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Instructions to the enumerator

As his duties in taking the Census
Prepared under the direction of one of Her Majesty's principal secretaries of state.

Duties of the enumerator before the 8th April, 1861
[1] After your appointment shall have been approved by the registrar general, you will be require to signify your acceptance of the office of enumerator by signing a form of contract, to be presented to you by the registrar.
[2] You will receive from the registrar with these instructions, [1] a written description of your district; [2] an adequate number of blank householders' schedules and special schedules for large establishments etc.; [3] an "enumeration book" in which to enter the householders' schedules; and [4] a "memorandum book", to assist you in the delivery and collection of the schedules.
[3] Your first and essential duty will be to obtain a thorough knowledge of every part of the district you have undertaken to enumerate. You should make yourself well acquainted with its boundaries and the precise boundaries of every other local division wholly or partly within it, such as township, parliamentary or municipal borough, ward, hamlet, ecclesiastical district, etc., applying to the registrar for further information in all cases where you may be in doubt.
[4] You should also carefully examine the householders' schedule, the memorandum book, and the enumeration book, and thoroughly familiarize yourself with their use, and the proper mode of filling them up. If at any time you find that you require an additional supply of printed forms you must immediately apply to the registrar for them.

Delivery of Householders' Schedules
[5] In the course of the week commencing April 1st, 1861, it will be your duty to deliver for each occupation in your district, a householder's schedule. As a general rule, the term "occupier" is to be understood to apply to the resident owner, or to a person who pays rent, whether (as a tenant) for the whole of a house, or (as a lodger) for any distinct floor or apartment; but instances will occur in which persons are neither owners nor tenants paying rent, as in almshouses, public buildings, porter's lodges, etc., are to be treated as "occupiers".
[6] Use the memorandum book in delivering the schedules, according to the instructions therein given. For every family, the members of which, including servants, etc., exceed 15 in number, you must leave one of the special schedules, intended for the use of large establishments, schools etc. If you find that you have not a sufficient supply of special schedules, you may leave two of the ordinary schedules, or more if needful. You must also be careful to leave at hotels, inns, and at any public institutions which you may be instructed to enumerate, the appropriate form of schedule.
[7] On leaving the schedules, you will explain to the persons receiving them the importance of those documents, and the obligation imposed by law on the occupiers to give correct information. You should also state in every case that you will call for the schedule on the following Monday, that the answers should be written in by the morning of that day, and that the paper must on no account be lost or mislaid. You will take care to observe the utmost civility in carrying this and all your other instructions into effect.
[8] This important duty of delivering the schedules should be performed by you in person, as in discharging this portion of your task yourself you will obtain such a knowledge of every part of your district, and of the number of occupiers in every house, as will prove of the greatest assistance to you in the performance of your duties on the day of the enumeration.
[9] The whole of the schedule must be delivered before the night of Saturday, April 6th.

Duties of the enumerator on Monday, April 8th
[10] Early on the morning on Monday, April 8th, commence the enumeration of your district, having provided yourself with [1] a pencil, or pen and ink- [if the latter, blotting paper will also be required], [2] some blank householder's schedules, and [3] your "memorandum book". It will be useful to take with you also a piece of strong paper, a portfolio, or a bag, in which to carry the schedules collected. The greatest care must be taken that none of the schedules are lost.
[11] You should, if possible, visit every home on Monday, April 8th; but if at the end of the day any house remains unvisited, you must conclude your task on Tuesday, April 9th.

[12] In addition to the instructions given in your "memorandum book", the following are to be carefully attended to on visiting each house:-
If the schedule is given to you filled up, you must examine it to see if all the particulars appear to be correctly entered, and ask any questions which may be necessary to satisfy yourself upon this point; and when any errors are discovered, you must draw a line through the erroneous words without erasing them, and enter the correct words over them in proper columns. You should pay particular attention to the column headed "Rank, Profession, or Occupation," taking care that what is inserted under that head is in conformity with the instructions. You should also see the Christian names of persons described as wife, son, daughter etc., are consistent with their descriptions as Male [M] or Female [F], and with their occupation, etc.

If an inquiry for the schedule is delivered to you not filled up, you must fill it up yourself, asking all necessary questions. You should, if possible, see the "occupier" for that purpose, and obtain the information from him. In the absence of the occupier, any other competent member of the family may supply the required particulars. When filling up a schedule yourself, you may use such contractions as are mentioned in the "enumeration book," p. ii.
If the schedule is lost or mislaid, you must supply a fresh one from the reserve in your possession; number it, and proceed to fill up the particulars as before directed, after which you should read it over to the occupier or person in charge of the house or apartment, who should sign it at the foot with his or her name or mark.
You should be very careful that no member of the family sleeping in the house or lodgings on the night of April 7th is omitted from the schedule; and that no inmate who was then absent is inserted except those travelling or out at work during that night, and who return home on Monday, April 8th, all of whom must be entered in the schedule.
In case of refusal to fill up the schedule, or to answer the questions which you are authorized to put, remind the person so refusing of the penalty imposed by the Act of Parliament. In like manner warn any person you suspect of giving willfully false information. If the person still refuses to give any information or to give correct information, note the fact in your "Memorandum book" and report the refusal to the registrar as soon as possible.
You must not omit to take an account of persons because you cannot get all the information required respecting them. If, for example, you can learn no more than that a person had slept in the house on the night of April 7th, who had since gone away and whose name was unknown, you must not fail to enter such a person in the schedule of the house or in a separate schedule, stating the sex and the probable age (whether probably above or under 20, if more precise information cannot be obtained), and writing "Not known," or "N.K." where the name and other particulars should be.
[13] Prepare the list of "Persons not in houses," in conformity with the instruction. [See memorandum book.]

Duties after the 8th April, 1861
[14] The requisite information concerning all the houses and inhabitants of your district having been obtained, your next business will be to enter the schedules and copy the list of "Persons not in houses" from your "memorandum book" into the "enumeration book," which must be done in strict conformity with the instructions given therein.
[15] Having made the book as correct and clear as possible, and signed the declaration that the account of the houses and population of your district has been truly and faithfully taken by you, you must, before the 16th day of April, 1861, transmit the following documents to the registrar:

  • All the householder's schedules, arranged in order from No.1 to the last No, as entered in the enumeration book.
  • Your enumeration book.
  • Your memorandum book.
  • Your claim for payment [a form for which will be furnished to you by the registrar].

[16] If upon examination the registrar finds that you have duly performed your duties, he will append to your claim a certificate which will entitle you to receive prompt payment for your services according to the scale of allowances sanctioned by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's treasury.

Correction of the column headed- Rank, Profession, or Occupation
[17] It is desirable not only that the return of the rank, profession or occupation of every person in England should be completed and accurate, but also that the particulars should be entered on a uniform plan. Although special instructions on this head are printed on the householder's schedule, instances of defective information will doubtless be of frequent occurrence. It will be your duty in entering the schedules in the enumeration book (if you have not already done so on receiving the schedules from the occupiers, as above directed,) to correct any incomplete descriptions of occupations. For your guidance in correcting incomplete descriptions the following examples and instructions are given:

Examples and instructions for entering more correct descriptions

  • Incomplete descriptions
  • Agent???????.. State particular branch; as Land Agent, Brewer's Agent, Lead Agent.
  • Almsman??????.State former or present occupation; as Almsman (agricultural laborer).
  • Bleacher??????..State the manufacture or material; as Cotton Bleacher, Lace Bleacher.
  • Broker???????..State the branch of business; as Wool Broker, Furniture Broker.
  • Button-maker?????State the material; as Metal Button-maker, Bone Button-maker.
  • Carder???????... State the manufacture of material; as Wool Carder, Cotton Carder
  • Clerk????????..No person whatever should be described as Clerk simply, but as Banker's clerk, Silk mercer's Clerk, Parish Clerk, etc.
  • Coachman??????..Coachman (Domestic Servant), Omnibus Coachman.
  • Collar-maker?????.. Horse Collar-maker, Dog Collar-maker, Shirt Collar-maker.
  • Collector???????.Rent Collector, Rate Collector, Toll Collector.
  • Contractor??????..Road Contractor, Railway Contractor.
  • Cook????????..Cook (Domestic Servant), Cook (Professed).
  • Cutter????????. State the manufacture or trade; as Lace Cutter, Needle Cutter.
  • Draper????????.Woollen Draper, Linen Draper.
  • Dresser???????..State the particular manufacture or material; as Silk Dresser, Worsted Dresser.
  • Engineer???????Civil Engineer to be so described; but a workman employed at an engine manufactory to be described as an Engine Smith, and not as an Engineer.
  • Engine-driver ????. State whether in connection with a manufactory, or a railway, steam
  • Engine-feeder, vessel, etc.; as Engine- Feeder at Cotton Factory, Railway Engine-
  • Engine-hand, driver.
  • Engine-worker
  • Factory-worker????.State the manufacture; as Silk Factory-worker, Cotton Factory-worker.
  • Feeder???????... State the manufacture; as Cotton feeder, Worsted feeder.
  • Finisher???????. State the manufacture; as Needle Finisher, Lace Finisher.
  • Fireman??????? This term should only be applied to men of the Fire Brigade.
  • Founder??????? State the Branch; as Brass Founder, Iron Founder.
  • Framework-knitter??? State the manufacture; as Stocking Framework-knitter.
  • Furnace-man?????. State the manufacture in which the furnace is used.
  • Gardener??????... Gardener (Domestic Servant), Gardener (Master).
  • Glove-maker, Glover?? State the material; as Glover (Leather), Glove-maker (Silk).
  • Handloom-weaver???. State the manufacture; as Silk Handloom-weaver.
  • Inspector??????? State further particulars as to nature of his office.
  • Jobber???????? State the nature of his employment.
  • Keeper???????.. Gamekeeper, Lodge keeper, Keeper in a Lunatic Asylum.
  • Labourer??????.. State the branch of labour; as Agricultural Labourer, Dock Labourer.
  • Machine-worker???.. State the manufacture in which machine is employed.
  • Manufacturer????? State the manufacture in which engaged; as Earthenware Manufacturer, Cotton Manufacturer.
  • Mechanic?????.....State the branch of business or manufacture in which he works.
  • Merchant??????.. State the particular branch of business; as East India Merchant, Timber Merchant.
  • Miner????????. State invariably the particular metals or minerals; as Iron-miner, Coal-miner, Copper-miner, Lead-miner, Tin-miner, Copper and Tin-miner.
  • Moulder??????? State the particular manufacture; as Iron-moulder, Brass-moulder.
  • Nurse????????. Nurse at Hospital, Nurse (Domestic Servant).
  • Officer????? Officers of Volunteers should return their usual occupations.
  • Overlooker???.. State the manufacture, etc.; as Overlooker in a Cotton Factory.
  • Painter?????. Painter and Plumber; Portrait Painter, Herald Painter.
  • Pensioner????. Chelsea Pensioner, Greenwich Pensioner, East India Pensioner. (If engaged in any occupation it should likewise be stated.)
  • Powerloom-weaver.. State the branch of manufacture; as Wool Powerloom-weaver.
  • Quarrier???? State the particular material; as Stone Quarrier, Slate Quarrier.
  • Sailor?????. Seaman, R.N.; Seaman (Merchant Service).
  • Salesman????. Meat Salesman, Cattle Salesman, Clothes Salesman.
  • Servant????? Domestic Servant, Farm Servant.
  • Shopkeeper, Shopman.... State the branch of Business.
  • Smith???????...Blacksmith, Whitesmith, Engine-smith.
  • Stoker???????.. A man who attends to the fire in a factory or on board a steam-vessel should be described as Stoker in a Steam Vessel, Stoker in a Silk Factory etc.
  • Timekeeper?????. Omnibus Timekeeper, Railway Timekeeper.
  • Watchman?????.. Private Watchman, Watchman in a Cotton Factory.
  • Warehouseman???? If a Manchester Warehouseman, to be so described.
  • Weaver??????? State the branch of manufacture; as Silk Weaver, Cotton Weaver.
  • Winder??????? State the branch of manufacture; as Silk Winder, Cotton Winder.

(Sanctioned by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury).
For duly performing all his duties in taking the Census:
A fixed fee of: 100
And an additional fee at the rate of Two Shillings for every 100 persons duly enumerated over and above the first 400 in his division or district.
And in each enumerator's district continuing more than 25 inhabited houses, an additional allowance of Sixpence for every mile above 5 miles necessarily travelled by the enumerator in visiting every house within his district, for the purpose of delivering the householders' schedules; and a further sum of Sixpence for every mile above 5 miles necessarily traversed by him in collecting the said schedules.
In reckoning the mileage, only the number of miles necessarily traversed between the first and the last house visited must be taken into account; the distances traversed by the enumerator in going to the first house, and from the last house to his own home, must, therefore, be excluded from the calculation.