Census of England and Wales, 1881
Instructions to the various officers as to their duties in taking the Census
Prepared under the direction of the Local Government Board, pursuant to the Act of 43 and 44 Vict. c. 37.
Printed by George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode,
PRINTERS TO THE QUEEN'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.
Census Of England And Wales, 1881.
Office:--Craig's Court, Charing Cross, London, S.W.
Sir Brydges P. Henniker, Bart., Registrar General.
Assistants To Registrar General:
William Clode, Esq.
William Ogle, Esq., M.D.
Secretary.--Francis James Williams, Esq.
Accountant.--Thomas Oakes, Esq.
Clerks.--Appointed By The Lords Commissioners Of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Superintendent Registrars 630
Enumerators [not yet appointed; they numbered 32,543 in 1871].
Householders to make returns. [Numbers not yet known; they numbered 5,049,016 in 1871.]
The Channel Islands And Isle Of Man.--The respective Lieutenant- Governors will carry out the arrangements according to Instructions from the Census Office, London.
Special returns are obtained as follows:
- Of the army--from his royal highness the field marshal commanding in chief.
- Of the navy--from the lords commissioners of the admiralty.
- Of merchant seamen on vessels in home ports--from the honorable board of Customs.
- Of merchant seamen abroad--from the registrar general of merchant Seamen.
- Of British subjects in foreign states--from the secretary of state for foreign affairs.
- Of British population in India--from the secretary of state for India in Council.
- Of population of British colonies--from the secretary of state for the Colonies.
Census of England and Wales, 1881.
Instructions to the various officers as to their duties in taking the census.
Prepared under the direction of the local government board,
Pursuant to the act of 43 and 44 vict. C. 37.
London: printed by George e. Eyre and Eilliam Spottiswoode,
Printers to the Queen's most Excellent Majesty.
For Her Majesty's stationery office.
Letter to Superintendent Registrar.................................................................... Page 3
Instructions to Superintendent Registrar as to his Duties in taking the Census Page 5
Letter to Registrar.............................................................................................. Page12
Instructions to Registrar as to his Duties in taking the Census.......................... Page 13
Instructions to the Enumerator as to his Duties in taking the Census................ Page 23
The Census Act (43 and 44 vict. cap. 37)............................................................Page 29
Registrar General's Letter To Superintendent Registrar.
Craig's Court, London, S.W.
5th January 1881.
I have to request your attention to the Act for taking the Census (43 and 44 Vict. cap. 37), from which you will perceive that certain duties are imposed upon all Superintendent Registrars in England and Wales.
You will also receive herewith your Instructions, prepared under the direction of the Local Government Board, together with the Table of Allowances to which the various officers will be entitled for their services.
The Registrars of your District have been instructed how to divide their Sub- Districts into Enumeration Districts, and have been directed to forward to you, before the 8th of February next, their respective Plans of Division and Lists of Persons proposed by them as Enumerators. Meanwhile, I have to request that you will afford them any assistance they may require in order to secure a division of their Sub- Districts in conformity with the Instructions.
If you do not receive all the Plans of Division and the List of proposed Enumerators by the appointed day, you will immediately communicate with any Registrar in default, urgently requiring him to transmit the same to you; if four days more shall elapse without the arrival of the documents, you will repeat your remonstrance, and at the same time report to me at this Office the circumstances of the case.
In addition to your Instructions, you will find in an Appendix a copy of the Instructions to Registrars and Enumerators, with the Census Act annexed.
You are aware of the importance of this great national undertaking; and I rely upon your aid in carrying out the provisions of the Census Act in your District in such a manner as to ensure that the returns relating to persons and houses shall be both accurate and complete so as to reflect credit upon yourself and all concerned. As the work must be done by given dates, I must particularly request that all the instructions and communications you may receive upon this business may be attended to with the utmost promptitude. In case of your illness or unavoidable absence your Deputy must act for you.
I have the honor to be,
Your faithful servant,
Brydges P Henniker,
To the Superintendent Registrar.
Instructions to the superintendent registrar as to his duties in taking the census.
Prepared under the direction of the Local Government Board.
Formation of Enumeration Districts.
In conformity with the 2nd Section of the Census Act, the Registrars are to divide their respective Sub-Districts into Enumerators' Districts, according to the Instructions prepared under the direction of the Local Government Board (a copy of which you will find in the Appendix); and each Registrar in your District has been directed to forward to you his proposed Plan of Division to be revised before its final approval by the Registrar General.
It will be your duty to see that the proposed Enumeration Districts are formed in accordance with the Instructions; and that they are in every respect suitable to the circumstances of the locality. No Enumeration District should be too extensive to admit of all the houses in it being visited without difficulty in the course of a single day by the Enumerator with, where necessary, an authorised assistant.
The country was sub-divided into Enumeration Districts at the Census of 1871, as described in the Plans of Division of that date. No unnecessary changes in the Enumeration Districts then used should be made; but where the arrangements were then found to be inconvenient, where changes in the Registrars' Districts have been made, or where any great increase of population has taken place, the Registrars have been instructed to meet the circumstances of each case by re-arrangements. Size, population, and well-defined boundaries are the points of chief importance in framing Enumeration Districts.
If a Registrar's Plan of Division deviates from the Instructions, you should require that it be altered without delay, and may yourself propose a mode of alteration. In your revision you will find it convenient to have before you the best available map of your District. No charge, however, can be allowed for maps or tracings.
The Plans of Division, and the List of Persons proposed as Enumerators, duly revised, approved, and signed by you, should be forwarded to the Census Office before Friday, the 18th day of February next.
Under the 3rd Section of the Census Act, the Registrars are to return to the Superintendent Registrar a List containing the Names and Places of Abode of a sufficient number of persons duly qualified to act as Enumerators within their several Sub-Districts; "and such persons, when approved of by the Superintendent Registrar, are to be appointed by him Enumerators for taking the Census." Upon receiving from a Registrar the names of persons proposed as Enumerators, you will, if they appear to you to possess the requisite qualifications, at once appoint them, subject nevertheless to the approval of the Registrar General.
The Registrar has been instructed that he may permit the Enumerator, under certain conditions, to engage an authorised assistant. This will be subject to your sanction.
In order to prevent any inconvenience arising from a possible deficiency, from any cause whatever, in the requisite number of Enumerators, you will observe that the 11th Section of the Census Act obliges all Overseers of the Poor, Constables, or other Peace Officers, and the Relieving Officers in any Union or Civil Parish not in union having a Board of Guardians acting under the provisions of the Act 4 and 5 Will. IV. cap. 76, to act as Enumerators within their respective Civil Parishes and Unions, if required to do so by the Local Government Board, and provides that such persons, where they shall so act, shall be entitled to allowances as Enumerators. Should any deficiency occur, application should be made to the persons above described, who should be informed that the Act of Parliament requires their services under a Penalty of not less than 5l. in case of refusal; and if, notwithstanding this representation, these officers should refuse to act, the case must be reported to the Census Office, with the names of such officers, in order that a formal requisition may be immediately obtained from the Local Government Board and forwarded to the Registrar.
Revision of Documents after the Census.
The following Documents should be transmitted to you by each Registrar under your superintendence before the 25th April next:--
- All the Enumeration Books for his Sub-District (including those for Public Institutions).
- All the Enumerators' Instruction and Memorandum Books.
- Plan of Division.
- List of Public Institutions.
- List of Enumerators.
- Registrar's Summary of the Population of Parishes and Townships.
- Enumerators' Claims for Allowances.
- Registrar's own Claim.
In the Revision of the Enumeration Books you will not be expected to make the minute examination which is required from the Registrars; and in the Instructions to those Officers it is provided that you shall not be troubled with the Householders' Schedules, which are to be sent direct to the Census Office without passing through your hands. But your inspection should be sufficiently complete to satisfy yourself that the Registrar has in every case duly performed the duties required of him, and that all inaccuracies have been corrected as far as possible, so that you may be enabled to sign the Certificate to that effect in each Enumeration Book.
The Registrars' Summaries of Population, and should be carefully revised by you.
The examination of the Claims of the Registrars and Enumerators will also demand your special attention. By the 14th section of the Census Act the Superintendent Registrar is to certify to the Registrar General the total amount of the allowances due to all the officers employed in the District within One Calendar Month after the taking of the Census, and it is highly desirable that the various claims should be discharged with the utmost promptitude, in order to facilitate this object, printed Forms of Account, with Instructions, will be forwarded to you, and also to the Registrars for their own use and for the Enumerators acting under them.
You will not fail to apply to the Registrars for their accounts, and to repeat the application as often as may be necessary to enable you to comply with the Act, reporting to this Office any cases of inattention or negligence on their part.
Transmission of Documents to Census Office.
It is desirable that you should expedite the process of revising the Enumeration Books so that you may be able to forward to the Census Office the Books of at least one Sub-District before the end of April, and the rest in rapid succession.
The Enumeration Books of each Registrar's Sub-District should be accompanied by the following documents: --
- Enumerators' Memorandum Books.
- Registrar's Summary.
- Plan of Division.
- List of Public Institutions.
- List of Enumerators.
They are to be sent to the census office, not by post, but by Railway, by Carrier, by Parcels Delivery Company, or by any other less expensive conveyance. The carriage will be paid at the Census Office on delivery.
They should be made up into packets, and addressed, by means of labels which shall be sent to you for the purpose, on which the name of your District is to be written.
The various Claims for Allowances, and your Abstract of Total Expense in the District, must be forwarded before the 4th May, certified by you.
Payments to the various Officers.
An order on Her Majesty's Paymaster General, Whitehall, will be sent to you for the payment on the whole amount of allowances due to yourself, and to the Registrars. Enumerators, and other Persons within the Sub-Districts under your superintendence, and you will pay over to each Registrar the allowances to which the said Registrar is entitled, and will also pay over or cause to be paid over, to the Enumerators and other Persons, the allowances to which they are severally entitled.
You will then, with the least possible delay, return all the accounts to this Office, properly arranged and receipted, in order that they may be transmitted to the Comptroller and Auditor General.
Table of Allowances.
To be made to the several Superintendent Registrars, Registrars, and Enumerators, employed in the execution of the Act for taking the Census of England and Wales, 1881.
(Sanctioned by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury.)
For duly performing all his duties in taking the census:--
A fixed Fee of 6 0 0 (£ s. d.)
And an additional Fee at the rate of Two Shillings for every 1,000 Persons properly enumerated over and above the first 10,000 in his District [A proportional fraction of 2s. to be paid for each part of 1,000 over and above 10,000]
For duly performing all his duties in taking the census:--
A fixed Fee of 4 0 0 (£ s. d.)
And an additional Fee at the rate of One Shilling for every 100 Persons properly enumerated over and above the first 1,200 in his District [A proportional fraction of 1s. to be paid for each part of 100 over and above 1,200]
For delivering and collecting the Householders' Schedules, copying the Schedules correctly into the Enumeration Book, and duly performing his other duties in taking the census:--
A fixed Fee of 1 1 0 (£ s. d.)
And an additional Fee at the rate of Two Shillings and SixPence for every 100 Persons properly enumerated over and above the first 400 in his District [A proportional fraction of 2s. 6d. to be paid for each part of 100 over and above 400]
And an additional allowance of Sixpence for every mile above 5 miles necessarily traversed by the Enumerator in visiting every house within his District, for the purpose of delivering the Householders' Schedules; and a further sum of Sixpence for every mile above 5 miles necessarily traversed by him in collecting the said Schedules. [In reckoning the Mileage, only the number of miles above five necessarily traversed between the first and the last house visited must be taken into account; the distance traversed by the Enumerator in going to the first house, and from the last house to his own home must, therefore, not be included in either calculation. No charge will be allowed for any fractional part of a mile.]
Enumerator of a public institution.
For duly performing all his duties in taking the census:--
A fixed Fee of 0 10 6 (£ s. d.)
And an additional Fee at the rate of Two Shillings and Sixpence for every 100 Persons properly enumerated over and above the first 1,200 in his District [A proportional fraction of 2s. 6d. to be paid for each part of 100 over and above 300]
Brydges P. Henniker,
Census Office, Craig's Court,
3 Jan. 1881.
Registrar General's letter to Registrar.
Craig's Court, London, S.W.
3rd January 1881.
I Have to call your attention to the Act for taking the Census of England and Wales (43 and 44 Vict. c. 37), from which you will observe that certain duties are imposed upon all Registrars of Births and Deaths.
Besides the Act, you will receive herewith your Instructions approved by the Local Government Board and the Table or Allowances, also approved by that Board and by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury.
With your instructions you will get the Forms for Plan of Division, for List of Enumerators, and for Enumerator's Agreement, and also Form for List of Institutions. You will also find enclosed the Plan of Division for 1871.
Your duties consist summarily in making such arrangements as will enable you, with the assistance of Enumerators, to return an account of every soul in your District on the night of April 3rd, 1881.
You will have (1) to submit to me, through your Superintendent Registrar, a Plan of Division containing all the proposed Enumeration Districts; (2) to nominate Enumerators for approval; (3) to set them to work at the proper time in delivering and collecting the Householders' Schedules; and (4) finally to revise their work, for the due execution of which you are held by me responsible.
These matters are referred to in detail in your Instructions.
Your faithful Servant,
Brydges P. Henniker,
To the Registrar of Births and Deaths.
Instructions to The Registrar of Births and Deaths as to his Duties in Taking the Census.
Prepared under the Direction of the Local Government Board.
Formation of Enumeration Districts.
In order to secure the Enumeration of the whole of the Population in your District on one day, it was subdivided in 1871 into Enumeration Districts. These Enumeration Districts are set forth in the accompanying Plan of Division drawn up at that date.
It is held to be desirable to retain as far as possible the same Enumeration Districts as were used in the previous Census, especially in the Country, in the denser parts of Towns, and in every locality where no great increase of Population has taken place.
You will therefore [sic] revise the former Plan of Division carefully, with a view to render the description of each of the Enumeration Districts applicable to the present time and as distinct as possible. Should any great changes have been made since 1871 in your District, you will frame a new Plan of Division.
Where, from the increase of Population, an Enumeration District, as formed in 1871, has grown too large, you will either divide it into two, or if the increase has taken place in two or more adjoining Enumeration Districts, you will proceed to rearrange them in the way most convenient for Enumeration.
As a general rule it may be assumed that an efficient Enumerator will be able to visit about 200 Houses in Towns; and where he will not have to travel more than 15 miles in visiting a small number of Houses in the Country, the District will not be too large.
Should you in any particular case find that the Enumeration District is now too populous for one Enumerator, and yet that one Enumerator can, aided by an assistant paid and appointed by him, under your sanction, do the work, you can maintain the Enumeration District as it was in 1871. In such cases, the Enumerator must hold himself absolutely responsible to you for the efficient discharge of the whole of the duty of enumerating the population within his prescribed area.
You will take great care that, in addition to the Civil Parishes, Townships, and Ecclesiastical Parishes or Districts, all the other Local Sub-Divisions are distinctly set forth on your Plan of Division. In the Country you will specify every Village and Hamlet. You will hereafter have to see that the precise to which each house belongs is distinctly indicated in the Enumeration Book
- Civil Parish, Municipal Borough,
- [Civil] Township, [Municipal] Ward,
- Ecclesiastical Parish, Urban Sanitary District,
- Parliamentary Borough, Rural [Sanitary District]
The Masters or Heads of certain Public Institutions were made by the authority of the Registrar General the paid Enumerators of the Population of those Institutions. It is desirable to maintain the same arrangement in this respect as existed in 1871, unless you report to him that the number of persons in any of the said Institutions has fallen below 200; or notify that new Institutions have been opened since 1871 of such magnitude as may render it desirable to make the Master or Head the Enumerator. In Barracks and Camps containing more than 200 soldiers, the Barrack Master or Quarter Master will be the paid Enumerator.
Of nearly all the large Cities and Towns of the Kingdom Ordnance or other Maps exist on a sufficiently large scale to allow of the Enumeration Districts being laid down thereon distinctly. If this can be conveniently done, it will enable you and the Superintendent Registrar to see clearly how the Town has been plotted out, and to make sure that no part has been omitted. It will also enable you to explain his work to each Enumerator, who might get a Sketch or Map of his District. No charge, however, can be allowed for maps or tracings.
If any Civil Parish or Township in your District has locally situate within its boundaries a detached part of any other Parish or Township, the enumeration of such detached part must be duly provided for, and care taken that it is clearly distinguished both in your Plan of Division and in the Enumerator's Book. Should any Enumeration District extend beyond a County boundary, the portions belonging to each County must be clearly distinguished. You will see that the Enumeration of persons in canal boats and barges in inland waters is duly provided for in your Plan of Division.
Having carefully considered the division of your District in conference, if necessary, with the Superintendent Registrar, whose duty it will be to revise your work, you will, with the Plan of Division for 1871 before you, set forth in the accompanying Blank Form for Plan of Division the particulars of each Enumeration District as proposed by you for submission to the Registrar General. And in the two columns for the purpose you will take care to insert the best approximate estimate you can give of the number of Houses and the number of Families in each Enumeration District. At the end of the Form you will insert the Name of every Public Institution having more than 200 inmates, and the Master or Head of which you recommend to the Registrar General to be appointed its Enumerator. Such Institutions, if not sanctioned for separate enumeration by the Registrar General, must, as well as all smaller Institutions, be dealt with as ordinary Houses in an Enumeration District.
You must insert the names of all Public Institutions of every kind in your District in the form provided for the purpose and sent herewith. You must also on the same form supply a return of large Hotels, Inns, and other Establishments for the enumeration of which other than the ordinary Householder's Schedule, holding only 15 names, are required; and state also the number of Schedules for Vessels which you are likely to require for the Enumeration of persons in boats and barges in inland waters.
You must deliver your Plan of Division to the Superintendent Registrar before Tuesday, the 8th of February next, who will forward it to the Registrar General, and immediately upon its return to you, with the Registrar General's approval, you will proceed with the other necessary arrangements.
Appointment and Qualifications of Enumerators.
Every Person proposed for appointment as an Enumerator must be intelligent, trustworthy, and active; he must write well, and have some knowledge of arithmetic; he must not be infirm, nor of such weak health as to render him unable to undergo the requisite exertion; he should not be younger than 18 years of age nor older than 65; he must be temperate, orderly, and respectable, and be such a person as is likely to conduct himself with strict propriety and civility in the discharge of his duties. He must make himself well acquainted with the District and the local boundaries within which he will be required to act; and it will be a further recommendation if his occupation has been such as to add to his fitness for the office. He must himself be prepared to undertake the delivery of the Householders' Schedules in the week commencing 28th March, as well as their collection on the day of the Census, the 4th of April. Any clergyman or other minister of religion, or any professional man who takes a special interest in the people of the place, might be invited to act as an Enumerator.
In order to prevent any inconvenience arising from a deficiency from any cause whatever in the requisite number of Enumerators, the 11th section of the Census Act obliges all Overseers of the Poor, Constables, Tything-men, Headboroughs, or other Peace Officers (under which description the Officers of the Police Force are included), and Relieving Officers of Unions formed under 4 and 5 Will. IV. cap. 76, to act as Enumerators, if required to do so by the Local Government Board, within their respective Civil Parishes or Townships, and such persons so acting will be entitled to the Allowances assigned to Enumerators. Should any deficiency be likely to occur it will be your duty to apply to the persons above described, who should be informed that the Act of Parliament requires their services under a penalty of not less than 5l. in case of refusal. If, notwithstanding this representation, any of these Officers should refuse to act, you must forthwith report the fact to the Census Office with their names, in order that a formal requisition may be immediately obtained from the Local Government Board and transmitted to you. But these proceedings will only be necessary in case you find a difficulty in obtaining the voluntary services of a sufficient number of properly qualified Enumerators.
You will give in with your Plan of Division a List of Persons proposed by you to act as Enumerators, and duly qualified according to these instructions; and such persons, when approved of by the Superintendent Registrar, will be appointed by him, subject, nevertheless, to the approval of the Registrar General.
On the return of your List of Enumerators with approval, you will, as soon as you can, request each Enumerator to sign the accompanying Form of Agreement, and after such acceptance he is bound to act, and will be subject to a fine in case of subsequent refusal without reasonable cause.
Should any of the Enumerators nominated be unable, from any cause, to act, you must appoint others forthwith who must be approved by your Superintendent Registrar and by the Registrar General. If a vacancy should occur so near the 4th of April as to prevent communication with your Superintendent in time for his approval, you must yourself secure the services of a competent person to act as Enumerator, or even in that case act yourself. If either you or your Deputy be thus compelled to act, remuneration will be awarded as in the case of ordinary Enumerators, according to the Table of Allowances.
Other Duties prior to the Day of Taking the Census.
When the Enumerators have signed the agreement you must take steps to furnish each of them with the following Documents: (a.) A clear written Description of the Boundaries and Contents of the Enumerator's District to be inserted by him in his Instruction and Memorandum Book. (b.) Enumerator's Instruction and Memorandum Book.-- Each Enumerator must be furnished with one copy of this Book which contains his Instructions, together with ruled spaces for his assistance in delivering and collecting the Schedules. He must be desired to study these Instructions attentively. (c.) Householder's Schedules.--You must give the Enumerator as many of the ordinary Schedules as will enable him to leave one, at least, for each Occupier or Lodger whose family consists of not more than 15 members, and to have a few remaining Schedules in reserve; also a sufficient number of the Special Schedules intended for the use of large establishments, for Hotels, and for such Public Institutions as are to be enumerated by him and not by the Master or Head. Schedules for Vessels to be also furnished when required. If you find that you have not a sufficient, supply of Schedules of whatever description, you must immediately apply to the Census Office for a further quantity. (d.) Enumeration Book.--Give to each Enumerator the Book which bears on the outside the same number as is inserted in the first column of the Plan of Division opposite the Description of each Enumeration District.
It is desirable that, as soon as convenient after the Enumerators have been supplied with their Books and Forms, you should have an interview with each of them. You will then ascertain that each understands the exact boundaries of his Enumeration District, and his duties in all other respects; and you will afford any explanation which may be wanting, to the best of your ability; and if you yourself require for that purpose information upon any point which seems to you unexplained or doubtful, you will write to the Census Office for advice.
Books for Public Institutions.--If there is within your District any Public Institution selected as sufficiently important to be enumerated by the Resident Master or Head, you must convey to such Master or Head an "Enumeration Book for Public Institutions"; at the same time informing him that it is his duty to make a correct return of all the officers, inmates, and all other persons in the Institution, and that he will receive remuneration for so doing according to the Table of Allowances.
Persons on board Vessels, and in Ports.--The Officers of Her Majesty's Customs have been instructed to enumerate persons on board Ships, Fishing Smacks, and Vessels of all kinds (except those belonging to the Royal Navy, which will be enumerated through the Admiralty) in the Ports, Harbours, and Docks in England and Wales, on Monday, April 4th, and will forward the returns collected direct to the Census Office.
Persons in Boats, Barges, and on Canals, Rivers, and other Inland Waters.-- The enumeration of Persons in Boats, Barges, and other small craft in inland waters not within the limits of any Port within the jurisdiction of Her Majesty's Customs, must be provided for by making such canals and navigable waters well defined parts of the Enumeration Districts. Should you think it necessary, you will employ or authorize any Enumerator to employ an assistant to deliver and collect the Schedules for vessels (printed in blue), with which you will supply him. The officers of Canal Companies and the Wharfingers should be communicated with, and requested to afford any aid they can.
Enumerator's Assistant.--No person is to act in this capacity without your authority in writing previously obtained by the Enumerator, who must pay the said Assistant out of his own fee, and be responsible for the whole of the work.
Duties on and after Monday, April 4th.
On April 4th watch vigilantly the progress of your Enumerators.
Between the 4th April and the 11th April, procure from every Enumerator in your Sub-District--
- The householders' Schedules collected by him, arranged in consecutive order, from No. 1 to the last No. entered in his Enumeration book.
- The Enumeration Book, in which the particulars from the Schedules are correctly entered.
- The Instruction and Memorandum Book.
- The Enumerator's Claim for his Allowances, on a printed form, with which you will furnish him.
You must yourself procure from each public Institution within your District where an Enumeration Book may have been sent, the book properly filled up by the Resident Master or Head, with his claim for Allowances.
Your next business will be the examination and revision or the enumeration books; and, in doing this, you should be careful--
- To see that the handwriting of the book is clear and legible.
- To see that the Civil Parish or Township, Municipal and Parliamentary City or Borough, Ward, Village, Hamlet, and, Urban Sanitary District, Rural Sanitary District, and Ecclesiastical Parish or District, are properly entered at the head of each page; and also that the boundaries of all local sub-divisions are clearly indicated in the book in accordance with the Instruction contained in the Enumeration Book.
- To ascertain, by separate examination and by comparison of the Enumeration Book with the Memorandum Book, and by inquiry, that no house within the District has been omitted, nor any inmate of any house; and if you find that any persons have been omitted, you must require the Enumerator to make the return complete before you sign the certificate by which he will become entitled to receive his remuneration.
- To see that the lines for the purpose of distinguishing houses and separate occupiers are distinctly and correctly drawn, as prescribed by the Instruction in the Enumeration Book, and by the example; and that the entries in the several columns are not at variance with each other.
- To see that all the particulars ascertained respecting Houseless persons are duly entered in the Enumeration Book, with any necessary explanatory notes, stating, among other things, places where they were observed, and sources of information.
- To see that the ages of the persons enumerated are inserted in the proper columns headed "Males" and "Females," so that no person's sex may be inaccurately stated. If the age of any person is left blank, ask the Enumerator if he can state the probable age, and if so supply the omission, writing "probable age" against the figures.
- To see that the column headed "Rank, Profession, or Occupation," is filled up in conformity with the Instructions.
- To see that the Totals of Houses and of Persons at the foot of each page, have been correctly entered by the Enumerator; that the Abstract of Totals has been accurately made; also that the summary of parishes and the other Tables have been accurately filled in. If you are of opinion that there is sufficient reason for doubting the correctness of the numbers entered in the Tables respecting persons temporarily absent or present, you must alter the Enumerators figures, stating in the margin your reasons for the alteration.
Having completed your examination and revision, and satisfied yourself that the Instructions have been punctually fulfilled by the Enumerator, and that all inaccuracies in his Book have been corrected, you will proceed to fill in Table 4, page iv., and then sign the Certificate on page vi. of the .Enumeration Book.
Then proceed to make out a Summary of the Total Population and Houses in each Civil Parish or Township within your District, upon the Form supplied for that purpose.
You will bear in mind that the Householders' Schedules are to be regarded as of a confidential character, it being expressly stated upon each that "the facts will be published in General Abstracts only, and strict care will be taken that the returns are not used for the gratification of curiosity." It will be highly improper, therefore, for any Census Officer to give publicity to any portion of their contents, or to allow them to be examined by any unauthorised persons for any purpose whatever.
Claims for Allowances.--Obtain from each Enumerator, on the proper printed form, a Claim for the Allowances to which he is entitled according to the published Table. This applies also to the Masters, or resident Heads of such Institutions as are not enumerated by the ordinary Enumerator. You will receive special instructions as to the verification and settlement of these claims.
Make out a similar claim for the allowances due to yourself.
Transmission of Documents to the Superintendent Registrar and to the Census Office.
Having signed the certificates, obtained and verified the Enumerators' Claims, and prepared your own, transmit the whole of the documents specified in VI. (c.), to the Superintendent Registrar, all arranged in numerical order. These documents must all be in the hands of the Superintendent Registrar on or before the 25th of April next.
The Householders' Schedules are to be forwarded by you direct to this Office, from time to time, as the Enumeration Books in which they are entered are examined and certified by you, in packets addressed to "The Secretary, Census Office, Craig's Court, London, S.W.," with the words "Householders' Schedules" and the name of your District distinctly written thereon. They are to be sent not by Post, but by Railway, by Carrier, by Parcels Delivery Company, or by any other less expensive conveyance. The carriage will be paid at the Census Office on delivery.
(a.) Documents to be distributed by the Registrar
To each Enumerator in his Sub-District:--
- Instruction and Memorandum Book, together with description of the Enumerator's District.
- As many Householders' Schedules (ordinary and special) as will enable the Enumerator to leave one at least with each Occupier in his District, and to have a few in reserve; also Schedules for Vessels if required.
- Enumeration Book, numbered according to the number of the Enumeration District in the Plan of Division.
- One Form of Claim for Allowances.
to be the Enumerator:--
- One Enumeration Book for Public Institutions.
- One form of Claim for Allowances.
(b.) Documents to be received by the Registrar before Monday, the 11 to April.
From each Enumerator:--
- The Householders' Schedules collected by the Enumerator, arranged in proper order.
- The Enumeration Book made complete.
- The Enumerator's Instruction and Memorandum Book.
- Enumerator's Claim for Allowances.
- The Enumeration Book for Institutions.
- Claim for Allowance due to the Master or Head.
(c.) Documents to be forwarded by the Registrar before Monday, the 25th April.
To the Superintendent Registrar:--
- All the Enumeration Books for the Sub-District (including those for Public Institutions) arranged in numerical order.
- The Enumerators' Instruction and Memorandum Books, also arranged in numerical Order.
- The Plan of Division of the Sub-District into Enumeration Districts.
- The List of Enumerators.
- The Registrar's Summary of the Population, and of Civil Parishes or Townships.
- The Enumerators' Claims for Allowances verified by the Registrar.
- The Registrar's own Claim for Allowances.
All the Householders' Schedules, arranged in order. (As to the mode of forwarding these Schedules, see Instructions, V. 2, page 21.)
Brydges P. Henniker,
Census Office, Craig's Court, London,
3rd January 1881.
Instructions to the Enumerator as to His Duties in Taking the Census.
Prepared under the Direction of the Local Government Board.
Duties before Monday, the 4th April 1881.
Having received from the Registrar a written Description of your Enumeration District, your first Duty will be to obtain a thorough knowledge of every part of it. You should make yourself well acquainted with its boundaries, and the precise boundaries of every other local division wholly or partly within it, such as Civil Parish, Township, Parliamentary or Municipal Borough, Ward, Hamlet, Urban Sanitary District, Rural Sanitary District, Ecclesiastical Parish or District, and, applying to the Registrar for further information in all cases where you may be in doubt. If you are able to confer with the Enumerators of the contiguous Districts and to come to a clear understanding with them so that no single dwelling may be overlooked, it will be well to do so.
Should you be authorized by the Registrar to engage an assistant it must be at your expense, and you must superintend and hold yourself responsible for the accuracy of his work.
You will receive from the Registrar with the "Instruction and Memorandum Book" (a.) An adequate number of blank Schedules of every description, including double Schedules for large Households or Establishments, Special Schedules for Public or Charitable Institutions, and Schedules for Vessels, if required- (b.) An Enumeration Book, in which you will copy the contents of the several Schedules after they have been filled up.
You should carefully examine the Householder's Schedule and other Forms, and familiarize yourself with their intended use, and the proper mode of filling them up. If at any time you find that you require an additional supply of Schedules, you must immediately apply to the Registrar for them.
Delivery of Householders Schedules.
In the course of the week commencing March 28th it will be your duty to deliver for each Occupier or Lodger in your District, a Householder's Schedule. You will write the name and address of each Occupier or Lodger for whom the Schedule is left in the space provided for that purpose on the Schedule. As a general rule, the term "Occupier" is to be understood to apply to the resident owner, or to a person who pays rent, whether (as a tenant) for the whole of a house, or (as a lodger) for any distinct floor or apartment; but instances will occur in which persons who are neither owners nor tenants paying rent, as in almshouses, public buildings, porters' lodges, and, are to be treated as "Occupiers."
Visitors staying in Hotels or Inns are to be included in the Schedule to be tilled up by the Proprietor or Manager; and persons in Licensed Lodging Houses are to be returned in the same manner.
Persons travelling during the night of Sunday, April 3rd, and who arrive at Hotels or Inns on the morning of Monday, April 4th, are to be entered by the Proprietor or Manager of the Hotel in his Schedule.
The following are amongst the cases in which one Householders' Schedule must be left:--
- For a family consisting of a man, his wife, and children; or of parents, children, servants, and visitors.
- For a family consisting of parents and children, with boarders at the same table, and the servants of the family, if any.
- For a lodger alone, or two or more lodgers boarding together.
- For an out-door servant living, with or without a family, in a detached outoffice or tenement contiguous to a mansion, as in a lodge, gardener's cottage, or coach-house and stable with dwelling rooms attached. But a servant sleeping in any out-building, and boarding in his master's house, should be included in his master's Schedule with the other servants of the family.
For every family, the members of which, including servants, and, exceed 15 in number, you must leave one of the Double Schedules, intended for the use of family mansions, large establishments, schools, hotels, licensed lodging houses, and If you find that you have not a sufficient supply of Double Schedules, you may leave two of the ordinary Schedules, or more if needful.
You must also be careful to leave at any Public or Charitable Institutions which you may be instructed to enumerate, the appropriate form of Schedule, leaving two copies if the size of the Institution requires it.
Should your district include any portion of a canal or navigable river not within the limits of a port, you will deliver one of the Schedules for vessels (printed in blue) to the master or person in charge of every barge or other vessel.
On leaving the Schedules, you will afford any explanation which may be asked for. You should also state in every case that you will call for the Schedule on the following monday, that the answers should be written in by the morning of that day, and that the schedule must on no account be lost or mislaid. you will of course take care to observe the utmost civility in carrying this and all your other instructions into effect. In performing this important duty of delivering the Schedules in person, you will obtain such a knowledge of eve[r]y part of your district, and of the number of Occupiers in every house, as will prove of the greatest assistance to you on the day of the Enumeration.
The whole of the Schedules must be delivered before the night of Saturday, April 2nd.
For your assistance in the Delivery and subsequent Collection of the schedules, a memorandum book is appended; and you are to use it in the manner therein directed.
Early on the morning of Monday, April 4th, commence the Enumeration of your district, having provided yourself with (1) a pencil, or pen and ink--(if the latter blotting paper will also be required), (2) some blank Schedules of each kind, and (3) your "Instruction and Memorandum Book." It will be useful to take with you also a bag, in which you can deposit your Schedules, arranged as they are collected, and tied up with an elastic band or with string. The greatest care must be taken that none of the Schedules are lost.
You should, if possible, visit every house on Monday April 4th, but if at the end of the day any house remain unvisited, you must conclude your task on Tuesday,
In addition to the instructions given in the "Memorandum Book," the following are to be carefully attended to on visiting each house:
(a.) If the Schedule is given to you filled up, you must examine it to see if all the particulars appears to be correctly entered, and ask any questions which may be necessary to satisfy yourself upon this point; and when any errors are discovered, you must draw a line through the erroneous words without erasing them, and enter the correct words over them in the proper columns. You should pay particular attention to the column headed "Rank, Profession, or Occupation," taking care that what is inserted under that head is in conformity with the instructions. You should also see that the Christian names of persona described as wife, son, daughter, andc., are consistent with their description as Male (M.) or Female (F.), and with their occupation, and
(b.) If on inquiry for the Schedule it is delivered to you not filled up, you must fill it up yourself, asking all necessary questions. Your should, if possible, see the " Occupier for that purpose, and obtain the information from him. In the absence of the Occupier, a member of the family, or any other competent person possessing the necessary information, may supply the required particulars. When filling up a Schedule yourself, you may use such contractions as are mentioned in the "Enumeration Book."
(c) If the Schedule is lost or mislaid, you must supply a fresh one from the reserve in your possession; number it, and proceed to fill up the particulars as before directed, after which you should read it over to the Occupier or person supplying the information, who will sign it at the foot with his or her name or mark,
(d.) You should be very careful that no person alive* at midnight, dwelling in the house or lodgings on the night of April 2nd is omitted from the Schedule; and that no inmate who was then absent is inserted except those travelling or out at work during that night, and who return home on Monday morning, April 4th, all of whom must be entered in the Schedule. * No person dying before, and no child born after midnight to be enumerated.
(e.) In case of refusal to fill up the Schedule, or to answer the questions which you are authorised to put, remind the person so refusing of the penalty imposed by the Act of Parliament. In like manner warn any person you suspect of giving wilfully false information. If the person still refuse to give any information or to give correct information, note the fact in your "Memorandum Book," and report refusal to Registrar as soon as possible.
(f.) You must not omit to take an account of persons because you cannot get all the information required respecting them. If, for example, you can learn no more than that a person had slept in the house on the night of April 3rd, who had since gone away, and whose name was unknown, you must not fail to enter such a person in the Schedule of the house or in a separate Schedule, stating the sex and the probable age, and writing "Not known" or "N.K." where the name and other particulars should be.
You will carefully collect the schedules from every barge or other vessel in canals or other navigable waters (not in ports) which shall be within your District on April 4th, whether it was in your District at the time of distributing the Schedules or shall have come in since, and fill in the particulars where that has not been already done.
Take an account of persons not dwelling in houses wherever you find them, or learn that they have been in your District during the preceding night, noting the places in the Memorandum Book, and using Householder's Schedules where details can be obtained.
You will enumerate the houses carefully distinguishing those inhabited, uninhabited, and building, in conformity with the instruction prefixed to the Memorandum Book, reckoning as a separate house all the space within the external and party walls of the building, although it may be occupied by several families living in distinct apartments or flats.
Duties subsequent to the Enumeration.
The requisite information concerning all the houses and inhabitants of your District having been obtained, your next business will be to enter very legibly the particulars recorded on every Schedule into the "enumeration book," which must be done in strict conformity with the instructions given therein.
Having cast up the totals, entered the "persons not in houses," and made the book as correct and clear as possible, you must, on or before the 11th day of April, transmit the following documents to the Registrar:
All the Schedules, arranged in order from No. 1 to the last No., as entered in the
- Enumeration Book.
- Your Enumeration Book,
- Your "Instruction and Memorandum Buok."
- Your Claim for payment (a form for which will be furnished to you by the Registrar).
If upon examination the Registrar finds that you have duly performed your duties, he will append to your Claim a certificate which will entitle you to receive payment for your services according to the scale of allowances sanctioned by the Lords Commissioners of
Her Majesty's Treasury.
Brydges P. Henniker,
Census Office, Craig's Court, London, S.W.
3rd January 1881.
An Act (43 and 44 Vict. Cap. 37.) for taking the Census of England.
[Passed 7th September 1880.]
London: Printed By George Edward Eyre And William Spottiswoode. Printers To The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty. 1881.
Arrangement Of Sections.
Local Government Board to superintend the taking of the Census.... Section1
Registrars sub-districts to be formed into enumerators divisions.... Section 2
Enumerators to be appointed.... Section 3
Householders schedules to be left at dwelling-houses. Occupiers to fill up the schedules and sign and deliver them to the enumerator. Penalty for neglect.... Section 4
Schedules to be collected from house to house, and corrected if found to be erroneous.... Section 5
Enumerators to take an account of houses, and and to distinguish the boundaries of parishes, boroughs, and Enumerators to deliver their books, with the householders schedules, to the registrar.... Section 6
Registrars to verify the enumerators books.... Section 7
Superintendent registrars to examine the enumerators books and return them to the Registrar General.... Section 8
An abstract of returns to be printed and laid before Parliament.... Section 9
Masters, and of gaols, and to be appointed enumerators of the inmates thereof.... Section 10
Overseers, peace officers, and relieving officers of unions formed under 4 and 5 Will. 4. c. 76. bound to act as enumerators'.... Section 11
Returns of persons travelling or on shipboard, or not in houses.... Section 12
Table of allowances to enumerators and others.... Section 13
Payments to be certified to the Registrar General.... Section 14
Manner in which the payments shall be made to persons employed in execution of this Act in England.... Section 15
Penalty on persons for wilful default.... Section 16
Penalty for refusing information or giving false answers.... Section 17
Recovery of penalties.... Section 18
Interpretation of terms.... Section 19
Title of the Act.... Section 20
Chapter 37: An Act for taking the Census of England.
[7th September 1880.]
Whereas it is expedient to take the census of England in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one:
Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows :
The Local Government Board shall have the care of superintending the taking of the census, and shall cause to be prepared and printed, for the use of the persons to be employed in taking it, such forms and instructions as the said Board shall deem necessary, and the Registrar General shall issue all such forms and instructions to the persons for whose use they shall be intended; and all the expenses which shall be incurred by authority of the said Board, with the consent of the Treasury, under this Act, shall be paid out of such moneys as shall be provided by Parliament for that purpose.
Every registrar's sub-district in England shall be formed into enumerators divisions according to instructions to be prepared by or under the direction of the said Board, who shall cause a sufficient number of copies of such instructions to be sent to every registrar of births and deaths in England; and the registrars, with all convenient speed, shall divide the several sub-districts into enumerators divisions according to such instructions, and subject in each case to the revision of the superintendent registrar, and to the final revision and approval of the Registrar General.
The several registrars of births and deaths in England shall make and return to their respective superintendent registrars a list containing the names and places of abode of a sufficient number of persons, duly qualified according to instructions to be prepared by or under the direction of the said Board, to act as enumerators within their several sub-districts, and such persons, when approved of by the superintendent registrar, shall be appointed by him enumerators for taking the census, subject nevertheless to the approval of the Registrar General: and the registrar, with the approval of the superintendent registrar, shall assign a division to each enumerator, and shall distribute to the several enumerators in his sub-district the forms and instructions which shall have been issued for that purpose by the Registrar General, and shall personally ascertain that each enumerator thoroughly understands the manner in which the duties required of him are to be performed.
Schedules shall be prepared by or under the direction 2 of the said Board for the purpose of being filled up by or on "behalf of the several occupiers of dwelling houses as hereinafter provided, with particulars of the name, sex, age, rank, profession or occupation, condition as to marriage, relation to head of family, and birth-place of every living person who abode in every house on the night of Sunday the third day of April one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, and also whether any were blind, or deaf and dumb, or imbecile or lunatic; and the registrars in England shall in the course of the week ending on Saturday the second day of April in the said year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one leave or cause to be left at every dwelling-house within their respective sub-districts one or more of the said schedules for the occupier or occupiers thereof or of any part thereof, and upon every such schedule shall be plainly expressed that it is to be filled up by the occupier of such dwelling-house, (or where such dwelling-house is let or sub-let in different stories or apartments, and occupied distinctly by different persons or families, by the occupier of each such distinct story or apartment,) and that the enumerator will collect all such schedules within his division on the Monday then next following.
Every occupier of any dwelling-house, or of any distinct story or apartment in any dwelling-house, with or for whom any such schedule shall have been left as aforesaid, shall fill up the said schedule to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, so far as relates to all persons dwelling in the house, story, or apartment occupied by him or her, and shall sign his or her name thereunto, and shall deliver the schedule so filled up, or cause the same to be delivered, to the enumerator when required so to do. Every such occupier who shall wilfully refuse or without lawful excuse neglect to fill up the said schedule to the best of his or her knowledge and belief, or to sign and deliver the same as herein required, or who shall wilfully make, sign, or deliver, or cause to be made, signed, or delivered, any false return of all or any of the matters specified in the said schedule, shall forfeit a sum not more than five pounds nor less than twenty shillings.
The enumerators shall visit every house in their respective divisions, and shall collect all the schedules so left within their division from house to house, so far as may be possible, on Monday the fourth day of April in the said year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, and shall complete such of the schedules as upon delivery thereof to them shall appear to be defective, and correct such as they shall find to be erroneous, and shall copy the schedules, when completed and corrected, into books to be provided them for that purpose, and shall add thereunto an account, according to the best information which they shall be able to obtain, of all the other persons living within their division who shall not be included in the schedules so collected by them.
Every enumerator shall also take an account of the occupied houses, and of the houses then building and therefore uninhabited, and also of all other uninhabited houses within his division, and shall also take an account of all such particulars herein-before mentioned, and none others, according to the forms and instructions which may be issued under this Act; and in the book into which he shall have copied the householders schedules and other particulars, as herein-before directed, each enumerator shall distinguish the several civil parishes within his division, or such parts thereof as shall be within his division, and shall also distinguish those civil parishes or parts of civil parishes within his division which are within the limits of any city or borough returning or contributing to return a member or members to serve in Parliament, or of any incorporated city or borough, or of any urban sanitary district, or of any rural sanitary district, or of any ecclesiastical district or parish, or of any area prescribed in that behalf by the instructions, and shall deliver such book to the registrar of the sub-district, together with the householders schedules collected by him, and shall sign a form or declaration to the effect that the said book has been truly and faithfully filled up by him, and that to the best of his knowledge the same is correct, which form of declaration shall be prepared by or under the direction of the Local Government Board, and issued by the Registrar General with, the forms and instructions aforesaid.
The registrar to whom, such enumerators books shall be delivered shall examine the same, and shall satisfy himself that the instructions in each case have been punctually fulfilled, and if not shall cause any defect or inaccuracy in the said book to be supplied so far as may be possible; and when the books shall have been made as accurate as is possible the registrar shall deliver them to the superintendent registrar of his sub-district, and thereafter shall transmit the householders schedules to the Registrar General.
The superintendent registrar shall examine all the books which shall be so delivered to him, and shall satisfy himself how far the registrars have duly performed the duties required of them by this Act, and shall cause any inaccuracies which he shall discover in such books to be corrected so far as may be possible, and shall return on or before the second day of May one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, or such other day as may be fixed by the Registrar General, all the said books to the Registrar General for the use of the Local Government Board.
The said Board shall cause a detailed abstract to be made of the said returns; and also a preliminary abstract which shall be printed and laid before both Houses of Parliament within three calendar months next after the first day of June in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, if Parliament be sitting, or if Parliament be not sitting, then within the first fourteen days of the session then next ensuing.
The master or keeper of every gaol, prison, or house of correction, workhouse, hospital, or lunatic asylum, and of every public or charitable institution, which shall be determined upon by the Registrar General, shall be the enumerator of the inmates thereof, and shall be bound to conform to such instructions as shall be sent to him by the authority of the said Board for obtaining the returns required by this Act, so far as may be practicable, with respect to such inmates.
The overseers of the poor in every civil parish in England, and the constables or other peace officers for such civil parishes, and the relieving officers of any union or civil parish not in union having a board of guardians acting under the Poor Law Amendment Act, 1834, or the Acts amending the same, shall be bound to act as enumerators under this Act within their respective civil parishes and unions, if required so to act by the said Board; and where they shall so act shall be entitled to allowances as enumerators under the provisions of this Act; and every such overseer, relieving officer, constable, and other peace officer who shall refuse or wilfully neglect so to act, and duly to perform the duties required of the said enumerators by this Act, shall for every such offence forfeit a sum not more than ten pounds nor less than five pounds.
The Local Government Board shall obtain, by such ways and means as shall appear to them best adapted for the purpose, returns of the particulars required by this Act with respect to all persons who during the said night of Sunday the third day of April were travelling or on shipboard, or for any other reason were not abiding in any house of which account is to be taken by the enumerators and other persons as aforesaid, and shall include such returns in the abstract to be made by them as aforesaid.
The said Board shall cause to be prepared a table of allowances to be made to the several enumerators, registrars, superintendent registrars, and other persons in England employed in the execution of this Act and such table, when approved by the Treasury, shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament on or before the first day of March one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one, if Parliament be sitting, or if Parliament be not sitting, then within the first fourteen days of the session then next ensuing.
The superintendent registrar of every district in England shall within one calendar month next after the taking of the census certify to the Registrar General the total amount of the allowances to which he, and the registrars, enumerators, and other persons in that district, are respectively entitled according to the said table:
The Treasury shall, through the Registrar General, pay to each superintendent registrar, out of the moneys provided by Parliament for that purpose, the whole amount of the allowances to which the said superintendent registrar, and the registrars, enumerators, and other persons in each district, are severally entitled according to the said table; and each superintendent registrar shall pay over to the registrars in his district the allowances to which they the said registrars are entitled, and shall also pay over or cause to be paid over to the enumerators and other persons in his district the allowances to which they are severally entitled according to the said table; and the receipts to be given by the enumerators and other persons and registrars for payment of their said allowances shall be delivered to the superintendent registrar, who shall transmit the same, together with the receipt for his own allowance, to the Registrar General.
Provided that no such payment snail be made to any enumerator or other person who snail be required to act as an enumerator under this Act, but upon production of a certificate under the hand of the registrar that the duties required of such enumerator or other person acting as enumerator by this Act have been faithfully performed, and the like certificate shall be required under the hand of the superintendent registrar with respect to the registrar before any payment shall be made to the registrar, and the like certificate under the hand of the Registrar General with respect to the superintendent registrar before any payment shall be made to the superintendent registrar.
Every superintendent registrar and registrar, and every enumerator and other person who is bound under this Act if required to act as enumerator, making wilful default in any of the matters required of them respectively by this Act, or making any wilfully false declaration, shall for every such wilful default or false declaration forfeit a sum not exceeding five pounds nor less than two pounds.
The enumerators and other persons employed in the execution of this Act shall be authorized to ask all such questions as shall be directed in any instructions to be prepared by or under the direction of the Local Government Board, which shall be necessary for obtaining the returns required by this Act; and every person refusing to answer or wilfully giving a false answer to such questions, or any of them, shall for every such refusal or wilfully false answer forfeit a sum not exceeding five pounds nor less than twenty shillings.
All penalties imposed by this Act shall be recovered in a summary manner before two justices of the peace having jurisdiction in the county or place where the offence is committed in the manner prescribed by law in this behalf.
In this Act-- The expression "civil parish" means a place for which a separate poor rate is or can be made, and has in the metropolis the same meaning as in the Metropolis Management Act, 1855. The expression "dwelling-house" shall include all buildings and tenements of which the whole or any part shall be used for the purpose of human habitation. The expression "Treasury" means the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury.
This Act may be cited as the Census Act, 1880.