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Uruguay INE (National Institute of Statistics)
2011 Census -- Tell me and I will count you
Enumerator's Manual

[Page 2-7 are blank.]

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Introduction

The 2011 Census constitutes the most relevant statistical inquiry for understanding the situation of the population. It offers a complete and current vision of the Uruguayan reality, identifying and analyzing the territory, showing facts of the population, their life conditions, and the services to which they have access.

The fundamental stage of the 2011 Census is the enumeration. The execution of this census involves more than eight thousand (8,000) people on the field who will work with the mission of covering the totality of the national territory and recording the information of premises, dwellings, households, and people via portable electronic devices (DEP).

You are the main protagonist in this enterprise, the success of the survey depends on the commitment and dedication with which each one completes his/her task.

The objective of this manual is to offer knowledge and instructions necessary for a successful enactment of the task. Have in mind that the knowledge of all the instructions provided, as well as the good use of the materials, are fundamental factors at the moment of guaranteeing a good work.

The Enumerator's Manual is a required text for training and constitutes a document of permanent consultation during the development of the field work.

The National Institute of Statistics thanks you for your participation in this task. With your commitment, responsibility, and dedication in this stage of the work, the goals and objectives proposed will be met.

[Page 8 is blank and omitted.]

[Pages 9-10 containing the Table of Contents are omitted.]

[Pages 11-36 containing Chapter 1 and 2, which discuss the importance of census and responsibilities of enumerators are omitted here.]

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Chapter 3: Cartographic Verification

Familiarize yourself with your map

The map that you received has been fashioned according to the survey of the field, information compiled in other organisms and analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images. The information contained in this map has been verified recently by the Team Leader and represents the census zone en which you will be carrying out the Census of Households.

[This page has two main diagrams representing a map of a zone of blocks and a map of a rural area which are not shown here.]

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Alongside the right of the map you can observe the references, in which the symbols representing the important geographical elements can be seen. Such elements: transportation lines, rivers, plazas and green spaces, or services such as education centers, government centers, religious temples and others, which will serve as references to locate yourself in the field.

The references on the map are necessarily adapted to the type of territory that is represented, which will we highlighted, on one hand, as areas of blocks (commonly identified as urban) and on the other hand, as areas without blocks (commonly identified as rural). For example, you will find the following geographic and geo-statistic elements in the maps:

[The table of map elements and their symbols on page 38 is omitted; but elements of the map are defined on the following page.]

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Below we will review some definitions that will help you read the map:

  • Census Department: This is the territorial subdivision of the country and coincides with the political-administrative limits of the departments.
  • Census Region: This is the subdivision of the census departments defined according to the operating criteria for the 2011 census. Each region is a collection of Areas of the Team Leader.
  • Area of the Team Leader: This is a unit of survey also defined by operating criteria of the 2011 Census, assigned to each Team Leader. Each Area is composed of a collection of census zones of block areas, rural areas, or a combination of both and is identified with a single code. In the following example, the area includes census zones in block areas and non-block areas and zones of the Sanchez locality.
  • Census Zone: This is a unit of survey that in census localities or blocked areas (area amanzanada) generally coincides with a block (manzana); however the limits of the zone can also be defined by visual elements, or lines that represent wires or continuations of streets. In areas without blocks the census zone corresponds to portions of territory defined by easily recognizable natural or artificial limits (water paths, highways, neighborhood paths, train tracks). Below we will see some definitions that will help you with the reading of the map:
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  • Enumeration borders: These refer to each one of the borders of blocks located in the interior of each census zone of block areas. They can be composed of a sidewalk of the block or by waterways, train tracks, wire fences. In the following example, a dotted line has been drawn to show the border corresponding to the R. Berois Street.
  • Census locality or blocked area: This is the collection of census zones that are characterized by a concentration of population and dwellings and is commonly recognized as an urban area.
  • Geo-code: This refers to the numeric code that identifies each one of the distinct areas of survey: department, region, area of Team Leader, census zone, and that permits us to associate to the geographic locations without errors. In the following box you can observe the geo-codes of department, region, area of Team Leader, and zone.

Some other definitions that are of importance are the following:

  • Housing groups: These consist of groups of dwellings with physical and organizational characteristics in common that can include basic common community and social equipment: services, common recreation and walking spaces (pedestrian zones, paths, or interior streets for vehicles).
  • Irregular settlements: the INE, in accordance with the Insertion of Irregular Settlements Program (PIAI), defines settlement as the following: "A Grouping of more than 10 dwellings, located in public or private terrains, constructed without authorization of the owner in formally irregular conditions, without respecting the urban norms. In addition, this grouping of dwellings is lacking all or some services of basic urban infrastructure in the great majority of the cases, where there are also frequently difficulties in accessing social services."
  • Address with statistical purposes: This is a reference that permits us to unmistakably identify the principal access to a dwelling, premises, or combination of both. This is associated with the street, route, or path on which it is found, the number of the door, or kilometer and in some cases (in census localities) the block, tower, floor and number of the apartment, unit or premises.

[Chapter 4 from pages 41-47 deals with identifying addresses within a census zone throughout the census of residences has been omitted here.]

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Chapter 5: Census of Premises

5.1 Objective

This census consists in recording all the premises where economic activity is carried out or could be carried out, associating them with their addresses and identify the economic activities that are developed there by the companies, institutions, or organizations. Additionally, it is of interest to identify the fixed stalls whose location cannot be associated with an address but a "border survey" (kiosks, permanent sales booths), as well as to investigate the existence of economic activities inside the dwellings.

The economic dynamic determines permanent changes in the location and characteristics of the units of production. It is then necessary to update the geographic distribution of the premises in order to get to know the economic activities carried out by the companies, institutions, or organizations in such premises.

This information, together with other characteristics of the urban environment, that are also revealed in the 2011 Census, help develop a Geo-statistic Information System (SIG) that will facilitate the analysis of the territory from multiple perspectives.

The record of the premises allows us to update the statistical frame for carrying out the surveys by samples, by kinds of activities, and by size of the economic entities- small, medium, and large-, as well as offering information with the territorial breakdown of the economic activity and employed personnel.

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5.2 Operating Instructions

5.2.1 Units of Investigation: Premises and its Economic Activity

Premises: This is a fixed physical area where some type of single (or multiple) economic activity is (are) carried out by one or more companies.

In order to develop the interviews in normal conditions and be able to assure the quality of the information revealed, it is required that the premises has, at least, characteristics of location and permanence.

From the point of view of the fixed physical area this is identified because:

  • It can be separated from other fixed physical areas
  • It is associated with an address or an enumeration border
  • It can close
  • It can be visibly separated from other fixed physical area designed for residency, to economic activity, or to public areas

These fixed physical areas cover a very diverse range that goes from small premises in galleries, commercial centers, exhibitions, to factories of one or more blocks of extension, as well as newspaper and magazine kiosks.

The street stands with "green roofs", vehicles selling prepared foods (sausages, hamburgers) and the private dwelling where economic activities are carried out (dentist offices, notary public desks, etc.) are all also considered fixed physical spaces with economic activity.

Economic Activity: This is defined as the combination of human resources and materials for the production of goods and services.

Some activities are classified as economic activities even though according to common sense they do not appear to be, as this is a very broad definition that does not only include lucrative activities. Such that, the administration of justice, social and religious services, are also included, alongside education services, industrial manufacturers (of textiles and refrigerators), large-scale or small-scale merchants (stores and shoe-makers) and other various activities like those carried out in repair shops, mutual investors, hotels, restaurants, high schools, movie theatres, theatres, etc.

The economic activities can be carried out in the actual premises, in fixed street stands, or in private dwellings.

Actual premises: This is a construction that forms part of the built structure that constitutes a zone or survey border and is designed to develop an economic activity. The type of materials with which the premises is built is not important: it can be made of cement, bricks, wood, sheet metal, or other material. It is important that it is not on the sidewalks or in the street and that it is not what is classically denoted as a "dwelling." However, if a dwelling is utilized exclusively to develop some economic activity, it should be considered as a premises (for example: a medical clinic or accounting office that operates inside an apartment building).

Fixed street stand: This is a reduced construction, generally adhered to the floor (kiosk, box, booth, etc.) located in the sidewalk, in the street, or in open spaces like parks, plazas, and recreation and sports areas. The material with which it is built can be of any kind. The carts used for the sale of sausages or hamburgers that remain in a fixed location are examples that classify this category even though they are not fixed to the ground and have wheels. What characterizes a fixed position, is that it is not located on top of the main body (building limit) of the block,

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its size is reduced and that it is fixed in a permanent place. If there were large or medium constructions in the open spaces (restaurants, bars, businesses), these would be considered "premises." If there is any doubt about the "fixed" character of the street stand (for example, a cart selling sausage), find out if they operate 24 hours in the same place or if they are used to moving to find clients at the end of the work hour.

Dwelling with economic activity: This is a construction that is designed with the specific objective of serving as a dwelling to the people that, additionally, carry out some type of economic activity. As examples we can mention: hairdresser, designer, or tailor that carries out the work in a defined physical space within the dwelling or the dentist that attends his clinic inside the dwelling. For the Census of Premises, the constructions that principally function for the housing of the people and, as an accessory, have defined physical spaces utilized to carry out an economic activity are considered dwellings with economic activity.

There can be questionable cases, for example:

Premises with a dwelling "in back" or "on the side" If the address of the premises is associated with that of the dwelling, it is considered that the dwelling has economic activity. In the opposite case, the premises is a unit of investigation (a fixed physical space where some type of economic activity is developed) that is associated with another address with a different geo-statistic identification.

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Premises used exclusively as dwellings: In these cases, give preference to the objective satisfied by the building. It is classified as a dwelling, even when the construction has been built with another aim.

Dwellings that are used exclusively to carry out some economic activity (for example: a house rented as an office): As explained in the previous case, give preference to the objective satisfied by the building. It is classified as premises, even when the construction has been built with another aim.

Constructions difficult to classify as dwellings or as premises. With these cases remember to consult the neighbors that will surely orient you to make the most adequate decision.

Those premises per se and fixed stands that are closed or empty at the moment of the survey, either pertaining to the public sector or the private, should also be classified.

5.2.2 Ways of Detecting Premises

In order to enumerate premises with/without economic activity it is important to identify its existence. You can do this in two ways:

  • By visible signs: when, in your route, the premises with/without economic activity is recognized by any external indication (signs, announcements, colored windows, etc.).
  • By investigation: when, in order to detect the premises with/without economic activity you must carry out an investigation with the neighbors, in the adjacent premises (or private dwelling) where there can be more than one company, institution, or organization, since otherwise this premises could go unnoticed because it has no external signs that identify it.

5.2.3 Situation of the Premises

Occupation condition of the premises:

  • Occupied: open, temporarily closed
  • Unoccupied: closed indefinitely, for rent, sale, being remodeled or under construction
  • Other: Diplomatic Representations and International Organisms

In the moment of the survey the premises can find itself in one of the following situations:

Occupied, open:

In the premises per se: when only economic activities are carried out in the premises at the moment of the survey

In a private dwelling with economic activity: when you use investigation to detect the existence of economic activities within the private dwelling, those that are carried out in a defined physical space and destined exclusively to their development (like for example the hairdresser or dentist, etc.).
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Don't forget: in this case, in addition to the questionnaires of dwellings, households, and people, you should complete the premises questionnaire.

Closed:

Temporarily closed: If, by visible indications or upon investigation, the premises is found to be temporarily closed based on circumstances or personal vacations, legal sanction of the establishment, strike, etc., the company, institution, or organization is considered to be "temporarily closed."

A case that is classified as such are the seasonal premises (located mainly in the resorts) that are circumstantially closed (restaurants and grocery stores that only open to the public seasonally).

Unoccupied:

Closed indefinitely: The character of this indefinite closure is determined by observation or consultation with neighbors. The accumulation of invoices or significant deterioration of the premises produced by prolonged abandonment is an indicator that you are in front of a "closed premises."

For rent, sale, being remodeled, or under construction: You will select this option if the premises is for rent, for sale, or in the moment of the survey is under construction, or is undergoing remodeling. They are those premises where some economic activity can be developed in the future.

Other:

This category includes those premises that, for their activity situation, receive a special treatment:

Diplomatic Representations and International Organisms: The premises where organization and international activity (diplomatic representations like embassies and/or consulates, international organisms like the United Nations, ALADI, etc.) is carried out. In these cases, note the name of the diplomatic representation or international organization, after the principal activity (which cannot remain blank) clarifying in observations if the facts are collected by simple observation, and thereby finishing the interview.

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5.2.4 Units of Enumeration

This premises is/was used by:

  • A company, institution, organization, or a part of one
  • More than one company, institution, organization

How many?

[A table is omitted here.]

The enumeration units are the companies, institutions, or organizations that function in the premises.

In order to refer to the survey units the generic expression "company" is used, even though in practice this denomination is reserved for the for-profit entities of the private sector.

The denominations "institution" or "organization" are generally reserved for State organizations, non-profit institutions or international organisms as well as the NGO (non-governmental organizations).

A company is a juridical entity that dedicates its activities to the production of goods and services.

In a premises, a single company, part of a company (branch, storehouse, central office), or more than one company can operate.

It is most common that the companies function within only one premises. However, it can happen that they develop their activities in more than one premises.

It can also happen that in the same premises one or more companies operate, for example:

  • A public school in which a bar operates
  • An office with only one entrance to the street, shared by diverse professionals that act independently and only share the rent costs and the "common costs" (cleaning, entrances, light, etc.).
  • A bar that, in a determined defined physical space within the premises, has a "kiosk" controlled by a different owner than the owner of the bar
  • A "closed market" (example: a central market, artisan market, etc.).
  • A storage building shared by a carpentry shop and an upholstery shop, belonging to different owners.
  • A shoe store in whose interior there is also a company that operates providing credit to the consumer.

In case of more than one company, institution, or organization operating within a premises, you must register each one of them, since they constitute different survey units, and note, in the survey of the first company registered in that premises, the total number of companies declared and, provided that it has been revealed to you, the name of each company will be recorded.

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The company can be formally organized (in the case of a State organism or a company, institution or private organization properly registered) or it can be informal. Don't forget that you are interested in recording all of them, formal or not.

The informal activities are characterized, in general, by the lack of registration with comptroller organisms (Bank of Social Security -- BPS -- Tax Administration Department -- DGI-) and by developing their activities in premises without visible indicators, many times in the dwellings of their owners. These are the ones that present the most difficulties, in so much as their localization as in the capture of their data contained in the survey questionnaire.

5.2.5 Company, Institution or Organization Data

Type of company, institution, or organization

  • Public or state-owned
  • Private company

If the premises investigated carries out activities for public and/or state-owned organisms (coordination, ministries, schools, courts, etc.), you should continue the investigation with the name of the organization and/or institution.

You can identify the existence of a company operating in a fixed physical area within the premises of a school or department like for example a bar, kiosk, etc., which should be recorded in another survey of the premises.

If you consider it necessary, remind the informant that the data recorded is only used for gathering statistics. That's to say, it does not matter if the companies are formal or not.

Business name of the company, institution, or organization

Record the name of the company, institution, or organization that administers the premises, according to its statute or social contract. In case this document is not available, note the name with which it is registered in some public organism (for example: the Ministry of Work and Social Security -- MTSS-, Tax Administration Department- DGI- Bank of Social Security -- BPS, Department Coordination, Municipals, etc.)

In case none of the previous sources exists, note the first and last name of the owner.

Commercial Name of the company, institution, or organization

The companies, institutions or organizations, in addition to the name or denomination, can have a commercial or fictitious name.

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When the company, institution, or organization is known commercially with a name or denomination different than its "business name" this name is noted in this category. If the premises presents any external identification it should compare with the "commercial name" that the informant declared. If it differs, investigate and record one in agreement with the informant. As an example, for the business name of the company they respond "Gauchito de Oro" and for the commercial name "McDonald's" or "Henderson and C?a" (business name of the company) and "Tienda Inglesa" (commercial name).

If there is no "commercial name", continue with the interview.

Remember that, if you previously selected that this was a diplomatic representation or international organism, you should record the commercial name and its main activity, and in this instance, finish the interview.

5.2.6 Telephone Data

  • Telephone
  • Fax
  • Cell Phone

Select "yes" or "no" in each category and note the numbers of the telephone and fax of the company that corresponds, and the cell phone number of the informant, only if the previous numbers are nonexistent.

5.2.7 Unique Tributary Record (RUT number)

The number of the Unique Tributary Record (RUT) facilitates the identification of all the premises that belong to the same company, institution, or organization. The RUT grouping of a single contributor is very useful at the moment of planning the surveys and facilitates the selection of company samples, avoiding the occurrence of duplications.

This information is very "sensitive" and the informant may resist providing it. It is recommended that you ask the question and remind the informant that all the information collected in the 2011 census are used exclusively for statistical purposes and do not have any fiscal purpose.

If the informant is reluctant in answering, insist in explaining the objectives of the survey, continue with the interview, and before finishing, ask again for the RUT number.

The informant can declare not to have RUT. In this case, continue as normal with the interview, without mentioning in any moment the fact that the company, institution, or organization revealed corresponds to the informal sector.

At the moment of entering the data you should keep in mind that the RUT number is composed of twelve (12) digits and this can start with "0". For this reason, make sure none is missing.

The system is equipped with a verifier of the last digit of the RUT that assures that the correct recording of data.

5.2.8 Place of Activity of the Company, Institution, or Organization

The company, institution, or organization operates:

  • Only in this premises
  • In this premises and in others: indicate the total branches or premises, unknown
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Ask if the company, institution, or organization operates:

  • Only in this premises: when the company that functions there does not have activity in any other premises or location within national territory (the company doesn't have branches). If a foreign company has a "single" branch in the country you should mark this option.
  • In this premises and in others: this is when there exists economic activity in other premises of the company, in other locations within the national territory (the premises of the company outside the country are not taken into account in this survey). In this case, and if possible, you should provide the total number of premises where the company operates.

5.2.9 Type of Economic Activity Developed by the Company, Institution, or Organization

The companies, institutions or organizations and their employed personnel are classified in two sectors: public and private.

The company, institution, or organization is of the public sector if it belongs to the State and forms part of the Central Administration, the Governmental Departments, Autonomous Entities or Decentralized Services.

Keep in mind the different state dependencies of the public sector:

  • State Railway Administration (AFE)
  • Administration of State Health Services (ASSE)
  • National Administration of Fuel, Alcohol and Portland (ANCAP)
  • Central Board of Directors (CODICEN), Council of Elementary Education (CEP), Council of Secondary Education (CES), Council of Technical Professional Education (CETP - UTU)
  • National Administration of Ports (ANP)
  • National Administration of Telecommunications (ANTEL)
  • Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU)
  • Bank of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (BROU)
  • Social Security Bank (BPS)
  • State Insurance Bank (BSE)
  • Mortgage Bank of Uruguay (BHU)
  • Electoral Court (CE)
  • Uruguay Post Office
  • Autonomous Entity or Decentralized Service
  • Departmental Government: Municipal Government, Departmental Meeting, Local -- Meeting or Communal Zone Center (CCZ)
  • National Institute of Colonization (INC)
  • Sanitary Works of the State (OSE)
  • Executive Power (Presidency of the Republic, Ministers)
  • Judicial Power (Judges, Supreme Court of Justice)
  • Legislative Power (PL)
  • Account Tribunal (TC)
  • Higher Administrative Court (TCA)
  • University of the Republic (UDELAR)
  • Power Stations and Electrical Transmissions (UTE)

A company, institution, or organization belongs to the private sector when it is not part of the public or state sector. Within the private sector the non-public companies, the non-profit institutions, the non-governmental organizations and the mixed economy companies (for example: First Uruguayan Lines of Aerial Navigation -- PLUNA -- , National Agency of Investigation and Innovation -- ANII -- , National Corporation for Development -- CND -- , are some examples) are included.

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The survey covers indiscriminately all kinds of companies, institutions, and organizations (both formal and informal), since the information collected is used only for statistical purposes and not fiscal purposes.

What kind of work did the company/institution/organization carry out in this premises?

It is of interest that the informant indicates the activity or activities that were effectively carried out in the premises, such that you must investigate which is the principal activity of the company of that premises. A principal activity is understood as that which provides the company, institution, or organization with the greatest amount of income (fundamentally sales) or the main service provided, referring always to that premises.

You must note a brief description of the activity declared, keeping in mind that brevity does not imply insufficiency. Complete the description as complete but concise as possible, about the main activity developed by the company in that premises, the completed products, and the raw materials used (when it corresponds).

The response that you note will be later codified by INE personnel based on a classifier of economic activities, for which it is fundamental that your description is as detailed as possible. The coding of the activities can only take place correctly is the response obtained is sufficient to identify in the classifier the activity or activities that the company, institution, or organization carries out in the premises indicated.

The classifier of activities is based on the type of goods and services that are produced in the companies, institutions, and organization. In the case of goods, it is based on the material with which the products are made. In the case of services, it is based on the type of needs that are satisfied, whether being of the general public or of some official or private entity. For example: mail service, the fighting of fires, domestic appliance repair, motorcycle repair, watch repair, etc. So, in the case of a premises in which an industrial activity is carried out, it is fundamental that in addition to the description of the activity (for example: the fabrication of enclosures for houses under construction) the principal products obtained are indicated (doors and windows) and the raw materials used (wood and glass).

As a guide, indicate:

  • When you are in front of a premises of "commerce" which should be recorded as "wholesale (or retail sale) of..."
  • When you are in front of a "manufacturing" or "industrial" premises which should be recorded as "the fabrication of..."
  • When you are in front of a premises "of services" which should be recorded as "service of..."

In the case of premises with companies, institutions, or organizations with industrial activity, you should reference the products fabricated, which should be very precise. It isn't enough to write "fabrication of curtains." You must explain more, for example:

  • Fabrication of cloth curtains or
  • Fabrication of plastic curtains or
  • Fabrication of metal curtains

In the case of premises with commercial activity you should concretely detail the lines of products that are commercialized:

  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of foodstuff
  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of appliances
  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of medicines (pharmacy)
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  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of apparel (clothes, shoes)
  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of furniture and home accessories
  • Wholesale (or retail sale) of hardware articles (hardware stores)

In the case of premises with service activity, you should detail what type of service is referred to, for example:

  • Vehicle repair services (mechanic shop)
  • Movie projection services (movie theatre)
  • Washing and cleaning clothes services (dry cleaner)
  • Shoe repair services
  • Restaurant
  • Hotel
  • Coffee shop

In no case, will the expression "sale of" be included in the description. . . The motive is very simple: the merchants sell, the industrialists sell, those that carry out agricultural activities or offer services also sell. If you describe expressions such as "sale of toiletries" we cannot distinguish between a fabricator (industry) and a merchant (commerce). The correct description is "fabrication of toiletries" for the industries that produce them and later commercialize and "wholesale (or retail sale) of toiletries" for those that only commercialize.

5.2.10 Personnel Employed in the Premises

Approximately, how many people work for this company, institution, or organization in this premises?

You should investigate the approximate total of the "employed personnel" that works in the premises where the company, institution, or organization operates. You should also keep in mind the personnel that, because of the characteristics of their own function, carry out tasks outside the premises, for example the "deliverers."

The employed personnel is the number of people that work for the company, institution, or organization as "bosses" or "assistants."

These include the following categories:

  • Owners and active partners
  • Family workers who are not remunerated
  • Home-based workers
  • Permanent staff
  • Temporary staff
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  • Workers with a license that are found on vacation
  • The unemployed workers, sent with the hopes of being reincorporated
  • The workers on strike or on sick leave (with sick leave insurance or protected by the BSE)

"Employed personnel" does not include the following categories:

  • Unemployed workers that are sent with the motive of being fired
  • The people with a license without receiving a salary for a period of 6 months or more
  • The owners or partners that do not work in the premises
  • Those that work for the establishment, but not in a relation of dependency (lawyers, engineers, accountants, and other independent professionals, as well as outsourced personnel, as in the transportation service, cleaning service, etc.).

5.2.11 Inquiry of Habitual Residents in each Company, Institution, or Organization of the Premises

In this premises, occupied by this company/institution/organization, does someone habitually reside?

This is a very important question for detecting if the premises is used, in addition, as a dwelling. You will investigate for each one of the companies, institutions, or organizations, if someone habitually resides there.

If the informant has responded "yes", after finishing the interview you should complete the Dwelling, Household, and Person questionnaires. To this effect, the system will signal that the corresponding Dwelling, Household, and Person questionnaires remain pending.

5.2.12 Informant Data

Once the survey has been completely filled out, the informant is asked his/her name in order to identify himself/herself in the case of supervision.

Upon leaving, you should carry out the closing of the census questionnaire, as well as its critique; just as you do with the Dwelling, Household, and People Census, you will do with the Premises questionnaire, in order to allow the system to verify that there are no errors or omissions. Thank the informant for the collaboration and inform him/her that the visit could be repeated by the Quality Control team.

5.3 Observations

In "observations" you should collect all the complimentary and clarifying information that is pertinent. You should not spare any type of detail and write it out clearly, not as a mere reminder but so that any functionary can clearly understand that which you have desired to remark, for example, whichever information that is useful to expand the premises' location.

Each observation should go after the number and question to which is corresponds. All the information not obtained should come accompanied with comments in "Observations."

[Pages 61-62 are blank and are omitted here.]

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Chapter 6: Census of Dwellings

6.1 Objectives

  • To get to know the quantity of dwellings according to type, occupancy condition, and construction characteristics
  • To permit the governmental organism to form housing policies adjusted to the current needs of the population
  • To permit, along with the information of the urban environment, a development of a geo-statistic information system to facilitate the analysis of the needs of the population in their most diverse aspects

6.2 Operating Instructions

In the 2011 Census, information is collected from all the private dwellings of the country. That way, the quantity and type of collective dwellings (hotels, elderly homes, prison establishments, etc.) are revealed.

A dwelling is any room or collection of rooms and their dependencies, that occupy a building or a separated part of a building, and that, because of its construction, transformation or refurbishment, is destined to be inhabited by people and that, at the moment of the census is not used totally for other ends.

For the purposes of the census, all fixed structures where a person or group of people habitually reside(s) is also considered a dwelling.

In order to be considered a dwelling, the collection of rooms and dependencies should necessarily have an independent access.

Independent access: This means that the people that live in the dwelling arrive to the dwelling without having to pass through the rooms of other dwellings. The dwellings can have direct access from the street or from corridors, hallways, or stairs used in common by all the habitants of other dwellings.

In order for a building under construction to be considered a dwelling it must have a finished roof and finished vertical enclosures including doors and windows. In any case, even if these conditions are not met, if at least one person habitually resides there, it is considered an occupied dwelling.

6.3 Type of Dwelling and Dwelling Occupation Conditions

According to the use that is being given it, the dwelling can be considered private or collective.

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6.4 Private Dwellings and Collective Dwellings

A private dwelling is a dwelling constructed or designed to house one or more private households.

A private household is the collection of people with or without kinship relations that reside under the same roof, and that, at least for their alimentation, share a common source- they participate in a "common pot." A person that lives alone is also considered a private household.

A collective dwelling is the dwelling that houses or is designed to house a collective household.

A collective household is a collection of people generally not connected by kinship relations that share the dwelling because of work, medical attention, studies, military duties, religion, prison, etc.

If, within the collective dwelling, there are separated rooms in which the family regiment in charge of personal administration or establishment service resides, creating a private household, you must register them in a new private dwelling questionnaire. An example of this situation is when an owner of a hotel or elderly household lives there alongside his/her family.

In your DEP, the system displays the options of private or collective dwelling.

Private dwelling

  • House: individual and independent construction to house people, whose access is direct from the exterior.
  • Apartment: a dwelling to which one cannot arrive directly from the exterior, but rather it is necessary to travel by common places (lobby, corridor, hallway, etc.). In this category the following types of dwellings can be distinguished:
  • Multi-level Apartment Building: dwelling that matches the definition of an apartment and in addition, has more than one level or floor. So that, it can be distinguished between building with or without elevators since this characteristic is associated with different levels of comfort and value of the dwelling.
  • Single-level Apartment Building: dwelling that matches the definition of an apartment and is located in a building with only one level or floor.
[p. 65]
  • Apartment or Room in a Premises or Collective Dwelling: room or collection of rooms that configure a separate private dwelling inside a building or premises designed for other non-residential uses (school, workshop, office, factory). The space within the building occupied by the dwellings of this kind is smaller than that occupied by other activities. It should be part of the same building and the entrance to the dwelling should be unique. In this category the private dwelling within a collective dwelling (hotel, elderly home, etc.) are included.
  • Premises not intended for Housing: building that was constructed to develop economic activities (agricultural, industrial, commercial, or service-related) and was not transformed nor adopted to be housing, but is where at least one person dwells. This is distinguished from the previous case in that the physical space occupied by the people is not separated from the rest of the premises by stonework walls. Examples include: the basement or storage of a bar, a garage, a ditch, a storage building of an agricultural establishment, etc.
  • Mobile Dwelling (tent, mobile household, etc.): Dwelling of mobile type or built to be transported and at the moment of the census is inhabited. Examples of this kind of dwelling are: a trailer, a caravan, a mobile household, a boat or yacht, an automobile, a tent, etc. This category is selected when there are habitual residents inside.
  • Other Private Dwelling: This category is composed of the dwellings that cannot be classified according to the previous definitions. Nearly all the cases that present themselves are going to be covered by the previous categories such that this option will only be used in very exceptional cases.

Collective Dwelling

  • Hotel, Pension, or other Guesthouse: Permanent building designed to provide lodging and room service (cleaning and bed sheets), through payment. Food can be provided or not. The pensions are collective dwellings when the people that rent them receive linen service and room cleaning service. It is important to distinguish these between "tenement houses," which constitute a private dwelling with various private households, because in those linen and cleaning services are not provided.
  • Hospital, Sanitarium (with Boarding): building where sick people are lodged in order to receive a diagnostic, cure, or reduction of sickness and pain, through medical treatments. This includes hospitals and sanitariums, public as well as private.
[p. 66]
  • Elderly Residence: dwelling where people of advanced age are lodged and provided care since they require such help for their cleanliness, alimentation, and medical control.
  • Student Residence: dwelling that offers lodging to students, in a collective system.
  • Staff House: dwelling where the personnel of agricultural establishments are lodged. This is generally separate and independent from the building where the establishment owners reside.
  • Religious Boarding: dwelling designed for the residency of those who live together for religious reasons (convents, monasteries, priestly seminars, etc.).
  • Prison Establishment: building designed to house people that committed some kind of crime and are deprived of their freedom. This includes the prison centers for minors of the Uruguay Institute for Children and Adolescents (INAU).
[p. 67]
  • Foster home: dwelling where people that are in need of care and assistance but do not require medical attention stay, for example the homes of the INAU (Daily, Feminine Adolescent, Male Infants, etc.).
  • Military or police barracks: dwelling designed to give residency to military, police, or firemen personnel.
  • Other collective: This is composed of the collective dwellings that cannot be classified according to the previous definitions, for example the refugees of the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES), the rehabilitation centers (physical, integral, physiotherapy, or addictions) or the work camps (forestry, roads, etc.). The majority of the cases that are presented are going to be a part of the previous categories, so that this option will only be used in exceptional cases.

Important: Keep in mind that the collective dwellings, except the staff houses, are also premises that should be surveyed, so that you should also complete the corresponding questionnaire of premises (see Chapter 5 "Census of Premises" in the present manual).

6.4.1 Dwelling Occupation Conditions

  • Occupied with residents present: dwelling in which one or more households live/s habitually and at the moment of the survey by the census-taker one or more of the inhabitants is/are present.
  • Occupied with residents absent: dwelling in which one or more households live/s habitually and that, in the moment of the survey by the census-taker, none of the habitants or anyone else that is present can provide information.

In these cases investigate with the neighbors as to what time the residents of the dwelling can be found, leave a warning note and record the number in your DEP. If, after returning to the dwelling you do not find a resident you should leave a second warning note. If, after completing the third visit you still fail to contact one of the residents you should leave the last warning notice. If, after 72 hours you were not contacted by any of the residents in the dwelling, mark "occupied with residents absent" and report this situation to your boss.

The questions of the census must be answered by qualified informants. If the dwelling is occupied only by people that for some reason (age, health, etc.) cannot respond to the questions of the census, try to contact some person that can provide the information sought.

[p. 68]

Unoccupied: dwelling where no family resides habitually. Investigate and record which of the following situations applies:

  • Of temporary use: This is the case of the dwellings that don't have people residing temporarily or they only stay for a part of the time. A typical example is the dwellings in the resorts.
  • For sale or rent: Dwelling that, through exterior signs or information provided by neighbors is found in this situation.
  • Under construction or repair: Dwelling that has a finished roof and vertical enclosures including doors and windows. If it deals with a building of various units that is found in this stage of completion, complete a dwelling survey for each unit. If the dwelling is found in an inferior level of construction, do not record it with the dwelling survey.
  • In ruins, destroyed, or uninhabitable: dwelling in such conditions that do not permit occupation without significant repairs made. The shacks, that is to say those constructions with clay walls or waste materials that is generally found in rural areas, uninhabited and in ruins, should not be considered a dwelling, and because of such, should not be interviewed.
  • Vacant: Dwelling that, for legal reasons or upon the owner's wish, is found without habitual residents at the moment of the survey and is not classified under the previous situations.
  • Unknown: this consists of the dwellings that cannot be classified in one of the previous categories and of which you cannot obtain information.

[p. 69]

6.4.2 Private Households in Collective Dwellings

Do people that are not part of the collective household currently live here habitually? (for example: the owner or a caretaker and his family)

In the collective occupied dwellings, investigate if, in addition to the residents of the collective household, there are people that constitute a private household. This type of situation is observed when the owner or caretaker of an establishment has an independent space to live alone or with family and because of that is not part of the collective household. If this situation presents itself, complete a survey for the members of the collective household (if habitual residents live in it) and complete another questionnaire for the private household and its habitual residents.

Remember that in the question about the private dwelling, you must select "Apartment or room in the premises or in a collective dwelling."

6.5 Data of Private Occupied Dwellings
(Only for the first household or single household)

  • If it deals with a private unoccupied household, this module doesn't apply and the system returns to the list of addresses.
  • If it deals with a collective occupied dwelling, the system displays below the questions regarding the people that habitually reside in the household.
  • If it deals with a private dwelling and it is detected that it is occupied, the system displays the questions that will be presented below.

What is the predominant material of the exterior walls of the dwelling?

Select the material used predominately in the construction of the exterior walls. If the construction is made of more than one material, make reference to the one used in greater proportion.

The options of the response are listed in order from materials of higher quality to materials of lesser quality.

The following clarifications will help you determine the nature of some of the materials:

  • Masonry: bricks, , stones, or blocks with finishing: This also includes those materials that, for aesthetic and structural reasons give an "exposed brick" finished look
  • Masonry: bricks, slabs, stones, or blocks without finishing: This is just like the last category but lacks the coating of the material like for example, "exposed brick," stone, plaster, among others
[p. 70]
  • Lightweight materials (wood or sheets/plates) with finishing: This deals with the flat or wavy sheets made of metal or fiber cement to which some type of thermic or anti-humidity insulator has been added. In general, the finishing isn't exterior but rather interior, for example, espuma plast.
  • Lightweight materials (wood or sheets/plates) without finishing: this is just like the previous case, but without thermic or anti-humidity insulator. If the walls are wood, it should be classified as a lightweight material without finishing.
  • Clay (sod, adobe, "fajina", (wood frame with soil stabilized with straw and other components): this is the humid mix of clay, sand, and straw dried by the sun.
  • Waste Materials: Materials used previously for objectives other than those of the construction of dwellings, or deteriorated materials (wood, sheets/plates, tin plates, sackcloth, etc.). In the constructions that use this kind of materials, its parts are generally loose and the joints open to wind and rain penetration.
  • Other: this consists of materials that cannot be classified by any of the previous categories. The major part of the cases that are presented are covered in the previous cases, so that this option will only be used in very exceptional cases.

Which is the predominate material of the roof of the dwelling?

This question refers to the structural materials of the roof and not the ceiling. When it deals with constructions of more than one floor, it is appropriate to consider to material of the roof of the apartment.

[p. 71]

Concrete slabs or blocks with or without tiles: concrete slabs without considering whether or not there is some covering that protects it from humidity. In this category the concrete roofs with slabs of quincha as a decoration and insulator are included.

  • Lightweight with ceiling: Roof of fiber cement, metal, or tile sheets supported by rafters and wood beams. It has a ceiling when there is an interior covering of espuma plast, wood, plaster, etc., placed with decorative or insulating ends.
  • Lightweight without ceiling: Roof of fiber cement, metal, or tile sheets by rafters and wood beams without an interior covering.
  • Quincha (mud and cane mixture, anti-seismic building material. Roof fabricated in base of a weaving of vegetable fibers, usually straw. This is the material of the roof of the traditional ranches).
  • Waste materials: Materials used previously for objectives other than those of the construction of dwellings, or deteriorated materials (wood, sheets/plates, tin plates, sackcloth, etc.). In the constructions that use this kind of materials, its parts are generally loose and the joints open to wind and rain penetration

.

[p. 72]

  • Other: This consists of materials that cannot be classified in any of the previous categories. The majority of the cases that are presented are covered in the previous categories, so that this option will only be used in very exceptional cases.

Which is the predominate material of the floors of the dwelling?

Consider the floors of all the rooms that the dwelling has. Select the predominate material.

  • Ceramic, tile, stone, wood, carpet, linoleum, etc.: Floor with finished materials of diverse types, including floating/engineered wood and parquet.
  • Sand and Portland cement: A layer of 1 or 2 cm. of sand and Portland extended and smoothed about the subfloor, with or without color.
  • Only subfloor without floor: A layer of a mix that contains stone or rubble applied directly to the ground, forming a resistant base for the future placement of floors.
  • Ground without floor or subfloor: An earthen ground that does not have any of the finishes enumerated in the previous options.
  • Other: This consists of materials that cannot be classified in any of the previous categories. The majority of the cases that are presented are covered in the previous categories, so that this option will only be used in very exceptional cases.

[p. 73]

What is the origin of the drinking and cooking water of the dwelling?

Investigate the origin of the water used for drinking and cooking. This is fundamental in evaluating the health conditions of the population.

If the water is granted by a neighbor, investigate the origin of that water. That is to say, if it comes from a general network, deep well, or other source.

If the water used for drinking and cooking comes from more than one source, investigate the principal source and record only this one.

  • OSE or general network: In general this refers to the water from OSE, but it can be the case that it comes from other distribution companies.
  • Deep protected well: Vertical perforation in the ground until a profundity sufficiently deep is achieved that reaches a reserve of subterranean water. The well is protected if its walls are covered with an impermeable material and has a cover or closure on top.
  • Deep unprotected well: This is just like the previous category but without the impermeable walls, with or without a closure on top.
  • Cistern: a deposit destined to save water coming from the rain collected from the roof of the dwelling. It can be totally or partially underground. It generally includes metal or fiber cement tanks where the rain water is collected for drinking or cooking.
[p. 74]
  • Pipes: Well of little profundity where the water accumulates.
  • Stream, river.
  • Other: This category consists of origins that cannot be classified by any of the previous categories. The majority of the cases that are presented are covered in the previous categories, so that this option will be used only in very exceptional cases.

8. How does the water arrive at the dwelling?

The objective of this question is to verify that there exists piping that carries the water within the dwelling and in addition, there is at least one faucet within the dwelling that works, independent of whether or not that piping in the dwelling is fastened to the walls.

The options of the response are:

  • Via piping within the dwelling
  • Via piping outside the dwelling
  • Less than 100 m away
  • More than 100 m away
  • By other means: this includes water delivery, water trucks, etc.

For example, a public OSE faucet is recorded as "via piping outside the dwelling" and depending on the distance, "less than 100 m away" or "more than 100 m away" is recorded.

Which is the main means of electrical lighting of this dwelling?

The intent of this question is to find out the means of electrical lighting that the dwellings have. Mark the principal means used. In the case that there exists more than one, record the one that is used the majority of the time.

  • UTE or general network: This generally refers to the UTE but it can be the case that the electrical energy that is used by the dwelling is generated and distributed by a private company, for example the dwellings that are found in rural zones and located close to production establishments.
[p. 75]
  • Battery powered wind charger: The batteries that are used, at least, for the lighting of the dwelling, are charged by an electric generator moved by a wind-driven turbine.
  • Battery powered solar charger: The batteries that are used, at least, for the lighting of the dwelling, are charged by a solar panel that converts the solar energy to electric energy.
  • Personal power generator: This is a internal combustion motor that moves an electric generator.
  • Other electric source: Select this option in the case that the dwelling has a means of electrical lighting not included in the previous options.
  • Does not have: Select this option if the dwelling does not have electrical lighting.

6.6 Households in the Private Occupied Dwelling

Do all the people that habitually reside in this dwelling share the same common food source?

Investigate the quantity of households that reside in the private occupied dwelling according to the following definition:

A private household is the collection of people with or without kinship relations that reside under the same roof, and that, at least for their alimentation, share a common source. That's to say, they participate in a "common pot." A person that lives alone is also considered a private household.

Record the quantity of private households that share the dwelling, selecting the option that corresponds:

[] Yes (single household)
[] No (more than one household)
Note how many households _____

[p. 76]

6.7 Name of Neighborhood or Rural Area

What is the name of the neighborhood where the dwelling is found?

What is the name of the area where the dwelling is found?

The objective of this question is to define the areas approximated to neighborhoods and rural areas through the names commonly used by the habitants of a territory.

In the case of private occupied dwellings with residents present, located in the census localities (urban areas) the question displayed refers for the name of the neighborhood where the dwelling is found.

If they are private occupied dwellings with residents present located in rural areas, the question refers to the name of the rural area.

Record the response that the informant provides. Don't presume the response is that of the declaration recorded from previous interviews, nor of the understandings you have of the area.

Notes:

[Pages 77-78 are blank and are omitted here.]

[p. 79]

Chapter 7: Census of Households

7.1 Objectives

  • To determine the life conditions of the households and their members in aspects such as the dwelling tenancy regime, availability of sanitary services and sanitation, and the availability of elements of comfort.
  • To permit the governmental organisms to form policies that tend to better the life conditions of a population.

7.2 Operating Instructions

The last question of the Census of Dwellings, according to the definition of the private household, considers the quantity of households that reside in the dwelling, that's to say, the groups of people that have separate expenses except for the food.

For each one of these groups, the system displays a collection of questions that allows us to know the life conditions of its members.

7.3 Household Data

7.3.1 Ownership

With respect to this dwelling, this dwelling is. . . ?

The objective is to know the dwelling tenancy regime that the interviewed household has. Read the questions in the order presented until receiving a response.

  • owned
  • part of a housing cooperative
  • rented
  • used or occupied

Based on the response selected the system displays, if it corresponds, the options that deepen our understanding of the tenancy regime.

For owners:

The homeowner of the dwelling can be classified as the owner of:

  • the dwelling and the terrain and is paying for it: households in which some member is owner of the dwelling and of the terrain in which it is located, but is still paying for it. The promised buyers must also be included in this option.

In the case of the apartment building, each one of the owners is also owner of the terrain in which the building was constructed.

  • the dwelling and the terrain, and are already paid for: like the previous option except that the payments for the dwelling and terrain are complete.
  • only the dwelling and is paying for it: like the first option, but the dwelling is constructed on a terrain that is not the property of any of the members of the household. The terrain can be owned by another private entity or it can be a fiscal terrain.
  • only the dwelling and it is already paid for: just like the previous option but the payment for the dwelling is complete.
[p. 80]

For users or occupants:

The dwelling users or occupants that do not pay for the dwelling, that inhabit it and are not its owners, are classified:

  • by a dependence (work) relationship: this refers to the household that occupies the dwelling as payment in kind on the part of the employer of some member of the household.
  • free, granted by the Social Security Bank BPS: household that occupies a dwelling located in the housing complex of the BPS. The dwellings of these complexes are awarded by virtue of usufruct to retired and pensioned people, among other requirements, that lack their own dwelling and sufficient resources for renting them.
  • free (lent to them): These are those households to which the dwelling was directly given by the owner. For example, the parents that give their children some dwelling in which to live. The dwellings in succession should be recorded in this category, that's to say, occupants not paying with the permission of the owner.
  • without the permission of the owner. These are those households commonly called "intrusions."

7.3.2 Rooms Utilized

The following questions have the objective of knowing the number of rooms of the dwelling that the members of the household use for residential purposes, which will permit us to calculate the level of crowding.

A room is considered to be any space within the dwelling that is closed by walls or bricks of a height not less than 2 meters and has sufficient surface area to fit an adult bed.

What is the total number of rooms utilized in this dwelling, without considering bathrooms and kitchens?

Rooms of the dwelling are considered the bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, sitting rooms, service personnel rooms, and the other separated spaces in the dwelling, used to house people.

Rooms of the dwelling are not considered the bathrooms, hallways, kitchens, and garages (if they are only used for these purposes), nor the rooms utilized habitually for non-residential purposes (for example, the room used exclusively as a dressing room, stockroom, or storage room).

In the cases of the dwellings shared by more than one household, only those used exclusively by the household that is being interviewed are counted.

[An example was omitted.]

[p. 81]

How many rooms in this dwelling are used for sleeping?

You must include here the bedrooms, guestrooms, and all those rooms that are normally used for sleeping, even when they have a different purpose during the day (living room, dining room, pantry, etc.).

Consider exclusively the rooms that are used for sleeping by the household that is being interviewed.

7.3.3 Sanitary Service

Does this household have a bathroom in the dwelling?

A dwelling has a bathroom when it has a space that contains at least a toilet, latrine, or squat toilet, with or without a water tank.

The toilet is a sanitary element (bowl) used to collect and eliminate human excrement and that (through a siphon seal of clean water) impedes the escape of smells toward the inhabited spaces.

The squat toilet is a toilet without a bowl, such that it is a hole in the ground with two adjacent places to support the feet. Sometimes they call it a latrine since it lacks a seat but, as opposed to this, it possesses a hydraulic seal that impedes the escape of smells.

The latrine is the hole in the ground covered with a sheet of wood or concrete in which a hole is placed that could eventually hold a bowl. Select the option according to the informant's response.

  • with water tank.
  • without water tank.
  • no

The bathroom is:

Indicate if the bathroom is of the exclusive use of the household or shared with other households.

  • Of exclusive use of the household: when the bathroom is used only for the members of the private household.
  • Shared with other households: when the bathroom is used daily by the member of another household or other households, residing (or not) in the same dwelling.

Even if it is usual that the dwellings inhabited by more than one household share a bathroom, it can also occur that the dwelling has more than one bathroom and each household utilizes one in an exclusive way.

[p. 82]

Removal of waste occurs via:

Select the option according to the informant's response

  • General network: there should be a connection to the general sanitation network.
  • Septic tank, cesspit: This deals with specific constructions, where the water serving the dwelling is discharged for its final disposal.
  • Piping towards gutter/stream: This mode of sanitary elimination service tends to present itself in the irregular settlements.
  • Other (surface, hole in ground): Whichever type of evacuation not contemplated in the previous options.

7.3.4 Cooking Service

Is this household provided with some place appropriate for cooking, with sink and faucet?

  • Yes, private to this household
  • Yes, shared with other households
  • No

If the sink and faucet work, the place is considered appropriate for cooking.

This place may or may not be exclusively a kitchen, for being integrated to another environment like for example a "living room" or "dining room." If the dwelling has a kitchenette, select the option "yes." A kitchenette is a small kitchen integrated to another environment like the dining room or living-dining room.

If the response is "yes," investigate if its use is private to the household or shared with other households.

Which is the principal means of energy used by this household for cooking?

Select the main option:

  • electricity
  • piped gas
  • uper-gas
  • kerosene
  • firewood or charcoal
  • other
  • none, no kitchen

In the case of a household using various sources of energy, solicit that they indicate to you the one used the most. For example: if the kitchen uses super-gas with an electric oven and the oven is used very little, in the questionnaire "super-gas" is recorded.

If they indicate to you that in that household cooking is not performed, select the option "none, no kitchen."

7.3.5 Heating

Which is the principal means of energy used by this household for heating the surroundings?

Select the main option:

  • electricity
  • firewood
  • piped gas
[p. 83]

  • super-gas
  • kerosene
  • gas oil
  • fuel oil
  • other
  • none

If the household interviewed declares more than one source, solicit that they identify which is used the majority of the time.

Keep in mind that in the case that central heating does not exist, the informant should signal which is the source that provides the energy.

In the case that the household does not utilize any means for heating the spaces, select the option "none."

7.3.6 Comfort and Household Equipment

Does this household have . . .?

The objective of this question is to evaluate the equipment and comfort of the households.

Act with tact and discretion in the consultation. Do not assume absences of some of the elements asked about due to the external characteristics of the dwelling. You should mark "yes" or "no" for each one of the elements.

You must also consider only the goods that are in working condition, beyond simply momentary break-downs and independently of whether or not they are owned by the household.

  • Water heater or boiler: Select the option "yes" if the household has
  • a means to heat the water that allows its storage at a determined temperature, without mattering the type of energy used for heating the water.
  • gas heater that provides hot water for heating as well as direct use, in the bathroom or the kitchen
  • a system known as "centralized hot water"
  • Instant water heater: a unit for heating water that is activated when it detects the circulation of water or the user connects it to initiate the heating. As opposed to the water heater or boiler, it does not store the hot water. An example are the Rialco-brand heaters or the "chuveiros" although there are other commercial brands.
[p. 84]
  • Refrigerator or freezer: This indiscriminately includes the common refrigerator, the refrigerator with freezer, or only the freezer. There are machines of this kind that function with gas or kerosene (that don't consume electrical energy). If this is the case, you must select "yes."
  • Machine-operated clothes dryer: An electrical appliance that dries clothing with the circulation of hot air.
  • Radio: Consider any type of radio apparatus, including battery or integrated to another apparatus (for example a MP3 with FM radio)
  • Color TV, how many? Consider any type of television: common, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or plasma. Record the quantity of the televisions (TV) that the household has and that are in working order. If the household does not have color TV mark 0. If the household has 10 or more televisions that work, record 9.
  • Landline (fixed phone): Record "yes" in case the household has at least one ANTEL telephone line.
[p. 85]
  • Cell phone: Record "yes" if at least one member of the household has a cell phone.
  • XO from CEIBAL Plan, how many? Record the quantity of Ceibal Plan machines that the household has. If the household does not have any, record 0. If the household has ten or more XO that are working, record 9.
  • PCs or laptops, how many? This includes desktop computers (PC), notebooks (laptops), netbooks or similar (for example, iPad). The Plan Ceibal machines are not included, since they are examined in the previous question. Note the quantity of PCs or of laptops that the household has. In case the household does not have any, record 0. If the household has 10 or more PCs that work, record 9.
  • Internet access: Mark "yes" if the household has access to internet, whether via broadband (fixed or mobile) or via dial-up or Plan Ceibal. Keep in mind that the access must be achieved from the dwelling that you are interviewing. Record the option "No" if the members of the household most move to a place outside of the dwelling in order to connect to the internet. If the informant declares that he/she receives the internet signal from a neighbor (for example by capturing the Wi-Fi signal) you should select the option "Yes."
  • Mopeds or motorcycles, how many? Record the quantity of the mopeds or motorcycles that the household has for private use or if by using it for some type of job it is also available for use by the household (for example: a motorcycle used to deliver food but that, in some moment of the day, is available for private use of the household). If the household does not have one, record 0. If the household has 10 or more, record 9.
[p. 86]
  • Automobiles or trucks, how many? Record the quantity of automobiles or trucks that the household has available for private use, or if by using it for some type of work it is also available for use by the household. If the household does not have one, record 0.

7.3.7 People who are Members of the Household

How many people of this household habitually reside in this dwelling?

This question seeks to determine the quantity of people of the household that habitually reside in the dwelling. Record the total people and then the quantity of men and women.

The importance of correctly determining the habitual residency of the people

The way of recording people in the 2011 Population Census is significantly different from previous censuses: instead of asking for who slept in the dwelling the night previous to the Census Day (De Facto Census), in this Population Census we are asking about the people that habitually reside in the dwelling (De Jure Census).

Given that this is a De Jure Census, you must register the people in the dwelling where they habitually reside. This will permit avoiding duplications or omissions of people throughout the census operation.

A correct administration of the concept of habitual resident will be key for counting all the inhabitants of Uruguay only once and in the precise place.

Habitual Resident: is the person that has lived in the dwelling the majority of the last twelve months or that has lived less time there but proposes to continue living there.

Under this definition the habitual residents are:

  • the people that live permanently in the dwelling and are found present.
  • the people that live permanently in the dwelling but are temporarily absent, due to work or vacations, or because they are found in boarding institutions for a period less than 12 months.

The habitual residents are not:

  • the people that have their residency in another place, but are found temporarily in the dwelling interviewed, whether because of visiting, studies, family motives, etc.
  • the people that if integrated to the household are found absent at the moment of the census, for being boarded in houses of health or hospitals, and will not return to the dwelling for a period of at least 12 months.

Attention: In all of these situations, it is important to assure yourself that the absence is not greater than 12 months. In case of doubt, once you have finished the interview, don't forget to consult the manual and your team leader.

[p. 87]

In the majority of the cases it is not difficult to define who are the habitual residents, but there do exist some special cases, where the people have more than one residency, that deserve more explanation.

Below some of these special situations are presented that the census-taker can find during the survey and the way in which he/she should resolve them.

Special Case: Post-secondary students that are studying far away from their family household
Place where he/she should be interviewed: In the dwelling where they sleep the majority of the week.

Special Case: Primary or secondary students that are studying far away from their family household.
Place where he/she should be interviewed: In the dwelling of the family household

Special Case: Children and adolescents with double residency (children of separated or divorced parents)
Place where he/she should be interviewed: In the dwelling where the sleep the majority of the week (in the case of a tie it is defined by the residency of the mother or first blood relative).

Special Case: Workers with double residency (people that pass the work week in a residency close to their work and the weekends in their family household) or workers whose job implies a constant change of location (sellers, consulters, long-distance transportation drivers, workers of deep-sea fishing boats, seasonal workers in places different than their family residence.
Place where he/she should be interviewed: In the dwelling of the family household.

Exception: the worker that lives alone is interviewed in the place he/she is found. It should be clarified to him/her that he/she should not be interviewed again in the other residence. No matter what, record in the observations the address (including locality and department) of the other residence to allow for a posterior check.

Special Case: People that have two or more habitual residencies where they pass the majority of their time.
Place where he/she should be interviewed

  • In case of a tie between a residency in Uruguay and another in another country, the residence in Uruguay is defined as the habitual residency (whether nationals or foreigners)
  • In case of a tie between two residences in Uruguay, the informant is asked to define one. It is clarified to him/her that he/she cannot be interviewed in the other residency.
Special Case: Hospital patients
Place where he/she should be interviewed
  • In the place where they are found (hospital) if they have passed twelve months or will probably be staying for at least twelve months.
  • In the family household if they have not spent twelve months or if they will probably not be staying for at least twelve months.
Special Case: Elderly in residences
Place where he/she should be interviewed
  • In the place where they are found (elderly residence) if they have spent twelve months or if they will probably be staying for at least twelve months.
  • In the family household if they have not spent twelve months of if they will probably not be staying for at least twelve months.
Special Case: Minors boarded in INAU Centers
Place where he/she should be interviewed: In the establishment where they are found (INAU Center)

Special Case: Inmates
Place where he/she should be interviewed In the prison establishment where they are found (jail).

Special Case: Homeless people, street people, "wonderers", etc.
Place where he/she should be interviewed: They are not interviewed in this instance, but in a different census operation

[p. 88]

[Examples are omitted.]

Tell me the first and last name of each one of the people of this household, starting with the head or other reference person (don't forget the elderly or the newly born).

[A table is omitted.]

Based on the definition of habitual residency mentioned earlier and the rules that permit one to determine where the people of multiple residencies should be interviewed, a list of members of the household is elaborated.

The head is the person recognized as such by the rest of the members of the private household.

In the case of an informant that cannot or does not want to identify a head, ask him/her to declare another member of the household as the reference person from whom the kinship relations with the other members will be established.

First and last name:

Noting the first and last name is not aimed at identifying people, but rather in ordering and facilitating in the cases in which a new interview is carried out with supervision. If the informant refuses to give the names of the rest of the members of the household, you should declare that the purpose of this consultation as well as assure the secret character of the information. If he/she still denies, propose

[p. 89]

The possibility of using a fictitious name, under the condition that these names are remembered in the case of an eventual re-visit. Don't forget to note this situation in the Observations.

It is not obligatory to register the last names as long as the first names do not repeat. The last name of the head of the household should be noted to facilitate the supervision tasks.

Is it a man or a woman?

This question should always be formulated. It is important to not be persuaded by the name declared, since this could cause an error. The sex of the person declared must be recorded.

Identification of the informant:

You should register the person/people that provided the information. In case the informant does not belong to the household, his/her contact information should be noted in the Observations.

I have noted the following people (read the names out loud). Do any of these people habitually reside in another dwelling?

This question allows you to avoid duplicating people, that's to say, that a person with more than one residency is interviewed more than once. If the person responds "yes", evaluate, in connection to the definition and the rules for habitual residency, if the person if effectively a part of the household or not. Once determined whether the said person should not be considered a resident of this household, select the option "yes." The system will returns to the question of the members of the household. Select the member that was erroneously included and eliminate him/her from the list. Verify that the total number of members of the household, men and women in the corresponding question.

Is there anyone that I have not noted that habitually resides here, for example, children of separated parents, elderly, people temporally absent because of vacations, work, sickness, or other cause?

The formulation of this question allows avoiding the omission of people, that's to say, that people temporarily absent or with more than one residency are not interviewed in the dwelling where they should be. If the informant responds "yes," evaluate, in function of the rules of habitual residency, if the said person is effectively a member of the household or not. Once you have determined that the said person is a resident of that household, select the option "yes." The system returns to the question regarding the members of the household. Include the omitted member. Verify the total members of the household, men and women, in the corresponding question.

Attention: In case of a doubt, record in Observations the identification information (first and last names, addresses detailing the place, etc.) of the people with more than one residency so that eventually the cases of the people interviewed two times can be identified.

[Pages 90-92 are blank and omitted here.]

[p. 93]

Chapter 8: Census of People

8.1 Objectives

  • To determine the number of inhabitants of the country and the territorial distribution by departments and areas.
  • To know the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population.

8.2 Operating Instructions

Upon finishing the Census of Households you registered, according to the definition of habitual resident, the names and the gender of the members of the household.

For each one of these people, the system displays a collection of questions that allows us to complete the objectives of the Census of People.

8.3 Characteristics of the Members of the Household

This module is formulated for everyone.

The objective is to obtain information that allows us to know the characteristics of the population according to sex, age, household composition, and ethnic-racial inheritance.

What is the kinship relation (Name) has with the head of the household or the person of reference?

Record the kinship that the person surveyed has with the head of the household or reference person.

  • head of the household or reference person
  • pouse or partner
  • on/daughter of both
  • on/daughter only of the head
  • on/daughter of the spouse or partner
  • on/daughter-in-law
  • father/mother
  • father/mother-in-law
  • brother/sister
  • brother/sister-in-law
  • grandson/granddaughter
  • other relative
  • other non-relative
  • domestic help or family thereof
  • member of a collective household

Keep in mind the following cases:

  • "son/daughter of both" or "son/daughter of the spouse or partner" is only possible if a head or reference person and the spouse/companion habitually reside in the household.
  • If it deals with an adopted child, register him/her in the same way as the biological children in the category that corresponds (son/daughter of both, son/daughter only of the head, son/daughter of the spouse or partner).
[p. 94]
  • For the option "domestic help" the people that live in the dwelling permanently are recorded ("domestic help with bed") and additionally, do not have another household of reference.
  • If it deals with a collective household, all of its habitual residents should be classified as "members of the collective household."
  • If you find households composed of a couple that is separated or divorced but continues sharing the dwelling and at least the food costs, include the ex-couple in the option "other non-relative." If there are children residing in the dwelling, they must be counted as "son/daughter of the head."

Is the mother of (Name) a member of this household? Who is it?

Is the father of (Name) a member of this household? Who is it?

With these questions the existence of the multiple nuclear families in the interior of the households is determined.

The two questions are formulated for the people that meet the following conditions:

  • That the kinship is one of grandchild, whatever the age
  • That the person is older than 18 years old and the kinship is of:
  • "other relative"
  • "other non-relative"
  • "domestic service or family thereof"

If the mother or father of these people is part of the household interviewed, record "yes" in the corresponding question. When the system displays the list of members of the household to signal who it is, select the corresponding person.

If the dynamic of the interview allows you to know previously who is the mother or father of some people on the list, because the informant has provided this information, confirm in the following way:

  • Is Mrs. Patricia the mother of Carlos?
  • You told me that Washington is the father of all the children, so that Washington is the father of Ricardo.

How old is the person (in completed years)?

Note the age in completed years at the date of the interview. As the response should be noted in completed years, for those less than one year, 00 is noted.

If you believe the age declared does not seem correct, signal that it is very important for the census that the ages of the people are found to be very precise.

If the informant does not remember the age of some member of the household, ask him/her to remember some event (marriage, the birth of a child, year in school, among others) or that he/she consults some document (identification, driver's license, etc. where the date of birth is found in order to calculate the age.

[p. 95]

What is his/her date of birth?

This question verifies the age of each one of the members of the household, since depending on the age, the system enables (or not) certain determined modules or questions of the questionnaire. If a person resists giving his/her age or date of birth, remind them that the census information is confidential and is assured by the Law.

Do you believe you have the following ancestry?

Ancestry is understood as the ethnic-racial origin that corresponds to a social construction based on the phonotypical differences of people.

You should formulate the question just as it is written and read each option marking "yes" or "no" according to the informant's response.

The criterion for the response is the auto-identification of the people with one or more of the following options:

  • African or black
  • Asian or yellow (amarilla)
  • White
  • Indigenous
  • Other

If the informant declares the option "other" you must specify the corresponding ancestry.

The nationality of the ancestors is not considered ancestry. So that you should not register Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Brazilian, etc.

Which one do you consider the principal ancestry?

If the informant has declared more than one ancestry, consult him/her and record which of the ones signaled is considered primary. It can happen that the informant declares not having a "principal one". In the case you should record the option "None (there is no principal ancestry)".

8.4 Marital Status

All of the questions of this module are directed towards people 12 years of age or older.

Does he/she have a spouse or partner in the household?

This question recognizes the partners in the interior of the household, in addition to those composed of the head of the household or reference person with his/her wife, if it corresponds.

The marital relation or partner is any type of union that implies cohabitation in the household interviewed, independently of the type of union (legal or de facto) and the sex of the people involved.

Select "yes" or "no" based on the informant's response.

Who is it?

If the response to the previous question was "yes" the system displays the list of the members of the household. Select the spouse or partner from the list.

[p. 96]

If the person declares that the couple is a member of the household of the same sex, note the information just as for couples of the opposite sex.

What kind of union is it?

This question applies only to the people that declared having a spouse or partner in the interviewed household.

With respect to the couple there can be three situations:

  • Civil union
  • Consensual union with partner of the opposite sex
  • Consensual union with partner of the same sex

He/she is currently. . .?

This question is only asked of those that do not have a partner in the household

Read all the options that appear in the list in the fixed order and record the declared option.

  • Separated from a Consensual union
  • Divorced
  • Married (including separated and not divorced)
  • Widowed (of marriage)
  • Widowed (of Consensual union)
  • Single (never married nor lived in Consensual union)

This question does not refer to the civil status of the person, but rather his/her current marital status.

8.5 Migration

This module is formulated for everyone.

The objective is to identify the migrations that the people have had throughout their lives. Migration is understood to be a change of habitual residency from a place of origin to a place of destination that outreaches the limits of the geographic division (locality, department, or country).

In which locality or area did he/she go to live after birth?

This question refers to the locality or area that constituted the first habitual residence of the person (in the case of having been born in the exterior, you should only record the country). Generally it deals with the same locality where his mother was living at the moment of birth. Consequentially, you must not note here the locality where the hospital, sanitarium, or private house where the mother gave birth is found.

[p. 97]

Select the option

  • In this locality or area. If the person's first habitual resident is in the same locality or area in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • In another locality of this department: If the person went to reside in another locality or area of the same department in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list that the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant as to whether the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another department: If the person went to live in another locality or area of a department different than that in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the department.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another country. If the person lived in another country, select the country from the previous residency.

In which year did he/she arrive to Uruguay in order to reside therein?

For the people that declared having been born abroad, investigate the year in which the person went to reside definitely in Uruguay, with respect to the last country where he/she resided (it doesn't have to coincide with the place of birth). Keep in mind that you must mark the year corresponding to the last arrival, from which he/she decided to establish fixed residency in the country.

If the informant does not know the year, mark 9999 and go on to the following question.

Approximately in which period did he/she arrive to Uruguay in order to reside therein?

In this question, periods are presented to facilitate the memory of the informant in the case of having declared not knowing the exact year of arrival. Read the options of the response and record the one that applies.

  • 2010 -2011
  • 2005 -2009
  • 2000 -2004
  • 1995 -1999
  • Before 1970
  • Unknown

If the informant does not know, record the option "unknown."

[p. 98]

How long has he/she lived without interruptions in this locality or area?

If the person answers that he/she always resided here, select this option and go on to the following module.

Keep in mind that if in the previous question he/she has declared that he/she was not born in this locality, the person should respond that he/she did not always reside here.

When the person responds that he/she did not always reside here, you must note the number of years that the person has residing in the locality or area where being interviewed. If it is easier for the informant to remember the year in which the member of the household fixed residency in the locality or area where being interviewed, make the calculation and note the number of years that he/she has residing in this locality or area.

If the person has left the locality for short periods (less than a year), because of living in another locality or country, it is considered that he/she has always lived in that locality.

If it has been less than a year that he/she resides there, note 00. If it is more than 20 years that he/she resides there, note 30.

Where did he/she live before coming to reside in this locality or area?

The question allows us to capture the residency of the person immediately prior, in the case that he/she has migrated at some point. Select the option:

  • In another locality of this department: If the person went to reside in another locality or area of the same department in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list that the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant as to whether the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another department: If the person went to live in another locality or area of a department different than that in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the department.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another country. If the person lived in another country, select the country from the previous residency.

In which locality or area did he/she reside in September of 2006 (five years ago)?

If the person has less than 5 years of age or if in the previous question responded that he has lived there for more than 4 years, the system does not show this question.

Choose the option:

  • In this locality or area: If the person was residing in the same locality or area in which he/she is being interviewed.
[p. 99]
  • In another locality of this department: If the person was residing in another locality or area of the same department where he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another department: If the person was residing in another locality or area of a different department than that in which he/she is being interviewed:
  • Select the name of the department.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another country: If the person was residing in another country, select the corresponding option and choose the name of the country.

8.6 Education

Does he/she currently attend an initial education center or a preschool (daycare, kindergarten, CAIF, etc.)?

This question is directed towards boys and girls from 0 to 3 years of age.

The objective is to reveal the attendance of the children at an initial education center or preschool.

Children are considered currently attending if they meet the following requirements:

  • In the case of children 0 to 1 year, the frequency of attendance should be at least weekly.
  • In the case of children 2 and 3 years, the frequency of the attendance should be daily.

Select one of the following options:

  • Yes, attends a public center: This only includes 3-year-old children that attend the centers ANEP or INAU, or the Community Centers of Infant Education and Module Center Scholarship Program for Our Children of the Municipality of Montevideo. In general these centers house girls and boys from vulnerable social situations. They are organized by ANEP and by civil society organizations, the common factor being that the families should not have to pay to send their children, since it is a free service.
[p. 100]
  • Yes, attends a CAIF: this corresponds with the centers administered by civil society organizations under the modality agreement with the INAU. They offer coverage for children 0 to 3 years of age from vulnerable social situation, and just like the public establishments, the service is free.
  • Yes, attends a private center: This category includes all education centers that are not free but office a caretaking service for children between 0 and 3 years. Consequently, the differentiating factor of these centers is that they demand payment for the service provided the children. This includes daycares, infant and preschool centers that are not covered in the previous categories. For example: daycares, preschools in private high schools, daycares in private businesses as well as those designed for the children of public or municipal functionaries.
  • Does not attend

The rest of the module (with the exception of the question about knowing how to read and write) is directed towards people 4 years of age or older.

Does he/she currently attend or has attended at some point an establishment of preschool, primary, secondary, post-secondary, or technical learning?

The question seeks to identify the people 4 years or older that currently attend or attended at one time a formal education center.

According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO):

Formal education is the "education given in the school system, high schools, universities, and other establishments of formal education. It normally constitutes a continuous "ladder" of learning of full days for children and youth, generally starting at 5 to 7 years until 20 or 25 years of age.

  • Select one of the options "Yes, attends a public establishment. . ." if the person declares attending an establishment of formal learning at the moment of the census or if, when enrolled, does not attend for momentary causes. In this case, mark the option that corresponds, either a public or private establishment.
  • Select the option "Does not attend, but has attended" if the person declares having attended an establishment of formal learning at some point.
  • Select the option "Never attended" if the person never attended an establishment of higher learning.

In which locality or area is the learning establishment to which he/she attended located?

This question is asked of those currently attending an establishment of learning. Mark the option:

  • In this locality or area: If the person attended an education center in the same locality
  • or area in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • In another locality of this department: If the person attended an education center in the same locality or area in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
[p.101]
  • In another department: If the person attends an education center in another locality or area in a different department than that in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the department.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another country: If he/she attends an education center in another country, select the name of the country from the list that is displayed.
  • Does not apply (distance learning): If the person is studying without attending an education center in person (for example, online) record this option.

In which level is he/she currently enrolled?

This question is only asked of those that are currently attending an education center. Read all the options with pauses and based on the informant's response, select the one that corresponds.

  • Preschool: This option consists of the four and five-year-old levels in establishments of initial education, preschool, or infant centers.
  • Elementary school: This applies to all children attending schools of primary learning.
  • Elementary school -special education: This applies to those people with some disability that attend special schools.
  • Junior high school (grades 7-9): This corresponds to the student population enrolled in a primary school that attends middle school. This option includes the first, second, and third grades of junior high.
  • Junior high school UTU (grades 7-9): This corresponds to the student population enrolled in primary school that attends the UTU. This should not be confused with the Junior high school UTU with the Basic Professional Formation.
  • High school (grades 10-12): This option applies to the student population that attends the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of secondary education.
  • High school UTU (grades 10-12): This applies if the person is taking the fourth, fifth, and sixth year in a technical school.
  • Technical School / Professional Formation UTU: Select this option when the person declares having attended a technical course. Include the specialty schools of the Armed Forces (mechanics, radio-operators, among others). Also include the workshop courses Don Bosco, Basic Professional Formation, the Institute of the Teaching of Construction, etc.
  • Teacher training or Professorship: Include the people that studied to be elementary school teachers or professors of secondary centers. The Physical Education professors are included in this category.
  • Post-secondary learning, non-university: These are the post-secondary non-university studies oriented towards the practice of a specific profession. For example: Center of Industrial Design, Military School, Naval Academy, and Aeronautics School; National Police School; Municipal School of Dramatic Art, Administration Technicians at the University of the Republic as well as of private universities; Social educators, students of hotel administration.
  • University or College Institute (Degree plan or certification): This includes the degree plans, from the University of the Republic as well as the private universities (ORT, UCUDAL, UM, UDE, etc.) or foreign universities. The military and police degrees and certifications are also included, like: Certification in Public Security for enrolled students of the Police School,
[p. 102]
  • Certification in Military Studies enrolled in the Military Institute of Higher Education (IMES), the Certification in Navel Systems, and the Certification in Nautical Systems for those enrolled in the Naval School.
  • Graduate Studies (Minor / Masters / Doctorate): These are studies of expansion and perfection in the mastery of a discipline or specific topic.

In which level is he/she currently enrolled?

This question is asked only of the people that do not attend an education center but did attend at some point. Read all the option with pauses and, based on the informant's response, select the option that corresponds.

  • Preschool
  • Elementary school
  • Elementary school -special education
  • Junior high school (grades 7-9)
  • Junior high school UTU (grades 7-9)
  • High school (grades 10-12)
  • High school UTU (grades 10-12)
  • Technical School / Professional Formation UTU
  • Teacher training or Professorship
  • Post-secondary learning, non-university
  • University or College Institute (Degree plan or certification)
  • Graduate Studies (Minor / Masters / Doctorate)

Did he/she finish that level?

Keep in mind that this question refers to the completion of the level indicated, and not the year taken within each said level.

How many years/grades did he pass in that level?

Always formulate this question. For example, do not assume that the person has 4 years passed in university if he/she declares having finished a career or university degree, since these can have different lengths. For example, in Medicine it can reach even 8 years.

The prerequisites for this course were (consider the maximum level taken)

This question allows us to determine the previous requirements for admittance to the highest education levels, since these permit a more precise and rigorous calculation of the education level reached and principal years of study.

This question is asked of the people that responded with any of the options between Technical Teaching and Postgraduate:

  • Completed master's degree
  • Bachelor's Degree / Completed university degree
  • Completed teacher training / certification
  • Completed High School (12th grade of the secondary school or UTU)
  • 10th grade of high school completed
  • Junior high school completed (9th grade completed)
  • Elementary school completed
  • None

[p. 103]

What is the area, orientation, course, or degree that he/she studies/studied? (Note the main one of the highest level taken)

This question is applied to the people that responded to any of the options between middle school and postgraduate in the questions referring to the level currently taking or the highest level taken.

Record the name of the area, course, or degree of the highest level taken, with the highest level of detail possible. ?If the person has taken more than one area, course, or degree at the same level, you should choose a principal one at the discretion of the informant.

Does he/she know how to read and write?

This question is aimed towards people 10 years of age or older that never attended an education center and that attend/attended and have a level of education equal to or less than three years of elementary school or attend/attended a Special Elementary School.

The objective is to investigate the literacy of the population.

  • Select "yes" if the person knows how to read and write (both) at least one complete paragraph.
  • Select "no" if the person responds that he/she only knows to write or only knows to read, or neither.

8.7 Labor Activity

This module is directed towards people 12 years of age or alder and has the objective of determining if, from point of view of the economic activity, the members of the household are employed, unemployed, or inactive. ?Additionally, it seeks to obtain information about the characteristics of the occupations (tasks, activity sector, etc.).

During the past week, did he/she work for at least an hour, not including domestic chores?

Work is any task that a person carries out and for which it is his/her primary responsibility, independently of whether or not receiving remuneration in money or in kind, or if he/she carries it out without remuneration in a family business.

The condition of "at least one hour during the work week previous to the interview" corresponds to the recommendations of the International Organization of Work (OIT) for the measuring of work statistics.

[p. 104]

Performing odd jobs must be considered as work since, according to the definition given, any task carried out for one or more hours for remuneration in money or in kind, is an occupation and therefore the corresponding sequence in the questionnaire should be completed.

When the informant says that he/she carried out different odd jobs, you should specify the last one performed or the one to which the most time was dedicated during the reference week.

Completing household chores is not considered work, as long as they are not carried out for a third person. ?

Service and/or volunteer work is not considered work.

For example:

  • Juan earns his living singing on the bus. ?The activity that he carries out is considered work.
  • Leticia is a university student and works as a volunteer for an NGO on the weekends. The activity that she carries out is not considered work.
  • Maria helps her husband looking after the family store without receiving remuneration. The activity carried out is considered work.

Did he/she do something outside the household, or helped in a business or collaborated in the care of animals, crops, or gardens that were not for self-consumption?

This question intends on identifying work situations not perceived as such by the informant. This is a very important question in the case of rural areas, where oftentimes the people forget to consider family work carried out by the women and adolescents but not remunerated.

If the person carried out some task at home "for outside the household," you must mark the option "yes" even if no money was received for the said task.

Even though he/she didn't work last week, does he/she have some work or business that he/she will surely return to?

This question seeks to detect the people that were absent from work during the reference week due to the leave (vacations, sickness or accident, studies, etc.), lack of raw materials, bad weather, machine failure, or any type of temporary reason, but that have a job that they will surely return to.

Mark the option "yes" if the person has certainty he/she will return to work.

During the last four weeks, was he/she looking for work or trying to establish a business?

A person is looking for work when he/she carries out some concrete effort to incorporate himself/herself to the job market during a specific period (in this case, the four weeks prior to the moment of the census), trying to secure employment or establish a business or profession.

Mark the option "yes" if the person has tried to obtain employment or establish himself/herself with a business or profession through distinct processes by different means during the reference period.

Has he/she worked before?

The objective of this question is to determine if the person is unemployed and looking for work for the first time, or is unemployed and has had employment in the past.

According to the response obtained, continue the interview according to the sequence that the system indicates.

[p. 105]

The following two questions are formulated only for the people that work or that are unoccupied and have worked in the past.

In relation to the principal occupation (the one that provides the greatest income) or with the last occupation:

What tasks did he/she carry out in this job?

This question allows us to determine the kind of occupation that the informant has or has had.

The occupation is the collection of tasks completed by a person and that can be classified according to complexity and level of knowledge required to carry them out.

In any case, avoid notations such as: employed, worker, supervisor, boss, owner, handyman, in-charge, day laborer, GO-FOR, because they do not describe the work carried out by the person.

Do Not Write:

  • Manager: You must specify of what
  • Distribution: Can be distribution boss, distribution worker, distribution collector
  • Operator: You must specify of what
  • Employee: You must specify of what
  • Scholarship holder: It's not an occupation, it's an occupational category
  • Rancher: It can be of cattle or agriculture
  • Rural producer: It can be of cattle or agriculture
  • Supervisor: You must specify of what
  • Boss: You must specify of what
  • Maintenance: It could be electrician, brick-layer, painter, mechanic, etc.
  • Day laborer: You must specify of what (agricultural, cargo, etc.)
  • Customer service: It can be a salesperson, telemarketer, receptionist, etc.
  • Inspector: It can be of quality control, police, school, taxes
  • Machinist: You must specify of what
  • Foreman: You must specify of what
  • Chauffeur: It can be of auto, truck, bus, leveling machine, taxi

[p. 106]

What is/was produced or what is/was the main objective of the business where he/she works/worked?

This question investigates the kind of activity of the establishment where the individual carries out or carried out his/her work and does not necessarily coincide with that of the company that contracts. ?The kind of economic activity is determined by the goods and services that the establishment produces and the nature of the process. ?

Don't write, under any circumstance, the name or business name of the company. ?Specify, for example:

  • If it deals with a wholesale or retail business and what it is that they sell.
  • If it is an industrial establishment, what they produce, and what they produce and with what material.

If the establishment carries out more than one activity, investigate about the activity where the person performs his or her task. ?For example: petroleum distillation, the retail sale of bread, fabrication of shoes, etc.

Do Not Write:

  • Photocopy Company: It can be technical service, importation, fabrication, or photocopying
  • Carpentry: Specify the material and put for example: Fabrication of wood furniture
  • Cosmetic business: You must specify if it's fabrication, wholesale, retail sale, or importation
  • Third-party providers: You must specify of what
  • Self-employed : It is not a type of activity but rather an occupational category
  • Delivery: It can be distribution, wholesale commerce, or retail commerce, of what? In which vehicle?
  • Leather factory: It can be tanning, leather importation, factory of leather rope, leather goods
  • Wood company: It can be retail, wholesale, deposit
  • Laboratory: It can be fabrication of medicine, laboratory of clinical analysis, laboratory that imports medicines
  • Beauty products: It can be fabrication, distribution, retail sale, importation
  • Citrus: It can be cultivation, deposit, conditioning for transport, fabrication of fruit juice
  • Packing: It can be packaging, importation
  • Cooperative: You must specify of what
  • Stay: It can be cattle, agriculture, or forest
  • Field: It can be cattle, agriculture, or forest
  • Food: It can be fabrication, wholesale, or retail sale, what type of food?
  • ANCAP: It can be fuel, alcohol, or Portland concrete
  • Services to companies : You must specify which service
  • Sale or commerce: You must specify if it is wholesale or retail sale and which products
  • Construction: You must specify if it is of highways, dwellings, etc.
  • Office: You must specify of what
  • Intendancy: You must specify if it is roadways, garbage collection, cemetery, fundraising
[p. 107]
  • Metallurgy: You must specify if it is the melting, fabrication of metal products, etc.
  • Wine Cellar: You must specify if they are vineyards or wine fabrication
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs: You must specify if it is in the administrative, executive, or hospital part
  • Ministry of Defense: You must specify if it is in the administrative, executive, or hospital part
  • Ministry of Public Health: You must specify if it's in the administrative or hospital part
  • ANDA: You must specify if it's in the health or financial loan part
  • Stockpile: You must specify wholesale or deposit of what product

In this job, he/she is/was:

This question investigates the category of occupation of the informant, that is the relationship of the worker with the work. ?The categories are:

  • Salaried: worker or employed, person that works for an employer (public or private) and receives remuneration in the form of a salary payment or payment of goods.
  • Member of a production cooperative: person that forms an active role of a cooperative, whatever the economic activity.
  • Boss: person that exploits his or her own economic enterprise and has one or more day or wage laborer under his or her charge.
  • Self-employed: person that, without depending on a boss exploits his or her own economic enterprise without being in charge of remunerated workers. ?He or she can be assisted by one or more non-remunerated family workers.
  • Non-remunerated family worker: person that does not receive a salary or wage for the work that he or she carries out for the company or family business.?
  • Social employment program: person that is working in transitory employments created within social programs to help the lower income population. The person can declare that he or she works, for example, in the "Barrido Oto?al" program. ?This does not deal with a public employment but rather a job in a social employment program. ?The same happens, for example, for the people that are found working in the "Uruguay Works" program of the Equality Plan.

Where do you carry-out this work?

This question is only asked of the employed people.

Apply the same criteria used for the questions of residency and location of education establishment, differentiating if the work is carried out within the dwelling or outside of it.?

The options are:

  • In this dwelling.
  • In this locality or area. If the person's first habitual resident is in the same locality or area in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • In another locality of this department: If the person went to reside in another locality or area of the same department in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list that the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant as to whether the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
[p. 108]
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another department: If the person went to live in another locality or area of a department different than that in which he/she is being interviewed.
  • Select the name of the department.
  • Select the name of the locality from the list the system displays.
  • If the name of the locality is not on the list, consult the informant about where the place was in a rural area. If it is so, mark the option "rural."
  • If the informant responds that it was an urban area, ask him/him if that locality is known by another name and search for the said name in the list.
  • If the locality is known by another name or the name is not on the list, select the option "other." This option will only be used in very exceptional cases.
  • In another country. If the person lived in another country, select the country from the previous residency.
  • In itinerant work (in more than one locality). Select this option if the person declares working in more than one locality or department.

[p. 108]?

Was the activity that he/she developed in this dwelling carried out exclusively in a designated space for that activity and separate from the rest of the dwelling?

This question is only formulated for those that responded that the work is done inside the dwelling. ?This allows us to understand the existence of economic activity in a specified place in the dwelling, used only for the suggestive.

Examples of this situation:

  • Storehouses, kiosks, hair salons in the rooms of the dwelling.
  • Professional independent studies or offices in the dwelling.

If the informant responds "yes", after finishing the interview you must complete the premises questionnaire. ?To this effect, the system will signal for this address that it is pending to complete the premises questionnaire or questionnaires that correspond.

Is he/she retired or pensioned?

This question is directed to people twelve years of age or older.

  • Retired: person that receives a transaction from a public or private social security organism because of retirement. ?The retired person has worked in the past and has contributed to the social security system, which has generated for him or her the right to receive a benefit from the system.
  • Pensioned: person that receives a transaction from a public or private social security organism. ?In contrast to the retired, the pensioned receives the transaction (pensioned) without having contributed to the social security system in the past but, at least has the minimum time required for generating a retirement. ?The people that receive BSE pensions are not included in this category.
[p. 109]

Select the option "yes" if the person meets the condition of being retired or pensioned. ?Record the response for the person that has the right to retirement or pension and not for the person that is his or her legal guardian, as happens with minors. You must also consider the retirements or pensions that are received from abroad.

Is he/she the person that carries out the domestic chores of the household?

This question applies for everyone twelve years of age or older.

Select the option "yes" if the person is responsible for all or part of the domestic chores of the household.

8.8 Fertility and Mortality

The objective of this module is to provide a general description of the fertility of the women that life in Uruguay without considering their marital status.?

The questions are directed towards woman twelve years of age or older.

Keep in mind that it is very important to identify the situations of adolescence fertility and that the information attained in the census is a significant source for sexual and reproductive health policies.

How many female and male live births has she had in total?

Ask the question exactly as it is formulated.

"Live birth" is understood to be the son or daughter that, at the moment of birth, shows signs of life (crying, breathing, and moving). ?If he or she died after birth he or she is still considered as born live.

This definition includes:?

  • All the boys and girls, even those of other couples, live or not in the dwelling interviewed.

This definition does not include: ?

  • The children that were born dead (or the cases in which the pregnancy did not come to term).
  • The adopted children (because they are not the biological children of the woman interviewed).

Record the quantity of sons and daughters born live that this person has had in total.

If the woman interviewed has not had live birth children, record 00.

Of the sons and daughters born alive, how many are currently alive?

Note in the corresponding question the quantity of live sons and daughters on the date of the census.?

It can happen that, upon specifying the quantity of children that currently live, the interviewed woman remembers children born live that she did not include in the total. ?If this situation is presented, the system allows you to return to the previous question to note the correct number.

[p. 110]

What is the date of birth of her last son or daughter?

Note the day, month, and year in which the last of the children was born. ?Remember that you must register the last live birth child, whether or not he or she is alive at the moment of the census.

Record all digits of the date to ensure that no digit was omitted. ?For example, if the date of the last birth is August 3rd, note 03 for the day, and 08 for the month.

Note the year with four digits. ?For example, note 1993, and not 93; 2004 and not 4.

In exceptional cases, if the person does not remember and does not know the date of birth, record 9999 for the year and 99 for the month and day.

In what year was the first daughter or son born alive?

Only record the year of birth of the first son or daughter live born.

If the woman interviewed declares having had only one live born son or daughter, the system completes the date with the year recorded from the previous question.

In exceptional cases, if the person does not remember, or does not know the year of birth, record 9999.

8.9 Disabilities

The objective of this module is to know the number of people that have some permanent difficulty seeing, hearing, walking, or learning, as well as the level of severity.

Disability is any limitation of activity and restriction in participation coming from a deficiency that permanently affects a person and his or her ability to become involved in daily life within his or her physical and social environment.

  • Activity is the completion of a task or action by a person.
  • Limitation of activity refers to the difficulty that a person could have in carrying out or performing daily activities and that originates in a deficiency (for example: seeing, hearing, walking, learning, etc.).
  • Restriction of participation refers to the problems that a person can experience when involved in vital situations, originating in a deficiency. ?For example with work, with learning, with recreation, etc.
  • Deficiency refers to problems with body functions or structures, such as a significant alteration or loss.

In order to consider that a person has a determined disability, the limitation of activity and the restriction of participation should be permanent and always originating from a deficiency, this referring to the field of health. ?This means that limitations and restrictions originating from socioeconomic or cultural factors.

The deficiencies, that should be part of or express a state of health, can include abnormalities, defects, losses, or any other deviation of body structures. ?They don't necessarily indicate that the individual has a sickness or should be considered sick. ?For example, the loss of a leg is a deficiency but not a disorder or a sickness.

Important: The difficulty or limitation of activity must be current, in other words, it must be affecting the individual at the moment of the investigation, and permanent, that's to say long lasting in time, affecting and expected to affect for a period of time greater than a year.

[p. 111]

Consequently, the short-term difficulties due to temporary, or transitory conditions such as fractures or sicknesses (for example, he or she does not walk because the leg is fractured and in a cast, he or she does not speak because of a sharp hoarseness caused by a cold, etc.) are excluded.

The options of response for the questions of the module are the following.

  • Yes, some difficulty
  • Yes, much difficulty
  • Yes, he/she cannot do it (see, hear, walk, learn)
  • Doesn't have any difficulty

Does he/she have permanent difficulty with seeing, even if using glasses or lenses?

This question applies to all people and seeks to understand if the person has a visual disability.

Formulate the whole question and only mark "yes" when the person, even with glasses on, does not see well or has difficulties perceiving the size, shape, or contour of objects at a normal distance.

In case of an affirmative response, consult about the level of said difficulty, recording the option that corresponds.

Does he/she have permanent difficulty with hearing, even if using hearing aids?

This question applies to all people and seeks to find out if the person as an auditory disability.

Formulate the entire question and only mark Yes when the person, even with hearing aids, does not hear well.

In case of an affirmative response, find out the level of said difficulty and record the option that corresponds.

Does he/she have permanent difficulty with walking or going up stairs?

For people two years of age or older.

The purpose of this question is to detect the number of people that have limitations walking or that have difficulties with locomotion.

Just like the previous cases, it is important to formulate the whole question and only mark "yes" when the person, even with a cane, crutches, or prosthetic, has problems walking.

In case of an affirmative response, consult about the grade of the said difficulty and record the corresponding option.

Does he/she have permanent difficulty with understanding and/or learning?

For people six years or older.

This refers to the people with difficulty learning, understanding, memorizing, reproducing, or executing operations or reading, writing, or calculating.

In case of an affirmative response, consult about the level of said difficulty and record the option that corresponds.

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