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The Republic of Uruguay
Ministry of property
General Committee of Statistics and Censuses
Enumerator manual
IV Population and II Dwelling General Census 1962

Chapter I

General instructions

[Points 1-9 are not presented here]

[p. 2]

The enumerator

10. The enumerator is a person named by the General Committee of Statistics and Censuses who is charged with getting information that is to be written down in the census document, on "the day of the census". That the aforementioned information is complete and reliable thus guarantying usefulness to the census operation will depend, fundamentally, on their selfless and competent performance.

11. Because of this, the census regulations of 1962, in chapter VII, note who will be enumerated, the nature of its investiture and its important obligations.

The citizens who will be distinguished with the title of enumerator will visit one by one all private dwellings or institutions (convents, barracks, etc.) that are found in the work area that are assigned to them for the "day of the census" and will fill out during the visit the Population and Dwelling Census document with the information that is wanted and that will be provided by the heads of each household or institution.

[p. 3]

Organization of the enumeration

12. With the goal of facilitating the coordination of multiple operations aiding an ordered and fast execution of the enumeration of the whole territory of the republic, and of assuring the unity of directions and control, a private territorial subdivision has been established in each one of the 19 departments. Every department, then, is divided into census regions and these in census sections.

At the same time, the census sections are divided into census segments and, finally, these into census zones.

13. When setting the limits of all these integrated parts of the territorial subdivision of the country, both the existing facilities of communication between them, as well as the distribution of diverse sizes and the existing economic and social interrelations between them, have been taken into account.

14. Census region - Within each department, census regions have been established which are made up of the grouping of two or more judicial sections, in virtue of the large or small grade in which they are seen inside, that constitute an area that can be easily organized and supervised.

15. Census section - It is one of the integrated units of a census region and corresponds, exactly, to the territorial area of a judicial section which is one of the traditional departmental subdivisions of the country. It is advisable to point out that within the organization of the Population and Dwelling Census of 1962, the police sections will not be taken into account.

16. Census segment - It corresponds to a subdivision of the census segment which can include many of these subdivisions. In the case of more or less important cities and other localities, a census segment is not anything more than a determined group of city blocks. Nevertheless, in the country or in rural areas, the census segment constitutes a more or less large area of territory of the corresponding census section and, also, can include populated nucleuses.

17. Census zone - It is the last census subdivision of the territory of the country and corresponds to a subdivision of the census segment, so that the determined area can be enumerated with ease within one day.

18. In urban areas the census zone is made up of the group of buildings and houses on one city block. And in rural areas, the census zone is determined by physical limits easily related to the terrain and to those that can be enumerated on a single day. The rural census zones can, in specific cases, be made up of small populated nucleuses.

19. Every enumerator will be provided on the "day of the census" a map or outline of the census zone that will be enumerated, in which its outlines and borders will luckily by able to be recognized in the terrain. Also, it will be noted in the handout if it is an urban, suburban, or rural zone.

20. When making rounds in the zone of enumeration, the enumerator, especially in a rural zone, possibly will find some errors on the map or outline.

[p. 4]

In this case, corrections should be made whether it is an omission or wrong inclusions of physical or geophysical accidents, or houses, farms, or populated nucleuses or mistaken names.

21. It is also important that the enumerator, before beginning, verifies if they are in a zone that has been assigned to them and only proceeds when completely sure. This is particularly important in rural zones.

Populated nucleus

22. For purposes of the population census, any place or site of Uruguayan territory in which many people -- relatives or not -- live permanently in houses or dwellings of any kind, such as ranches, shacks, camps, etc. and is used for one or more classes of work, jobs, or labors, either of agriculture, livestock, commercial, industrial, artisan, fishing industry etc., will be known by the generic name "populated nucleus".

23. It is not necessary that a place or site has streets or plazas nor its own authorities or churches. It can have a specific name by which it is known presently, in order to differentiate it from similar or nearby places or sites.

24. It is not important that the houses or dwellings are separated from each other as generally occurs in establishments in the country or in quarry areas (canteras); the most important thing is that people who live in these houses constitute a group of people united or linked by common interests for example their job or occupation. In summary, these people are considered neighbors and they recognize the existence of boundaries that separate and differentiate the place or site where they have their houses from other places or neighbors.

25. With this criteria, not only are cities, towns, villages, and colonies considered "populated nucleuses", but also equally ranches, farms, camps, etc. including also isolated dwellings (for example, tents) when they are independent of the farms or they are separated from a principal house since in other manners they would not be included, by omission or forgetting, in the population census.

The interview

26. The success of the Population and Dwelling Census will depend on the way in which an enumerator conducts the interview with people who are to provide the pertinent information. According to their ability and tact, they will or will not obtain the complete collaboration of the citizens, including the most distrustful or reluctant.

It is important to keep in mind that, on the first try, some people may offer some resistance to giving out information, about demographic or socioeconomic matters, which is exactly why both censuses are given.

27. For this reason it is important, from the very beginning, to gain the trust of those to be interviewed through a cordial attitude, combined with the presentation of the official appointment letter with which the enumerator will guarantee legitimacy.

[p. 5]

28. When visiting every dwelling in the established order, it is important to ask for the presence of the head of the family or one who takes their place and then briefly explain the reason for your visit without forgetting to show the official appointment letter. If any resistance is found, don't argue, but try to persuade better. Try to explain the importance of the censuses for the country in general and for the city or neighborhood, town, settlement etc. in particular and point out the confidentiality of the solicited information which is guaranteed by law number 13032 (article 370) as the obligation of citizens to furnish information (census ruling, chapter VIII, art. 31).

29. If in spite of these acts there is no success in getting information, one should simply write this down in the part named "Observations" in the census document and immediately inform the head of the segment (or supervisor).

30. If in the course of registration of information in the census document there is any doubt, immediately consult this manual in the pertinent part. If the manual does not resolve the doubt, make a note, registering the case in the observations section to resolve the problem, as soon as possible, with the head of the segment (or supervisor).

Notes in the census document

31. The enumerator should:

a) Make all notations in the census document in agreement with the instructions contained in this manual and that are presented below;

b) Abide by, as much as possible, the text contained in the document when asking for information, giving explanations if necessary;

c) Avoid suggesting answers, and also, wait for the person being interviewed to answer. Helping the interviewed person should never consist of responding for them.

32. If in the course of registering information some incompatible information is observed, try to clear it up at the moment of the interview.

33. The interview should not be finished without a complete revision of the document in total, examining if any blank spaces remain or are without information that should be contained in them, which could be due to a question not being asked or, having been asked, the respective notation was omitted.

34. Assuring the complete registration of census information will prevent recounts and reviews of indicated information, in the corresponding parts of the document, and in the special formulas prepared for it.

35. As an efficient element in the control of the enumerator, no single enumerated dwelling should be passed to another without making the required notations beforehand in the enumerator's control sheet; the instructions for doing so are found below.

Finishing the interview

36. The interview finished with the complete process of registration of information, the head of the household should be thanked for the collaboration and for the time spent. At the same time, the head should be advised of the possibility that in some cases it will be necessary to have a new short term visit from the enumerator, for purposes of method control of enumerating, in order to guarantee the success of the census operation, planned by the General Committee of Statistics and Censuses.

[p. 6]

Undoubtedly, if a family, thanks to the work of the enumerator, is very impressed, it will not have any difficulties and will look with aspiration at a new possible interview.

Chapter II

The enumerator: authorizations, obligations, and prohibitions

Authorities

37. The enumerator is authorized to conform to the law in order to go to every one of the dwellings in their zone of enumeration with the object of getting information and data specifically pointed out in the census document. In the case of negativity from a person who should give information, (head of the family or one who takes their place) the head of the segment should be told for the proceeding legal reasons as a consequence of a violation of the rulings of the censuses (chapter VIII, art. 31).

Obligations

38. The principle obligations are the following:

a) Carefully studying the instructions of this manual.

b) Attentively revising the census document and the forms used together with it, until being completely familiarized with them.

c) Attending classes of training and instruction.

d) Becoming familiar, before the "day of the census", with the route of their zone of enumeration, verifying the location of all of the dwellings that must be visited and marking its location in the corresponding street map or outline.

e) Being sure that registered information is complete and verified, letting the immediate head or the head of the segment, know of any irregularity that is observed.

f) Finishing the job of enumeration the same "day of the census", except for special difficult exceptions, in whose case they will be pursued until their termination, using all time that is necessary.

g) Returning to visit one more time, the last assigned dwelling to be enumerated that were found to be closed on the first attempt, with the goal of completing the enumerator's zone.

h) Returning to visit dwellings determined by the head of the segment, that have not been enumerated.

i) Getting all the information asked for in the enumerator's control sheet and the other printed forms that they will be given, which should all be turned in to the head of the segment in the place designated for it.
[p. 7]

Prohibitions

39. Special note should be taken of the following:

a) Divulging of or commenting on census information.

b) Showing material of the census documents and forms to people not authorized for it by the General Committee of Statistics and Censuses.

c) Delegating authorities of the enumerator to other people or being accompanied by another person in the act of enumeration, without authorization of the head of the segment. In the case of having accompaniment, this also should be provided on the respective official appointment letter.

d) Asking questions to those to be enumerated that do not correspond to those contained in the census document.

e) Writing down false information in the documents or also omitting or altering information directly from them or from informants.

f) Discussing or arguing with people not authorized to get census information.

g) Having conversations of a political, religious, or any other kind of nature that does not strictly have to do with obtaining census information as its goal.

h) Using the interview for reasons other than the exclusive work of enumerating.

i) Abandoning the mission of the enumerator, leaving without finishing the visits of the dwellings that were assigned.

[pp. 7-13 are not presented here]

[p. 14]

Chapter IV

Instructions for the registration of information in the census document

What is a census?

67. A census is the joining of diverse operations for means of which corresponding information is collected to groups of concrete units, such as how many people or houses or farms or commercial or industrial establishments, etc. are of a whole determined country or territory and with reference to a preset date or period. Collected information is produced and published without information distinguishing any unit.

68. In this manner, the results of a population census will show, for example, the total number of families in a nation or judicial district; the distribution of the population by age; the total number of persons working in ranching; the total number of students in fourth grade in primary school etc. The results of a dwelling census will give, for example, the total number of occupied and rented dwellings; the number of dwellings in agreement with the number of rooms or bedrooms that are used, the bathroom facilities or the class of water services or of lighting that is used, etc.

69. The censuses in agreement with the most usual international practice up to the present, start every ten years, in years ending in zero, it is common that some countries begin them in years ending in 1. Within the "census program of America of 1960" (that
is understood to be population, dwelling, and agriculture and livestock censuses) all countries that began their censuses in this year or began them within a period of up to three years before or after this year are considered countries incorporated within the "program".

[p. 15]

And this is the case of Uruguay, which in the year 1961 began its agricultural and livestock censuses and in 1962 began the Population and Dwelling.

70. It is important to point out that, lately, some countries are beginning agricultural and livestock censuses in five year intervals and in others the idea of beginning population censuses also every five years is also in progress.

Usefulness of censuses

71. The great variety of data collected by the three censuses mentioned constitute valuable information about human resources and materials of a country, which permits planning and realizing diverse government programs which look at the solution for the most urgent needs.

72. The population censuses serve, among other objectives, the formation of governmental and administrative policies; the mediation of composition and distribution of the population within political-administrative divisions of the country, the sanction of regulations over the economic and social development, employment, sub-employment, unemployment, migration, public health and social wellbeing, education of the population, development of roads, etc.

73. The data from the dwelling census permit the government to be able to value objectively the shortage of dwellings, their condition of habitability, the grade of overcrowding, etc.

74. The importance of the agricultural and livestock censuses whose period of taking place, as has been shown, has been shortened in many countries lately, is also obvious.

75. This shows that all censuses have a fundamental aspect in common, and it is that they permit priorities to be given in the local application of governmental programs in order to solve problems that the censuses bring to light, always so that the information can be given about all the territorial districts of a country, no matter how small they may be.

Basic definitions

76. As it was pointed out in the general definition of censuses, a Population and Dwelling Census cannot be executed without the precise, uniform, and universally applied definition of the concrete units that are the object of the investigation. For this reason, definitions of units that will permit the enumerator on the route of the area of enumeration to trust and refer to them in the grouping of information that is to be collected are given below.

The following are these aforementioned concrete units and their definitions:

77. Building - It is any construction that constitutes structurally independent or separate premises, meant or used for means of habitation, commerce, industry, or activities of any other kind.

[p. 16]

Whether they are finished or not, for means of the control of the enumeration, these will be considered buildings: a) any construction of one or more floors; b) chalets, bungalows, etc.; c) shacks, huts, and other similar constructions.

In some cases it is possible that two or more buildings give the impression of being one single, by being separated from one another by a shared wall that goes from the foundations to the roof.

78. Dwelling - It is every premises or building structurally separated and independent, that has been constructed, made, converted, or ready for means of permanent or temporary lodging of people such as any class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as a place of boarding on the date of the census. Therefore, the dwelling can be:

a) A house, apartment, flat, room, or group of rooms, hut, etc. independent, meant to give lodging to a group of people or a single person;

b) A boat (yacht), vehicle, railroad car, truck, etc., any other class of boarding, (granary, servants' quarters), occupied as a place of lodging on the day of the census.

79. Private or family dwelling - It is one used or meant to be used as a separate and independent dwelling or house, for a family, or other group of people, with or without family ties, but who live together under common rules, or for a person who lives alone.

80. Collective dwelling or non-family group - It is one used or meant to be used as a place of lodging for a group of people between whom there exists no family ties and who in general live together for reasons such as discipline, health, education, military, or religious life, work or other reasons such as reformatories, barracks, hospitals, boarding schools, hotels, convents, boarding houses, nursing homes, worker camps, etc.

81. Particular cases

a) Dwellings with boarders. A family dwelling in which boarders are lodged (including also those who only pay for habitation) will continue to be considered a family if the total number of boarders is five or less, but if the number of boarders is six or more, the dwelling will be considered collective.

82. If in a collective dwelling, for example a sanatorium or a hospital, there exist one or more units of habitation in which the director or any other bureaucrat lives with family members, these units will be considered private dwellings.

b) Dwellings in buildings not especially meant to be for habitation.

83. Buildings exclusively meant for commercial, industrial, or service means, like stores, storages, factories, etc., will not be considered dwellings, unless an apartment or room occupied by the owner or guardian or superintendent etc. with or without family members exists in them. In this case, the part occupied by the person or people mentioned above will be considered a dwelling

84. Census home - A census home is understood to be any group of people with or without family ties, who live together under common rules or for reasons of discipline, health, religious, or military life, education, etc.

[p. 17]

This general definition implies a distinction between the two following basic categories:

a) The private or family home;

b) The non-family or collective group.

85. Private home - A private home is understood to be all the same occupants of a family or private dwelling who live under common family rules and constitute in the majority of the cases the head of the household, the relatives of this person (spouse or companion, children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews, etc.), relatives, lodgers, boarders, domestic employees, and any other occupant.

86. If in a private home there are five boarders or fewer it will continue to be considered as private, but if the number is six or more, it will be considered a non-family group.

A person who lives alone in a dwelling is also a private home.

87. Non family group - A non-family group is understood to be all the inhabitants of a collective dwelling who generally do not have family ties between them but live together for reasons of health, discipline, religious live, etc. Families with six or more boarders are also considered to be non-family groups.

The census document

88. The census document is the most important document of the Population and Dwelling Census. In effect, the collection of all the information that has to do with geographic location, the specification of various characteristics, and the existence of fundamental services will be registered in it. Also, various individual characteristics of people such as demographic, social, educational, or economic information will be written down. This information will respond to an elaborate carefully produced questionnaire according to the needs of the country, with the goal of accurately attending to the formation of national programs of economic and social development.

89. The census document consists of three principal sections:

Section "A": Geographic location

Section "B": Dwelling

Section "C": Population

90. For Section "A", obtain, with the greatest amount of precision possible, the location of every dwelling and the people who inhabit them, with the object of being able to establish control for the covering of the enumeration and for the grouping of pertinent information of dwellings and individuals by principle divisions and subdivisions of the national territory, as small as some may be.

91. For section "B", the information collected is concentrated only on dwellings, constituting that the main part of the information pertains to private dwellings and only in part, collective dwellings.

[p. 18]

92. For Section "C", the data concentrate exclusively on all the people who make up the population of the country in its amount of members in private or collective homes.

Section "A": Geographic location

93. Before registering any information in this section, the enumerator will proceed to number the census documents to be used, in strict order of succession, that is to say, beginning with number 1 (one) for the document that is used in the enumeration of the first census home visited; the number 2 (two) for the second, and so on.

94. If a census home has more than eight members, as many census documents as necessary will have to be used in order to enumerate them all. In this case, the number that corresponds to this census home will have to be repeated, followed by the word "continued" in every one of the additional documents after the first. For example: document no. 35 (continued), or more abbreviated, document no. 35 (cont.)

95. In this case also, repeat in each additional document, the information about the "address" of the dwelling.

96. With respect to the titles within section "A", the enumerator will receive from the census office or directly from the head of the segment (or supervisor) information that should be registered in each one of the first five titles (title I: name of the department, title II: number of the region, title III: number of the judicial section, title IV: number of the segment, title V: number of the zone).

97. With respect to a zone, it will be indicated also, if it concerns an urban, suburban, or rural zone and if it is a zone that is divided into blocks or not. Nevertheless, the enumerator will not have to do any more than write down this information in each and every census document that will be used in the process of enumeration.

Title VI: Private or collective dwelling

98. This information will be written down, marking with a sign ("X") the corresponding box that already is for a document in which a private or family home or a collective or family group will be enumerated, according to the case. To determine the class of the census home, focus on the given definitions.

Title VII: Populated nucleus

99. After writing down the name of the populated nucleus, register also its category. In order to write down the category, especially if it is a hamlet or a village or a town, the enumerator should be guided by the general consensus of the respective inhabitants. It is important, after having enumerated the last family in a zone of enumeration, to do an analysis of the opinions received in order to later uniform the criteria and to register in all the documents the corresponding category of the populated nucleus.

Title VIII: Address

100. Write down the number of the street in which an enumerated dwelling is found, or of the avenue, boulevard, or plaza or the number of the respective door of entrance of the dwelling.

[p. 19]

The number of each building meant to be different from those of the rooms, will be written down in the "control sheet" conforming to the instructions that are specified in chapter V.

101. Next, register, if it is appropriate, the number of the floor and of the apartment that occupies the enumerated private or collective home. This last notation is very important when there is a building with many dwellings.

102. In cases in rural areas, it is not always possible to register the address specifying the name of the street or avenues or the number of the house-dwelling, or the floor or the apartment, as it is for the urban areas. In this case, the enumerator should make use of initiative to identify, in the best possible manner, the enumerated dwelling being alongside a route or in an isolated zone, or on the border or a hill or bank or close to a river or stream, etc. For example:

a) Route 4 at the top of kilometer 22;

b) Pass of el Rubio

c) Valley Fuentes (Lavalleja) near the fields of...

d) On the corner of... bordering the farm of...
Title IX: Number of the line of the "control sheet"
103. One of the most important tasks of the enumerator, after recording the required information for the census document, is that of beginning to fill out the "enumerator's control sheet". And this operation should be done for every dwelling that is enumerated and for each building or commercial or industrial or service building that the enumerator finds on the route.

104. Also, at every building or dwelling that has been mentioned in the "enumerator's control sheet", a numbered line will correspond where the complete local address, the name of the head of the household and other additional information, according to the instruction in chapter V, will be registered.

105. It is the number printed on this line (not the number of the order of the building that is also on the "control sheet") that should be written down on the dotted line that is following title IX, in the census document.

Section "B": Dwelling

106. In this section information corresponding to all dwellings occupied on the date or "day of the census" will be written down. If a dwelling is unoccupied, only information pertinent to the nine titles in section "A", about geographic location will be written down.

107. In the cases in which, because of the enumeration of a large family, many census documents will be used, the corresponding notations will be made for the dwelling only in section "B" of the first document; in each one of the additional documents, only pertinent information about the address of the dwelling (title VIII of section "A") will be repeated.

[p. 20]

Title I: Occupied condition of the dwelling
108. Occupied condition of a dwelling is understood to be one or the other of two possible situations that are found on the "day of the census", with respect to the presence or not of occupants, that is, if it is occupied or unoccupied.

109. Occupied dwelling is understood to be any that on the day of the census is inhabited by a census home (private or collective). It is possible that, at the moment of the visit to a dwelling, the enumerator does not find anyone around or its inhabitants are momentarily absent, a circumstance that can be cleared up by neighbors of the dwelling.

110. Unoccupied dwelling is understood to be any that on the day of the census is not inhabited by a census home (private or collective). The principal variants of the unoccupied dwelling corresponds to "closed", "under construction", "under repair", dwelling or any "other" forms of not being occupied.

111. Closed dwelling is understood to be any that is unoccupied for reason of being sold, for rent, or for being used only seasonally (summers, vacations, holidays, and other similar uses).

112. Under the title "others", unoccupied dwellings about to be demolished, involved in a lawsuit, foreclosure, etc., and whose reasons for being unoccupied are unknown are included.

113. Mark, according to the case, a sign ("X") in the corresponding box.

Title II: Type of dwelling
114. Under this title is recorded information about buildings or places identified as dwellings, from the point of view of the following general characteristics:

a) Use (built for lodging or not) and effective use (used for inhabitation).
b) Relation of dwelling (private home or collective home).
c) Similar structural particularities (house, apartment, shack, etc.)

115. Considering these elements integral to the definition of "type of dwelling", under the subtitle "buildings meant to be a dwelling" the information is going to be registered by a sign ("X") in the corresponding box under one of the groups:

a) Private dwellings.
b) Collective dwellings.

And under the subtitle: "other buildings used as dwelling" the information will be registered in the line meant for it.

116. The relation of buildings meant to be family dwellings is meant to be, in almost every form, the different varieties of them within the national reality. As can be observed, both dwellings of the type that is predominant in urban zones (individual houses, apartments, etc.) as well as the type that is predominant in rural zones (shacks), have been specified, including clandestine types of dwellings or outside of the authorized requirements of construction, like dwellings or houses from waste material (making up shantytowns); mobile dwellings (cart, coach, boat, etc.), and others.

[p. 21]

117. For "collective dwellings", the same as for family, in a basically complete form, the buildings corresponding to the different types of institutions are mentioned.

118. With reference to "other buildings used as a dwelling", no enumeration is to be done; instead, proceed to the specific notation about those buildings that explains its status -- under construction, built, adapted or transformed for inhabitation -- these are used "de facto" as a place of lodging on the day of the census. This is the case, for example, of stables, granaries, garages, etc.

119. The following definitions will help to understand with exactness the notations of the case:

Family dwellings
a) Individual house - An "individual house" or "private house", or more commonly "house", is understood to be a building or construction that contains a single family dwelling. Therefore, chalets, bungalows, isolated houses, and in general any type of construction, whatever the style, which is by a street and constitutes the primary residence of private houses, should be written down as "individual house", "private house" or "house".

b) Apartment in an apartment building - It is a room or group of rooms within a building that constitutes a family dwelling, occupying only a part of the building. This building is understood to always have many units of family dwellings.

c) Apartment or room in a house - It is a room or group of rooms that, fulfilling the requirements of the definition of dwelling (see definition), are found within an "individual house".

d) Apartment or room in a workshop, school, factory, collective dwelling, etc. - It is a room or group of rooms that, fulfilling the requirements of the definition of dwelling, are found within a building or construction of a school, industrial workshop, factory, collective dwelling, etc., such as apartments or rooms meant for the use of superintendents, guards, directors, and bureaucrats of an institution, business, or cooperative.

e) Tenement - It is a room or reduced number of rooms that, among other similar ones, are located within a construction or building that has common sanitary services. Generally, a room constitutes a family dwelling.

f) House made of waste material - It is an improvised construction made from a base of materials of little or no value that have been used previously for other means (planks for drawers, tinplate for packages, quilts for bags, etc.) or from materials meant for construction but already used and deteriorated (decayed sheets of galvanized steel, broken sheets of asbestos-cement, etc.). By extension, in the group, constructions made with natural stone, bricks, concrete blocks, etc., stacked without mortar or mud that sometimes are torn apart due to the weather, are included. Also in this group, "aripucas" (type of rural dwellings) or precarious constructions formed by piles of bunches of straw, branches, etc., are included.

[p. 22]

g) Shack - It is a dwelling typical in rural areas formed by walls of clods of earth, mud (in any form: fajina [wood lathe and mud], chorizo [baked bricks], etc.), straw or cane. Generally its roof is straw, but it should be considered a shack even if it has another type of roof.

The floor is usually earth.

h) Cart, wagon, boat - They constitute a type of dwelling built on mobile elements with the goal of recreation or for convenience of work. Carts or "californias" (type of cart), in some rural regions are cars of four wheels, over which is placed an enclosed space -- a type of room with a roof and lateral parts forged from zinc. They are used by workers as nighttime refuges and for the storage of articles.

i) Other (tent, railroad station, etc.) - They correspond to a type of precarious dwelling of more or less transitory use or of private adaptation. Railroad station is understood to be the upper platform, initially meant for the use of passengers, streetcars, buses, or railroad coaches that, isolated or not from the tracks, have been immobilized in some state of being used for inhabitation.

120. Collective dwellings:

a) Hotel - It is a dwelling in which temporary or permanent lodging is given, with or without food.

b) Parador - a class of hotel (with restaurant and rooms), located along important routes or tourist spots.
Observation
121. The rest of the collective dwellings listed are not of any precise definition. It should be remembered only that, in any case of collective dwelling, one or more family dwellings can exist.

122. Other buildings used as dwelling - The respective specific notation of the name of the buildings that are used as dwellings (garage, granary, stable, etc.) on the day of the census should be made in spite of whether its intended use is another.

Title III. External walls: Predominant materials
123. With previous meticulous observation and with the aid of inhabitants of a dwelling who in many cases can give the appropriate information, register the material of which the exterior walls of the dwelling are principally constructed.

124. The following explanations will help to determine the nature of some of the materials mentioned in the four headings under this title:

a) Sheets of zinc are sheets of galvanized steel;

b) Flat undulated sheets of asbestos-cement [fibro] are also known by the name of the factory brand, like "dolmenit", "fibrolit", etc.;

c) Ticholos are bricks with holes.

125. Any other material that is not specified among the four headings above should be registered under "Other".

126. Waste materials have been defined in an above section.

[p. 23]

127. Make the respective notation with a sign ("X") in the corresponding box.

Title IV. Roofs: Predominant materials
128. Make note of the following explanations:

a) A bovedilla is understood to be a terrace roof of bricks built above struts of wood or steel, above which exists a finishing of tiles or, in other cases, of asphalt. It may or may not have tile.

b) Cardboard asphalt (carton asfáltico) is a grooved black sheet that becomes brownish-grey in weather. It is soaked with asphalt. In some cases, it can be painted.

c) When the roof is made from tiles (not when the tiles are over a roof made from materials), they are found over struts of wood which are affixed with wires or nails,

Title V. Floors: Predominant materials
129. Make note of the following explanations:

a) Asphalt floor tile is a variety of material for floors in generally 20 by 20 centimeter blocks that are made in many colors, generally grained, and look similar to rubber or linoleum.

b) Pastillas are small floor tiles.

c) Cascote is a mixture of leftovers of mixed bricks with lime, earth, etc., and deliberately crushed.

Title VI: Rooms and spaces
130. Under this title the number of rooms of differentiated dwellings is to be written down, in figures, in two groups:

a) The rooms that are used for sleeping; and
b) The rooms meant for "other" uses.

Also the existence or not of open patios or gardens will be written down.

131. Room is understood to be a space situated in a dwelling that has a roof and is covered by walls that extend from the roof with minimal capacity to fit a bed for an adult. Furthermore, dormitories, salons, dining rooms, living rooms, habitual attics, rooms for study and recreation, kitchens, and servants quarters will be considered rooms.

132. Bathrooms will not be considered rooms, within this census definition.

133. Also, rooms that, although forming an integral part of the dwelling, are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service means such as storage rooms, stores, consulting rooms, writing rooms, etc., should not be considered rooms. But if any of these rooms functions at the same time as lodging, such as what happens in certain cases like inhabitation where a storage room, work room or store exists, it is also a bedroom and should be considered a room. By extension, this same treatment should be given to inhabited garages.

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Rooms for sleeping
134. Within the given definition for room, under this heading should be written the exact total number of bedrooms (where beds and dressers are permanently located) and of those rooms that are inhabited as bedrooms when the family takes its rest.

Other rooms
135. Within the definition given for room, write down under this headline, the number of rooms that are in the dwelling and that have not been designated as rooms for sleeping.

Important note
136. The number of rooms for sleeping, plus the number of "other" rooms, should be the total number of rooms in the dwelling, within the given definition of room.

Spaces
137. Write down in the corresponding box, if in a dwelling there exists or not any open space (patio, free terrace, or garden). If there is more than one open space of garden, limit the notation to the existence of one of them.

Title VII: Water service
138. Under this title, information concerning three principal aspects is registered:

a) The origin or source of the water supply;
b) The location or place where the source of the water supply is found; and
c) The distance of carrying the water where the source is outside of a dwelling.

Origin
139. Write down with a sign ("X") the corresponding box within one or the other of the following headlines:

a) Running water - Running water is understood to be a supply of drinkable water through pipes provided by a public system. Furthermore, the corresponding box in the headline will be marked for all dwellings that are supplied water by the O.S.E. (that is, the "Administration of sanitary works of the state").

b) Pump well - It is an excavation made from a cap of water from where it is provided.

c) Tank - It is a deposit in which rain water is stored.

d) Cachimba - It is understood to be all water coming to the surface of the ground.

e) Stream, river - They are self-explanatory.
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Location
140. The different sources of water supply for a dwelling can be located:

a) Inside a dwelling itself.
b) Outside of a dwelling but within the property of the dwelling.
c) Completely off the property belonging to a dwelling.

141. It should be kept in mind that the supply of running water through pipes of the O.S.E. can go not only inside the aforementioned dwelling itself, but also outside them through water pipes for public or common use.

142. When the supply of running water from the O.S.E. comes through common or public pipes, they are found either outside a dwelling but on the property of the dwelling (tenancy), or completely away from said property (public plazas).

143. The last response may be the case, and will be many times, when the source of the supply is a well, tank, or cachimba. And many times when it is a stream or river.

Distance of carrying
144. Write down in the respective box the distance that an informant declares.

145. This notation should always be made when a water supply is not inside the proper dwelling itself, for example: kitchen, bathrooms, etc. If a supply is found on a patio inside a dwelling, away from rooms, the distance of carrying should also be recorded.

Title VIII. Sanitary service
146. Under this title, information about the following three aspects is registered:

a) The type of sanitary service, that is, from an installation used for the elimination of excrement, distinguishing whether an instant discharge of water is used every time that the installation is used;
b) The type of use with the aforementioned installation, that is, exclusively for one family or common, for many;
c) The type of waste pipe, or that is, the place where the discharge is meant to go, after finishing.
Facilities with instant discharge of water
147. Two types of facilities exist, that is, the standing W.C. of porcelain and with a seat; and the so called "taza turca" [squat toilet], or simply a toilet made of porcelain or similar materials that is found at floor level.

Facilities without instant discharge of water
148. The typical latrine exists that can have many forms of construction.

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Use of facilities
149. Make the corresponding notation, according to the case.

Waste pipes
150. Mark only one of the boxes, corresponding to the six headlines that are specified below:

a) Septic tank or septic chamber, is a closed chamber made of concrete which the waste pipes go to and where a phenomenon of decantation and purification is produced. These ditches finally drain by overflowing into an absorption well.

b) Cesspool, or absorbent well is an excavation closed by a ditch and whose lateral walls may or may not be covered with brick or other materials where the eliminated material goes.

c) Hole in the ground is a common hole similar to latrines without any lid and where the eliminated materials go without any discharge of water. This is typical in rural areas.

d) As for the remaining answers, they do not require any other explanation.

Title IX: Bathroom facilities
151. Write down, according to the case, the corresponding box.

Title X: Lighting
153. Write down the box corresponding to one of four responses indicated, according to the case. The abbreviation U.T.E. corresponds to the entity that provides electrical lighting under the name "Administration of factories and telephones of the state" in the entire territory of the country.

Title XI: Tenancy
153. Write down in the corresponding box the class of occupation of a dwelling according to the following definitions:

a) Owner - If a dwelling belongs to the head of household or to members who reside in it. It doesn't matter if the dwelling has a mortgage tax.

b) Lessee - If a family or family group occupies and uses a dwelling there is an agreement between the owner and lessee for a determined payment. Sub-lessee: if the head of the household, a member of the household who lives in another, or the group that occupies the dwelling rents to another person who, at the same time, has rented it from the owner. These two situations are registered the same under the same box.

c) Mediero or medianero [sharing arrangement of a dwelling] - If a family occupies and uses a dwelling as a result of a situation created by a contract, by which a person is obliged to cede to another, the enjoyment of certain goods or certain elements of an operation in exchange for getting half of the product or utilities that they produce.

d) Usufructuary - If the family or group that inhabits the dwelling uses it with the authorization of the owner, without paying rent.

154. The other answers are self-explanatory.

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Title XII: State of preservation of the dwelling
155. Under this title information should be registered about:

a) The structure of a dwelling, understood to be the conditions of it (walls, roofs and floors, fundamentally).
b) The existence or not of dampness in a dwelling.
Structure
156. Write down the corresponding box according to the following guidelines:

a) Good - Every dwelling that preserves its own conditions of inhabitation of its type and of the materials used. It can be old as long as its conditions have not perceptibly been worn.

b) Average - Any building with:
(i) Walls that show faults in preservation concerning any aspects under consideration, but not affecting its inhabitability. Examples: humidity stains, some fallen stucco, some superficial cracks.

(ii) Roofs with repaired and repairable faults that do not show holes, advanced rusting, or unevenness. Examples: Broken roofs, bent boards, occasional drips, drips in the chimneys.

(iii) Floors that show repairable faults in preservation like detachments, burns, cracks, breaks, but there are never dangerous breaks, uneven floors, apparent humidity, rotting.
An earthen floor is always acceptable if it is hard, is level and does not have humidity (mud).

c) Bad - Any dwelling with:
(i) Cracked, collapsing walls, those totally or partially detached from other walls in a dwelling, with holes, detached pieces, soaked or eaten away bases, rotten wood, etc.

(ii) Uneven roofs, or those with holes and are partially destroyed, boards eaten away by rust, a majority of broken tiles, rotting in the joints, lack of adequate holding in the boards (stone over the roof).

(iii) Dangerously unleveled floors that move when someone walks on them. Rotten and moth-eaten boards. Inexistent pieces of pavement; holes, humidity or mud in earthen floors.

157. It is evident that the existence of all of the above deficiencies are not necessary to qualify a dwelling as average or bad.

Humidity
158. Write down in the corresponding box, according to the case

159. In order to appreciate the existence of humidity or dampness in the dwelling, consider infiltrations in the surface of the walls or roofs that cover surfaces bigger than 1 square meter.

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The humidity manifests itself especially by the capillarity of the foundations, lack of waterproofing in the roofs and walls, expansion of boards, or breaks in pipes.

Section "C": Population

General observations

160. The IV General Population Census will begin in the whole territory of Uruguay on a date that will be determined with sufficient anticipation by the National Governmental Council. On this date this manual will be referenced under the name of "day of the census".

161. The IV General Population Census will constitute what, technically, is called a de facto census. This means that all the inhabitants of the country, citizens and foreigners, should be enumerated in the place where they are on "the day of the census", without taking into account their habitual residence.

162. As for the class of enumeration, the method of interview will be applied, that is, the information corresponding to each person will be obtained and written down in a census document by an enumerator authorized to do this job.

163. All information that is registered in the census document should correspond to the day and time (census date) that it is given. Within this norm by the population census all people should be enumerated who, at twelve o'clock the night before the day of the census are in the territory of the republic.

Therefore, children born after twelve o'clock the night before the day of the census should not be enumerated, but those born after this time and people who died after this time should be enumerated.

If any census home is enumerated after the day of the census, for example one or more days after, the information that is received should refer to the day of the census.

164. A practical norm for following the enumeration is asking for all the people who stayed overnight in the dwelling during the night before the day of the census.

165. Domestic employees who slept in the same dwelling occupied by these homes should be enumerated within the census dwellings. In addition to people who spent the night before the day of the census in the dwelling, these others should be enumerated:

a) Those members of a family who for reasons of work or special reasons did not spend the night in it and were absent or became absent very early in the morning (night watchpersons, doctors, nurses, police, matrons, workers in markets, food delivery people, party or wake assistants, etc.);

b) Those family members who left for a trip after twelve o'clock the night before the day of the census and were traveling.

166. Section "C" of the census document in the first part presents, vertically, one after the other, the eighteen themes of investigation of the population census.

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These themes are grouped under the following large titles:

1. General characteristics.

2. Educational characteristics.

3. Occupational characteristics.

167. "General characteristics" are understood to be nine census themes with respect to the information that is requested to people who make up a private home. "Educational characteristics" are divided into three census themes and the information pertinent to only people six years old or older is registered. Finally, "occupational characteristics" are understood to be six themes, and pertinent information is written down for all persons eight years old or older.

168. Immediately, following the column that contains the specification of the census themes, accompanied by the necessary explanations for the registration of information, this section contains eight columns, in each one of them, successively, pertinent information for each member of the private home should be written down.

169. The first column should be used, always, to register the pertinent information of the head of household, being the only column in which it is not necessary to write down the information about relation and relationship by being done in printed form.

General characteristics

Title 1: Name and surname
170. Begin the enumeration of the private home registering the name and surname of the head of household. The head of household is the person who, either by age or for being the principal economic supporter of the family or for other reasons, is considered as such by other members of the family, and can be either a man or a woman.

171. In all cases, write down the name and the surname completely. With respect to married women, write down their name and first maiden name, followed by the name of the spouse preceded by the word "of"; in the case of widows, preceded by the expression "widow of".

172. Write down the names of all members of the private home carefully, in the following order:

a) The head of household.

b) The spouse or companion of the head.

c) The single sons and daughters in decreasing order of ages.

d) The married sons and daughters who make up the private home, followed by their spouses and children. All in decreasing order of ages.

e) Other relatives (grandparents, aunts/uncles, nieces/nephews, in-laws, etc.).

f) Persons temporarily living there (allegados).

g) Boarders and guests.

h) Domestic employees and their children and relatives.

173. In the case of members of collective homes, register first the name of the director or head followed by those of employees of the institution who did not have an assigned private dwelling and then the names of the rest of the members.

[p. 30]

174. If the name of anyone who is to be enumerated is not known, or if it is a minor who still does not have one, simply write "N. N.".

175. Names and surnames are registered only for facilitating the enumeration and some revision tasks of the census information afterward. Within the census information, each person, with their individual information becomes one single unity of a global figure without their name being used when publishing the results of the census. It is important to make note of this fact in cases of resistance to giving census information.

Title 2: Relation or relationship with the head of household
176. The condition of head is printed in the respective space, in the first column of the document. Write down in the following columns how the rest of the members of the family relate to the head such as, for example, spouse, child, son/daughter in-law, grandchild, servant, etc.

177. If a family is based on a union of convenience, write down as the relation reciprocally with man and woman "companion".

178. In the case of family members of employees, boarders, relatives, lodgers, servants, etc., write down: child of boarder, child of servant, nephew of relative, etc. according to who they are. In the case of collective dwellings, write down the hierarchy of the person or something that served as an indicator of the order with which their name was written in the first column, that is, in the case of an institution: director, head, manager, superior, and for the rest of the group: patient, lodger, prisoner, religious person, etc., according to who they are.

179. If two or more people, who are not related to each other, occupy the same dwelling, register one of them as head and the other or others as "friends".

Title 3: Sex
180. Write down information in the corresponding box.

Title 4: Age in completed years
181. "Age in completed years" is meant to be the age that a person has reached on their last birthday. One way of verifying the accuracy of the declared age for the enumerator is asking for the date of their birth, always, so then the conditions for getting this information are achieved.

182. The enumerator should take into account the common tendency of people rounding their age, declaring numbers that end in 0 or in 5. Especially in these cases one has to guess the date of birth, or one has to assure that the person is not rounding their age by either more or fewer [years].

183. If a person does not know their age and there is no other way of knowing for certain, try using personal documents from this person or refer to neighbors; the enumerator should make an estimate of the aforementioned age.

[p. 31]

184. If an enumerated person is not present, get their information from those that are present that know them.

185. For those under one year, write the word "month" immediately after the pertinent number. So: "0 months"; "1 month"; "3 months"; etc.

186. If a person is one year old or more, always write the word "years" after the corresponding number. So: "1 year"; "6 years"; "46 years"; etc.

Title 5: Marital status
187. Make the notation of the case in the corresponding box, according to the following definitions:

Single: one who never married and does not live in a free union

Married: one who contracted matrimonial ties, maintains this state and does not live in a free union.

In free union: one who lives in marital union without having contracted matrimonial ties.

Widowed: one who, having been married, survived the spouse and has not contracted matrimonial ties and does not live in a free union.

Divorced: One who terminated the matrimonial ties with the spouse by judicial sentence and has not contracted matrimonial ties nor lives in a free union.

188. In cases in which a name and surname of a woman (title 1) who claims to be married does not include the surname of the spouse, the enumerator should be assured that this state is the truth, based on other recovered information.

Title 6: Place of birth
189. For those born in the country, write down the name of the department and of the locality (city, village town, hamlet, colony, place, etc.) of birth.

190. For those born abroad write down the name of the country of birth according to the borders and its name on the date of the census.

191. If a person does not know or has some doubts about the name of their country on the date of the census, write down the name given, but in this case make a note in the section "Observations".

Title 7: Legal nationality
192. For the people who called themselves Uruguayan by birth, simply write down: "Uruguayan".

193. In the case of Uruguayans by nationalization, write down "Uruguayan nationalized" or, in an abbreviated form, "Uruguayan na.".

194. For foreigners, write down the declared nationality, such as: Argentinean, Spanish, Italian, Brazilian, etc. If any foreigner has difficulty naming their nationality, make a note in the "Observations" section, giving as much information as possible.

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Title 8: Year of migration
195. Write down the year in which a person came to live or reside in the place where enumerated.

196. Place of enumeration is understood to be the populated nucleus or locality such as: city, villa, village, colony, settlement, farm, etc., of any quantity of population, where the enumerated dwelling is found.

197. Living or residing in a place of enumeration is understood to be the establishment for reasons of work, business, family life, or any other socio-economic reason for a period of six months or more or for a shorter period if the person arrived in order to settle down in the place.

198. A person should not be considered as residing in the place of enumeration if the aforementioned residence is used for vacations, visiting relatives, traveling for study, or for any other similar cause for fewer than six months.

199. If a person changed their dwelling from one neighborhood to another, within the same city, town or village, or as is the case of the city of Montevideo from one police or judicial section to another, it should not be considered a change of residence for the purpose of this investigation.

200. In accordance with these definitions, if a person always lived in the place of enumeration, write down with a sign ("X") in the box corresponding to the word "Always". To the contrary, write down if the residence was established in the place of enumeration. If a person does not remember exactly the year that residence was established in the place of enumeration, write down the year that seems most probable to the person.

201. In the case of an enumerated person who is in a place of enumeration on vacation, in boarding school, visiting relatives, or is in the place for another reason for fewer than six months but without settling down in the place, write down with a sign ("X") in the box corresponding to the words "in transit".

202. In the case of a person who has returned to the place of enumeration, after having resided in other places, and that the absence has been more than six months, write down the year when they last arrived at the place. If the absence was for fewer than six months, even if it had been to go to settle down in another place, or if it was for vacation, attending boarding school, etc., such absence should not be considered, and a sign ("X") will be written down in the box corresponding to "Always".

203. It is important that, when registering the pertinent information of this title, the enumerator verify the following:

a) That an informant does not confuse the year of migration to the place of enumeration with the year of birth;

b) That the year of migration written down for the head of household is not necessarily declared for the whole family.

c) That a person that answers "Always" has not declared a locality of birth different than the locality of enumeration.

d) That if a person is a foreigner, nationalized or not, the year of establishment in the country should always be written down.
[p. 33]

204. On the other hand, it is possible:

a) That within the same department of birth a person has emigrated from one locality to another locality -- write down the year of the migration to the second locality.

b) That elderly persons who have been residents of many years in one locality, migrated to it when they were young and do not remember completely the place from where they came. It can be the case that the year of their migration coincides with the year of birth. The year of migration should be written down as exactly as possible.

205. The year of migration is always written down in title 8 -- it should be continued in the complementary information in the following title 9. If the information of title 8 is registered in boxes corresponding to "Always" or "In transit", the investigation of migration should be finished, passing directly to the titles about "Educational characteristics". In this last case, draw a diagonal line in the space reserved for the registration of information in title 9.

Title 9: Origin of migration
206. Write down the name of the department and locality (city, village villa, settlement, farm, etc.) from where a person who declared the year (title 8) in which the place of enumeration was established, came from.

207. If a person came from abroad simply write down the name of the country of origin. If a person, nationalized or foreigner, does not know the name of the place of origin, write down "Does not know".

Educational characteristics

Title 10: Level of education
208. Write down as a number, on the dotted line, the last year of study passed by a person, corresponding to the class of instruction received in establishments of regular education.

209. Regular education is understood to be taught in establishments of public or private teaching, within the plans or programs of education officially passed in the country.

210. In the census document, eight principal classes of instruction have specifically been considered, plus an additional class [listed] under the general headline "Other", whose diverse particular cases will be correctly located in the process of revision of information after the enumeration. Immediately after the specific name of each class of instruction, a number between "0" (zero) and "8" is printed, which correspond to the code with which each case is differentiated. It is immediately after this code, on the dotted line, that the number corresponding to the year of studies passed is to be written down, within each class of instruction. So, for example, for a person who has passed the 4th year of primary school, once the notation has been made, it would read in the census document: "Primary 1 4"; if the 2nd year of secondary, it would read: "Secondary 2 2"; if the 3rd year of military, it would read: "Military 8 3", and so on according to the case.

[p. 34]

211. For a person who never has attended a center of education or has never passed a year of studies, write down a 0 (zero) for the following code corresponding to the headline "Without instruction" "0 0".

212. If a person does not remember the year nor the class of instruction received, write down the double symbol "XX", in the dotted line corresponding to the headline: "Other".

213. With reference to studies for determined professions, like law, medicine, economics, etc., some students are not able to be sure about what their last year of studies are that they have passed, because of computing the advancement of studies based on the number of classes passed. In this case, it will be sufficient to write down an "X" in the dotted line corresponding to the headline: "Faculty".

214. The class of education "Agrarian" will be understood to be the courses at the University of Work, in:

a) "General agrarian schools"; and

b) "Specialized agrarian schools" (school of dairy, winemaking, forestry, agriculture and livestock, farming mechanics, horticulture and fruits, poultry farming).

Also this includes education imparted by the non-official "agrarian schools" at the level of education similar to those that have just been mentioned, for example: "Jackson agrarian school" in Manga (department of Montevideo).

215. The agrarian education, imparted in the above centers of education, should not be confused with that given in the primary level of "farm schools" -- this depends on the national committee of primary and normal education. Those educated in these centers should be written down as class of instruction: primary.

216. "Industrial" education is understood to be courses at the University of Work in:

a) "Mono technical industrial schools" (mechanical and electrical schools, construction, commerce, applied arts industries, naval industries, feminine industries, graphic arts); and

b) Polytechnic industry schools and education imparted in private schools, but at a level of education similar to those above, for example: the "Don Bosco workshop school", the "Ort technical school".

217. Finally, under the headline "Other", all those cases of graduates, students of universities or conservatories, or of other institutions that do not require studies at the level of "Faculty" should be recorded, even if the classes are given in university classrooms or rooms. Among these cases are:

a) Education by university schools like: medical assistants (dieticians, physical therapists, radiologists, infant psychologists, laboratory clinic assistants, transfusion assistants, ophthalmologists, phono-audiologists, medical archive assistants).

b) Schools of fine arts: painters.

c) School of library science: librarians.

d) National conservatory of music: music professors.

e) University nursing school: university nurses.
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f) School of social service: social assistants.

g) Midwives.

h) Instituto de Profesores Artigas [secondary school teacher training institution].

i) Schools or institutes of commerce.

j) Other schools:
"Dr. Carlos Nery" school of nursing (Ministry of public health)
School of social service (Ministry of public instruction)
School of social service (Catholic)

218. For the appropriate treatment of cases that have just been specified, write down on the dotted line, in the most comprehensible form but at the same time as abbreviated as possible, the class of education received following the number that indicates the last year of studies passed. For example: "Dietician 1"; "Medical archive assistant 1" that can be abbreviated as "Ax. arch. med. 1"; "Social assistant 3"; "Commerce 1".

Title 11: School attendance
219. Write down as a number the year of studies that a person is now attending in an establishment of regular education of the country and the class of instruction received. Use the dotted line to the right of each code corresponding to the class of instruction. As for the detailed registration of information, the same norms for title 10 should be followed.

220. Any notation for people who are taking classes by correspondence, as well as classes for piano, cooking, sewing, or classes for shorthand or typing, should be made note of as a complement to the education received. Also this is for vocational improvement courses. Both in these cases, as well as for people who do not attend any centers of regular education, write a "0" (zero) on the dotted line corresponding to the headline: "Not attending".

Title 12: Literacy
221. Find out if a person knows how to read and write down a sign ("X") in the box corresponding to "Yes" or "No", according to the case. If a person only knows how to read or only can sign their name, in both cases, the sign ("X") should be written down in the box corresponding to: "No".

Occupational characteristics

Observation
222. Under the general title "Occupational characteristics" are six themes for titles 13 to 18. For the information to be collected, firstly the whole population of the country has to be grouped within two primary groups:

a) The economically active population.

b) The not economically active population.

Each one of these two large groups will be, at the same time, differentiated into sub-groups, and each and every one of these will be specified under title 13.

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223. Next, the principal occupation of those to be enumerated is investigated (title 14), considering that when a person works more than one occupation, it is the one that supplies the greatest income; and secondary occupation, that which follows the principal in importance regarding income. If a person only works one occupation, this will be the principal occupation.

224. Next, under the name industry of principal activity, the class of industry or place of work where said principal occupation is done (title 15) is to be investigated, and the category or role with which it is done, as employee, worker, etc. (title 16).

The same is for the investigation of secondary occupation when it exists (title 17), and the industry of secondary activity or class of industry where this last activity is done (title 18).

225. In order to get a rational and appropriate group of information, many individual situations should be contemplated which are adjusted to definitions, each time more refined by economic, social and technical censuses. Such definitions and methodological procedures to register information are structured in the form that reflects the occupational situation of those enumerated on the "day of the census".

226. The information asked for in titles 13 to 18 is intimately correlated. This means that once initial basic information is registered, no other information in titles 14 to 18 should be written down without having clarified, whether proceeding or not, the registration of information in the title immediately before. The information registered in title 13 is clarified, and continue conditionally for each one of the following titles until 18, according to the situation of the person enumerated.

Title 13: Type of activity
227. Under this title the type of occupational activity or situation of people on the "day of the census" will be written down, distinguishing different situations through groups whose names and definitions are pointed out.

228. For each enumerated person at least 8 years old, the notation should be made marking only the existing boxes on the document.

Below are specified in detail the class of persons understood to be each in group:

Employed:
229. It is understood to be all people employed on the "day of the census", that is, who have a job. The following cases can be distinguished:

a) People who work for others who are not family, receiving remuneration in money (paycheck, commission, etc.) or kind (house, food, etc.), any class of work done;

b) People who work on a small farm, farm, commerce, or industry, or working a profession, either by themselves or with help from others, where they are paid a paycheck or salary.

c) People who work for another member of their family in a farm, shop, studio, office, etc., with or without payment. In this last case, those who work for a member of their family without receiving payment, those who work for at least three hours a day or its equivalent of two days of eight hour days each week will always be considered employed.
[p. 37]

230. Those persons who are not working on the "day of the census" due to reasons such as sickness, vacation, strike, temporary interruption of work, or any other reason that does not mean that the person is permanently retired will also be considered within this group (working).

Unemployed:
231. It is understood to be people who, on the date or "day of the census" do not have a remunerated occupation or a job but have worked before and are looking for work.

People who are not looking for work but have had a job that should begin after the date or "day of the census" should also be considered within this group.

Looking for work for the first time:
232. It is understood to be all people who never have worked and are looking for their first job.

Household duties:
233. It is understood to be people who exclusively do domestic duties in their own homes. When these labors are done for pay (in salary or in kind) as is the case of domestic employees, the respective person will be written down as "Employed".

Student:
234. It is understood to be all people who exclusively dedicate themselves to study.

235. If a person does "household duties" or a "student" works any remunerated job, on the date of the census, they will automatically be considered as "Employed".

Retired or pensioned:
236. It is understood to be those people who do not have a remunerated occupation and receive a monthly sum from the state by retirement or pension. Widows and other people who receive pensions, including pensions that did not require previous contributions (graciables) remain included in this group.

Rentiers
237. It is understood to be people who do not do a remunerated activity and who live on the product of their investments.

Others:
It is understood to be all people who do not do a remunerated activity because of a physical or mental incapacity (invalid), religious duties [e.g. nuns], or judicial disposition (prisoners). Equally, it is understood to be all people who are not classified within any of the previous groups, such as underage minors who do not attend school, elderly persons without any economic resources, etc.

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If the incapacity is temporary, the person will be classified as "Employed", since in some cases they are ensured a job.

239. Once a person is classified under this title, the notation of the pertinent information of the following title 14 is continued only for those who have been located within the groups: "Employed", "Unemployed", and "Looking for work for the first time".

People classified under any of the other groups ("Household chores", "Student", "Retired and pensioned", "Rentiers", and "Others") are finished with the census investigation and the spaces reserved for the registration of information requested in titles 14 to 18 should be crossed out with a diagonal line.

Title 14: Principal occupation on the "day on the census"
240. Write down in a specific form the profession, office, or class of work that is done on the day on the census only by people classified in the previous title (title 13) within one of three groups: "Employed", "Unemployed", and "Looking for work for the first time".

241. Avoid vague names like: workers, operator, office worker, vendor, etc., instead use names that give a possibly more complete idea of people's occupations, like for example: agronomy engineer, movie theater operator, fruit vendor, travel agent, shoemaker's apprentice, etc.

242. There are some occupations of workers, artisans, and professionals that are precise simply by their name like: carpenter, bricklayer, plumber, doctor, lawyer, etc.

243. Certain occupations in the field of commerce require specification, like: agent vendor, sales counter worker, etc. Equally, in the case of office workers, clarify if they mean typist, cashier, teller, bookkeeper, archive manager, etc.

244. In case of professionals like doctors, lawyers, engineers, etc., this is the class of occupation which in general should be registered. There exist, however, cases in which such people do not do these professions that they are trained in, instead doing other activities. For example, a lawyer who works exclusively as a bank manager; a doctor who works exclusively teaching at a university. In these cases, the last activity said will be written down, like: bank manager, university professor, and so on.

245. For government workers also write down their specific occupations according to the given examples in the previous cases, avoiding the name "public employee". If a person is a member of the "armed forces" (not including the police), whatever their class or hierarchy, they should be noted as "military".

246. With respect to domestic employees, it should be specified if it includes, for example, cook, launderer, servant, etc. Equally, in the case of those who do agricultural and livestock activities, the terms "farmer" and "agrarian" should be reserved for those who run a farm or small farm respectively, and not for those who do general activities such as manager, caretakers, tenant farmer, tractor drivers, etc., whose specific operation will be written down.

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247. There exist also some people who according to the time of year or due to some circumstances, do not do any occupation or determined activity and change it frequently, constituting a group of those who do "odd jobs" or "make a living doing odd jobs". Practically, one who "makes a living doing odd jobs" is doing a remunerated occupation on the date or "day of the census" that can be identified, such as collector, package loader, etc., and will have to be registered in this manner, not using the name "odd job".

If a person declares to "make a living doing odd jobs" they will have to be asked what the "odd job" consists of, on the "day of the census".

248. It should also be taken into account that the inexactly named occupation "odd job" can be in some cases the principal occupation because it can be the only one which the person has on the date of the census. In other cases, such an occupation ("odd job") can constitute a secondary occupation, since it is one which supplies the second most income. In the case of people who do "domestic duties" or "students", it is important to find out if they do an "odd job", where the affirmative case should be registered as "employed", considering the respective occupation as principal.

249. In the case of "unemployed" people, write down the last occupation they had.

250. For people who "are looking for work for the first time", register the profession, office, or class of work that they are ready or qualified to do, and in the case that there is not any, simply register "none".

251. With the notation of the occupation having been made, according to these cases ["looking for work for the first time"], this group is finished with its census investigation. Consequently, a diagonal line should be drawn through the spaces corresponding to the registration of the pertinent information in the following titles (titles 15 to 18).

Title 15: Industry of principal activity
252. "Industry of principal activity" is understood to be the class of business, establishment, office, organization, company, institution, etc., where a person does their principal occupation.

253. Write down this information only for people who in the previous title (title 14), were registered with a principal occupation that pertains to one of the two groups: "Employed", or "Unemployed".

As in the case of the principal occupation, try to register in the most concrete form, avoiding vague names, the class of establishment where the person works or worked (if "Unemployed"). Avoid names such as workshop, office, store, company, factory, stall, etc., and instead specify in the following manner: shoe factory, radio repair shop, accountant's office, leather stall, air transportation company, refrigerator repairs, construction company, textile factory, bronze smelting, etc.

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255. Avoid writing down names that are exclusively the name of the establishment, like the factory "La Violeta", "Casa Fénix", etc., that do not give any idea of the class of industry or business done in it.

256. In the case of mixed businesses like a beauty salon or hairdresser's in which there is at the same time a lottery kiosk or caramel vending, register the business that receives the greatest benefits or that the owner considers the most important.

257. If a person is a government employee, of an autonomous, municipal, or decentralized service entity, write down without exception the name of these institutions where they work, such as: Ministry of Public Works, Department of National Parks, Ancap, Department of Combustibles, National Administration of Ports, Department of Accounting, etc.

258. If a person has the same occupation in more than one business or industry, the type of establishment where the greatest remuneration is received should be noted. For example, in the case of a bookkeeper who does the books for a glass factory, a feminine articles shop, and a transportation company, and he receives the largest income from the glass factory, this will have to be noted as the "industry of principal activity". It is understood that this does not concern a person in an accounting office who has a varied clientele -- the same is true for any other professional (doctor, dentist, etc.).

259. If a person does their job in a company that supports two or more different industrial activities, that industrial activity with which the person is directly linked should be written down, since it is a principal activity of the company and not a supplementary activity.

Examples:
a) In the case of a company that has a refrigerator factory and one that makes furniture, an employee will be written down as industry of principal activity: "refrigerator factory", or "furniture factory", according to which of these industries the employee works for.

b) If a textile factory has its own electric plant that supplies the necessary motorized power, a person who works in this factory will be written down as industry of principal activity: "textile factory", and not "electric plant", because the plant is an supplementary activity of the factory.

260. With respect to domestic employees, they will be written down as industry of principal activity: "family house", or "collective dwelling".

Title 16: Category of principal occupation
261. The information about the "category of principal occupation" should be obtained based on the following definitions:

Employer:
262. It is a person who runs their own economic company or who works for their own account; a profession or office that has one or more workers by salary or day's wages. Domestic workers should not be considered among them.

Worker for their own account:
263. It is a person who, without relying on an employer, runs their own economic company or who works by their own account; a profession or office without having any paid workers.

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They can be alone or with an associate.

Employee:
264. It is a person in whose job intellectual force predominates over physical and who works for a salary for a boss or public or private employer, and who is not a member of their census home.

Also considered as employees are:

a) Directors, managers, administrators, bosses, inspectors, secretaries, and other directive personnel of many levels;

b) Professors, professionals for a salary, and specialized assistants of liberal professions;

c) Employees at desks, counters, and offices;

d) Collectors, traveling salesmen and women, agents, company runners, radio-technicians, operators, boat captains, or pilots.
Laborer:
265. It is a person who does a predominantly manual labor activity and works for a salary or day's wages for a boss or public or private employer, and who is not a member of their census home.

266. Domestic employees or those who do activities in the home (cook, nanny, valet, servant, etc.) should be considered within this group -- people who correspond to the industry of activity named: "Family house".

267. Also these are considered laborers:

a) Work trainers, foremen, boatswains, prompters, skilled workers, semi-skilled workers, apprentices, manual laborers, porters;

b) Drivers, machine workers, and firemen;

c) Foremen and workers of agricultural and livestock operations;

d) Delivery people, doormen, packers, servers;

e) Hairdressers, hair stylists, manicurists, and other operators of beauty salons.

Title 17: Secondary occupation
269. Write down in specific form, in the same form used for the principal occupation, the occupation, office, or class of work, of secondary character, that people do on the "day of the census".

270. Secondary occupation is understood to be any that produced the second amount of income.

The respective notation should be made only for people classified as "employed" in title 13 and who consequently have declared a principal occupation (title 14).

271. In a good number of cases, occupations named under the generic headline as "odd job", are those that will constitute the secondary occupation of people. In each case, it will important to get from the informant the specific and true name of the activity classified as "odd job".

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272. It is important to take into account that not everyone who has named a principal occupation will have, necessarily, on the date or "day of the census", a secondary occupation.

273. For people who claimed to not have any (none) secondary occupation, the census investigation will then be finished, by drawing a diagonal line in the space reserved for registering of information corresponding to this title, and the following (title 18).

Title 18: Industry of secondary activity
274. The same as for the industry of principal activity (title 15), write down, in concrete form, the class of establishment where a person does the secondary occupation that has been declared.

275. Registration of information in the census document with pertinent information to the last person in the family completed, make sure that no other person remains without having been enumerated, particularly newborn children or other children belonging to the family. Finally, write down, in the bottom right corner of section C: population, of the census document, the number of men and women enumerated in the family and the overall total.

Chapter V

Instructions for filling out the "Enumerator's control sheet"

General observations

276. The "Enumerator's control sheet" is the chart in which the enumerator should identify all the buildings and places of all classes that are in the route of the area of enumeration.

277. In case a building is used for more than one purpose (for example, as slaughterhouse, storage, and vegetable stand or hairdressers, store, and bar) this situation should be specified concretely and separately. The enumerator should travel, orderly, [through] the area of enumeration and register the buildings in the control sheet by returning to them.

278. No registration should be omitted or suspended without planning to return later. In rural areas, the existence of these places should be assured in all the roads and paths, traveling on them and making certain in them there is no building or dwelling that could have been built recently that was not enumerated.

Before beginning the enumeration, the enumerator should write down the information about geographic location that is understood to be: department, region, judicial section, segment and zone. Also the class of zone should be written down, if it is urban, suburban or rural.

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The act of dealing with the control sheet

279. The control sheet consists of 14 columns corresponding to other such principle titles or subtitles for whose treatment, concerning the registration of information, the following instructions should be followed:

Columns 1 and 2: Line no.
280. These two columns correspond to two subtitles referring to the line number in which information has been registered. Briefly, in the control sheet has been printed line no. In column 1, all the lines of the control page are numbered successively with printed characters. Also, in column 2, all the spaces are blank, and the enumerator should not register anything in them because this column is reserved for the exclusive use of the head of the segment or supervisor.

Column 3: Order number of the building
281. Write down in this column number 1 (one for the first building visited), and repeat this number in the following lines every time that dwellings are located in this same building.

282. At the second building visited, assign the number 2, and proceed to repeat this 2 (two), if it is necessary, as it was done in building no. 1. Proceed similarly with building no. 3 and as such successively. The object of the form of counting is to be able to count the buildings and determine their uses.

283. In each line of the control sheet that is previously numbered (column 1) will be written down all the information corresponding to each purpose that is meant for a whole building or a part of it. Examples:

a) A house with one family will be written down on a single line.

b) A house in which two families live will occupy two lines, one for each family.

c) A building that has on the first floor two commercial businesses and on the second and third floor four apartments, will occupy 6 lines, one for each commercial business and one for each apartment.

d) A winery where someone has slept the night before the day of the census, would occupy two lines, one for writing down the winery such as it is, and the other for writing down the use as a dwelling of the winery on the date of the census.

284. In rural areas, locate the sketch or small map of the zone of enumeration, the place or dwelling visited, putting the number in the corresponding line in the control sheet.

285. In the cases of unoccupied or closed buildings put the information in columns 4, 5, 6 and 7. In column 8, write down its last use and any other additional information in column 14 in "Observations".

286. In cases of abandoned, shut down, or semi destroyed buildings, either by fire of demolition, write down the location and in column 8 indicate if the building is not in use and the reason in the column "Observations".

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Columns 4, 5, 6 and 7: Identification of the dwelling or place
287. Describe the location of the buildings and dwellings with sufficient detail so that another enumerator can easily identify them. If it is an urban area, the complete address. If it is part of a house or a building, indicate, if necessary, the number or letter of the apartment and the number of the floor. If there is no numbering, describe if the dwelling is "on the street", or "behind", or "to the right", or "to the left", "of the building", etc. If a place or dwelling occupies more than one floor or the whole building, write down the street and the name of the place that the informant indicated and add any other reference that permits the precise location of the place or dwelling and do not forget to mark it in the outline or map of your zone of enumeration.

Column 8: Use of the dwelling or place
288. In this column write down the specific use that is meant for all of the places or dwellings in the route of your area of enumeration. Write down: room, dwelling, shirt factory, hardware store, dry cleaners, hairdressers, medical consulting, judge's study, ministry of treasury, municipal building. Do not in any manner write down general terms like: commercial, industrial place, etc.

Column 9: Name of the head of household
289. Write down the name of the head of household who appears in the respective census document or the class of "collective" like: barracks, convent, etc.

Column 10: Number of the census document
290. Write down the number in the census document in all cases in which "room" has been written in column 8.

Columns 11, 12 and 13: Number of enumerated people
291. Like when filling out the control sheet, the enumerator will have registered the pertinent information in the census document, it will be enough to take this information of who has been registered in these columns, finally verifying with the family if the enumerator has omitted anyone under age.

Column 14: Observations
292. Register every observation that could serve to help for clarifying any important fact, especially those that can help to identify a dwelling or place in any occasion.