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1900 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

Schedule No. 1.--Population
65. General.--The number of copies of the population schedule (Form 7-224) contained in your portfolio is believed to be sufficient to enable you to make a return of every man, woman, and child whose usual place of abode On the first day of June, 1900, was in your district. (See paragraphs 94, 109, and 110.)
66. If the number of copies sent to you is not sufficient to cover the population in your district, you will notify the supervisor of your district at once, and he will see that you are supplied with extra copies. The entries on this schedule should be made at the time of the enumeration, and the recopying of schedules should be avoided. (See paragraph 56.)
67. The instructions for filling this schedule pasted on the inside of your portfolio are identical with those printed at the bottom of the illustrative example (Form 7-244), of which a copy has been sent to you. They are here reproduced word for word, with certain additions distinguished by the use of a type similar to that in this paragraph. These additional instructions, especially those relating to occupations, should be carefully studied by you.
68. The illustrative example (Form 7-244) shows the manner in which the entries upon the schedule should be made.

The heading of the schedule
69. Fill out the spaces at the top of each page above the heavy black line, or such of them as apply to you enumeration district, in accordance with the following explanations. Do this on each page before any other is made.
70. Numbering sheets.--Number the sheets of the population schedules on both sides (A and B), in the spaces provided therefor, in the exact order as filled, and when filled. Spaces are provided for 100 entries on each sheet, using A and B sides, and each sheet must be numbered the same on each side, as Sheet No. 1A and Sheet No. 1B, Sheet No. 2B, etc., using as many sheets as may be required for the enumeration of your district. (See paragraph 93.)
71. Supervisor's and enumeration districts.--Enter at the head of each schedule the number of your supervisor's district and the number of your own enumeration district. These numbers must be entered on both sides (A and B) of the sheet, and are to be repeated at the head of every sheet used in your work. (See paragraph 91.)
72. State and county.--Every state or territory in the United States is divided into parts called counties(except parishes in Louisiana), and the sum of these parts makes up the whole area of the state or territory. A few cities, like Baltimore and St. Louis, are independent of counties, but for census purposes these are classed as counties.
73. Enter at the head of each sheet (A and B sides), in the spaces provided therefore in the upper left-hand corner of the schedule, the name of the state (or territory) and county (or parish in Louisiana) for which the enumeration is made.
74. Township or other division of county.--Every county is divided into parts, and the sum of these parts makes up the whole area of the county. But the names given to these county divisions differ widely. In the north central states, except Wisconsin, and also in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and California they are called townships. In New England, New York, and Wisconsin they are called towns. In the South and far West they are usually called districts or precincts; but in Mississippi they are called beats; in Louisiana wards; in Delaware hundreds.
75. On the line provided for this entry, write the name (or number) by which the township or other division you are enumerating is known, and also the name of the class (township, town, etc.) to which it belongs, as Princeton township (Princeton alone is not enough); Washington town; Austin precinct; Precinct 10, Walnut Hill, etc.
76. If two or more townships (or parts of townships) are included in your district, each of them must be separately enumerated by you, taking pains to mark the sheets so as to distinguish them from each other beyond the possibility of error. Complete the enumeration of one township (or part of a township) before beginning to enumerate another township (or part thereof).
77. Name of incorporated city, town, or village, within the above-named division.--The relation of a city, town, village or other incorporated place to the township or other division of the county is not uniform. Sometimes the incorporated place is a part of a township, precinct, or district, sometimes it is entirely independent of that and part only of a county.
78. If your enumeration district contains the whole or a part of a city, town, village, or other incorporated place, be careful to enumerate separately the population of such incorporated place, and to wholly complete the enumeration thereof before beginning the enumeration of the remainder of your district. This is important, as the separate enumeration of the population of incorporated places is required by the terms of the census act, as follows:
Sec. 12. *** In case the subdivision assigned to any enumerator embraces all or any part of any incorporated borough, village, town or city, and also other territory not included within the limits of such incorporated borough, village, town, or city, or either, it shall be the duty of the enumerator of such subdivision to clearly and plainly distinguish and separate, upon the population schedules, the inhabitants of all or any part of such borough, village, town, or city, as may be embraced in the subdivision assigned to such enumerator, from the inhabitants of the territory not included therein. ***
79. This provision of the census act contemplates that the population should be returned for every incorporated community, but not for any group of inhabitants not incorporated. Unincorporated communities are to be taken as part of the population of the township or other civil division of the county where found. Do not give the local name by which any unincorporated community is known.
80. Be careful to write on the line provided for this entry the name of the incorporated village, city, or other incorporated place for which the enumeration is being made, and upon the completion of the enumeration of such incorporated place to write on the line following the last entry therefor the words: "Here ends the enumeration of _____" (naming the city, village, or other incorporated place), as shown by illustrative example, and enter no more names on that page.
81. Begin the enumeration of the remainder of your enumeration district at the head of a new page (A or B side, as the case may be), and indicate the fact that it is the remainder of the township, village, or other incorporated place, but resident within the boundaries of your enumeration district. Do this by making an "X" on the line provided for the name of the incorporated city, town, or village, as shown on the "B" side of the illustrative example (Form 7-244).
82. In the same way, if two or more incorporated places (cities, villages, etc., or parts of them) are included in your enumeration district, the enumeration of one should be wholly completed before work on another is commenced, and the completion of each should be indicated by the words: "Here ends the enumeration of _____" (giving the name of the city, village, or other incorporated place, whether it forms the whole or a part of your enumeration district, as the head of a new page (A or B side of sheet), and also the beginning of that part of any township outside the city or village number the sheets consecutively for the entire enumeration district.
83. In certain states a part, and in some states all, of the incorporated cities, villages, boroughs, etc., are independent of the townships, precincts, or districts, etc., into which the county is divided; that is, although geographically situated within the township, precinct, or district, etc., they are not included for administrative purposes. In such cases they are to be considered as constituting a principal division of the county, the same as a township, etc., and the name of such city, village, or borough, etc., is to be written on the line provided for "Township or other division of the county," and the line for "Name of incorporated city, town, or village, etc.," left blank.
84. You can easily determine whether both the name of the town or other civil division of the county and the name of the incorporated village are to be entered upon the heading of the schedule, by the answer to the following question: Do the inhabitants of this village vote at both village and township elections, or at village elections only? In the former case, they are inhabitants both of the town and of the village, and both names are to be entered. In the latter case, they are inhabitants of the village but not of the town, and the name of the town must be left blank. Non-observance of this distinction will lead to the inclusion, with the population of a township or other subdivision of a county, of inhabitants who do not form a part of it, and for that reason special attention should be given to this instruction.
85. Ward of city.--If your enumeration district includes one or more wards of a city, or parts of wards, be careful to write the number of the ward on the line provided therefor, to begin the enumeration of the ward or part of ward at the head of the page (A or B side of sheet), and to complete the enumeration of one ward before commencing work in another, in case there is more than one ward; and in such cases to properly mark the ending of the work in each ward, the same as for an incorporated village, etc.
86. Name of institution.--Wherever an institution, such as a prison, jail, almshouse, hospital, asylum, college, convent, or other establishment containing a resident population, is to be enumerated, the full name and title of the institution should be written on the line provided therefor at the head of the sheet, and all persons having their usual places of abode in such institution, whether officers , attendants, inmates, or persons in confinement, should then be entered consecutively on the schedules.
87. If, as sometimes may be the case, a sheriff, warden, or other official lives in one end of the institution building, but separated by a partition wall from the building proper, his family (including himself as its head) should be returned as a separate family, and should not be returned as part of the "census family" to which the inmates are credited. In such case the officer in immediate charge should head the institution schedule.
88. When the officers or attendants, or any of them, do not reside in the institution buildings, but live with their families in detached dwellings located in the institution grounds, they should be reported as separate families, but should be included as a part of the institution population. The families of officers or attendants who reside wholly outside the institution precincts, either in houses rented or owned by the institution, or by themselves, should not be enumerated as a part of the population of the institution.
89. When an institution is enumerated, write on each sheet in parenthesis, immediately following the name of the institution at the head of the sheet, the numbers of the lines upon which the inmates thereof have been entered, as for example, "East Side Mission (lines 6 to 69, inclusive)." In all such cases, however, give in the proper place of entry the name of the township or other division of county and also the name of the city, village, or borough, etc., in which the institution is situated.
90. Special enumerators will be appointed to canvass many of the larger institutions, and in such cases the tour of duty of the special institution enumerator will not extend beyond the boundaries of the institution grounds, but should include all those persons and inmates whose usual places of abode are clearly within the institution territory.
91. Schedules to be signed by enumerators.--Each sheet (both A and B sides) of the population schedule is provided with a space for entering the date of the enumeration of the persons indicated thereon, and also for the signature of the enumerator, and each sheet (A or B sides, or both, as the case may be), as soon as filled, must be dated and signed by the enumerator as his certification that the entries contained therein have been made wholly by himself.

The body of the schedule

92. General.--Endeavor to obtain a positive answer to each inquiry according to the instructions herein given, but if an answer to any question can not be obtained from the persons in the family or t he neighborhood, as the law requires, enter, in all cases where possible, the answer you believe to be true. In no case should "Unknown" or "Un" be entered, unless every effort to obtain the desired information has been made.
93. Notice that each sheet is divided into one hundred horizontal lines, fifty to each page (A and B), and that they are numbered from 1 to 100. The answers concerning each person enumerated should be entered on one of these horizontal lines, and so the facts required for 100 persons can be entered on each sheet, if completely filled. (See paragraph 70.)
94. The census day is the day on which the census begins, namely, June 1, 1900. Get each question on the schedule answered with reference to the census day (if applicable), and disregard all changes which occur in your district after that time. Thus, if you visit a family June 4, in which a marriage too, place June 2, enter the parties as single, because they were so on June 1. Enter any person who was alive and dwelling in your district June 1, even if he should die before you visit the dwelling. (See paragraphs 109ยช110).
95. The census year is the twelve months, June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, inclusive--that is, the twelve months before the census day. The inquiries in columns 20 and 21 relate to the census year. (See paragraphs 328 and 336).

96. Location.--Notice that this heading is divided into four columns and that the first two apply only in cites. By cities is meant here all bodies of population living close enough together to have a system of house numbers as a means of indicating location. If you are at work in a district or a part of a district having house number, write in the first column lengthwise the name of the street, avenue, court, place, or alley, as the case may be. In the second column write the number of the house on the same line with the name of the first person entered as living at that number on such street, avenue, etc. The places at which you begin and end work on any street, avenue, etc., are to be marked by heavy lines in ink across the first and second columns, as shown in illustrative example (Form 7-244).
97. If two or more houses are situated on a single lot, that is, one or more houses located in the rear of the house fronting on the street, avenue, court, place, or alley for which the enumeration is being made, designate the first (or front) house by the usual house number on the street, the second house by the same number with "R1" added, the third house by the same number with "R2" added, and so on, until all the houses are properly marked with reference to the house number of the lot on which they are situated.

98. Column 1. Number of dwelling-house, in the order of visitation. The object of this question is to get the number of occupied dwelling-houses in your district, and so by addition in the whole country and its various parts. Enter the first dwelling house you visit as 1, the second as 2, and so on till your work is ended. The last number you write in this column will be the entire number of dwelling-houses in your district.
99. A dwelling-house, for census purposes, is a place in which, at the time of the census, one or more persons regularly sleep. It need not be a house in the usual sense of the word, but may be a room in a factory, store or office building, a loft over a stable, a canal boat, tent, or a wigwam. A building like a tenement or apartment house, if it has only one front door, counts as only one dwelling house, no matter how many persons or families live in it. But one building with a partition wall through it and a front door for each of the two parts, counts as two dwelling houses. So in a block of houses there are as many dwelling-houses as front doors.
100. An exception to this general rule is often found in cities where an apartment house has two separate front doors, but each door leads to a different floor of the same house. In such cases the separate front doors are to be ignored and the house reported as a single dwelling, which it is in fact.
101. For houses containing more than one family the number of the dwelling-house in the order of visitation is to be recorded in column 1, opposite the entries made in the remaining columns for the head of the first family enumerated, but this number is not to be repeated for the other families living in the same house. (See entry in column 1 of the illustrative example (Form 7-244), at line 14, for the first family enumerated at Decatur avenue, and the omission of this number at line 17 for the second family in the same house.)

102. Column 2. Number of family, in the order of visitation.--The object of this question is to get the number of families in your district, and so by addition in the whole country and its various parts. Enter the first family you visit as 1, the second as 2, and so on till your work is ended. The last number you write in this column will be the entire number of families in your district.
103. The word family, for census purposes, has a much wider application than it has in ordinary speech, and means a group of individuals who occupy jointly a dwelling place or part of a dwelling place. A person who boards in one place and lodges in another should be returned as a member of the family where he lodges. A domestic servant, unless she sleeps elsewhere, is to be returned as a member of the family in which she works. All the occupants and employees of a hotel, if they regularly sleep there, make up, for census purposes, a single family, because they occupy one dwelling place. The same is true of all officials and inmates of an institution who live in the institution building. But where officers or employees of an institution sleep in detached houses or separate dwelling places, they are separate families. (See paragraph 125).
104. As the census family may thus be larger than the natural family, so it may also be much smaller, for one person dwelling alone is to be returned as a family. A clerk in a store, who regularly sleeps there, is to be reported as a family, and the store as his dwelling place. Be careful to watch for and ask concerning such persons living alone, otherwise they are likely to be omitted, and the population reported from your district will be in consequence too small. This class of persons is described in the census act (see section 12) as "individuals living out of families," and by this term is meant all persons occupying a room or rooms in public buildings, stores , warehouses, factories, and stables, having no other usual place of abode; persons living solitary in cabins, huts, or tents; persons sleeping on river boats, canal boats, barges, etc., having no other place of abode, and persons in police stations and lodging houses having no homes.
105. In cases where two or more families dwell in one dwelling place, like a tenement or apartment house, the best test for deciding the number of families is the number of separate tables. Each family usually, though not always, has its own meals.
106. The number of the family in the order of visitation is to be recorded in column 2 opposite the entries made in the remaining columns for the head of EACH family enumerated; that is to say, each and every family enumerated by you should be numbered in this column on the line for the head of the family only, in the order as enumerated, as shown in illustrative example (Form 7-244).

107. Note.--Columns 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, and 15 apply to each and every person enumerated, and an entry is required to be made in each of these columns, irrespective of the age of the person to whom the answers relate.

Name and relationship

108. Column 3. Name of each enumerated.--Enter the name of every person whose usual place of abode (see paragraph 111) is in the family or dwelling place for which the enumeration is being made. The census day, that is, the day as of which the enumeration is made, is June 1, 1900. Include, therefore, every person living on June 1, 1900, or during any part of that day, and omit children born after that date.
109. It is intended that the name of every man, woman and child whose usual place of abode on the first day of June, 1900, was within your district shall be entered on the population schedule, but no entry is to be made of a child born between the first day of June 1900, and the day of your visit, say June 5, June 15, etc., as the case may be. (See paragraph 94.)
110. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of your district upon the first day of June, 1900, but between that date and the day of your visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the first of June, 1900, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded.
111. The census law furnishes no definition of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult to guard against the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgment of the enumerator, who, if he will take the pains, can satisfy himself, in the great majority of instances, as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family.
112. In the case of boarders at hotels, students at schools or colleges, and inmates of institutions, ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.
113. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on June 1, 1900.
114. The transient guests of a hotel are not to be enumerated as of the hotel, unless they are likely otherwise to be omitted from the enumeration; but the proprietor and his family, and those boarders, employees, and servants who regularly sleep there are to be so included.
115. The inmates of transient lodging-houses are to be so enumerated, if they claim no other home or have no other place of abode.
116. All inmates of hospitals or other institutions are to be enumerated; but if they have some other permanent place of residence, write it in the margin of the schedule on the left-hand side of the page.
117. If a soldier, sailor, or marine (officer or enlisted man), or civilian employee in the service of the United States at a station at home or abroad, is a member of a family living in your district, he should be enumerated as a member of that family, even though he may be absent on duty at the time of the enumeration.
118. Summer boarders at hotels or country houses and persons temporarily residing in foreign lands should be enumerated as part of their family at their home or usual place of abode.
119. The floating population in vessels, steamboats, and house boats at wharves and piers or river landing should be enumerated on the morning of June 1, as far as possible, by the enumerators of the districts contiguous to the water front, including in the enumeration all persons who claim to be residents of the United States, even though they have no other home than on board the craft where they are found; but the officers and crew of a foreign ship only temporarily in the harbor are not to be enumerated.
120. It is important to ascertain beyond a doubt whether the information given by the person supplying the same covers all the persons in the family, including not only the immediate members of the family, as the head, wife, and children, but also other relatives living with the family, servants (if they sleep in the house), and persons who live with the family, as boarders, lodgers, etc.
121. In the case of families reported "out" at the first visit, but enumerated at a later visit, no spaces should be left blank on the population schedule for the entries concerning the members of such a family, as you can have no knowledge, in most cases, of the number of members constituting the family, and hence of the number of lines to be left blank. The enumeration of the family is to be made on that sheet of the population schedule on which you are at work on the day when the information concerning such family is finally obtained by you.
122. In the case, however, of boarders, lodgers, or other persons living in a family, for whom no information can be obtained at the first visit, but which is supplied later, either in person or through the lady of the house, you should duly enter the name of such person as a member of the family so enumerated, and arrange to secure by a second or third visit, if necessary, the information needed to complete the record for such person. It is important that the person should be recorded by name at least as a member of the family which whom he resides, as otherwise the enumeration of that family will be incomplete, and if omitted from its proper place on the population schedule, such person is likely to be counted, when finally enumerated, as a family of one, which is not the fact.
123. Enter the members of each family in the following order, namely: Head first, wife second, children (whether sons or daughters) in the order of their ages, and all other persons living with the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants.
124. Enter the surname, then the given name in full, and the initial of the middle name, if any. Where the surname is the same as that of the person on the preceding line indicate this by drawing a horizontal line (--) thereunder, as shown in illustrative example.

125. Column 4. Relationship to head of family.--Designate the head of the family, whether a husband or father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by the work "Head;" for other members of a family write wife, mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, d.-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, boarder, lodger, servant, etc., according to the particular relationship which the persons bears to the head of the family. Occupants of an institution or school, living under a common roof, should be designated as officer, inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner, etc., and in case of the chief officer his title should be used, as warden, principal, superintendent, etc. Institutions whose inmates occupy different buildings should be enumerated as though they occupied one institution building. If more than one family resides in the institution building or buildings, group the members together and distinguish them in some intelligible way. (See paragraph 103.) If two or more persons share a common abode as partners, write "head" for one and "partner" for the other or others.

Personal description

126. Column 5. Color or race.--Write "W" for white; "B" for black (negro or of negro descent); "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be.

127. Column 6. Sex.--Write "M" for male and "F" for female, as the case may be.

128. Column 7. Date of birth.--The object of this question is to help in getting the exact age in years of each person enumerated. Many a person who can tell the month and year of his birth will be careless or forgetful in stating the years of his age, and so an error will creep into the census. This danger can not be entirely avoided, but asking the question in two forms will prevent it in many cases.
129. Enter in the first division of column 7 the name or abbreviation of the month in which the persons was born, thus: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., or Dec.
130. Enter in the second division the year in which the person was born, thus: 1841, 1897, etc.
131. Column 8. Age at last birthday.--The object of this question is to get the age of each persons in completed years, or in the case of a child under one year the age in completed months.
132. For each person of one year of age or over, enter the age at last birthday in whole years, omitting months and days. for children who, on the first day of June, 1900, were less than one year of age, enter the age in months, or twelfths of a year, thus: 3/12, 7/12, 8/12. For a child less than one month old, enter the age as follows: 0/12.
133. Endeavor to ascertain in each case the month and year of birth called for in column 7, but where this is impossible get as nearly as possible the exact years of age. An answer given in round numbers, such as "about 30," "about 45," is likely to be wrong. In such cases endeavor to get the exact age.

134. Column 9. Whether single, married, widowed, or divorced.--Write "S" for single or unmarried persons, "M" for married, "Wd" for widowed (man or woman), and "D" for divorced.

135. Column 10. Number of years married.--Enter in this column for all persons reported as married (column 9) the number of years married (to present husband or wife), as 5, 9, 29, etc.; for persons married during the census year, that is, from June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, write "O;" for all other persons leave the column blank. Notice that this question can not be answered for single persons and need not be for widowed or divorced persons.

136. Columns 11 and 12. Mother of how many children and number of these children living.--This questions applies only to women, and its object is to get the number of children each woman has had, and whether the children are not living on the census day. Stillborn children are not to be counted.
137. Enter in the column 11 the figure showing the number of children born to this woman, as 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, etc. If she has had none, write "0." Enter in column 12 the figure showing the number of these children living on the census day. Whether the children are living in your district or elsewhere makes no difference. If the woman has had no children, or if they are all dead, write. "0."


138. Column 13. Place of birth of person.--The object of this question is to get the birthplace of very person living in your district. If the persons was born in the United States, enter in column 13 the state or territory (not city or town) of the United States in which he was born. A person born in what is now West Virginia, North Dakota, South Dakota, or Oklahoma should be reported as so born, although at the time of his birth the particular region may have had a different name.
139. If the person was born outside the United States, enter in column 13 the country (not city or district) in which he was born. By country is meant usually a region whose people have direct relation with other countries. Thus, do not write Prussia or Saxony, but Germany. To this rule, however, note the following exceptions:
140. Write Ireland, England, Scotland, or Wales rather than Great Britain. Write Hungary or Bohemia rather than Austria for persons born in Hungary or Bohemia, respectively. Write Finland rather than Russia for persons born in Finland.
141. Note, also, that the language spoken is not always a safe guide to the birthplace. this is especially true of Germans, for over one-third of the Austrians and nearly three-fourths of the Swiss speak German. In case a person speaks German, therefore, inquire carefully whether the birthplace was Germany, Austria, or Switzerland.
142. In case the persons speaks Polish, as Poland is not now a country, inquire whether the birthplace was what is now known as German Poland or Austrian Poland, and enter the answer accordingly as Poland (Ger.), Poland (Aust..), or Poland (Russ.).
143. If the birthplace reported is Canada or Newfoundland, ask whether the person is of English or French descent. Write Canada English or Canada French, according to the answer.
144. If the person was born abroad of American parents, write in column 13 both the birthplace and "Am. cit.;" that is, American citizen.
145. If the person was born at sea, write "at sea."
146. Spell out the names of states, territories, and countries, and do not abbreviate, except for American citizen, as mentioned in paragraph 144.

147. Column 14 and 15. place of birth of father and mother.--Apply the instructions for filling column 13 to these two columns; but where either the father or mother was born at sea, write in the proper column, beside the words "at sea," the birthplace of the father's father or mother's father.


148. Column 16. Year of immigration to the United States.--If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the year in which he arrived in the United States.
149. Column 17. Number of years in the United States.--If the person is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, enter the number of years since his arrival in the United States. Disregard all fractions of a year. If the time is less than one year, write "O." Endeavor to get the exact number of years in all cases.
150. The question of immigration (columns 16 and 17) applies to all foreign-born persons, male and female, of whatever age. If does not apply to persons born in the United States.
151. Column 18. Naturalization.--If the persons is a native of the United States, leave the column blank. If he was born abroad, and has taken no steps toward becoming an American citizen, write "Al" (for alien). If he has declared his intention to become an American citizen and taken out his "first" papers, write "Pa" (for papers). If he has become a full citizen by taking out second or final papers of naturalization, write "Na" (for naturalized).
152. The question of naturalization (column 18) applies only to foreign-born males 21 years of age and over. It does not apply to foreign-born minors, to foreign-born females, or to any person, male or female, who was born in the United States, either of native or foreign parentage.

Occupation, trade, or profession
153. NOTE.--The following instructions concerning the return of the occupation, trade, or profession in column 19 do not, in the main, form a part of the instructions contained in the portfolio or the instructions printed at the bottom of the illustrative example. These instructions are very important, however, and must be not only read but studied carefully.
154. Column 19. Occupation.--This question applies to every persons 10 years of age and over who is at work, that is, occupied in gainful labor, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon which each persons depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged ordinarily during the larger part of the time. (See paragraph 223.)
155. This is a most important question. In reporting occupations avoid the use of general or indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. Endeavor to ascertain always the kind of work done, and so state it.
156. Indicate in every case the kind of work done or character of service rendered. do not state merely the article made or worked upon, or the place where the work is done. For example, the reply "carriage builder," or "works in carriage factory," is unsatisfactory, because men of different trades, such as blacksmiths, joiners, wheelwrights, painters, upholsterers, work together in building carriages. Such an answer, therefore, does not show what kind of work the person performs.
157. Return every person according to his own occupation, not that of his employer. For example, describe a blacksmith employed by a manufacturer of carriages as a carriage blacksmith and not as a carriage builder, or a cooper employed by a brewery as a cooper and not a brewer, etc.
158. If a person has two occupations, enter the more important one, that is, the one from which he gets the more money. If you can not learn that, enter the one in which he spends the more time. For example, describe a person who gets most of his income by managing a farm, but also preaches, as a "farmer," but if he gets more income form his preaching, describe his as a "preacher" and not as a farmer.
159. Sometimes you will find a person engaged in one occupation, but claiming a different one. This will be common in certain resorts for invalids. Such persons often take up for the time occupations different from those followed at home. for example, you may find a clergyman canvassing for books or a physician herding cattle. In such a case ask from which occupation the person gets the more money or to which he gives more time during the year.
160. If a married woman has a gainful occupation, return the occupation accordingly, whether she does the work at her home or goes regularly to a place of employment, and whether she is regularly or only occasionally so employed. For example, "milliner," "dressmaker," "nurse," etc.
161. In farming sections, where a farm is found that is under the management or supervision of a woman as owner or tenant, return the occupation of such woman as "farmer" in all cases.
162. Report a student who supports himself by some occupation according to the occupation, if more time is given to that, but as a student, of more time is given to study. Thus report a student who does stenographic work as a student unless more of his time is spent in stenography. Report a salesman in a grocery store, who attends a night school as "salesman, groceries," because most of his day is spent in the store. (See paragraph 219.)
163. Many a person who does not follow any occupation still has an income. In that case indicate the source of the income. Report a person whose income comes from the rent of lands or buildings as "landlord." Report a person who receives his income, or most of it, from money loaned at interest, or from stocks, bonds, or other securities, as a "capitalist."
164. Abbreviations.--The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others):
Agric., for agriculture.
Agt., for agent.
Asst., for assistant.
Co., for company.
Comsn., for commission.
Dept., for department.
Fcty., for factory.
Insur., for insurance.
Merch., for merchant.
Mfg., for manufacturing.
Mfr., for manufacturer.
Prest., for president.
R.R., for railroad or railway.
Sch., for school.
Secy., for secretary.
Supt., for superintendent.
Teleg., for telegraph.
Telph., for telephone.
Trav., for traveling, or traveler.
Treas., for treasurer.
165. The illustrations given under this head show the nature of the answers which should be made to this inquiry. They are not intended to cover all occupations, but are merely examples of the answers desired in order to secure a proper descriptions of the character of the service rendered or kind of work done by each and every person engaged in gainful labor.
166. Do not confuse a farmer with a farm laborer. If a person works on a farm for a stated wage (in money or its equivalent), even though he may be a son or other relative of the person who conducts the farm, he should be entered as a farm laborer, and not as a farmer. On the other hand, if a person owns or rents a farm, or operates it with or for another persons, for a fixed share of the products, he should be entered as a farmer, and not as a farm laborer. Enter the older children of a farmer (who works on the farm) as farm laborers, except when a father and son (or sons) jointly operate the farm for fixed shares of the product. (See paragraph 300.)
167. Do not confuse a day laborer at work for the city, town, or at odd jobs with a farm laborer at work on the farm or plantation or in the employ of gardeners, nurserymen, etc., Do not say simply "laborer," but state in every case the kind of work done, as day laborer, farm laborer, garden laborer, etc. If a person is a laborer in a mill, workshop, or factory, specify the fact, in addition to the word laborer, as laborer (cement works), etc.
168. Distinguish between a woodchopper at work regularly in the woods or forests and an ordinary laborer who takes a job occasionally at chopping wood.
169. Distinguish between a farmer or a planter who owns, hires, or carries on a farm or plantation, and a gardener, fruit grower, nurseryman, florist, or vine grower, etc., who is engaged in raising vegetables for marked or in the cultivation of fruit, flowers, seeds, nursery products, etc.
170. Avoid the confusion of the garden laborer, nursery laborer, etc., who hires out his services, with the proprietor gardener, florist, nurseryman, etc., who carries on the business himself or employs others to assist him.
171. Return as a dairyman or dairywoman any person whose occupation in connection with the farm has to do chiefly with the dairy. Do not confuse such a person with an employee of a butter and cheese or condensed milk factory, who should be separately returned by some distinctive term.
172. Return a stock herder or stock drover separately from a stock raiser.
173. Do not include a lumberman, raftsman, log driver, etc., engaged in hauling or transporting lumber (generally by water) from the forest to the mill with an employee of a lumber yard or a lumber mill.
174. For a fisherman or oysterman describe the occupation as accurately as possible. Be careful to avoid the return of a fisherman on a vessel as a sailor. If he gains his living by fishing, he should be returned as a "fisherman," and not as a sailor.
175. Made a careful distinction between a coal miner and a miner of ores; also between a miner and a quarryman. State the kind of ore mined or stone quarried.
176. Do not return a proprietor or official of a mining or quarrying company as a miner or quarryman, but state his business or official position accurately.
177. Specify each profession in detail, according to the fact, as follows: Actor, artist or teacher of art, clergyman, dentist, designer, draftsman, engraver, civil engineer or surveyor, mechanical or mining engineer, government clerk or official, journalist, lawyer, librarian, musician or teacher of music, physician, surgeon, professor (in college or university), teacher (in school), or other pursuits of a professional nature.
178. Distinguish between as actor, a theatrical manager, and a showman.
179. Return a government official, in the service of the national, state, county, city, or town government, by the title of his office, if that is the occupation upon which he depends chiefly for a livelihood; otherwise by his usual trade or profession.
180. Distinguish between a government clerk occupying a position under the national, state, county, city, or town government and a clerk in an office, store, manufacturing establishments, etc.
181. Return a veterinary surgeon separately from another surgeon.
182. Distinguish a journalist editor, or reporter from an author or other literary person who does not follow journalism as a distinct profession.
183. Return a chemist, assayer, metallurgist, or other scientific person by his distinctive title.
184. Specify each occupation or kind of service rendered in detail, according to the fact, as hotel keeper, boarding-house keeper, restaurant keeper, or saloon keeper or bartender; housekeeper, cook, or servant (in hotel, boarding-house, hospital, institution, private family, etc.); barber or hairdresser; janitor, sexton or undertaker; nurse or midwife; watchman, policeman, or detective. The above are given only as examples of the occupations which would naturally be included under this general class of work.
185. Return as a housekeeper a woman who receives a stated wage or salary for her services, and do not confuse her with a woman who keeps house for her own family or for herself, without any gainful occupation, or with a grown daughter who assists in the household duties without pay. A wife or daughter who simply keeps house for her own family should not be returned as a housekeeper in any case. (See paragraph 218.)
186. A clerk in a hotel, restaurant, or saloon should be so described and carefully distinguished from a bartender. In many instances a bartender will state his occupation as "clerk" in wine store, etc., but the character of the service rendered by such a person will readily determine whether he should be classed as a "bartender," or as a "clerk."
187. A stationary engineer or fireman should be carefully distinguished from a locomotive engineer or fireman.
188. A soldier, sailor, or marine enlisted in the service of the United States should be so returned. Distinguish between an officer and an enlisted man, and for a civilian employee state the kind of service performed by him.
189. Distinguish carefully between a real estate agent, insurance agent, claim agent, or commission agent, etc.
190. If a person combines two or more of these occupations, as is often the case, return the occupation from which he derives the larger share of his income.
191. Return an accountant, bookkeeper, clerk, cashier, etc., according to his distinctive occupation, and state the kind of service rendered, as accountant--insurance; bookkeeper--wholesale dry goods; clerk--gas company; cashier--music store.
192. Do not confound a clerk with a salesman, as is often done, especially in dry goods stores, grocery stores, and provision stores. Generally speaking, a person so employed is to be considered as a salesman, unless most of his service is in the office on the books and accounts; otherwise he should be returned as salesman--dry goods; salesman--groceries, etc.
193. A stenographer or typewriter should be reported as such, and should not be described simply as a "clerk."
194. Distinguish carefully between a bank clerk, cashier in bank, or bank official, describing the particular position filled in each case. In no case should a bank cashier be confounded with a cashier in a store, etc.
195. Distinguish between a foreman and overseer, a packer and shipper, a porter and helper, and an errand, office, and messenger boy in a store, etc., and state in each case the character of the duties performed by him, as foreman--wholesale wool; packer--crockery; porter--rubber goods; errand boy--dry goods; messenger boy--telegraph.
196. State the kind of merchant or dealer, as dry goods merchant, wood and coal dealer, etc. Whenever a single word will express the business carried on, as grocer, it should be used.
197. In the case of a huckster or peddler also state the kind of goods sold, as peddler--tinware.
198. Distinguish a traveling salesman from a sales-man in a store, return the former as a "commercial traveler," and state the kind of goods sold by him.
199. Return a boarding or livery stable keeper separately from a hostler or other stable employee.
200. Distinguish also between an expressman, teamster, drayman, and carriage and hack driver.
201. A steam railroad employee should be reported according to the nature of his work, as baggageman, brakeman, conductor, railroad laborer, locomotive engineer, locomotive fireman, switchman, yardman, etc.
202. An official of a railroad, telegraph, express, or other company should be returned by his title and carefully distinguished from an employee of such company.
203. Return a boatman, canalman, pilot, long-shoreman, stevedore, or sailor (on a steam or sailing vessel) according to his distinctive occupation.
204. A telegraph operator, telephone operator, telegraph lineman, telephone lineman, electric-light man, etc., should be reported according to the nature of the work performed.
Manufacturing and Mechanical Pursuits
205. In reporting this class of occupations there are many difficulties in the way of showing the kind of work done rather than the article made or the place worked in.; The nature of certain occupations is such that it is well-nigh impossible to find properly descriptive terms without the use of some expression relating to the article made or place in which the work is carried on.
206. Do not accept "maker" of an article or "works in" mill, shop, or factory, but strive always to find out the particular work done.
207. Do not use the words "factory operative," but specify the kind of work done, as cotton mill--spinner; silk mill--weaver, etc.
208. Avoid in all cases the use of the word "mechanic," and state whether a carpenter, mason, house painter, machinist, plumber, etc.
209. Do not say "finisher," "molder," "polisher," etc., but describe the word done, as brass finisher, iron molder, steel polisher, etc.
210. Distinguish between a persons who tends machines and the unskilled workman or laborer in mills, factories, and workshops.
211. Describe the proprietor of the establishment as a "manufacturer," and specify the branch of manufacture, as cotton manufacturer, etc. In no case should a manufacturer be returned as a "maker" of an article.
212. In the case of an apprentice, state the trade to which apprenticed, as Apprentice--carpenter, etc.
213. Distinguish between a butcher, whose business is to slaughter cattle, swine, etc., and a provision dealer, who sells meats.
214. Distinguish between a glover, hatter, or furrier who actually makes in his own establishment all or part of the gloves, hats, or furs which he sells, and a person who simply deals in but does not make these articles.
215. Do not describe a person in a printing office as a "printer" where a more expressive term can be used, as compositer, pressman, press feeder, etc.
216. Make the proper distinction between a clock or watch "maker" and a clock or watch "repairer." Do not apply the word "jeweler" to those who make watches, watch chains, or jewelry in large establishments.
217. Distinguish between a clockmaker, dressmaker, seamstress, tailoress, etc. In the case of a sewing-machine operator, specify the kind of work done.
218. If a person is attending school write "at school." No entry in column 19 should be made, however, for a lawyer, merchant, manufacturer, etc., who has retired from practice or business; nor for a wife or daughter living at home and assisting only in the household duties without pay (see paragraph 185); more for a person too old to work, or a child under 10 years of age not at school.
219. The doing of domestic errands or family chores out of school hours, where a child regularly attends school, is not an occupation. But if a boy or girl, above 10 years of age, is earning money regularly by labor, contributing to the family support, or appreciably assisting in mechanical or agricultural industry, the kind of work performed should be stated. (See paragraph 162.)
220. In the case of an inmate of an institution or home, such as a hospital, asylum, home for the aged, soldiers' home, penitentiary, jail, etc., no entry is required in column 19 unless the inmate is actually engaged in remunerative work for which he receives a stated wage in addition to his board. The occupation of an officer or regular employee of such institution or home, however, is to be entered in this column, the same as for all other persons having a gainful occupation.
221. Column 20. Months not employed.--The object of this question is to get the number of months (or parts of months) in the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900) during which each person having a gainful occupation was not employed. for those who have no gainful occupation, leave the column blank.
222. The law does not contemplate that this question shall apply solely to the principal occupation in which the person may have been engaged during the year, but it is the intent to find out the number of months (or parts of months) during which a person ordinarily engaged in gainful labor was not employed at all.
223. A return is required in columns 19 and 20 for each and every person 10 years of age and over who was engaged in gainful labor during any part of the census year (June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900, inclusive), or who is ordinarily occupied in remunerative work but during the census year was unable to secure work of any kind. In the latter case enter his customary occupation, as carpenter, bricklayer, etc., in column 19 and the figure "12" in column 20 to show that, although he had an occupation or trade, he was not employed at all during the year at that or any other kind of work.


224. Column 21. - Attended school (in months). For all persons attending school during the year ending June 1, 1900, enter the number of months (or parts of months) of school attendance, as 9, 8, etc. If a person of school age did not attend school at all duing the year, write "0." For all other persons to whom the inquiry is applicable, leave the column blank.

225. Column 22. Can read.-Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years of age and over who can read any language, and "No" for all other persons of that age who can not read in any language. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.
226. Column 23. Can write.-Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years of age and over who can write any language, and "No" for all other persons of that age who can not write in any language. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.
227. The inquiries in columns 22 and 23 are intended to show the literacy of all persons 10 years of age and over, and should be answered according as they are able to read or write the language ordinarily spoken by them.

228. Column 24. Can speak English.--Write "Yes" for all persons 10 years of age and over who can speak English, and "No" for all other persons of that age who can not speak English. For persons under 10 years, leave the column blank.

Ownership of home
229. Fill columns 25, 26, and 27 for each head of family only; for every other person, leave the columns blank.
230. Column 25.--If the home is owned, write "O." If it is rented, write "R."
231. Column 26.--If the home is rented, leave the column blank. If it is owned and mortgaged, write "M." If it is owned free from mortgage incumbrance, write "F."
232. Column 27.--If the home is a farm, write "F." If it is only a house, write "H."
233. Column 28.--If the home is only a house, leave the column blank. If the home is a farm, write the number of its farm schedule; that is, the farm number as reported on Schedule No. 2, relating to agriculture. Enter the number of each farm schedule on the line for the member of the family by whom the farm is operated. (See paragraphs 246 and 277).
234. Definition of home.--By the word "home" in the census is meant any place of abode inhabited by any person or person, whether it is a house, a tent, a boat, or whatever it may be. If any such place of abide is inhabited by more than one family, it is the home of each of them, and it may accordingly be counted as two or more homes instead of one. The family (see paragraph 102-106) is the basis for all inquiries in columns 25, 26, and 27.
235. A home occupied by a family engaged in farming, gardening, or any other form of agricultural production includes the land cultivated. If occupied by a family not so engaged, it includes only the dwelling and the ground occupied by it, with the appurtenances thereto.
236. In case a family resides in a tent or boat, write in column 27 the word "tent" or "boat."
237. If a family cultivates a farm, but resides in a house detached from the farm, in a village or elsewhere, the farm and the house must jointly be considered the family home and that home a farm, unless the chief occupation of the person operating the farm is something other than farming. In the latter case, the house alone is to be regarded as the home. (See paragraphs 269-270.)
238. Owned or rented.--A home is to be classes as "owned" whenever the title, in whole or in part, is vested in any member of the family (not a boarder) by which the house is occupied. It is owned if any member of the family has a life interest or estate in it; or it is occupied by a settler on the public domain who has not "proved up;" or if it is held under a contract or bond for a deed, or occupied for redemption purposes after having been sold for debt. (See paragraph 295.) It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made. All homes not owned as herein explained are to be classed as "rented."
239. In case of a farm part of which is owned and part rented; or in case different members of the same family operate different farms, of which one is owned and the other rented; or in the case of the cultivation of a farm by a family which does not reside upon the farm, but elsewhere, the dwelling being owned and the farm rented, or, on the contrary, the farm being owned and the dwelling rented, the principle applies that "part ownership is ownership." In all these and similar cases write in column 25 the letter "O."
240. Following the same general rule, if a family occupies a house upon leased land for which "ground rent" is paid, and the building is owned by any member of the family (not a boarder), write "O." Ownership of the building and not the ground, or of the ground and not the building, by the occupant, is part ownership.
241. If, of two families occupying the same house, one has an interest in it, and the other not, the home occupied by the former is to be returned as "owned," but that occupied by the other as "rented."
242. Free or mortgaged.--The question in column 26 applies only to homes which are owned (in whole or in part, as explained above). Its aim is to ascertain whether the home, or so much of the home as is owned by the occupant, has been fully paid for and is without incumbrance of any sort, either in the form of a mortgage or otherwise. This question has no relation to rented property.
243. All homes which are not fully paid for, or upon which there is any incumbrance in the form either of a mortgage or of a lien upon which judgment has been had in a court, are to be reported as mortgaged, but no others.
244. Liabilities or incumbrances of any sort which attach to land occupied in connection with a home, but not owned by the family, are not to be regarded as mortgages upon the home. For instance, if, as mentioned in paragraphs 239 and 240, in the case of a farm partly owned and partly rented, or in that of two farms, one of which is owned and the other rented, or in that of a house erected by the occupant upon ground owned by another person, there is a mortgage upon the leased land, but not upon the farm or portion of a farm or dwelling owned by the occupant, the house is to be returned as free from mortgage.
245. Farm or house.--The letter "F" in column 27 means that some member of the family operates a farm, which should be separately reported on the agricultural schedule, and its number in the order of visitation entered in column 28. In all other cases inter in column 27 the letter "H." usually a farmer resides upon his farm, and person who reside on farms are farmers. If, however, a family resides upon a farm, but no member of the family operates it, write "H." On the other hand, if a farm is operated by any person who does not reside upon it, but off the farm, in a village or elsewhere, enter against the name of the head of the family of which such person is a member the letter "F."

246. Farm number.--The serial number of each farm reported, in the order of visitation, is to be entered in column 28, precisely as the numbers of houses and families enumerated are entered in columns 1 and 2. (See paragraphs 98-101 and 102-106.) This number should, in every instance, be the same as the number in the heading of the corresponding farm schedule. (See paragraphs 233 and 277.)