and dwellings built for human habitation but are used exclusively for other purposes (commercial, industrial, etc.) are excluded from the census.

[p. 60]

Also excluded from the census are those buildings being constructed for commercial, industrial, or service purposes, irrespective of the state of construction.

6.7. Household

The person or groups of persons enumerated as occupants of a dwelling make up and represent what is commonly denominated the "Household". There are two types of households: (1) private households and (2) collective households.

1. Private household:

A private household can be defined in one of the two following ways: a) One-person household, or a person who lives alone in all or part of a dwelling or who occupies one or more rooms in a dwelling as a renter, not uniting with other occupants in the dwelling, or b) Multi-person household, or a group of two or more people associated by occupying all or part of a dwelling in order to provide for necessities such as shelter, food or other vital needs.

The members of the enumerated group can more or less share incomes and have a common budget. The group can be made up entirely by people related to each other, of persons without a family relationship, [p. 61] or in the case of guests with full room and board, of relatives and non-relatives at the same time, but only including those who simply rent a room (renter or sub-leaser).

One special problem in the delimitation of private households is the distinction between guests (persons who share the dwelling and food through a form of payment) and renters or sublessors who occupy one or two separate rooms in the home but who take meals separately, which is, they do not share food in the house in which they live.

The rule assumed is that a guest is included as a household member but the renter or sublessor is considered to make up a separate household.

The criteria for differentiating private households with guests from collective households are arbitrarily based on the number of guests: households with five or more guests are considered to be family boarding houses and therefore collective households. These households are therefore not considered to be private households.

Collective household: A group of people, usually not related, who "share a common life" in the same dwelling. This can be in a stable or more transitional form due to reasons of health, education, discipline, work, security, recreation/leisure, etc. This classification includes hotels, clinics, general and specialized hospitals, boarding schools, military barracks, merchant or military ships, vacation villages, boarding houses, etc.
[p. 62]
Reminder: private homes with 5 (five) or more guests with full room and board are considered to be collective households (family boarding houses).

6.8. Family.

A family is defined as a special type of multi-person household where the members, besides sharing the same private home, eat the principal meals together and have common interest. They should be related through blood, adoption, or affinity. It is a family in the sense of a "group of two or more people related to each other, who live together and share a dwelling." According to this definition, a family can occupy an entire dwelling or only part of one.

6.9. Type of dwelling (Q. 1).

According to the definition of a dwelling there are two large groups:

a) Family dwelling or private habitation unit.
b) Collective dwelling or collective habitation unit.

Family dwellings or private habitation units are made up of the following types or classifications:

01) House or quinta
A structure usually built to be occupied by one family. It can be separate or contiguous [p. 63] [to another structure or have a common wall. It may or may not have a part] meant for a workplace. This type of structure can contain more than one family dwelling at the time of the census.

[Part of the sentence between pg. 62 and 63 is missing - the missing information (in brackets) was taken from the definition found in the enumerator's instructions from Ven61]

02) Apartment in a building or house:

A place made up of one or more rooms located in a building designed exclusively for dwellings or for dwellings and a workplace. Rooms or spaces that are sub-let, that could be considered separate family dwellings, are not included in this category.

03) Room in a house, quinta, or apartment:

A family dwelling of one or more rooms located in a house, quinta or apartment. The occupants are usually considered sub-renters or sublessors only when they do not share a common life with the primary family.

04) Room in a townhouse:

A typical structure found in villages and cities that contains several family dwellings made up of one room. Toilet facilities and water storage is usually shared.

05) Peasant [rural] hut (rancho):

Rustic structure with straw or palm roof, adobe walls and dirt floor. This type of dwelling exists in rural areas, certain villages, and even in many cities [p. 64] in Venezuela. It is still considered a rancho even if a part of the roof or floor has been improved.

06 Urban hut [improvised]:

Improvised structure made of discarded/waste materials, usually from demolitions, almost always built by the occupants on hills, gulley/ravines, or underneath bridges, with sanitary conditions unsuitable for habitation. These dwellings generally form the so called marginal neighborhoods.

07) Other type or class:

Any type of dwelling not included above. E.g. trailers, wagons, railcars, caves, tents, caneyes [rudimentary dwelling roofed with palm trees], or other similar shelters used temporarily or permanently on the Census day.

For these types of dwellings only the information on type of dwelling and number of occupants will be recorded.

This includes a workplace used as a dwelling (industrial, commercial, etc.) that may or may not have been built for human habitation but is being used for that purpose on the Census day.
6.10. Collective dwelling.

Collective habitation units include hospitals, orphanages and children's shelters, homes or schools for the disabled, institutions for the very poor (pobres de solemnidad), nursing homes, convents, boarding schools, barracks, correctional or penal facilities, police posts, [p. 65] jails, etc., boarding houses, family boarding houses, hostels, inns, etc., logging, mining, or public works camps, etc.

The family dwelling that houses 5 or more boarders (pensionistas) should be considered a "Collective". It is considered to be a "family boarding house".

For collective dwellings, only the information on type and name of dwelling and number of occupants is recorded.

6.11. Types of collectives.

1. Institutions

1.1. Correctional and penal:
1.1.1. Reform and correctional
1.1.2. Penitentiaries, prisons, and penal colonies
1.2. Homes or schools for the disabled:
1.2.1. Homes or schools for the blind
1.2.2. Schools for the deaf and mute
1.2.3. Schools for the physically disabled
1.3. Medical institutions
1.3.1. Mental hospitals
1.3.2. Nursing homes for the mentally ill
1.3.3. Hospital for cancer patients
1.3.4. Hospitals for tuberculosis patients
1.3.5. Hospitals, clinics, and sanatoriums for the chronically ill
[p. 66]
1.4. Other types of institutions
1.4.1. Orphanages and children's homes
1.4.2. Homeless shelter
1.4.3. Nursing homes
1.4.4. Boarding schools and dormitories
1.4.5. Convents, seminaries, and religious congregations
2. Non-institutions

2.1. Group shelter:
2.1.1. Hotels
2.1.2. Boarding houses
2.1.3. Family boarding houses
2.1.4. Hostels
2.1.5. Police barracks, correctional or penal facilities for those temporarily detained
2.2. General hospitals and clinics
2.2.1. General hospitals
2.2.2. Private clinics
2.3. Other collectives
2.3.1. Vessels
2.3.2. Encampments (excluding military)
2.4. Other unspecified or undeclared collectives
3. Military collectives

3.1. Military collectives:
3.1.1. Barracks, encampments, garrisons, and military positions

[p. 67]

6.12. State of occupancy (Q. 2).

Family dwellings are divided into three basic groups:

a. Occupied: A dwelling is occupied when it is inhabited by one or more persons, permanently or temporarily, at the time of the census.

b. Unoccupied: A dwelling is unoccupied when it is not inhabited by anyone at the time of the census. It may or may not be furnished; it may be for rent; for sale; for sale or rent; or it may be vacant because it is occasionally used (summer home, or for seasonal employment, etc.). It may also be in an abandoned or unknown state.

These last characteristics fall under the rubric of "Other Condition". For unoccupied family dwellings, only the information regarding the type of dwelling is recorded in question [number missing] and the type of vacancy in question 2.

c. Under construction: For the purposes of the census, a dwelling is considered to be under construction when it has doors and windows, or that it is ready or almost ready to be inhabited.

For this type of dwelling, only mark question 1 and box 6 in question 2. The remaining questions are left blank.

[p. 68]

6.13. Is the dwelling located in an agricultural area? (Q-3).

This question is related principally to rural areas, even though it may be used in urban areas. When the enumerator covers the area of enumeration, it will be indicated, by marking the appropriate box, if the enumerated dwelling is located in an agricultural or livestock area (ranch, fundo [large country estate/farm], farm, conuco [small piece of land cultivated by peasants], etc.).

6.14. Water supply (Q-4).

This question is designed to find out the form of water supply for the enumerated dwelling. Running water is understood to be the direct supply of water via pipes, meaning that the pipes are connected directly to the aqueduct, public water system or a similar private system (pressure tank, pump). Other sources of water supply come from different types of indirect storage (public fountain, tanker truck, well, cistern or manual pump (jaguey), river, stream or spring, etc.), meaning those dwellings that do not have water access through the public water system. Only one box should be marked for each case. When a dwelling has more than one type of water storage, the most usual is marked.

6.15. Bathroom waste removal (Q-5).

A toilet, or W.C., to sewer is understood to be the system installed to eliminate human waste by means of pressurized piped water [p. 69] taken to a sewer system, septic tank or drain.

Pit toilet or latrine: A shallow excavation made outside of the dwelling for the deposit of human wastes. It can be in the open air or surrounded by any type of materials.

Mark without toilet facilities when the dwelling has no facility.

6.16. Number of rooms (Q-6).

The "total number of rooms" and the "number of sleeping rooms" is recorded using the following definitions: A room is understood to be each of the separate rooms or spaces used for shelter in the dwelling, including living rooms, dining rooms, entryway or foyer (recibos), studies and recreation rooms. Rooms should be separated by walls and have sufficient space for an adult bed. When a room is divided by folding screens, screens, or partitions, these subdivisions are not counted as rooms.

Patios, bathrooms, garages, sheds, uninhabitable basements, granaries, etc. are not considered to be rooms. The kitchen is considered to be a room only if it is used for cooking and not as a simple storage area for cooking supplies.

[p. 70]

Spaces dedicated to commercial or industrial purposes (store, workshop, office, etc.) are not counted as rooms, even if they form part of the dwelling.

Sleeping rooms: A sleeping room is a room normally used for sleeping, whether exclusively (bedroom), or partially, meaning that it is used for other purposes during the day (eating, cooking, recibo [entryway], etc.).

6.17. Number of occupants (Q-7).

The total number of occupants, classified by gender, is recorded in the spaces provided. The information regarding the number of occupants is recorded after finishing the enumeration of the dwelling, that is, after completing the information referring to the normal residents of the household.

As every member of the household, including the head of household, occupies a line it the questionnaire, the number of males and females in the household can be taken separately from column 4 of the General Questionnaire.

Reminder: this information is also recorded in column 2 in the Enumeration Control (CPV-03), on the line corresponding to the dwelling.

6.18. Sickness or disability.

After recording the number of occupants (Q-7), proceed discreetly to [p. 71] ask, in the same way as written, if any of the persons written down suffers from a chronic illness or mental or physical disability. Mark "yes" or "no" according to the answer given. Never ask for the type of disability or who suffers from it.

[p. 72]

7. Sample "A" questionnaire (CPV-02)

As mentioned above, dwellings are marked sequentially with the letters A, B, C, or D in column 8 of the Enumeration Control Book according to the starting letter indicated on the title page of the Control Book. Collectives are not assigned a letter; rather an "X" is placed in column 8.

For each dwelling (occupied or vacant) assigned the letter A, B, C, or D, the General Questionnaire is used. For those dwellings assigned the letter A, the additional Sample Questionnaire (CPV-02) is used.

7.1. When to use the Sample Questionnaire.

The Sample Questionnaire is used as an additional questionnaire to complement the enumeration of the dwellings assigned the letter "A" in the Control Book. The Sample Questionnaire contains all of the information requested in the General Questionnaire, plus a set of complementary questions that are only presented to every fourth dwelling. The Sample Questionnaire, along with the General Questionnaire, can also be used with collective dwellings to record the household members who are usual residents, for example: small collective dwellings (up to 5 occupants).

[p. 73]

To record the information for the members who are not usual residents, as many Individual Questionnaires as needed should be used in order to get all of the additional information, as explained in Chapter 9 of the manual.

7.2. How to proceed when a dwelling is assigned the letter "A".

The preliminary steps for enumerating a dwelling in the sample are the same as those indicated for the General Questionnaire. The most important of these steps is to record the location of the dwelling in the Enumeration Control Book and to assign the letter in column 8.

Once the letter "A" has been assigned, a Sample Questionnaire is used, starting with Section I.

In some cases, there will be more than one completely separate household in a single dwelling unit. It is therefore necessary to use two or more questionnaires. If the first household is assigned the letter "A", the Sample questionnaire is filled out. The sequence of letters is then continued so that the second household is assigned the letter "B". Do not assign both households the letter "A".

Section I of the Sample Questionnaire is identical to Section I on the title page of the General Questionnaire, therefore the same instructions provided on page 28 should be followed.

[p. 74]

Note: these instructions should be reviewed at this time for their best interpretation.

The only piece of information that is added refers to the block number or the name of the locality, which is the same as what is recorded in Section II of the General Questionnaire (upper part). When two or more sample questionnaires are used for a family dwelling or a collective, only the identification information from Section I is repeated [on subsequent forms]. Section II is left blank or can be crossed out entirely [on subsequent forms].

7.4. Section II, Dwelling information.

In order to fill out this section of the questionnaire, one proceeds in the same manner as with Section III of the General Questionnaire with the difference being that the Sample Questionnaire contains various dwelling questions not included in the General Questionnaire.

Questions 1 through 7 are the same in both questionnaires; therefore, the instructions given in pages 62 - 70 are equally applicable for this section. Consequently, questions 1 - 7 are not asked again, rather they are transcribed from the General Questionnaire. Therefore, the interview really begins with question 8 for the dwelling.

[p. 75]

7.5. Predominant material in the exterior walls (Q-8).

This question is designed to obtain information about the predominant material in the exterior walls. The information received should refer to the predominant material, given that some constructions can use two or more types of materials.

7.6. Predominant material in the roofs and floors (Q-9 and 10).

These two questions are designed to obtain information about the predominant material in the roofs and floors of the dwelling.
The information received should refer to the predominant material, given that some constructions can use two or more types of materials.
Mark only one box in both question 9 and 10.

7.7. Bathroom service (Q-11).

Bathroom service is understood to mean a space within the inhabited building, equipped with a shower and running water piped from the aqueduct and meant for personal hygiene. Record whether the dwelling has bathroom service or not.
The existence of this service implicates the existence of water pipe service in question 5.

7.8. Type of lighting (Q-12).

This question is designed to obtain information about the predominant type of lighting available in the dwelling.
The most important type will be recorded. For example, if the dwelling uses electricity and gasoline or kerosene [p. 76] at the same time, electric lighting will be marked. Mark clearly whether the electricity comes from a public company, private company or from a private plant.

Mark only one box.

7.9. Place for cooking (Q-13).

Place for cooking is understood to mean the space, separated by walls, equipped for the preparation of food and meant especially for this purpose.

The box "also used for sleeping" is marked when the preparation and cooking of meals is carried out in a room also used for sleeping. The "in designated room" box is marked when the kitchen is made up of a special space equipped for the preparation and cooking of meals and is meant for this exclusive use.

The "in other site" box is checked when the previous two cases do not apply. When there is no place for the preparation of meals within the dwelling, the "does not have" box is checked.

7.10. Fuel used for cooking (Q-14).

The type of fuel most commonly used for cooking in the dwelling is taken into account here, marking the corresponding box. In the case that more than one type of fuel is used, mark the type that the family uses most frequently.

7.11. Tenure (Q-15).

Tenure is understood to mean the character of occupancy of the dwelling [p. 77] at the time of the census.

7.12.

A. Owner: When the Head of Household or other occupant is the owner of the property, both the structure and the ground or just the structure; whether it has been completely paid off or if it is still being paid for.

The owner will be asked if a mortgage is held and, if held, how much is paid monthly, in total, through amortization and interests.

Estimated Rents: If there is no mortgage, meaning that the property is held without lien, the owner will be asked to estimate the cost of rent, as if he/she had to pay it.
7.13.
B or C. Renter or sub-leaser: a) Renter is the case when the head of household pays rent, directly to the owner or to an administrator, for the family dwelling that is occupied. b) Sub-leaser is the case when a person or family subleases part of the dwelling (one or more rooms) from the principal renter, only when they do not share a common life with the primary family.

Monthly rent (in Bolívares).

For the dwelling occupied by a renter or sub-leaser the monthly amount of rent paid in bolívares is required, including any service or [p. 78] services provided by the owner. In the case that the dwelling is rented with furniture, record the rent as is, without taking into account this circumstance.
7.14.
D or E. Other form of tenure: This situation applies when the condition of occupancy is provided as part of a salary or provided without charge by a relative or friend etc. If the dwelling is provided as part of a salary, the tenant is asked to estimate how much in rent would be paid if it were to be paid separately. If the dwelling is provided without charge by relatives or friends, the occupant is asked to estimate the monthly cost of rent if it were to be paid by the occupant.

7.15. Domestic goods (Q-16).

The question concerning "domestic goods" is designed to obtain information on the possession of certain objects that contribute to the comfort of the home (refrigerator, water heater, television). Because a household may possess one or all of the objects, more than one box can be marked.

Unserviceable objects are not counted, but if the object is under repair or temporarily damaged, it is counted.

7.16. How to continue the interview.

Once the dwelling information is recorded [p. 79] in the Sample "A" Questionnaire, the enumerator should complete the interview of each and every household member, whose basic information had previously been recorded in the General Questionnaire.

Proceed according to the following instructions:

7.17. Section III. Individual Characteristics.

Section III in the Sample Questionnaire contains 7 equal parts for the recording of information on 7 household members of any age and gender. In the case that a household that falls within the sample is made up of more than 7 members, as many sample questionnaires as household members should be used. In this case, the identification information from the questionnaire in Section I, Dwelling Identification, should be repeated on subsequent questionnaires but Section II, dwelling information, should be left blank.

The person's number should correspond to the number assigned to the person in Section II, Household Composition, of the General Questionnaire.

7.18. How to record questions 1 - 8a.

Questions 1 - 8 of this section are not repeated, rather they are copied from Section II, household composition, interviewing each person in the same order in which they were listed in Section II.

[p. 80]

The additional interview really starts with the question 8b which asks if the person was born in the country and with 9 which asks if they were born abroad. To complete this section, keep in mind the following rules:

a. Each page in Section III is made up of 19 questions or themes. Questions 1 - 11 are made to all persons of any age and gender. Questions 12 - 18 are only made only to those 5 years of age and older.

b. Ask the questions as they are written. Do not change the phrasing unless the person requires an explanation or does not understand the question.

c. Carefully follow the lines and arrows in the instructions so that the interview is fluid and complete. Do not, for any reason, ask a question that should be skipped. The work will be substantially slowed and unsuccessful if this irregularity [asking questions that should be skipped] takes place.

d. When there is no line or arrow indication on the question, the next question should be asked.

7.19. District and Municipality of Birth (8b. and 8c.).

Each person born in the country, who indicated a Federal Entity in question 8a, should be asked to provide the name of the District and Municipality where they were born. If the person was born in the same District and Municipality where [p. 81] the enumeration takes place, mark the appropriate boxes. If the person was born in another District and Municipality, write down the information.

7.20. Current legal citizenship (Q - 9).

Those born abroad will be asked their current citizenship. By the time of the census, a person born abroad could have retained the citizenship of their country of birth or they could have acquired a different nationality. The following situations should be kept in mind:

a. The person could have acquired Venezuelan citizenship, in which case the "naturalized Venezuelan" box is marked.

b. If the person is born abroad but is the child of a Venezuelan mother or father, mark the second box, "born abroad to Venezuelan parents".

c. For the person born abroad who retains the foreign citizenship, mark the third box, "foreigner".

7.21. Time of residence in Municipality (Q - 10).

Every person, born in Venezuela or abroad, will be asked for the time of residence in the Municipality being enumerated. Mark the appropriate oval according to the answer given.

If the answer is "always lived in Municipality", skip to question 12, only if the person is 5 years of age or older.

[p. 82]

If the person is under the age of 5, end the interview and continue with the next person.

7.22. State of prior residence (Q - 11).

Before residing in the current municipality, the person could have been living in another municipality in the same state, in which case the "in this state" box is marked. (1)

The person could have been living in a municipality in "another state", in which case the name of the state should be specified.

If the person claims to have been living "abroad", mark the appropriate box (3).

If the person is younger than 5 years (see question 4 to be sure) no more questions are asked. End the interview with this person. If the person is 5 years of age or older continue with question 12.

7.23. Educational Characteristics (Q - 12 to 18).

To continue the interview, care must be taken as to the age of the person as observed in question 4. If the person is younger than 5 years (see question 4 to be sure) no more questions are asked. End the interview with this person. If the person is 5 years of age or older continue with [p. 83] the information on "Educational Characteristics (12 - 18).

7.24. Registered and regularly attending an educational center (Q - 12).

This question is meant to find out if the person is registered or enrolled and regularly attending an educational center. Regular education (enseñanza regular) is understood to mean formal education imparted by Public or Private Educational Institutions which are regularly attended and have curricula of study approved by the Ministry of Education. These institutions are generally registered with and accredited by the Ministry of Education.

The most common branches of education in [Venezuela] are the following: Pre-escolar (Kindergarten); Primaria [elementary]; Normal; Secondary [High School including Commercial High School); Technical; Industrial or Artisan (of any specialty); Teaching Schools; Universities (any faculty); Military Education; Commercial and administrative studies (Institutes approved by the Ministry of Education).

Commercial, secretarial, and similar academies, including correspondence schools, not registered with the Ministry of Education are not considered to be regular. However, correspondence courses related to elementary, secondary, or normal education are considered to be regular education [p. 84] even when the person is not required to attend the center.

Regular attendance is understood to be when the person is registered and attends at least half of the classes the month before Census day. This regularity is not interrupted when the person stops attending because of sickness or other temporary reason. Mark "yes" or "no" according to the case.

7.25. Does the educational institution belong to an Official or Private Authority (Q - 13).

Each person who regularly attends an educational institution will be asked whether this institution is public or private, marking the appropriate box.

A public institution is one that is owned or supported by a private enterprise, institution, individual, etc., even when part of its maintenance comes from government subsidies.

Generally, in private educational institutions each student or representative needs to pay a monthly fee for the instruction received. However, there also exist private institutions that provide free education to all students; these institutions, however, do not cease to be private because of this circumstance.

[p. 85]

7.26. Current year or grade and subject area of study (Q - 14).

If the answer to question 12 is in the affirmative, the year or grade and the subject area of study should be indicated in the question 14.

Possible answers include:

5th elementary (Primaria) ; 3rd High School (Bachillerato; 2nd elementary; Kindergarten 1; 6th Primaria, 2nd Medical; 3rd Law; 4th Economics; 2nd Normal; etc.

If the person does not know the subject area, record the year or grade and the name of the institution where studied.

In the special case where more than one subject area is studied simultaneously, record the highest or more advanced year or grade and the corresponding subject area. When the subject area is pimaria, secundaria, or normal, only write down the first three letters. For all others, write down the complete name.

7.27. Reason for not attending (Q - 15).

The reason for not attending primaria [elementary] school is to asked of those between the ages of 7 and 14 (see question 4) who claimed, in question 12, to not be attending school or to have abandoned or interrupted their studies.

[p. 86]

Eight possible answers are provided, of which only one is to be marked. The probable answers are very clear and therefore do not need additional explanation.

7.28. Highest year or grade and subject area completed (Q - 16).

If the answer to question 12 is negative, skip to question 15, as indicated by the arrow. To record the answer to this question, follow the same instructions given for question 14, writing the year or grade (the highest completed in this case) and the corresponding subject area 1st elementary, 2nd "Normal", 4th" High School, 2nd Medical, 4th Law, etc.).

If the person has not completed any level or is illiterate, mark "none".

7.29. Able to read and write [Literacy] (Q - 17).

This question corresponds to question 9 of the General Questionnaire, therefore copy the information, unless question 9 was omitted in the General Questionnaire.

7.30. Degree or certificate from a regular educational institution (Q - 18).

The person should be asked whether a "degree", or "certificate" was received upon completion of studies. In the affirmative case, clearly write the degree, certificate, or diploma received. Examples: High School Diploma (Bachiller), Primary [Elementary] school teacher, Professor of Secondary and "Normal" education;Graduate (Licenciado) in Economics, [p. 87] Philosophy, Journalism, History, Geography, Statistics, Actuarial Sciences, Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology, etc.; Doctor, Lawyer, Dentist; Pharmacist; Engineer (including the different branches); Architect, Second lieutenant and ensign or midshipman (Alférez de Navío); Agricultural Expert; Nurse; Librarian; Social Worker; sales technician (Técnico Mercantil); Chemical specialist; Petroleum specialist; Geology and Mines specialist; Electronics Technician; Electrician; Mechanic specialist; Statistician; Radiologist; Laboratory Technician; Radio Operator; Professor of Art, etc.

For those who have received more than one title [degree] or diploma in different specialties, indicate only the one that corresponds to the highest level of education, or the last completed if the same.

Titles, degrees, diplomas, or certifications given by educational institutions not officially recognized, such as for typing, short hand, chauffeuring, dressmaking, secretarial, and others that correspond to personal development or training but do not have equivalents in the educational system are not counted.

7.31. Persons 15 years of age and older.

For those 15 years of age and older, continue on to Section IV, which is repeated 7 times on the same [p.88] pages as Section III.

For those younger than 15, end the interview at question 18.

[p. 89]

8. Economic Characteristics (Section IV).

8.1. Some basic concepts.

This section of the interview (questions 19 - 36) is only for those persons 15 years of age and older, both male and female.

At first, the questions in this section seem fairly complicated but once the enumerator becomes familiar with them this will not be the case. The questions should be asked as they are written, following the instructions given via lines and arrows, for some questions, so that the interview can be quick and efficient. Not all questions are made to all people.

Note that Section IV is repeated in 7 consecutive pages, in order to record the information of 7 people, 15 years old or older, who live in a dwelling. As explained above, if there are more than 7 persons, 15 years old or older, in a dwelling, two or more additional questionnaires should be used.

Carefully read and study all of the instructions for this section.

8.2. Definition of work.

For the purposes of the census, work is considered to be:

1. Paid work completed by another person in the capacity of employee or other (salaried), which includes

[p. 90]

a. Daily work or regular salary

b. Work for pay "in kind" (food, shelter, or provisions received in place of cash).

c. Work paid by the piece, commissions, or tips

d. Active duty in the Armed Forces.

2. Work for own business, professional practice, or as an independent worker (on own-account).

3. Work without pay in a business or farm administrated by a relative (e.g. a child who works without pay in the father's store), for more than 15 hours per week.

4. Part-time work: any work completed during the last week paid in money, for example, after leaving school, Saturdays, or any other part-time work even when having only worked a few hours. This includes work such as dressmaking or other jobs completed in the home for other persons or enterprises with payment of clothing or food, work completed in the family business or family farm and other similar jobs.

Be aware that thousands of housewives, students or elderly persons, who apparently do not work, complete activities that produce monetary income, which is also considered to be work.

[p. 91]

8.3. Not counted as work:

1. Tasks done in the home, such as housework (except for domestic employees with or without pay), individual tasks for other relatives without remuneration and work completed at the person's own home (such as cutting the grass, painting walls, the floor, etc.).

2. Volunteer work without remuneration for the Church, the Red Cross, or other charity organizations.

3. Work completed by institutional inmates or prisoners (prisons, sanatoriums, welfare institution, penal colonies), not including the regular workers who are considered to be working.

8.4. Active population (workforce).

The workforce or active population is made up of two groups: employed or unemployed

a) Employed persons are:

1. Those who were working the week prior to the census,

2. Those who, if not working during the week prior to the census, had work, employment or a business from which they were temporarily absent for all or part of the week due to sickness, vacation, labor dispute, weather, problem in the factory, etc.
b) Unemployed persons are:
Those who were unemployed but looking for work during the week prior to [p. 92] the census. Also those who were looking for work for the first time during the reference week or during the last month.
8.5. Persons not in the workforce.

Those not in the workforce are the persons who are not in the categories or employed or unemployed; this group is subdivided into students, housewives, disabled persons, retirees, prisoners or inmates in institutions, rentiers, and other non-workers such as retirees or those who are voluntarily idle.

8.6. Reference week

"Reference week" or "last week" as mentioned in the questionnaire is defined as the complete calendar week, Sunday to Saturday, preceding the week of enumeration. The week in which the interviews take place is called the "interview week".

Interviewers should begin the interviews on the Monday of the interview week.

8.7. To which of the following activities did [the respondent] dedicate most of the last week (Q - 19)?

Question 19 is meant to begin the interview and to sound out the person's principal activity during the last week. That is, whether the person was working, looking for work, [completing] household duties, [p. 93] attending school, [in] another situation, or if the person was unable to work [disabled].

Mark only one box for each person.

Remember that some who carry out household duties (housewives), especially in rural areas, and those who work part-time, are looking for work, or are working for pay within the home in urban areas do not consider themselves to be part of the workforce or to be economically active. For the purposes of the census, they may or may not be in the workforce in the first case. Therefore, it should be insisted that questions 20-25 be answered when interviewing women. The same situation applies to students, rentiers and pensioners, or retirees.

8.8. Employment.

The "0" box is marked for the person who claims to have been working the last week for a salary or pay in-kind, which includes:

1) Salaried employment. This includes work for salary, wage or a daily wage (jornal) in cash as an employee [white collar] or manual laborer. Pay can be by piecework, through commission, or tips. This also includes workers, without remuneration, who are paid in-kind (food, shelter, or merchandise received in stead of a monetary salary). An example of a person paid "in-kind" would be a dishwasher or a [p. 94] servant who receives food or shelter without any monetary compensation.

2) Own-account employment. This includes employment for gain in the person's own agricultural/livestock operation, professional practice, or a private business. For example, a woman who owns her own beauty salon; a lawyer with a [private] legal practice; one who directs their own agricultural/livestock operation; a nurse who works in a home; a peddler; etc. (as independent workers). Mark the first box (0) for a person who was associated with a business or profession even when no professional services or sales had been made. In a similar fashion, in the case of persons with [paying] guests, accept the answers given to the regular questions with respect to their employment situation. For example, a housewife might claim to be "working" if a considerable amount of work is created by renting out rooms or preparing meals for the guests.

3) Working without remuneration in a family business or in a family agricultural/livestock operation. Mark the first box (0) for the person who worked at least 15 hours during the "reference week" in duties (other than domestic) related to a family agricultural/livestock operation without receiving pay. [p. 95] his includes duties such as feeding the birds, cattle, or other animals; cleaning the milking equipment; transporting products, tools, fertilizers, and other materials used in a family farm; planting and harvesting, and participating in tasks similar to those of the head or farmer (hombre) in the operation.

4) Trade work or shared work in a farm. In some localities it is customary that farmers or ranchers (and their families) help each other in the periods of peak activity without compensation for such activity. This is known as trade work (trabajo de intercambio) or shared work (trabajo compartido). For example, a producer and his family could have transferred to the farm of another producer for the first days of the week to help in the harvest; and vice versa (without any monetary exchange).

5) All military officers and other active members of the Armed Forces
8.9. Did not work but is employed.

Mark the first box (1) for the person who, even though employed, was absent from work during all or most of the reference week because of reasons such as sickness, vacation, inclement weather [p. 96] labor dispute, strike, etc.

Definition of employment. Employment exists when there is a definitive agreement to fulfill a regular job for which a wage will be received. This includes agreements for part-time or full-time work. A formal, definitive agreement with one or more employers to work a specified number of hours per week or days per month is also considered to be employment even when the weekly or monthly schedule is irregular.

Nevertheless, a person who is called for work only when their services are needed is not considered to be employed. This is an example of people who are "in service" but who are generally not considered to be employed. E.g. substitute teachers, substitute telephone operators, substitute mail carriers, and cooks or waiters in the service of an agency that provides such services.

During the periods when these persons are not really working they should be classified as either out of the workforce or as looking for employment, according to the answer given.

Seasonal employment is only considered to be employment during the season and not outside of that time period.

8.10. Looking for work - Unemployed.

Mark the second box (2) if the person was trying to find [p. 97] a new job, because of unemployment, or beginning a business, occupation or profession in the week before the census. Accept the answer if the person claims to have been looking for work. If the person is in doubt as to what it means to be looking for work, use this explanation: those "looking for work" are trying to obtain an employment or to establish themselves with a business or profession during the reference week or in the last month.

Looking for work includes the following types of attempts to obtain employment or to start a business:

a. Registering in a public or private employment office

b. Being on the waiting list or "in service" of a personnel office or employment registry or other types of registries.

c. Visiting places where employers select possible employees.

d. Making appointments with possible employers.

e. Placing or answering ads.

f. Writing letters [resumes] soliciting employment.

g. Establishing contact with a union or other labor organization.

h. Investigating the possibilities of starting a professional practice or staring a new business.

If a person lost employment and is not looking for work, do not mark the second box (2), rather mark the last one (other situation) unless the person is in another activity. A person, for example, who looked for work [p. 98] 6 months ago and has not made any more attempts is not considered to be looking for work. Do not mark the second box (2), rather mark box 9. On the other hand, if the person looked for work 2 or 3 weeks ago or less than 2 month ago and is waiting, or not, for an answer, the second box should be marked.

Remember that a person who has lost employment and does not want to work is not considered to be looking for work. Do not mark the second box (2), mark box 9.

8.11. Household duties.

Mark the third box (3) for those who have been principally occupied with tasks in their own home during the reference week. This box is also marked for those, usually women, who indicate that their principal activity has been to tend to household duties except for periods of temporary absence or sickness.

Note that this classification usually applies to women but it can, in some cases, apply to a man. Be aware that domestic employees are considered to be working and do not fall into this category even while participating in this type of activity, with or without cash remuneration. This applies when the work takes place in another home or in a commercial or service establishment.

This type of work is not exclusively [p. 99] cooking, washing, or cleaning. This classification applies to any person who claims to have spent the majority of the reference week directing, or being responsible for the home and for any person who claims that their principal activity is taking care of [their own] children.

More than one person can fall into this category in a household. E.g. a mother and daughter who share in the responsibility of the household duties and childcare are both classified under "household duties".

8.12. Studying.

Mark this box for the person who spent the majority of the reference week attending any type of public, religious, or private (internal or external) school or any other type of educational institution including technical schools (vocacionales) where the students do not receive any type of monetary or in-kind compensation. Mark this box if the person would have attended school if it were not for a sickness or brief vacation such as Christmas, Carnival, or Holy Week.

However, many students may also be working part or full time during breaks, at the end of courses, or they may be looking for work at the time of the census. In this case the person may fall into the category of box (0) or box (2).

[p. 100]

8.13. Rentier.

Mark the fifth box (5) for a person who receives income, not from working, but from interest or from participation in corporate profits through capital investments, real estate, etc., without completing any other management/effort except for the receipt of the corresponding amounts, generally through a third party. This does not include regular lenders or investors and landowners who directly manage their interests or properties - these are considered employed.

8.14. Pensioner or retiree.

Mark the sixth box (6) for those, of any age or sex, who live exclusively from a pension received because of widowhood, orphanhood, physical disability, scholarship, or any other type of subsidy such as retirements from work after reaching a certain age or number of years of service in the occupation (retired military, etc.). This only applies when there is no other activity that could classify the person into another group; e.g. those who work or look for work.

8.15. Institutionalized or imprisoned.

Mark the seventh box (7) for those imprisoned/institutionalized permanently, indefinitely, or long term, in a welfare institution such as mental hospitals, leprosy clinics, oncology clinics, and similar institutions; penal facilities, religious cloisters [p. 101] etc. This also applies when the person participates in a productive activity within the institution (e.g. prisoner's work, blind person's work, etc.).

Excluded from this category are those temporarily institutionalized in medical establishments (hospitals, clinics, etc.) or those detained temporarily by the police. These people correspond to one of the previous categories and will reintegrate into that category after recovering from the illness or regaining their liberty.

8.16. Unable to work [disabled].

Mark the eighth box (8) for the person who could not complete any type of work during the reference week due to a disability, physical or mental illness, or age.

1) Definition of illness or physical or mental disability. A physical or mental disability or indolence is understood to be a specific condition or illness such as blindness, missing limb, serious heart condition, tuberculosis, mental disorder or deficiency, etc., and a combination of difficulties associated with advanced age. Therefore, this oval should not be marked for someone who has retired from work or who believes that they are too old to find work, unless they are suffering from an illness or defined disability that is serious enough to impede the ability to work.
[p. 102]
2) The person who is temporarily sick is not included. Do not mark this box for the person who is only temporarily sick or incapacitated and does not give an indication of the expected duration of the illness or disability. Try to find out, from the person, whether it is expected that they be in condition to return to work within a short or long period of time. Do not base this judgment on your own interpretation or observation.

3) Not limited to the elderly. Do not limit this category to the elderly only. It can apply to young and old persons of either sex.
8.17. Other situation.

Mark this box for those persons whose activity does not fall into any of the above criteria.
Examples of this include:

Resting (a person who cannot work because of temporary rest).

Does not want to work (a person who does not want to or is not interested in working).

Voluntary work (a person who works when they want to)

Ill (a person who cannot work because of a temporary illness)

Any person that does not fall into any of the above categories.

[p. 103]

[Paragraph 8.18. was not translated into English]

8.19. Work completed for monetary compensation (Q - 20).

This question is asked to those for whom boxes 2 - 6 and 9 were marked in question 19.

It is common that those who are occupied in household duties (except for domestic employees) and students work, other than their normal labors, for monetary compensation in a business, enterprise, government, [p. 104] as vendors, landlords, guards, office employees, etc., in order to help and support themselves. These people may not consider this activity to be employment either because it is not a regular activity or because the income is very small. For the purposes of the census, this is considered to be employment like any other type.

Some women also work in the home in jobs such as dressmaking for companies, either to sell or for other people, collecting money for this work. Others make candy or foods etc. to bring in an additional monetary income. All of these activities and other similar ones are considered to be remunerated employment.

Therefore, the person should be asked whether they participated in any activity of this type before marking yes or no for question 20. Do not simply accept the answer of household duties or student; these persons may not feel the need to declare that they had worked or received monetary compensation during the last week. The possibility of an income should be presented with tact.

Student's scholarships and financial aid are not counted as paid employment.

8.20. Unpaid work for a relative (Q - 21).

As indicated by the arrow, this question is asked to the persons who [p. 105] answered "No" to question 20. This case is similar to that described in the previous paragraph, with the difference being that the work carried out for a family enterprise is not paid in money but in-kind or in another type of similar compensation. This type of work is typically done, part or full time, for a family member or relative. E.g. a student who helps his/her parents during vacations or who works by day and studies by night, on the weekends, etc. The essential condition is that the person does not receive monetary compensation.

The definition of unpaid family worker is described more amply in other paragraphs of this manual. When a person carries out a similar job with in-kind remuneration for a company or enterprise for someone who is not a relative, it is considered to be regular employment and the first box (1) should be marked for question 20.

8.21. Hours worked (Q - 22).

For the person who answered "yes" to question 21, find out the number of hours worked as an unpaid family assistant during the last week.

If between 1 and 14 hours were worked, check the first box and skip to question 23, as indicated by the arrow.

If 15 or more hours were worked, [p. 106] the second box is marked. The number of hours worked is recorded in question 26 and then the next question asked is 27. Questions 23, 24, and 25 are skipped.

8.22. Did [the respondent] make any efforts during the last month to find employment? (Q - 23).

If the answer is "yes", effort was made during the last month to find work or employment or to start a business, the answer is accepted as correct. In the case that the person does not understand the question, clarify that "looking for work" is considered to be completing one of the following activities in the last month:

a. Registering in a public or private employment office

b. Being on the waiting list or "in service" of a personnel office or employment registry or other types of registries.

c. Visiting places where employers select possible employees.
E.g. firms that contract cargo ship crews, construction contractors, farmers, or other employers. These employers use this method to find daily or weekly laborers.

d. Making appointments with possible employers.

e. Placing or answering ads.
[p. 107]
f. Writing letters [resumes] soliciting employment.

g. Establishing contact with a union or other labor organization.

8.23. Previous employment (Q - 24).

This question is designed to separate the unemployed who have already worked (unemployed with experience) from those who have never worked before, that is, those who are looking for their first job (looking for work for the first time). The most common example of the latter case is a student whose studies have been completed, abandoned or not continued in order to find work and who has not been previously employed.

"Previous employment" is not necessarily limited to a previous stable job with monetary or in-kind compensation. Working for a short period of time, for monetary or in-kind compensation, or as an unpaid family worker, for not less than 5 hours per week, is sufficient.

8.24. In which month and year did [the respondent] last work? (Q - 25).

Those who answered affirmatively to question 24, that is, those who have previously worked, should be asked the month and year of when they last worked.

[p. 108]

If the month corresponds to 1970, record the month abbreviating with the first three letters or the month's number and then write "70". If the month corresponds to a year previous to 1970, write only the year.

8.25. Hours per week worked (Q - 26).

This question refers to the actual number of hours worked in the last week and not the usual number of hours or the number of hours the person should or should have worked. Therefore, the number of hours not worked during the week due to leave, illness, vacation, or other reasons are excluded from the total number of hours worked.

For those who were unemployed and were looking for work during the last week, this question refers to the total number of weekly hours, full or part-time, worked at the last job or jobs.

For those who did not work during the last week because of illness, vacations, inclement weather, etc., this question refers to the number of weekly hours normally worked at the [current] job.

If the person had more than one employment during the last week, all of the number of hours worked in all of the jobs should be totaled, including extra hours.

[p. 109]

8.26. For whom did [the respondent] work during the last week (or for whom did [the respondent] work in the previous job)? (Q - 27).

Proceed in the following manner:

a) Ask if the person worked for the government or for a private enterprise.

In this case, write down the complete name of the enterprise, company, private business, government agency, or other employer for whom the person worked in the last week or for their previous job. Write down the name of the company and not the immediate supervisor, foreman, proprietor, or boss for whom the person works or worked. Do not abbreviate the names of government agencies, companies, or enterprises. The activity of an employer who does not have a name, such as dental clinics, doctors or lawyers, small retail stores, or construction contractors should be described in the second line.

For employees of government agencies, write down the complete [name of] the specific organization in which the person worked in line 1. Be sure to specify if the organization is national, state, or municipal, etc. E.g. Municipal Council, State Government, M.O.P. [Ministry of Public Works], B.A.P..

For domestic employees in a private home, write "private home" and not the name of the employer.
[p. 110]
b) Ask the name of the government organization or of the establishment.

Clearly record the complete name of the government organization or of the commercial, industrial, or service establishment etc. for which the person works or last worked. Write down, for example, "Banco de Venezuela", Ministry of Health, "Banco Agrícola" [Agricultural Bank], State Government, "Grabados Nacionales" [company that sells engraving/printing equipment], etc.

c) Armed Forces.

For all current members of the armed forces, write down "F.A.N." [National Armed Forces] in the space provided for government employees.

[The category] Armed Forces only includes members of the Active Army and not civilians who work in any agency or dependent organization of the Ministry of Defense. Retired military personnel are not included because they can realize other, non-military, regular activities. The exception to this is for persons currently unemployed whose last occupation was in the active service of the Armed Forces: mark the first oval only when there is no current occupation.

d) Works on own account.

The third oval should be marked for those who work on their own-account, for example [p. 111] street peddlers, private [own] businesses (farms, warehouse, office), professional practice (medical doctors, lawyers, nurses), that is, those who work alone or in association with others without remunerated employees or an employer.

The economic activity of an own-account worker is defined as the class of establishment, economic industry or sector in which the person participates. If the person participates in more than one economic activity, ask which is more important, that is, the activity that brings in a higher income, or to which more time is dedicated.

8.27. Industry (Q - 28).

a) What the enterprise or company does.

The annotation for this question should clearly and specifically express the principal activity of the enterprise, company, or government agency or office where the person works or worked during the last week or in their last job or business. The name of the employer, enterprise, or official agency is not recorded in this space.

For the purposes of supplying a correct description of [p. 112] the economic activity, the annotation should indicate the specific functions: e.g. automotive assembly plant, agricultural machinery factory, fruit cannery, highway construction, retail shoe sales, television and radio repair service, wholesale food sales, supplies, butcher shop, etc.

The words "assembly plant", "machinery factory", "cannery", "construction", "retail", "repair service", and "wholesale" describe the general function. Do not use the word "company" in this description because it does not provide information.

If the person claims to work in a furniture store mueblería, ask "Is the furniture manufactured or is it only sold there?" If only sold, find out if sold to other businesses (in which case it would be wholesale) or to the public (in which case it would be retail). According to the answers received, the correct annotation will be "manufacturer of furniture".

b) Multiple activities. Some firms dedicate themselves to more than one commercial or industrial activity. If the activities take place in the same location for the same company, only describe the establishment's principal activity in which the person works.

c) Person with more than one activity. Many people [p. 113] can be working (or could have worked) in more than one economic activity. In this case, only one should be recorded, that is, the principal activity declared by the informant. The principal activity is the one that produces more income or the one to which more time is dedicated when the incomes are similar.

d) Distinction between manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers. It is essential to distinguish between the commercial activities of wholesalers and retailers. Also, even when a manufacturing plant can sell its products in large quantities to other manufacturers, wholesalers, or retailers, the industry is recorded as wholesale establishment.

A wholesale establishment buys, instead of producing, products in order to resell them to retailers, industries or to other wholesalers. Retailers principally sell to consumers or individual users; very rarely do they manufacture the products.

e) Government organization. Often the names of government agencies do not describe their functions or activities. If the person has difficulty in defining the function of a government organization, ask in which part of the organization does the person work and write down that activity. For example, for a department within the Ministry of Public Works the correct annotation can be one of [p.114] the following: "street repair", "garbage collection", "sewer work", etc.

f) Business in the home. Some persons participate in activities or have businesses in their own homes. Write down these activities as if they were from a regular enterprise or establishment.

g) Domestic employee and other employees in a private house. When only the name of a person is given as the employer, find out if the person works in a commercial establishment or in a private house. The economic activity for a domestic employee who works in the house of another person is recorded as "in private house".

[Specific examples of correct and incorrect industry annotations, pgs. 114 - 116, were not translated into English]

[p. 117]

8.28. Describe the occupation, trade, or type of employment carried out in this activity. (Q - 29).

Proceed in the following manner:

a) What did the person do. The annotation for question 29 should describe the type of work performed by the person last week in their last employment or job. The name of occupation is sufficient if it clearly and specifically states what was being done; e.g. salesclerk, superintendent/concierge/janitor (conserje), radio and television repair technician, auto mechanic. If the name of the occupation is not known or does not accurately describe what was being done, e.g. laborer or office worker, a short clarifying description should be requested. E.g. repairs shoes, repairs automobiles, metal lathe operator, operates a power saw, operates a type writer, enters data, etc.

b) Sufficient detail. One word descriptions of occupations are rarely adequate. For a nurse, engineer, agent, professor, etc., the type of nurse, engineer, agent, professor needs to be known. For example, engineers are classified into different groups, such as chemical, civil, mechanical, etc., therefore, a more complete description is needed.

c) Precaution in regards to young person's occupations.
[p. 118]
Technical occupations and professions and skill usually require long periods of training or education. When a young person is really an apprentice, a beginner, or an assistant, write down "apprentice electrician", "electrical assistant", etc.

d) Name of department or place of work. Annotations that only state the name of the department or place of work are inadequate.

An example of an inadequate annotation is "works in cost control". The occupation should indicate what the employee does and not what the department does.

[Specific examples of correct and incorrect occupation annotations, pgs. 118 - 120, were not translated into English]

[p. 121]

8.29. Employment status (Q - 30).

This question refers to the person's employment status in the current or last job, keeping in mind the following criteria. Mark only one of the six boxes.

1. Government employee [white collar] or manual laborer: This includes all government employees [white collar] and manual laborers (public employees), from autonomous institutions belonging to the government, named or not, at any level, national, state, municipal, etc. This includes those named by remunerated positions and active members and civilian employees of the Armed Forces. This also includes employees of international organizations such as the United Nations and employees of foreign governments. Persons employed by private organizations such as the Red Cross are not considered to be government employees and should be labeled as employees of "private companies". Work for a private organization that provides services through contracts to a government agency or office (national, state, municipal) should not be classified as work for the government, rather as for a private enterprise.

2. Employee [white collar] or manual laborer for a private enterprise: This includes the employees [white collar] or manual laborers who receive monetary compensation or compensation in tips or in-kind (only when not an unpaid family worker) without respect to the size of [p. 122] the company or if it simply comes from an individual (particular). Employment for monetary or in-kind compensation for the Red Cross or churches or other non-profit organizations is also included. Workers for domestic service in private households are also included.

3. Employer: Those who operate their own economic enterprise, or carry out, on their own account, a profession or trade using one or more remunerated workers, not including un-paid family assistants. Heads of households are not considered employers, even if there are domestic employees in the household.

Those in public companies [i.e., traded in the stock market; not state owned] (incorporated enterprises in: oil, mining, banking, insurance, industry, commercial, etc.) are not considered employers. The executive managers are considered "employees".

4. Working on own-account: Those who "operate their own economic enterprise" or carry out, on their own account, a profession or trade with or without the help of family assistants, but without using any remunerated employee. They are also known as "independent workers" and they can work alone or in association with others of the same condition. Members of cooperatives are excluded from this category and fall into the "other" category.
[p. 123]
5. Member of a similar cooperative: Those not classified under the previous categories, such as members of cooperatives, members of religious cults that cannot be assigned to another category etc.

6. Family assistant. -Those who carry out an occupation in the economic enterprise operated by a member of the family group without receiving express compensation, only if worked at least 1/3 time (15 or more hours) during the week prior to the Census. Food, board, clothing, and other allocations received are considered to be in-kind remuneration. In the case that a family assistant receives monetary compensation or works for in-kind compensation for a non family member, they are considered "employees or laborers".

8.30. Estimated income in Bolívares [Venezuelan currency] from the last month (or obtained during the last month worked) in the form of salaries or wages; commissions, tips, and bonuses. (Q - 31).

a) Definition of income: For those with salaries (employees [white collar] or manual laborers), income is the total sum of the money obtained by one person in all of the work completed, part or full-time, [p. 124] in any condition and that was made during the last month in one or more jobs or employments. Daily income and salary includes the "gross income", not excluding any of the deductions and contributions such as: tax deductions, Social Security, etc. Also included are: tips, commissions, pay per job, bonuses, and profit sharing if received by the employee in addition to the daily pay, wage, or salary.

b) Some type of incomes:
1. Pay per job: Money received from work completed at a specific rate per job/task.

2. Commissions: Money received through a business transaction completed for another person.

3. Tips: Payment received as a compliment to a daily wage, received for service provided to a client.

4. Bonuses: Payments made by employers to employees as a supplement to daily wages and salaries; for example, for services based on a percentage of profits.

5. Wage or salary: Wage or Salary obtained as an employee [white collar] or manual laborer of the government or of a private enterprise.
c) Using the same concepts of income from the previous paragraph, ask those who are unemployed what their monthly income was in their last job.
[p. 125]
d) Combined incomes:

Try to find out if the person marked as an employee in question 30 received additional income from one or more secondary jobs on own-account. This income, along with any other special payments, should be added to the amount declared. The most common case is that of an employee [white collar] or manual laborer of the government or of a private enterprise that obtains a principal income and additionally completes work on his/her own-account. Such is the case with doctors, dentists, lawyers, nurses, professors in any specialty, street peddlers, etc., and any other non professional persons in a similar situation.

8.31. Estimated income in Bolívares from the last month (or obtained during the last month worked). (Q - 32).

This question is meant to obtain an estimate of the income, before deductions, obtained by those in the labor force [p. 126] that are not in the salaried group (employees and manual laborers) such as employers, own-account workers, and members of cooperatives or similar (those for whom boxes 3-5 are marked in question 30).

The monthly income for these persons generally varies from month to month because of the special characteristics [of the worker]. If, for any circumstance, the total income from the last month cannot be obtained, the monthly average of income received in the last year should be requested.

Since the person could have received income from one or more economic activities, it is therefore necessary that an estimated income from all of last month's activities be provided.

Those who work independently as street peddlers, professional practitioners (medical doctors, dentists, lawyers, nurses, etc.) are counted in these activities. Also counted are those who work alone or in association with others without remunerated employees or an employer.

Combined incomes: Try to find out if the person marked as an employer, own-account worker, or member of a cooperative or similar in question 30 received additional income from one or more secondary jobs as an employee or laborer.

[p 127]

This income, along with any other special payments, should be added to the amount declared.

The most common case is that of an employer, own-account worker, or member of a cooperative or similar who obtains a principal income and additionally completes work as an employee or laborer of a private enterprise or the government. Examples can include doctors, dentists, lawyers, nurses, street peddlers, etc., and any other non professional persons in a similar situation.

8.32. Additional income. (Q - 33).

The enumerated person could have received income in addition to that obtained from the principal activity. This income should be estimated and recorded in the space provided in this question.

This additional income could come from:

a. Rent. Coming from rent of property or from money placed in a mortgage or other similar activities.

b. Pension or retirement. Obtained through years of service, mental or physical disability, widow or orphanhood, from studies or other motives.

c. Other concepts. Such as: family economic assistance, savings dividends and every other type of income obtained [p. 128] directly or indirectly during the month.

8.33. Number of weeks worked, part or full-time, during the year 1970 (not excluding vacation or leave). (Q - 34).

Many persons employed and unemployed during the week prior to the census could have been working for irregular periods of time during the year 1970. That is, they could have entered and exited the workforce one or more times. Therefore, try to get the person to remember the exact number of weeks worked in 1970 and write the number down in the space provided. If the person did not work in 1970, mark the appropriate box. Do not exclude the weeks not worked because of vacation, leave, or absences from sickness from the total if the person did not lose the employment. If the person indicates a number of months worked, multiply the number by 4 1/3 to obtain the number of weeks.

8.34. Number of jobs held (Q - 35).

This question is designed to determine if the person who has worked a certain number of weeks during 1970 stayed in the same job or, on the contrary, had more than [one job]

Change of employment or job does not refer to the completion of a different task within the same company or for the same employer.

[p. 129]

To change jobs or employment means that the person worked for different employers, was employed and unemployed one or more times during the year, or went from one job to another without being unemployed during long or short periods of time.

The most frequent cases refer to seasonal workers, street peddlers, and those who do piecework or for short term contracts. Therefore, it refers to those who did not have stable or permanent continuous employment during the year 1970.

8.35. Children born alive. (Q - 36).

This question is made only to women, of any marital status, 15 years of age and older.

First, ask if the woman has had children born alive. For those who respond in the negative, mark No and end [the interview].

For those who respond in the affirmative, ask how many have they had in total. The number of children born alive is the total number had by the woman, that is, from one or various marriages or consensual unions, legitimate or illegitimate. A child born alive is one who breathed after birth, even if passing away immediately thereafter.

Do not include abortions or stillbirths, or children born dead, in this number.

[p. 130]

9. Individual Enumeration Questionnaire (CPV - 04).

The individual enumeration questionnaire is used in three special cases:

a. Enumeration of persons in large collectives, that is, with more than 15 occupants.

b. Enumeration of visitors or non-residents in family dwellings (only when there is nobody in their place of usual residence who can give their information or if they do not have a place of usual residence).

c. To complete interviews with the members of a household.

The questionnaire contains all of the questions, in the same order, found in the General and Sample Questionnaires that refer to personal characteristics of the individuals of the household. This form should be revised exhaustively by the enumerator once it has been filled out by the person. Special care should be taken so that the title page of the document, Sections I and II, contains all of the details requested concerning the location of the usual residence of the enumerated person.

Be aware that this questionnaire will be subjected to a complicated process of depuration (cotejamiento) after the census. Therefore, it needs to be completely filled out and verified (diligenciado) when it is picked up. It is especially important that the information in Section I, as well as the rest of the questionnaire, be clear and complete.

[p. 131]

9.1. Reasons for the Individual Questionnaire.

All inhabitants of Venezuela should be enumerated in the Population Census. Because of this, much care must be taken to make sure that no person is either omitted or duplicated.

As a general rule, a person should be enumerated in the dwelling in which they normally reside, even if they are temporarily absent when the enumerator visits. Absent does not mean that the person is in the office, in the street, shopping, at school, or gone for any other momentary reason. For the purposes of the census, a person who is absent is gone from the dwelling, even thought they reside there, for reasons such as: vacations, tourism, business, work, etc. This presupposes an absence from the dwelling for one or more nights, returning within a more or less short period of time.

Those who are absent for prolonged or indefinite periods of time either because they have established residence in another place, because of health (welfare institutions, tuberculosis clinics, leprosy clinics, oncology clinics, and mental hospitals), those sentenced to prison, students living in a city other than their parents, military personnel permanently living in bases and barracks, etc., are not counted as temporarily absent. They must be enumerated [p. 132] in the dwelling in which they are living at the time of the census and not at the dwelling from which they are apparently absent.

On the other hand, care must be taken so that those who are temporary visitors in a dwelling, who are logically absent from another, are not left out of the census and that they are correctly assigned to their usual residence. The Individual Questionnaire will be used with this dual purpose in mind, being collated with the household of usual residence information to see if the person has been enumerated.

9.2. Enumeration of collectives.

Collective dwelling units with fewer than 30 occupants will be enumerated normally by the enumerator in the route through the assigned area. Collectives with 30 or more occupants are considered to be special E.A.s [Enumeration Areas] and will be enumerated by a special enumerator.

Collectives with fewer than 30 occupants.

When a collective with fewer than 30 occupants (hotel, family boarding house, military barracks, police barracks, etc.) is encountered, proceed in the following manner:

a. Fill in the information in columns 1 - 6 of the Enumeration Control Book as if it were a family dwelling, indicating the name of the Head of household in column 7 and marking an "X" in column 8.

b. With the Head of household, determine who is normally residing in the dwelling and who is working and residing (sleeping) in it.
[p. 133]
These persons will be recorded in the General Questionnaire.

Those who work but do not reside in the dwelling and temporary guests will be recorded in as many Individual Questionnaires as necessary. These persons have another place of usual residence to which they will be assigned.

c. Using one or more General Questionnaires (CPV - 01), write down the information for each usual resident household member in Section II, Household Composition. In Section III, write down the name and type of collective (1-B), leaving 2 - 6 blank, and fill in the number of occupants in 7.

d. Be aware that if the head of the collective or other employees live with their families independently, that is, they have separate arrangements from the rest of the collective, they are enumerated, with their respective families, in separate General questionnaires. In this case, any other person, in hierarchical order, is recorded as head.

e. For guests whose interviews could not be completed [p. 134] the day of the first visit, arrangements for an additional visit should be made. The enumerator should leave, if appropriate, as many Individual Questionnaires as necessary for the guests to fill out. The enumerator can also insist on completing a personal interview during a second or third visit.

f. As many Sample Questionnaires as needed should be used in order to complete the remaining information for all of the normal residents. For those who are not normal residents, only Individual Questionnaires should be used. It is recommended that only Individual Questionnaires be used for collectives with more than 15 members. For collectives with less than 15 members, Sample Questionnaires should be used as explained in paragraph 7.1.

g. Reminder: the General Questionnaire should be filled out for a collective dwelling.
9.4. Collectives with 30 or more occupants.

An enumerator assigned to a collective with 30 or more occupants (hotel, military base, hospital, etc.) should proceed in the following manner:

a. The name, complete address, and type of collective assigned should be written down in the Control Book and as many General Questionnaires as needed should be used as if it were a smaller collective.

b. Because of the complicated nature of enumerating collectives, the owner, administrator, or manager's cooperation should be solicited upon visiting the collective.

c. The number of occupants and employees should be requested, with the explanation that the enumeration refers to the night of the day of the visit.

A visit should be made the afternoon of this day and as many individual questionnaires as occupants should be distributed. The enumerator should remain at the collective until 10 p.m., returning the next day in order to individually interview all of the occupants that could not personally fill out the individual questionnaire.

d. There are cases, however, where it is not possible or practical to enumerate each person individually; at, for example, penal colonies, psychiatric hospitals, orphanages or reformatories, welfare institutions, etc. In these cases it is more practical to obtain the information from the records of the institution, when authorized by the person in charge.

e. Military collectives (bases, barracks, positions, etc.) are special enumerations areas.
[p. 136]
Therefore, the enumeration of the individual members of will be completed by the National Armed Forces.

The procedure for these collectives is subject to regulations of the corresponding authorities. As many Enumeration Books (CPV - 01) as needed and as many Individual Questionnaires as members in the collective should be used.

9.5. Enumeration of visitors and non-residents in family dwellings.

As previously mentioned, members or occupants who are temporarily absent from the household are enumerated in the General Questionnaire. Visitors and non-residents present at the time of the census are enumerated with the Individual Questionnaire only when there is nobody at their normal place of residence who can provide the person's information or if they have no place of usual residence.

Visitors and non-residents who are not present at the time of enumeration should fill out the Individual Questionnaire, having been instructed to clearly fill in the information dealing with usual residence (Section I).

[p. 137]

If the visitor or non-resident is not present, an individual questionnaire should be left with a responsible person in the dwelling so that it can be filled out. The person should be advised that the questionnaire will be picked up on the next visit.

The questions on the Individual Questionnaire are exactly the same as those in the General Questionnaire and the Sample Questionnaire; therefore, the instructions are exactly the same.

Questions 2-6 in Section II of the Individual Questionnaire refer to the usual residence of the person and not the municipality where the enumeration takes place.

The section titled "Only for enumerator use" should be filled out at the same time of the interview and relates to the enumeration area.

9.6. For completing interviews with household members.

The Individual Enumeration Questionnaire can also be used to complete interviews with household members who are absent at the time of enumeration. For example, when a household member is at work, shopping, etc., and cannot the complete information about this person cannot be obtained; an Individual Questionnaire can be left so that it can be filled out [p. 138] by the person and collected in an additional visit. In another case, if a person is absent for a few days, the information can be obtained through another household member, but if the information is not complete, it is more prudent that an Individual Questionnaire be left and collected in an additional visit.

9.7. Transfer of information from the Individual Questionnaire to the General and Sample Questionnaires.

In the cases referred to above, the information collected on the Individual Questionnaires should be transcribed to the General Questionnaire and the Sample Questionnaire, destroying the Individual Questionnaire(s) immediately.

9.8. Identification Information in the Individual Questionnaire.

The section at the beginning of the Individual Questionnaire titled "for enumerator use only" (Section I) should be filled out prior to being used (or left). The procedure follows:

First: The number of the enumeration area and type, urban/rural, should be written down.

Second: The name of the Federal entity, district, and municipality should be written.

Third: The name of the populated area (Urban or Rural) where the dwelling is located and the dwelling's number, according to the Control Book, should be written down.

[p. 139]

Fourth: If a collective dwelling (hotel, barracks, hospital, school, etc.), the name should be clearly written.

The remaining sections should be filled out by the enumerated person unless the enumerator's help is requested.

9.9. What to do with the Individual Questionnaires.

Individual Questionnaires corresponding to usual residents of a family dwelling or collective should be kept together with the General Questionnaire for that dwelling. These are the people who marked "A" in question 2 of Section II and "A" in next part (lives in this dwelling unit) or "B" (does not have a fixed dwelling of usual residence). Questionnaires for visitors or non-residents (those who marked "C" on the same question) are turned in to the Supervisor for remittance, according to the instructions that will be given to the Supervisor.

9.10. Important note.

Since the General Census is carried out over several days, it is possible that a person enumerated as a visitor or non-resident returns to their place of usual residence. They may claim to have been enumerated but they should be enumerated again with the General Questionnaire at their place of usual residence since the Individual Questionnaire that was filled out as a visitor or non-resident will be destroyed once collated.

[Pages 140 and subsequent ones were not translated into English.]