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The United Republic of Tanzania
Population and housing census 2002
Enumerators' manual for long questionnaire

[p. 1]

Part one: Introduction

1.1 Population census and its importance
A population census is an act of counting all people in the country and collecting other information about them.

  • The National Bureau of Statistics, in the ministry of Planning and Privatization, deals with the national plan to count people in August, 2002. The objective of the population census is to get the total number of residents in the country and determine how they are distributed in different areas, including administrative boundaries. Other objectives of the population census are to obtain information about the life of residents and their housing conditions as seen in the questionnaire used in the census.
  • Implementation of activities involved in counting people is important to the Tanzanian nation. Results of population census enable us to get the real situation of the country's population. Therefore, these results are a foundation for economic and social development planning such as education, health, etc. A few examples are explained below.
  • Age statistics will show the relationship between the children who have reached the age to start school and those who have not yet reached it; those involved in production and those who provide services; disabled and elderly people who need assistance from the government and private donors in order to survive. These statistics are also important in planning services to women and children, schools and teachers, improving health services, working environment and seeking for strategies and techniques to improve the living standards of the population.
  • Education standards statistics: the highest grade attained will show the relationship between the literate and the illiterate, those with different education levels, the children in schools and those who are supposed to be in school according to their age, etc. These statistics are a major input in formation of education plans in order to strengthen efforts to eliminate poverty, ignorance, and disease.
  • Economic statistics will show the ratio between those who deal with production of goods and the other types of employment in a country. This will help in development planning aimed at improving workers skills, provision of employment opportunities to the youth, to improve production of goods, and planning standard life for all people.
[p. 2]
  • Statistics of live births, children who are still alive, and still births will show the maternity conditions and maternal mortality in the country.
  • These statistics will show the increase in population and enable estimates of the population in the coming years nationally, regionally, and at the district level. This enables development planning to be done accurately.
  • Statistics from the census help in evaluation of health services to women and children and the causes of maternal problems.
Although many important issues related to census can be explained here, it is hard to explain all in depth. In general, statistics from population census are vital in formulating plans involving economic, administrative, and social services, in order to improve the standard of living of the nation. Therefore, all those involved in the census must be aware that by proper implementation of their duties and obtaining the correct statistics, they will be helping the nation and Tanzanians in general.

1.2 Objectives of population and housing census 2002
The objectives of census are divided into two main categories: Statistical and Administrative.
Statistical objectives:

  • Establishing the current status -- The Census will provide statistics on the economic status and social development, based on changes that will be observed in the Census compared with the population census of 1988, like the increase and distribution of people by age, sex, and other characteristics.
  • Preparation of development plans -- It is understood that the population Census provides statistics that enable measuring the level of development reached in order to establish future policies and development plans. Therefore, the 2002 population Census will provide, together with other uses, statistics that will be used to measure the level of development reached and planning for future development plans.
  • Establish bases that will help in decision making -- Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), non-governmental organizations, business community, researchers, and individuals use census data as basis of improvement and expansion of their activities. For example, The Ministry of health would like to expand health services to women and children, together with educating people on environmental preservation in areas that census results show high death rate.
[p.3]
  • Obtaining small areas statistics -- The 2002 population and housing Census will provide important statistics about rural and urban areas. Also, districts will get statistics on people, their economic status and social development in order to prepare their development plans.
  • To give guidelines and bases of research -- Census results will provide important statistics that will be used in analyzing current changes on population distribution by age, distribution and increase of population in the country. This will indicate areas that are in need of in-depth research in order to know the cause of the current situation.
Administrative objectives:
  • Sample formation -- Establishment of strong sampling bases that will enable undertaking different research between one census and another and other statistical plans. Census results will provide important statistics that will help in preparing base samples that will be used in conducting standard research.
  • To establish a base to run census in the future -- Tanzania has successfully conducted three censuses since independence. And these censuses are now used in preparing and improving future censuses.

1.3 The Statistics Act enabling undertaking the census
The act enabling the running of population and housing Census together with all the questions asked during the census were released by presidential order. This act is provided in line with statistical ordinance Act Cap. 443 of 1961.
From the existing acts, all the information about people obtained during the Census will be confidential and will be used for statistical purposes only. Therefore, all those involved in the process must maintain confidentiality of people's personal information. According to the act, all those involved in counting people must take on oath of confidentiality before starting the job. Severe punishment will be given to anyone who violates this law.
By the law, all people in the country are obliged to give correct information and answer correctly the questions asked during the Census. If there is any problem resulting from this matter, the census enumerators must immediately see the superiors or the leaders of that area for help.
[p.4]

1.4 Structure of the census
Properly prepared plans are vital for the Census to succeed. Together with the necessity of proper planning, all procedures must be compared with the structure and administrative procedures in the country. This is important because it ensures that human, natural, and other resources are used carefully according to the current schedule and ensures everything is done as planned and at the right time.
Population and housing Census of 2002 uses the government structure by organizing the Census leadership in district and regional levels. In the national level, there is the central Census committee whose members are ministers from different ministries are involved in the activities of census. The chairman of this committee is the Prime Minister. Other committees at the national level are the National Advisory Committee and the Census Technical Committee.
In the regional level, there are Regional and District Census Committees in which the chairmen are the Regional Commissioner and the District Commissioner of the respective districts. The main functions of these committees are:

  • To supervise the Census activities in their areas.
  • To give advice in the implementation of different Census activities
  • To publicize the Census -- educating the public about census and the activities involved.

Central census office, under the leadership of commissioner of population and housing census of 2002, has the responsibility to supervise all Census activities. It also has the responsibility to acquire and distribute training equipments to all census employees. The supervision of Census activities in the regional and district level is in the hands of regional Census coordinators and Census district authorities. These officers supervise the Census activities properly in their areas although the central Census office inspects recurrently.
On the other hand, members of the parliament from all political parties, religious leaders, journalists, and major business people are responsible to educate and inform the public about the Census through different administrative levels, down to the household level (which is the lowest level). For example, local government street authorities and hamlet leaders are supposed to guide the census enumerators and take them to the households within their area. This will help in ensuring that the Census enumerators get full cooperation from the people to be counted.

1.5 Responsibilities of census enumerator
As a Census enumerator, you are the main actor in the Census enumeration. Make sure that you get complete and accurate responses, write them down, and shade the relevant spaces correctly. The quality of your work will facilitate the acquirement of proper statistical data.
[p.5]
In this situation, it is an important issue for the enumerator to strictly follow all working instructions issued by the central Census office. The supervisor will communicate with the enumerator frequently. He will provide you with equipment and instructions; he will supervise and collect your work; and search for solutions for the problems that you will face as you implement your responsibilities. Make sure you communicate with the supervisor all the time. The supervision of the enumerating work is an important and indeed a must in any Census that is aimed to accumulate accurate and certain statistics.

1.6 Equipment to be used in the census
Important equipment which is the core of the entire census is the census questionnaire (list of questions). One is supposed to understand all the questions in the questionnaire together with the instructions you will be given concerning the job.
You will be given questionnaires for your assigned area, according to the estimates of the population in that area. However, you should make sure to have enough questionnaires for the job. Contact your supervisor if you realize that the questionnaires will not be enough for completion of the Census in that area.
Together with questionnaires, one must also have the following equipment:

  • A copy of a map of your assigned area (EA map), which will have directions of boundaries of the area.
  • A copy of instructions to the Census enumerator -- a long list of questions
  • A copy of major events of your assigned district.
  • A copy of major national events.
  • A copy of list of names of hamlet chairmen, if available. In some areas, a list of household leaders will be provided (form EA2).
  • Two copies of sheets/papers (Form EA2) for corrections of the list of hamlet chairmen and household leaders.
  • Oath of confidentiality.
  • Special bags for carrying questionnaires (bags that don't allow water to penetrate).
  • Pencil, type 2-HB.
  • A blue ink pen.
[p.6]
  • A notebook.
  • A writing board (if the bags for carrying questionnaires do not have boards).
  • File.
  • White chalk (five pieces).
  • Eraser.
  • Sharpener.
Every census enumerator must ensure that he/she has this equipment. It is stressed that this equipment is to be used as directed below.
1.6.1 Notebook
This is one of the important equipments for the Census. On the cover of the notebook write your name, names and codes of your area for counting people, meaning the region, district, ward, and village or street (identification of your assigned Enumeration Area (EA)). Use the first four pages to write your schedule (see part 2.4).
The remaining part of the notebook should be used as follows:

  • If you have to go back to households to count the people who were not around during the first counting, write their names and addresses, and when you are supposed to go back.
  • Write notes about your job of counting people, such as questions in which you need help of the supervisor, etc.
1.6.2 File
Write on top of the file your name together with the names and codes of the region, district, ward, and village or street. Use the file to keep the map of your area, list of household leaders (if available), the instruction book to Census enumerators, and calendar of important national events and of your district (if available).
[p.7]

Part two: Preparations before the census day

2.1 Census Enumerators' training
A few days before the census day, census enumerators will be trained. This training given by trainers, who are well educated, will be held at the district headquarters and will be at two levels. The first level involves the supervisors and the enumerators who use long questionnaires (one with a long list of questions). The training will take 10 days.
The second level will involve enumerators who use short questionnaires (one with a short list of questions), which will take 8 days. Trainings for both groups will be completed not less than 3 days before the Census day, in order to enable the enumerators and supervisors to reach their areas early.

2.2 Oath of confidentiality
Every census enumerator and supervisor must take the oath of confidentiality before starting the job. As explained before, according to the established acts, the information provided by the respondents during the Census is confidential and is to be used for statistical purposes only.
Therefore, Census enumerators and their supervisors and all Census officers must not disclose the information provided by people during the Census. Strong punishment will be given to anyone that violates this law/act.

2.3 Meeting with the leaders and inspecting boundaries of the enumeration area (EA)
You are supposed to be at your area 3 days before the Census day. Use those days to do the following:

  • Meet with the heads of wards and streets/village; educate them briefly about the activities involved in the census.
  • In the areas where a list of household leaders is available, ask those leaders the number of households in their area to verify that the list of households you have is correct. If it is incorrect, correct it. Remember that the objectives of this list are to make sure that, in counting people, every household is counted. Therefore, it is necessary to correct the list in order to verify the list before the census day.
  • In the areas where a list of households is available, show the leaders that map for them to help you with boundaries and the keys in the map.
[p.8]
  • When counting people, you will receive help from village/street chairmen and hamlet leaders, since they know all the households in their area and will guide you to the households.
  • You will have to inform these leaders of your working schedule, so that each will know when they are supposed to help you with your work.
  • Inspect the boundaries of your area in order to compare with the map and the instructions given in the map about the boundaries. If there are any problems concerning the boundaries contacts, work with your colleagues with whom you share boundaries to solve the problem together. If you can't come up with a solution seek further help from your supervisor. If the keys given in the map are not correct, correct them, and if the instructions given about boundaries are incorrect, correct them as well.
Remember to correct the instructions about boundaries of your area

2.4 Working schedule
Simplify your work by making a schedule showing the time you will be in each street/village and other places of your area. After making your schedules, contact the village/street chairmen to agree upon the schedule. This schedule is to be written in the notebook in the following order:
Census enumerator's working schedule
The following is a table showing how to develop a working schedule [table]:

[Column headings]
(A) Hamlet/street/village chairman
(B) Address
(C) Planned time to count people (e.g. 28/9, from 8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.)
(D) Exact time used to count people

Read through your schedule everyday and correct it if necessary, then communicate the changes to the village/street chairmen.

  • Ask the village/street chairmen to inform the heads of households about your work and when you will pay them a visit. Ask the chairmen to tell the heads of household to have all information about people who slept in their household the night before the Census day. This will simplify your work as you collect information, especially if you visit them after the Census day.
  • Use the time you are not working to go around your area, especially the boundaries and housing areas in order to know the area better.

[p.9]

Part three: Activities to be done during census

3.1 Going through houses/households
Every census enumerator will move together with the village/street chairman or his representative during the enumeration of the households in the area under that chairman. In Zanzibar, you will move together with the ward (shehia) head (Sheha.) The objective of following the schedule is to avoid making enumeration errors, such as counting more than once or not enumerating someone.
Immediately when you are done with the household enumeration under one chairman or representative (or even ten cell leader, in areas that still have them), the respective chairman/representative will hand over the work to another chairman or representative to continue. For those areas where the list of household heads (EA2 Form) is available, use that list of names of village/street/sheha chairmen (or representatives if available) and household heads that are in your area of enumeration, and put a mark that shows that the particular household has been enumerated. After completing the enumeration in a household, put a "V" mark using a chalk on the door of that house to indicate that the household has been enumerated.

3.2 Who should be enumerated?
Everyone who slept in that household the night before the census day should be counted. The census night is Saturday night August 24th, 2002, before Sunday August 25th, 2002.This means that all those who slept in that household should be enumerated as members of that household although they only slept there the night before Sunday August 25th, 2002.
For population census objectives, a household is the total number of people who live and eat together (that is, they are cooperating in meeting their daily needs). Normally, it is father, mother, and children.
[p. 10]
Other relatives, visitors, and servants should be enumerated as members of that household if they slept in the respective household the night before the census day.
If someone is living and eating alone, then he should be enumerated as a one-man household, even if he is living in a house where other people live. If a household is living in more than one house, it will be enumerated as one household, as long as they are living and eating together without considering how far apart the houses are. It is understood that those that we enumerate are the ones sleeping in the household and not in the house.
Normally, a household as mentioned above is known as an individual household. There are also communal households. These are households of people living together, like camps, schools, universities, hospitals, hotels, and other similar places.
The following are people to be enumerated during census:

  • Everyone who slept at a particular household the day before the Census day.
  • All those who didn't sleep in the particular household the night before the Census but went cultivating, fishing, hunting, grazing, working night shifts, or those who slept at a neighbor's funeral.
  • Visitors and servants who slept in the particular household the day before the Census day.
  • All those in communal households, like hotels, prisons, dormitories, hospitals, and those who slept in those communal households the night before the Census day.
  • All those without permanent residence or those who migrate frequently, who slept in the country the night before the Census night.
  • All those who slept in the country the night before the Census, but due to their activities they are forced to migrate daily to other countries to work.
  • All those who are not citizens but live in the country and slept in the country the night before the Census day.
  • Travelers in boats, cars, airplanes, trains, etc., who were in the country the night before the Census day, without considering that these means of transport belong to these country or are from abroad.
  • All those who died the night before the Census day.
[p. 11]
On the other hand there are groups that should not be enumerated, and these are:
  • Ambassadors and their families who represent their countries or the United Nations in Tanzania.
  • Soldiers from abroad who are in the country.
  • New-born babies born after the night before the Census day.
  • All those who died ahead of the night before the Census day.
  • People living outside the country but who, due to their working activities, cross the borders and come into the country to work daily and go back to their country in the evening.
  • All Tanzanians who are abroad and who did not sleep in the country the night before the Census day.

3.3 How to enumerate different groups
The main objective of population and housing census is to enumerate everyone once and make sure that no one is left un-enumerated. A household is used as the instrument that brings people together, and everyone must be under one household.
In a situation like this, there is an advantage of identifying different groups of households and the environment where you will find those groups during enumeration.
In a normal situation, people will be found in one of the following situations:

  • Private households
  • Communal households
  • Migrants
  • People without permanent residence (e.g., the homeless)
  • Travelers (i.e., those that on the night before the Census were on some mode of transport)
3.3.1 Private Households
If you are in a private household, list down everyone who slept in that particular household the night before the Census day. Start listing down by writing the household head's name. Make sure that everyone who slept in that household the night before the Census night is enumerated.
In order to be sure that every person who slept in the household the night before the Census is listed, read all the names listed and ask if there is any person left out or if there is any person who shouldn't be in that list but is listed. Do not forget to list those people who slept in that household the night before Census but left before you arrived for enumeration to that household.
[p. 12]
3.3.2 Collective households
All the people who slept in collective households the night before the Census day ought to be enumerated. Collective household include: boarding schools, hospitals, prisons, camps, and other households of that type.
Meet with the leader of that area to guide you in counting people in that collective household. You should remember that all people who are only employees in that collective household but they live in their private households, should be counted in their private households and not in the collective household.
3.3.3 Nomads
These are people who are not settled in one specific area. Such people do not live in one place for a long period, instead they move from time to time. Normally such people are fishermen, pastoralists and similar, who will migrate in order to reach fields for their animals to graze and areas where they expect to get more fish.
As soon as you arrive in your area for enumeration, you must meet with the leaders of that area and ask them to inform you about the presence of nomads so that you can count them.
3.3.4 Homeless
These are people who do not live in houses, so they cannot be counted in any household. These are people who sleep anywhere, be it a market area, train station, bus station, or any other open spaces, or ones of that type.
This group is very hard to enumerate, especially if the work of enumerating these people will be done in the afternoon. This means that the work of enumerating these people shouldn't be done in the afternoon. Therefore, every enumerator must research about the presence such people in their area and should contact the leaders to know how to enumerate such people. Such people are to be counted in late night, the night before Census day. This work will be done by special Census enumerators who will be appointed for the job with the help of leaders of that area. This group will be categorized as EA no. 988 and the household number will start from 951 onwards.
For example, if EA 988 has two different groups of that kind, the EA number will remain 998, the household number for the first group will be 951 and that for the second group will be 952.
[p. 13]
3.3.5 Travelers
This is another group which is difficult to enumerate. These are people who will be travelling the night before Census day, meaning that they will be in means of transport such as buses, trains, airplanes, ships, etc. These people will be enumerated in the departure terminal or arrival terminals. Special census enumerators will be at these terminals (bus terminals, airports, train station, harbors, etc.) to enumerate these travelers. After they have been enumerated, these travelers will be given special cards to show that they have already been enumerated. This group, as the one for the homeless, will be included under EA number 988 and the household number will start from 951 onwards.

3.4 Who should be interviewed
Normally in a Census, one of the issues that must be decided early on is the order that should be used during the enumeration. There are two ways that can be used in enumerating people. The first way is by interviewing all those who have slept in the household the night before Census day. The second way is one where an elder person in the household answers questions on behalf of the household.
Although both ways are to be used in order to save time, if possible, it is advised to interview every person in the household in order to get accurate answers. When it is impossible to ask every person in the household you may request another member of the household to answer on behalf of the ones not present. Sometimes you may not find the members of the household at home. When that happens you must make plans to go back to that household to question them. If you cannot get hold of the household members, communicate with your supervisor for help. Questions to be asked to women 12 years and older must be asked to the corresponding women and not any other person.

3.5 Enumeration period
Normally, the work of enumerating is to be done in a day. There is a possibility of taking more than a day since this work is massive. Therefore, it is better if the work of enumerating is completed within 7 days. According to the types of questionnaires used, there is a possibility of exceeding 7 days in enumeration. The work of enumerating will start late night, the night before Sunday August 25th, 2002.
The objective of setting a specific time period for enumerating is to ensure that all people who slept in the household the night before Census day and left early are not left out in the enumeration.
There is a high possibility of forgetting the people who slept in the household the night before Census day if many days have passed, as a result some people will not be counted. There is also a possibility of forgetting important information about the people who slept in the household that night.
Note: The main objective of Census is to ensure that every person who slept in the country the night before census day is enumerated only once.
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3.6 How to interview people
Interviewing is one of the ways to obtain information from a person by asking questions. An interview differs from a normal conversation in the following way:

  • In an interview usually people are not familiar with each other. Therefore, one of the important things is to try your best to get to know the respondent and make sure he/she has no worries; make them feel free to talk to you and answer the census questions without doubts. Remember that your first appearance and the way you first present yourself is very important, because these will influence the respondent and help them answer the census questions without doubts. Therefore, the first thing is to make sure you are acceptable to the respondent and other people in your enumeration area.
  • To be accepted you must also be free, dress smartly and decent, and behave in a respectable way to all people in your enumeration area.
  • Village/street/hamlet chairmen will be there to help you with your work. When you meet with the one you are interviewing, the first thing you are supposed to do is to greet him/her and introduce yourself, mention your name, where do you work and what do you want from the respondent. In this stage you must inform him/her that the information received from him/her is confidential and will remain a secret between the two of you. Inform them that no individual name will be used and all information received will be used to form a collective report. Show your job identification card if the respondent wants to see it.
  • Unlike normal conversations, in an interview one person only asks the questions and the other one answers. Do not try to express your personal opinion. Do not ever try to show your anger upon the replies of the respondent. Never try to either disagree or reject the answers of the respondent. Try not to lean on any side at all times.
[p. 15]
However, it is important to show that you are listening to the respondent's answers by using words such as "ehee" "alaa" or "yes". If the respondent hesitates in answering questions, try to persuade him/her by reminding that the information she/he is providing is confidential. Do not force the respondent to answer questions if they completely refuse to answer.
Remember that the respondent should not be forced to answer questions
If the respondent does not want to answer the questions asked, then try to ask your supervisor or the village/street/hamlet chairman to help you educate him/her about the importance of answering the questions.

  • In asking Census questions, there is a specific order that must be followed. It is a must to follow this order and always make sure that you manage the interview situations. This means you must create situations where the respondent will be willing to cooperate throughout the interview.

If the respondent will give answers that do not relate to the questions asked or gives too much information that is irrelevant for your work, do not try to stop or seize with anger; listen until she/he finishes then try to slowly return to the questions intended.

  • According to the established statistics laws, the information collected during numeration is confidential and is to be used for statistical purposes only. Therefore, every Census enumerator, supervisor and other officers must not disclose this information. Strong punishment will be given to anyone who will violate this law.
  • By the law, all residents are ought to provide correct information and answer all questions asked during the Census. If any problem arises concerning this, you must report to the representative of that area or your supervisor immediately for help.

3.7 How to ask questions

  • Words to use when asking questions: it is important that all questions are asked exactly as written in the questionnaire. There are two reasons causing the emphasis on this. First, all questions are carefully written. Changing the arrangement of words in the questions may change the meaning of the question; as a result, you may get a different answer or an invalid one. Second, changing the arrangement of words in the question may also change the question from the neutral state of not basing on any side, hence affecting the answer given by the respondent.
[p. 16]
  • Repeating questions: Interviewing does not only mean reading the questions and writing the answers. The question asked to the respondent may not yield the appropriate answers immediately. The respondent may give an incomplete answer, unsatisfactory, or refuse to answer the question because of not understanding the questions or the whole situation in general. Whatever is the case, before you ask the question in another approach, give more explanations, or ask other questions, repeat the question slowly and in a correct form to get the appropriate answer. If until then you are still not getting the answers you expect, then you may try to give more explanation and put it in plain words by following the order explained below.
  • Explaining the question or asking by using other words: at times it may happen that the respondent is having trouble in understanding a certain question. When that happens, you are to ask the question in another manner. This will be done when it has been established that the respondent has failed to understand the question even after repeating the question slowly and in a correct form. However, you must be very careful when asking the question in another manner so that you don't change the meaning of the question.
  • When you arrive at a household, you must be self-confident and assure the respondent that the information received will be confidential. All this is to make the respondent answer the questions asked.

In a household, you must ask to meet with the head of the household, if not present then ask for someone else who is in charge. For census purposes, head of a household is any adult who is mentally fit and all the members of the household recognize him/her as the head of the household.

  • When you complete interviewing people of that household, do not forget to thank them for their cooperation and say goodbye.

3.8 Communication with the supervisor
The success of the Census is dependent on accurate enumeration. This means that the work of enumerating is the hub of the census. The quality of this work will reveal the quality of the entire census. Therefore, it is important that the ones employed to do the work of enumerating follow all the instructions and orders set. The supervisor will contact you at any time. The supervisor is the one to give you instructions and equipment. He/she will collect the report and inspect it and be ready to help you with your work and in solving different problems that will arise in implementing your duties.
Therefore, this will leave you no choice but to communicate frequently with your supervisor. This is as a result of the truth that, supervision in work is a very important part and a must in any exercise that has objectives of getting accurate statistics.
[p. 17]

3.9 For those that refuse to be interviewed
If you happen to meet a person or people in a household that refuse to be enumerated, keep on convincing them so that they can be enumerated. Try to explain to that person or those people all over again the importance of census in making development plans. Make the respondent aware that this census work has nothing to do with any other issue; for example, development of taxes or any other issue more than obtaining accurate statistics that will help in preparing development plans.
Remind the person you are interviewing that according to the country's law information given by anyone in the Census is a secret and will only be used for statistical purposes. If that person is still refusing to be enumerated, then report that information to your work supervisor and leaders of the particular area so that they can help you get a solution.

3.10 Returning to households
There will be times that you will be forced to return to a household so that you are able to complete your interview in that household. This will be the case if there is no one in the household or information of one person or another was not obtained when you visited that household for the first time. When such a situation occur, communicate with family/neighbors/friends so that you can be aware of the time that you will find the people of that particular household and complete your interview. In order to simplify your work and so that you don't forget, write the time you are expecting to visit them in your notebook and leave behind a message so when you go for enumeration they will be present. It should be remembered that returning to most households to complete your interviews wastes time and is very expensive.
For that reason then, try your best to avoid returning to households. If it is totally impossible getting hold of the people of a particular household, you have no choice but to communicate with your supervisor for a solution.
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Part Four: How to fill a questionnaire

4.1 Important things to remember when filling a questionnaire

  • Write and shade the questionnaire yourself. Remember and realize that the information you are collecting is a secret, so you must keep that a secret.
  • Cleanly store the questionnaire, and fill it correctly in capital letters and a readable handwriting. In all blanks needed to be shaded, shade in a way that can be seen clearly.
  • Make sure you use a 2-HB pencil that you were given, to fill and shade the questionnaire.
  • Use a new questionnaire whenever you are interviewing a new household.
  • When filling the questionnaire, fill one person's information in one row.
  • If you make a mistake when you are filling a questionnaire, erase using the rubber that you were given and correct. When you are erasing, make sure that you don't make the questionnaire dirty because if the questionnaire is dirty it will not be read by the scanner.
  • The number of questionnaires that will be used to list down the members of the household will depend on the number of members present in that household. If you use more than one questionnaire in listing down members of the household, make sure that the introduction part of all questionnaires is filled and all the codes in the introduction are the same from regional, district, household/shehia, enumeration area (EA), and household number.

For example, if there are 10 people who slept in the household the night before the Census, list down six members of the household in one questionnaire and number it as "001" and list the remaining four down in another questionnaire, which will be numbered "002".

4.2 Timetable to be followed during enumeration

  • Immediately, when you arrive at a household, greet the members of the household and introduce yourself by explaining the purpose of your visit. Mostly, you will move along with the village/hamlet/street, shehia chairman, or any leader who is responsible so that he can introduce you to households of his area.
[p. 19]
  • Ask for the household head. If he is not around, communicate with the person who is in charge.
For Census purposes, the head of a household is that identified by the members of the household as the household head and he/she can either be a man or woman.
  • When enumerating people in a collective household (institution) in which the household members are patients, prisoners, or any other people living collectively or in a camp, then communicate with the head of that the institution so that he can help you in getting information of members of his household.
  • Explain that you need to acquire personal information of everyone present in the household the night before the census day.
  • List down everyone in that household, who is supposed to be enumerated, in the following order:
a) Head of household
b) Relatives living in that household who slept in the household the night before the census day. A domestic servant should be enumerated as one of the relatives if he/she slept in the household the night before Census day.
c) Relatives living in the household, but did not sleep in the household the night before the census day because they were at work, hunting, or fishing, in a neighbor's funeral, or other reasons.
d) Visitors who slept in the household the night before the census day.
  • When you complete listing everyone who slept in the particular household the night before the census day, read to them the names you have listed down all together so that you can make sure that everyone who is supposed to be listed down is on the list. Add to the list the names of all those who were supposed to be on the list but were not listed.
Remember to ask if there are infants, very old people, or disabled that were forgotten in the listing. Also, remember that you should also erase names of those who would have not slept in the household the night before the census day.
[p. 20]
  • To simplify the work, when listing down the names also fill their sex and relationship to the head of the household. These three questions are closely related and by doing so you will have simplified your work reasonably.
  • After listing the names, shade the codes of the relationship of every listed person with the head of the household and their sex. Start asking the head of the household her/his remaining questions. After interviewing the head of the household continue interviewing the next person in your list the questions that are relevant to her/him.
  • For all questions, you are supposed to shade in the codes provided, according to the personal information given by the respondent. The instructions about these codes are provided in the questionnaire and instructions to enumerators' manual. Therefore, for every answer given, look for codes for that question and write/shade in the code that matches the answer given in the corresponding space.
Make sure that you are careful when filling codes in questionnaires, because if you make a mistake it will be difficult to get the correct statistics and the results given after the analysis of these statistics will be incorrect, therefore distorting the truth about the real situation.

4.3 Information about questions
The 2002 population and housing Census will use two types of questionnaires (long questionnaire with 37 questions, and short questionnaire with 8 questions). You will use the long questionnaire, for which the instructions are as follows:

  • General questions (B): these are questions that must be answered by every person.
  • Questions on Education -- for persons 5 years and older (C): together with the general questions, those 5 years and older are supposed to answer all questions in part (C). Those of age younger than 5 years should not be asked these questions.
  • Questions about economic activities -- for those 5 years and older (D): all persons 5 years and older are to answer all questions in part (D).
These questions will be asked after the questions in part (B) and (C) are answered. For those of age younger than 5 years, the interview will end in part (B).
[p. 21]
  • Questions on birth history -- for women age 12 and older (E): these are questions concerning births and are for women with the age of 12 years and above.
These questions are used to get the number of live births by these women in the period when they are fertile. It is well understood that men of any age can never give birth; it is only possible with women. Though it has happened that a girl younger than age 12 gave birth but for census objectives these questions are to be asked to women of age 12 and above.
  • Questions about deaths (F): questions about deaths will be answered by the head of the household or any other person, who will answer on behalf of the head of the household, and include the deaths which occurred in that household in the past twelve months, from August 23rd, 2001 to August 24th, 2002.
  • Housing conditions questions (G): the head of the household is one to answer these questions. These questions are about the material used to build the house, services in the household, such as water supply, toilet, electricity, and the number of bedrooms used in that household.
  • Total number of people (H): after finishing the work of listing the members of the household and filling the information in the questionnaires, write in the space provided the number of men and women listed in that household and later sum them up to get the total number of people enumerated in that household. Make sure that you shade in the questionnaire after writing the total number of people.

4.3.1 Long questionnaire
This questionnaire is divided into 8 main parts which are:
A. Identification This part contains the following:

  • Two spaces for regional [mkoa] code.
  • Two spaces for district [wilaya] code.
  • Three spaces for ward [kata] code.
  • Three spaces for enumeration area code.
  • Three spaces for writing household number.
  • Three spaces for writing questionnaires' number.
[p.22]
Codes to be written in the identification part are for that specific area only. All this will be provided in the enumeration area map (EA map) of your area and in the list of household heads (if available), also that of village/hamlet/street [kijiji / kitongoji / mtaa] chairmen. Therefore, you are supposed to transfer the codes from the map or list of household heads (if available), write and shade in the space provided.
Every household in your enumeration area must be given a different number, as follows:

  • Every private household must be given a number from 001 onwards. These numbers should be written and shaded in the space provided. The first private household to be enumerated will be numbered "001", the second "002", the third "003", and so on.
  • For collective households, the numbers should start from "951", the second number "952", the third number "953", and so on.

Questionnaire numbers will start from "001" onwards, depending on the number of people in the household.
Every household that you will list must start with a new questionnaire. If the household is large and needs more than one questionnaire, the second questionnaire will be numbered "002", the third "003", and so on. Once you start enumerating a new household you must start with a new questionnaire, which you will number "001".
For example, if you go to a household where 23 people slept in the night before the census day. Since only six people can be listed in a questionnaire, it will be necessary to fill four questionnaires. The first questionnaire will be numbered 001, the second 002, the third 003, and the fourth 004. When you go to the next household the first questionnaire you will use will have household number 002 and questionnaire number 001, not 005. If there is no collective household in your area, the household number of the last household will be the total number of households in that area.
[p.23]
B. Questions for all the peopleThis part involves all people who slept in the household the night before census day. The questions in this part are also found in the short questionnaire.
The questions in this part must be asked to every person following the order set. You must follow the flow of questions as arranged and read the question as written in the questionnaire. For more explanation, refer explanations in part 3.7 (how to ask questions).
Part "B" of the questionnaire contains the following questions:
Questions 1-4: Person number, name, relationship, and genderThe first step in filling this part is getting the list of all people who slept in the household the night before Census day and their relationship to the head of the household. It is better if you list the names in the order explained below to get the real situation of the household. You must list starting with the head of the household and shade in the space provided, then other members of the household who slept in the household the night before Census day. If there are more than six people, indicate in the space provided that extra questionnaires are used. After listing all the household members, continue interviewing the head of the household the remaining questions using the first questionnaire.
In order for you to get a correct list of all people in the household, you must know the meaning of a household.
For Census objectives, household is a person or people who live together and eat together. This is not the same as family. A family is for people who are related but household is people who live and eat together, even when they are not related. For example, three people who are not blood related (example, friends) but live and eat together; they will be regarded as a household although they are not a family.
At times it is difficult to know who is to be included in the household and who is to be left out. The following examples elaborate this situation:

  • A man who has two wives who live in different places. Although the man will claim to live in both houses he will be enumerated in the house he slept the night before the census day.
  • It is possible that a woman who said that the husband is the head of the household and later realized that he did not sleep in the house the night before census day though he lives there. If the husband did not sleep in the household the night before census day, he will not be listed in that household. Therefore, the wife will be the head of the household, for census purposes.
[p. 24]
  • Sometimes, a person may be eating in one household and sleeping in another. This person will be listed in the household he slept in the night before census day.
  • A person who lives alone will be listed in a private household of his own.
  • A house maid: she/he will be listed in the household she/he slept in the night before census day.
Note: every person listed in the household must have slept in that household the night before census day.
When the respondent is listing the names of members of the household, write those names in column 2 of the Census questionnaire: [write] one person's full name in each line.
Start with the head of the household, meaning the one who is responsible for the household or the one recognized by the members as the head of the household or the leader of the household. Shade each line on column "1" that matches every member of the household.Start by asking "who is the head of the household" and then write his/her name in column "2" of the questionnaire. Then, ask and list down the names of all the people who slept in the household the night before census day.
It is important to list the names in an acceptable order to get the real picture of the household. Start with the name of the head of the household - who is either a man or a woman - then the husband or wife, children, and other relatives. Then, finish with the ones who are not his/her relatives. Most of the time, children are forgotten or left out intentionally, thinking they are not important. All the people who slept in the household the night before census day must be listed. Make sure all the infants are listed. If he/she is not given a name yet, write "child of [name of the mother]".
[p.25]
When writing the names in question "2", shade to show everyone's relationship to the head of the household in question "3" and their gender in question "4". This will simplify your work.
The following codes are the ones used in showing the relationship of members to head of the household:
Relationship
[] 1 Head of the household
[] 2 Husband / wife
[] 3 Son / daughter
[] 4 Parent
[] 5 Grandchild
[] 6 Other relatives
[] 7 Not related

Where people are not blood related, but they have joint responsibilities in managing the household, take one as the head of the household and another as "other person", using code number 7. In institutions like hospitals, boarding schools, or prisons where there is no head of the household, they should be listed as students, prisoners, patients, etc. The first to be listed is the one who will be given the relationship code number "1" which is for the head of the household and the rest will be given relationship code "7" which is for "other people". Make sure you shade the appropriate space.
Note: Write the relationship of the listed person to the head of the household using codes provided. Be careful when shading the relationship codes, especially when the one answering the questions is not the head of the household. When that happens make sure the relationship you are shading is of the members and the head of the household and not with the one answering the questions.
[p. 26]
For example, if the one interviewed is the wife of the head of household and says that "Changumi" is her son who she had with another man, then the relationship of "Changumi" with the head of household will be of code number "7" meaning "other person" and not of biological child.
Make sure that you understand their relationship before writing in the questionnaire.
Shade the code which matches the gender of the person being interviewed. The codes used for this question are as follows:Sex

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

[Illustration for question 4 is omitted]
Be careful when shading the sex of young children. It happens most of the time that is not easy to know the sex of an infant. Therefore, you must ask about the sex, don't assume. Don't fill the sex of a person using the name because some names are used by both men and women.
Question 5: How old are you/they?Write and shade the exact age of every person, meaning the age she/he arrived at his/her last birthday. If the members of household do not know his/her age, try to ask him/her more about the month and year she/he was born. This will prevent the respondent from saying the easy numbers like 25, 30, 45, etc. instead of 24, 26, 29, 31, 44, 46, etc. For children under one year old, write "00" and shade codes "0" and "0".
It is important to get the exact age of every person. If the exact age is not known, it will be necessary to estimate the age of that person. To get good estimates, several information known are to be used. For example, children who cannot walk yet are usually below one year, children who are starting to lose their milk teeth are usually of 6 years, puberty age starts from 13 to 16 years for boy and 12 to 15 for girls.
[p. 27]
To help you get close estimates, use major national and district events calendar given. For children under the age of 5, usually they have clinic cards which will help to know their age if unknown.
Remember that there are people who provide false information or estimate of their age. If such a situation arises, use the guidelines above to get the information which will help you estimate the age of this person. This is because age is very important statistic about people.
Don't estimate someone's age based on appearance. A person may look younger or older depending on the lifestyle and living standards. If the living conditions are poor, this person will look older though he/she is not. By all means, try to get correct answers or acceptable ones, meaning they match the information given by the person.
For example, if a woman of 65 years tells you she had a child two years ago or a woman of 22 years old says she has a child of 15 years the information is not true as it is not acceptable biologically. In this case, you must look at the woman's age again and interview her more to get information that will help you know the correct age.
Note: A child younger than 1 year is filled in using "00" and shading in the appropriate space provided, and a person age 97 and older will be filled in using "97" and shading in the space provided.
[p. 28]
Answers about age must be written in two digits. For example, for a child under one year write code "00" then shade digits "0" and "0". For a child of one year write code "01" and shade digits "0" and "1". For a person of 97 years and above write code "97" and shade digits "9" and "7".
Question 6: Do you have any disability? If yes, what type of disability?In this question, we want to know if there is any member of the household who is disabled. If there is, we want to know what kind of disability he/she has. If the member of the household has no disability shade, code "1" in the space provided for question six.
Types of disabilities and their codes are as follows:

[] 1 Not disabled
[] 2 Leprosy
[] 3 Blind
[] 4 Dumb
[] 5 Deaf
[] 6 Albino
[] 7 Mental disability
[] 8 Multiple disability

[Illustration for question 6 is omitted]
[p. 29]
Note: Most parents don't like to show their disabled children; therefore, try to make the head of household understand the importance of enumerating disabled because without knowing the type and total number of disabled it is difficult for the government to make development plans for the disabled, which will help them in the future.
Question 7: What is your citizenship?Every person in the household must be asked the question of citizenship. If a person is a citizen of Tanzania, either by birth or registration, fill code "60" in the space provided in the questionnaire for this question, shade code "6" and "0". If a person is a citizen of another country, fill the country's code and shade in the respective codes depending on the answer given.
Use the following codes:
Country

60 = Tanzania
61 = Angola
62 = Botswana
63 = Burundi
64 = Comoro
65 = Kenya
66 = Lesotho
67 = Malawi
68 = Mauritius
69 = Mozambique
70 = Namibia
71 = Rwanda
72 = Seychelles
73 = Somalia
74 = Swaziland
75 = South Africa
76 = Uganda
77 = Republic of Congo
78 = Zimbabwe
79 = Zambia
80 = Other African countries
81 = India
82 = Pakistan
83 = Asian countries
84 = Italy
[p. 30]
85 = Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)
86 = Great Britain
87 = Germany
88 = Other European countries
89 = Canada
90 = U.S.A.
91 = Other countries

[Illustration for question 7 is omitted]
Question 8: What is your marital status?This question is for all people, men and women. This question helps us to know if a member of the household is single, married, living together, divorced, separated (currently not living with the wife/husband), or widow/ widower. Shade the codes according to the answer given by the respondent.
[p. 31]
Codes to be used are as follow:

[] 1 Never married
[] 2 Married
[] 3 Living together
[] 4 Divorced
[] 5 Separated
[] 6 Widowed
[] 7 Other

For census objectives, "Married" includes all people who live together as husband and wife if they are traditionally, religiously, or civil married. People who live together as husband and wife but are not married are categorized under co-habitation ["Living together"]. "Divorced" will include those people who were husband and wife but then got a divorce. "Separated" includes those people who lived together as husband and wife and have decided to live separately. This must be differentiated from the case where husband and wife live apart due to other reasons, but they are legally still married.
[Illustration for question 8 is omitted]
It may happen that a man divorced his wife and got married to another woman, and the time of enumeration he is found living with the second wife. When that happens, the man is to be considered as married and put code "2", then shade in the space provided and the same to the woman.
Note: The marital status asked here is the present one, meaning the marital status of a member of the household during the time of enumeration.
[p. 32]
Question 9: Is your biological father alive? Is your biological mother alive?In this question, we want to know if the parents of a member of the household are alive. Start by asking a member of the household if the biological father is alive and then ask if the biological mother is alive.
In other customs, people will consider the children they raised as their own even when they are born by other people. These children, who are raised by people other than their parents such as step mother, should not be taken as their parents. Therefore, it is better if you make the respondent understand that we are talking about biological parents of a member of the household, not guardians.
If the biological mother and father of a member of household are alive or not, shade code "1" or "2", according to the answer given by the member of household.
If the respondent does not know whether the biological parents are alive or dead, use code "8". This situation may happen and will not be seen as abnormal.
Use the following codes:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No
[] 8 Don't know

[Illustration for question 9 is omitted]
Question 10: Where were you born? [Place of birth]This question, together with question 11 and 12, shows how people migrate from one place to another. If a member of the household is born in Tanzania, write the code of the region and shade the corresponding spaces. If a member of household is born in another country, write the code of that country and shade the corresponding spaces.
The following codes are for question 10, 11 and 12:
Tanzania main land regions

01 = Dodoma
02 = Arusha
03 = Kilimanjaro
04 = Tanga
05 = Morogoro
06 = Pwani
07 = Dar es Salaam
08 = Lindi
09 = Mtwara
10 = Ruvuma
11 = Iringa
12 = Mbeya
13 = Singida
14 = Tabora
15 = Rukwa
16 = Kigoma
17 = Shinyanga
18 = Kagera
19 = Mwanza
20 = Mara
Zanzibar regions
51 = North Unguja
52 = South Unguja
53 = Town/west
54 = North Pemba
55 = South Pemba
Country
61 = Angola
62 = Botswana
63 = Burundi
64 = Comoro
65 = Kenya
66 = Lesotho
67 = Malawi
68 = Mauritius
69 = Mozambique
70 = Namibia
71 = Rwanda
[p. 34]
72 = Seychelles
73 = Somalia
74 = Swaziland
75 = South Africa
76 = Uganda
77 = Republic of Congo
78 = Zimbabwe
79 = Zambia
80 = Other African countries
81 = India
82 = Pakistan
83 = Asian countries
84 = Italy
85 = Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)
86 = Great Britain
87 = German
88 = Other European countries
89 = Canada
90 = U.S.A.
91 = Other countries
998 = Not included (in question 12)

[Illustration for question 10 is omitted]
Question 11: Where do you normally live?Although during the time of enumeration a person is found in a certain place that does not mean that is where he/she lives every day.
[p. 35]
It is possible that a person is there to visit or on holiday, but lives in another place. Therefore, you must ask this question to everyone, do not assume that a person lives where he/she was found on census day.
Codes used are those shown in question 10 above. In order to know if a person lives in the village, regional headquarters, district headquarters, or another town, you are supposed to write the code which matches the answer given in the third box, then shade in the corresponding space.
The following codes are used:

[] 1 He/she lives in the rural [kijijini]
[] 2 He/she lives in regional headquarters
[] 3 He/she lives in district headquarters or another town
[] 4 He/she lives outside Tanzania.

For example, if a household member lives in Iringa urban, you are supposed to write and shade code "1" and "1" in the first two columns, then write and shade code "2" in the third column. If normally one lives in Manyoni urban [mjini], which is the headquarters of Manyoni district in Singida region, then the codes used in question 11 are "1" and "3" in the first two columns and code "3" in the third column. For a person who lives in Namibia, write and shade code "70" which is for Namibia and shade code 4 in the third column.
[Illustration for question 11 is omitted]
[p. 36]
For those people who have lived in different places for a year (apart from where they usually reside), you will fill where they have lived the longest time. For business people, fill the place where they stay for at least four days a week.
Question 12: Where were you living in 2001?The aim of this question is to know where people lived in the past year (August 2001). These statistics help to determine the level of migration of people from place to place in the past 12 months. Those who are under one year of age shouldn't be asked this question, instead in question 12 write and shade code "998" meaning "not involved".
Codes used are the same shown in question 11.
[Illustration for question 12 is omitted]
C. Education: People of age 5 years and aboveThis part includes persons age 5 and older. Those who are younger than 5 years (refer to question 5) should not be asked these questions because the interview ends in question 12 for them.
Questions 12, 13, and 14 that are in this part "C" enable us to know if the respondent can read and write in Kiswahili, English, Kiswahili and English, or other languages. Also, [they are used] to know the level of education the respondent has attained.
[p. 37]
Question 13: Can you read and write in Kiswahili, English, Kiswahili and English, or any other language?For census purposes, a person who can read, understand and write short sentences in any language, which he/she uses in daily activities, will be taken as one who can read and write in that language. This question helps us to know the level at which the respondent can read and write in Kiswahili, English, Kiswahili and English, or any other languages.
This means that question 13 divides people in five groups as follows:

  • Ones who can read and write in Kiswahili
  • Ones who can read and write in English
  • Ones who can read English and Kiswahili
  • Ones who can read and write in other languages (apart from English and Kiswahili)
  • Ones who cannot read and write in any language
For Census objectives, the fifth group includes all people who cannot read and write in any language and those who can read but cannot write. It also includes those who can only write numbers and their names.
Codes used in question 13 are as follows:

[] 1 Those who can read and write in Kiswahili
[] 2 Those who can read and write in English
[] 3 Those who can read English and Kiswahili
[] 4 Those who can read and write in other languages (apart from English and Kiswahili)
[] 8 Those who cannot read and write in any language
[] 9 Those who do not mention

[Illustration for question 13 is omitted]
[p. 38]
The case of "those who do not mention" happens only if it is impossible to get information about one or some household members.
Question 14: School attendance?This question tries to get the number of people who are studying, dropped out, graduated, or never went to school. If available, we want to know whether they are still studying, dropped out, or graduated.
Use the following codes:

[] 1 Those who are studying
[] 2 Those who dropped out
[] 3 Those who graduated
[] 4 Those who never went to school
[] 9 Those who do not mention

For those who never went to school shade code "4" and for those who don't mention shade code "9". Those for whom you have shaded code "4" and "9" shouldn't be asked question 15, but must be asked question 16.
[Illustration for question 14 is omitted]
Question 15: What is your education level?This question is only related to school. The aim of this question is to know the number of people who are currently studying, graduated, and those who dropped out. For those who are still studying, we want to know what level they are in. For those who dropped out, we want to know at what level they dropped out. For those who graduated, we want to know from what class they graduated.
[p. 39]
The codes used are as follows:
Primary education

01= Standard one
02 = Standard two
03 = Standard three
04 = Standard four
05 = Standard five
06 = Standard six
07 = Standard seven
Secondary education
18 = Pre-form one
09 = Form one
10 = Form two
11 = Form three
12 = Form four
13 = Form five
14 = Form six
Post secondary/primary education
15 = Universities and colleges
16 = Post primary education
17 = Post secondary/primary education
99 = Those who do not mention

[Illustration for question 15 is omitted]
[p. 40]
D. Employment: For people of age five and aboveThis part has five questions (question 16-20) which have to be answered by people of age 5 and above. For census purposes, a job is any economic activity, either if you get paid, make profit, do barter trade, or for domestic use. Housework is not regarded as a job except looking for firewood and fetching water from a source which is far from the respondent's living place. Housework includes laundry works, cleaning, cooking, etc. The housework mentioned above will be considered as economic activities if they are paid for. A house maid doing these works should be considered as employed.
Question 16: What work were you doing for the past 12 months?This question is to know what economic activities were done in the past 12 months. If the Census is done in August, then past 12-month [period] starts from the night before Census day and goes back 12 months.
It may happen that the person being interviewed did several jobs for short periods. Then all the works should be combined together, and the respondent should be considered as having worked the full time - as long as these are economic activities.
The respondent with permanent employment will be recognized as if he/she worked for the entire period even if he/she is on any type of leave and is expecting to go back to work after the leave.
Codes "01" and "02" is for those who work for any kind of payment, be it money or any other payment according to the work done.
The respondent who do economic activities without payment, such as gathering firewood, fetching water, building his/her own house, helping in family business, and other activities of that type, use code "03" and"04" according to the answer given.
Codes "05" and "06" are to be used for people who are self employed, such as business people, farmers, etc. The respondent that did not do any economic activities but were searching for a job or ready to work at any time will be included in codes "07" and "08" according to the answer given. Remember that, the respondents that are not doing any economic activities might be ready to do economic activities if available.
For example, a woman who does housework that is non-economic may be ready do the work of selling bans if she gets the [starting] capital.
[p. 41]
Codes "09" to "11" involve those people who did not do any economic activities and were not ready to do any or did not do any work.
Code "09" is for those who did not do any economic activity. However, not every student is kept in this code. Students who do economic activities in their household receive codes "01" to "06" according to the answers given. They shouldn't be given code "09" as full time students.
For example, a student who goes to school but sell his own groundnuts after school should be included in code "06" and not code "09". If he/she is employed to sell groundnuts after school, then he/she should be included in code "02" and not code "09", etc.
Students who are on technical training will be considered as if they worked, and the codes used are between "01" and ''06" depending on the answers given. Code "10" is for those people who are doing housework that is non-economic such as cooking, cleaning, laundry, etc. The respondents who do these activities for payment should not be included in this code. They are included in code "01" and "02" depending on the answers given. Code "11" is for people who did not do any economic activity because of old age, sickness, disability and other reasons of that kind. For all children age 5 and older and not full-time students, but are not doing any economic activities, shade code "11". The disabled, old people, sick, etc., who are able to do economic activities should not be included in this code unless they are not doing any economic activity.
Codes used in question 16 and 17 are as follows:
Working status

01 = Full time employment for salary
02 = Part time employment for wages
03 = Full time employment without payment
04 = Part time employment without payment
05 = Full time self-employed
06 = Part time self-employed
07 = Did not work but searching for a job
08 = Not looking for employment but ready to work
09 = Full time student
10 = Did non-economic housework
11 = Did not work aged, sick or disabled
96 = Others
98 = Unknown

[Illustration for question 16 is omitted]
[p. 42]
Question 17: What kind of work were you doing for the past seven days?Codes for question 16 and 17 are the same except the period of time is different. Question 16 is 12 months before the night to Census day while question 17 is seven days. It is possible that the work the respondent did in the past 12 months is the same he/she did for the past seven days. It is also possible that the work the respondent did for the past 12 months is not the same that he/she did for the past 7 days.
Question 18-20 will be asked depending on the answers given to question 17. As for the instructions on question 16, where the person interviewed is permanently employed but has been doing a different work apart from the usual for the past 7 days, the following questions will be asked about his/her permanent work. If the respondent did not do any economic activity for the past 7 days but is permanently employed, question 18-20 will be asked about the permanent job.
For example, a worker who is on leave during the time of enumeration and says he didn't do any economic activity or just rested will be considered as he/she worked the whole time. This means he/she will keep on working after the leave. In this case shade code "01" to "06" depending on the answers given.
If a worker is fired from the work last 7 days before Census day meaning he/she will not be going back to work, then should be categorized in the work he/she has being doing for that period.
[p. 43]
Farmers, fishermen, bee keepers, and pastoralists should be counted as if they worked for 7 days before census day. It should be remembered that August is summer, so most farmers will not be doing farming activities. In this case, the group is under code "01" to "06" depending on the answers given.
Note: Questions 18-20 are to be answered by people with code "01" to"06" in question 17.
Question 18: Were you an employer, employee, self-employed in agriculture, self-employed in non-agricultural activities, domestic worker without payment, or other?The aim of this question is to know the employment status of the respondent. Employment status means the conditions of work of a person. This status can be divided into "paid employment" on one side and "self-employment" on the other side. It is possible that the respondent did more than one job: to answer questions 18, 19, and 20 the major activity or the one that took the longest time will be used. Among these two types of employment, there are groups that are defined according to the responsibilities or authority that the respondent has due to his work or potentials, as follows:

  • Employer: One who gets his work done by employing another people, without taking into consideration the kind of contract between the employee and the employer. These works are those of any kind of payment.
  • Employee: A person employed by any type of employer be it public or private. An employee must receive any kind of payment, either daily, monthly, or for specific period of time depending on their agreement.
  • Self-employment in non-agricultural activities: One who is involved in economic activities where he plans and supervises [hiss business] on his own. These activities include business and others that are not agricultural.
  • Self-employment in agriculture: A person whose work is agriculture even if it a small garden. Women who work together with their husbands in one farm are to be included in code "4" and not otherwise.
  • Domestic work without payment: This involves activities done for the benefit of the household; for example, fetching water, collecting firewood, and other economic activities done in the household.
[p. 44]
  • Apprentices: Any person who has joined professional studies; for example, car technician, machine technician, etc. There is a possibility for the apprentice to be paid or not, depending on the institution he/she is in.

The following codes are for question 18:
Employment status

[] 1 Employer
[] 2 Employee
[] 3 Self-employed in non agricultural activities
[] 4 Self-employed in agriculture
[] 5 Domestic work without payment
[] 6 Apprentices
[] 7 Others
[] 9 Unknown

[Illustration for question 18 is omitted]
Question 19: What major activity did you do in the past 7 days?[Those with codes between "01" and "06" in question 17]
This question is answered by those who did economic activities for the past 7 days.
Codes used in this question are as follows:
1. Administrator, managers and law makers = 01
Law makers, administrators, and managers are people who take the highest decisions and policies, laws, and orders of a country, region and street/village authorities or law making body; they plan, instruct, and supervise their implementation; they represent the government or work on its behalf, or do such responsibilities on behalf of a political party or other specific group and ensure the safety of citizens.
This group involves the following:

i. Leaders of political party
ii. Religious leaders and other volunteering institutions
iii. Government executives and administrators
iv. Directors and managers
v. Law makers (members of the parliament, and councilors)
[p. 45]
vi. Administrators of major institutions
vii. Village leaders
viii. Government leaders (central government and local government)
2. Professionals (with degree and advanced diploma) = 02
These include all people whose work always involve a lot of brains and usually need severe training, or people whose work need experience and skills. These professionals are those with degrees and advance diplomas.
These groups are as follows:

i. Scientists, mathematicians, and engineers. This group includes:
  • Engineers (civil, marine, electronic, etc.)
  • Chemists
  • Weather forecasters
  • Geologists
  • Architects
  • Surveyors
  • Computer scientist
  • Statisticians
  • Mathematicians and those of that kind
ii. Biologists and health professionals.
  • Biologists, botanist, zoologists, etc.
  • Bacteriologists
  • Agronomists
  • Doctors
  • Dentists
  • Veterinary doctors
  • Pharmacists
  • Nutrition specialists
  • Nurses with advanced diploma or degree
  • Health inspectors with advanced diploma or degree
iii. Teachers
  • University and college lecturers (professors, lecturers, etc.)
  • Secondary school teachers with advanced diploma or degree
  • Education inspectors with advanced diploma or degree
[p. 46]
iv. Business, sociology, and the related.
  • Accountants with advanced diploma or degree
  • Information officers and library officers with advanced diploma or degree
  • Psychologists
  • Sociology professionals
  • Historians
  • Translators
  • Archivists and curators
  • Economists
  • Planning and economic officers with advanced diploma or degree
v. Law professionals.
  • Lawyers
  • Judges
  • Judges with advanced diploma or degree
vi. Other professions.
3. Technicians and associate professionals = 03
Technicians and associate professionals do professional work which needs expert knowledge. Assisting professionals are those with normal certificates and professional skills.
This group involves the following:

i. Assistant scientists and general level technicians
ii. Assistant computer scientists
iii. Optical and electronic equipment professionals
iv. Aircraft and ship tower controllers and technicians
v. Building, industrial safety, health and standard inspectors
vi. Other assistant professions.
  • Assistants in finances and sales
  • Securities and finance dealers and brokers
  • Insurance agents
  • Real estate agents
  • Travel agents
  • Business and technical representatives
  • Large institution agents
  • Appraisers and evaluators
  • Auctioneers
  • Other finance and sales assistants
[p. 47]
  • Trade brokers and business services agents
  • Trade brokers
  • Clearing and forwarding agents
  • Other brokers and business services agents
  • Assistant administrators
  • Assistant administrators and similar occupations
  • Assistants in law matters and business
  • Bookkeepers
  • Assistant statisticians and mathematicians
  • Land and water transport supervisors
  • Other administrative assistants
  • Government professional assistants
  • Customs officers
  • Tax officers
  • Railway and air transport supervisors
  • License providers
  • Protective services officials and detectives
  • Other assistant government officials
  • Assistants of community services professionals
  • Community services officials and their assistants
  • Welfare official assistant
  • Community development official assistant
  • Assistants of institutions
  • Culture centre worker, associate professional
  • Welfare worker, delinquency, associate professional
  • Psychiatric social work associate professional
  • Refugee settlement assistant
  • Creative and performing arts, and artistic, entertainment and sports associate professionals
  • Handcrafts, painters and similar occupations
  • Authors, musicians and singers
  • Designers
  • Movie directors and actors, on stage, and others
  • Radio and television presenters and others
[p. 48]
  • Sports people and others
  • Religious leaders' assistants
  • Non-ordained religious associate professionals
vii. Teachers
  • Primary school teachers
  • Nursery school teachers
  • Other teachers with skills
viii. Science and health associates professionals
  • Laboratory assistants
  • Agriculture and forestry/fishing assistants
  • Other medical assistants (medical assistants, RMA, etc.)
  • Mid-wives and nurses with skills
ix. Traditional healers of all types
x. Other with several skills in service provision
4. Clerks = 04
Clerk and record keepers, arrange, maintain, and release information related to the work, deal with financial and statistical statements, deal with clerical duties which involves customers monetary issues, transport planning, business information, and appointments.
Their work also include running of the office, short hand writing, typing, and running different office machines, maintain financial and statistical statements.
Occupations in this category include the following groups:

i. Personal secretaries, telephone operators, and assistant registry clerks
  • Personal secretaries
  • Typists and short-hand writers
  • Typists using computer and other operators
  • Data entry clerks
  • Arithmetic machine operators
  • Registry clerks
  • Transport clerks
ii. Accounts clerks
  • Accounting clerks and bookkeepers
  • Statistical and financial clerks
[p. 49]
iii. Clerks who keep records of equipments and transport.
  • Stores clerks
  • Manufacturing clerks
  • Transport clerks
  • Other related activities
iv. Library, document transport clerks, and others
  • Library clerks
  • Document transporters and sorting clerks
  • Coding, proof reading, and related clerks
v. Service providing clerks
a) Cashiers, tellers
  • Cashiers
  • Tellers and other counter clerks
  • Debt collector
b) News reporting clerks and phone operators
  • Clerks in the transport sector
  • Reception clerks
  • Phone operators
5. Managers and supervisors of small scale business = 05
Small scale business managers are people who run their own business or those who supervise work on behalf of the business owners. Mostly these are long term employees and not laborers. There should only be one manager or supervisor. This group compiles of all kinds of businesses.
6. Service providers and sellers in shops, markets, and permanent stalls = 6
Service providers and shop sellers provide services related to transport, housing maintenance, hotel, personal services, and prevention against fire and other disasters; or sellers and auctioneers of goods in retail and wholesale shops and other places; includes also fashion models. Therefore, duties usually performed by workers in this group include personal services which include the following: transport arrangements, housing maintenance, provision of food and beverages, personal services, etc.
[p. 50]
Those included in this group are as follows:
Personal service providers
i. Supervisors of transport services
  • Airplane attendants
  • Conductors of transport vehicles
  • Passenger directors and others
ii. Housing maintenance staff and restaurant workers
  • House Stewarts and housekeepers
  • Cooks
  • Hotel attendants and bar workers
iii. Housekeepers and house workers in coffee shops
  • Personal housekeepers
  • Cooks
  • Housemaids
iv. Personal service providers
  • Baby sitters
  • Personal nurses and other health service providers
  • Other personal service providers
v. Astrologers and psychics and others of that kind
  • Astrologers and others of that kind
  • Psychics, palm readers, and others of that kind
vi. Security service providers
  • Firemen
  • Police officers
  • Soldiers
  • Security guards
  • Others who provide security services
vii. Sellers, models, and demonstrators
  • Demonstrators
  • Sellers in the market
  • Designers
  • Barbers and beauticians
7. Streets small scale retailers = 7
This includes all business people in the streets selling any kind of goods; they must be differentiated with those with code 06.
[p. 51]
8. Normal technicians and handcraft workers = 08
These are technicians with ordinary knowledge and most of the times are trained at work. Laborers who help in building are not to be included as technicians. All professional technicians are to be included in code 03. Remember that those who make baskets, carpets, etc., are to be included in this code. Technicians and others of those kind use resources, make and mend things, build, maintain, and make buildings, roads, machine, and other things. These works are done using hands or hand driven machines which reduce the energy used or time taken or increasing the quality of the services/product.
The works done by this group include processing raw material, building, doing maintenance and fixing of buildings, metal smelting, fitting, making electronic machines, making wooden things, clothes or leather. Supervisors of workers are also included.
This group includes the following:
A. Construction workers and miners
This group includes miners from under or above the ground and in open mines; stone carvers and cutters for construction and other works; building, maintaining, and fixing houses and other buildings. Stones for gravel are not to be included in this group.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]
[p. 52]
B. Machine and metal mechanics
Works done by machine and metal mechanics include welding, making metal frames, joining metals, making metal machines, making electronic machines. Supervisors and these workers are included here.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]
[p. 53]
C. Verifiers, handcrafts, printing, and others
Works done by people in this group include repairing and verifying tools, making and repairing musical instruments, making glass products, pots and others, mineral ornaments, and others, handcraft works using wood, cloth, skin, and other things of that kind; planning how to print using hands or machine; prepare the tools to be used in printing on paper and on other material; printing of books; also employees' supervisors are included.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]

  • Verifiers of metal, diamond, plastic, paper tools, and others who are related to these
  • Employees, supervisors in cutting and shinning of diamond and others related to these, tool verifiers
  • Makers of verifying and renovating tools
  • Makers of music tools
  • Those who make and prepare diamond and other minerals
  • Verifiers of metal, diamond, plastic, paper, and other materials related to these
  • Makers of pots mirrors and other related
  • Employees' supervisors in the making of pots and mirrors
  • Makers of pots and other pottery tools
  • Makers and cutters of mirrors
  • Makers of mirror tools and artists drawing on stones/metals/glass engravers and etchers
  • Those making and decorating pottery tools and others related to these
[pg.54]
  • Makers of tools from wood, clothes, skin, and other related tools
  • Supervisors of employees in the making of handmade tools
  • Makers of tools from wood and other related tools
  • Cloth makers and other related tools
  • Makers of tools from palm tree leaves and other related tools
  • Publishers and other related workers
  • Publishing supervisors and other related workers
  • Publishers and those who prepare publishing work
  • Local publishers and publishers using electronic machines
  • Printing engravers and etchers, except photo engravers
  • Photo engravers
  • Those making books and other related workers
  • Silk screen, block, and textile printers
  • All other publishers

D. Other related groups
The work done by this group is together with processing of meat, fish, grains, fruits, and vegetables for human and animal consumption; dealing with and processing traditional threads, skin; making and modifying commodities made by wood, cloth or skin. Also supervisors of these works are included.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]
9. Peasants and farmers = 09
All farmers should be included in this code, even if they are doing small scale farming. Activities undertaken by workers in this group include: preparing farms, sowing, treating with insecticides, putting manure and reaping, farming of fruits and other crops from trees, farming and collecting other crops from water, selling their crops to marketing companies or the market.
This group consists of people dealing in farming and forestry.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]
[pg.56]
10. Livestock keepers = 10
Activities undertaken by these workers of this groups is together with raising, feeding, or hunting in order to get meat, milk, feathers, skin, or other commodities.
This group consists of producers of commodities made from animals and specialized workers.
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]
11. Fishermen = 11
All fisher men who fish in dams, lakes, oceans, and even in rivers should be involved in this group.
12. Machine operators, technicians, and drivers = 12
These people drive cars and different machines; supervise and follow up the functioning of machines in machine industry, by direct supervision or remote control; or assembling goods from different places by following special instructions.
Work done by people in this group includes assembling of goods by following special instructions; supervising and running mining machines and iron processing industries and other minerals, wood or chemicals, or supplying electricity; servicing and running machines that produce goods made of iron or other minerals, chemicals, wood, clothes, skin, or plastic.
Others are workers who service and run food processing machines; servicing and running printing and binding machines; driving trains and cars together with running machines. Supervisors of these workers are also involved.
[pg.57]
People involved in this group are as follows:
[Some details on the contents of the group are omitted]

i. Machine operators in industries
ii. Stationery machine operators and assemblers
iii. Drivers and mobile machine operators
13. Other activities without skills = 13
This group involves everyone without skills; normally they require hand tools that mostly involve strength. It should be noted that in these works, skills may be obtained through experience and training at work. Skills to read and write can be required in the accomplishing of some work.
Activities undertaken by these people include selling products on the streets, in crowded places, or house to house, and looking for customers; giving other street services; cleaning, washing, sweeping; carrying and delivering parcels, goods, messages; security; loading in sacks, pedaling and hand guiding vehicles to transport passengers and goods .
[pg.58]
Work in this group includes:

i. Selling and service provision in small scale
  • Business men on streets
  • Shoe shiners on streets and other related services
  • House workers and other related to these
  • Building caretakers and louver cleaners
  • Maids, guards, and other related to these
  • Garbage collectors
  • Those selling and providing services in small scales
ii. Temporary workers in farming, forestry, fishing, hunting and other related workers. Supervisors, temporary workers in farming, forestry, fishing and others include:
  • Unskilled workers
  • Temporary workers and maids in farms
  • Forest temporary workers
  • Temporary workers in fishing and hunting
iii. Temporary workers in the mining, construction, industrial and transport sector
  • Temporary workers in constructions and mining
  • Temporary workers in goods manufacturing
  • Temporary workers in the transport sector
  • Luggage carriers and other related activities
14. Others = 96
These are workers who have no specific group above, together with those who mention unknown activities and those who cannot be categorized under any group.
15. Those who do not know = 98
16. Those who do not mention = 99
[p. 59]
Question 20: What is the main activity in your place of work? This question aims at main activity at the place of work and not the work done by the respondent in the place of work. People who answer the question must have worked in that place for at least seven days. For example, an accountant employed by a beer company will use code "4" and not code "11", but if he/she works for the government meaning he/she is providing services then will use code "11".
Note: There is a possibility of having many activities in the respondent's place of work. But, the activity we are interested in is the main activity, one that most employees spend most of their time doing.
1. Agriculture for cash crops and food crops = 01
All crops produced for food or commercial purposes. It includes:

  • Farming and other farming related activities.
  • Forestry, timber harvesting and other related activities.
2. Fishing, livestock and hunting = 02
Fishing, fish keeping, animal keeping, hunting and other related activities.
3. Mining, stone quarrying and sand extraction = 03
This group includes the following:

  • Mineral mining and rocks quarrying
  • Coal mining
  • Natural gas and oil mining and other related activities
  • Iron ore mining
  • Other minerals mining and stone quarrying
4. Production of different types of goods = 04
This group includes the following:

  • Food and beverages production
  • Cigarettes and other goods production
  • Fabric production
  • Cloth making and coloring
  • Production of goods made of skin
  • Timber production and wooden goods
  • Paper production and other paper goods
  • Journalism and printing
[p. 60]
  • Production of oil made products
  • Medicine production and production of goods made of those medicines
  • Rubber production and products made of rubber
  • Production of goods made of minerals apart from metal
  • Metal production
  • Producing fabricated metal products apart from machines
  • Machine production and other tools
  • Production of office machines and calculators
  • Production of electronic machines and laboratory equipments
  • Production of radio, television, and other communication equipments
  • Production of medical instruments and watches
  • Cars production and other transport vessels
  • Furniture production
  • Recycling.
5. Electricity, gas and water = 05
This group includes those who deal with:

  • Electricity, gas, steam and hot water
  • Collection, preservation of water and distribution
6. Construction = 06
This group includes those involved in all kinds of construction
7. Selling non-cooked food = 07
This group includes all foods sold raw (such as potatoes, fruits, cassava, beans, etc.)
8. Other businesses = 08
This group includes: wholesale businesses, retail and agents in business together with food sold in restaurants and hotels, etc.
9. Transport and communication = 09
This group includes:

  • Land transport using cars, etc.
  • Water transport
  • Air transport
  • Other transporting activities
  • Postal services and communication services
[p. 61]
10. Institution of insurance and finance = 10
This group includes:

  • Foreign currency exchange activities
  • Insurance and pension, does not include payment for social services
  • Other foreign currency exchange related activities
11. Services, education and administration = 11
This group includes:

  • Administration and security, social security services
  • Health and community development and all types of health services
  • Sewage systems, garbage collection, and all other related services
  • Political parties activities
12. Others = 96
These are other duties done in working places that cannot be grouped in the above mentioned groups
13. Those who do not mention = 99
E. Women with the age of 12 and aboveThis part is important so, you should be very careful when asking questions and filling in the answers. Questions 21 to 24 are specifically for women age 12 and older.
All men (without age consideration) and women younger than 12 years should not be asked these questions. You acquire every detail about the number of children born alive from the woman you are interviewing for the whole period, up to the night before the Census day.
[p. 62]
It is stressed that a baby born "alive" is one who shows signs of being alive (he/she breathed or cried), even if for a short time. Please make sure that the children mentioned by the respondent are only those she gave birth to, not those she is raising.
Remember that the night before the Census day is the one between the 24th and the 25th of August, 2002.Therefore, all babies born after the night before the Census day should not be counted, though they will be in that household when your enumerating those in the household. For example, all children born after midnight in the night between August 24th and 25th, 2002 are not to be counted. This may happen when you are forced take more than a day to enumerate in your area.
The answers are to be given by all women age 12 and older without taking into consideration their marital status. Even if she is still in school or university, as long as she is 12 or older, she must be asked this question.
Note: Questions about births are to be answered by the respective woman, for she is the one who knows her birth history.
It is possible to meet women who do not want to give information about their children. There are different reasons that may lead to this situation, but make sure you get the correct information about the live births from that woman. If this situation arises, seek for help from the street/village chairman/sheha or any leader in that area.
Question 21: How many children have you given birth to? How many are male? How many are female? How many are living with you here?This question wants to know the number of children born alive to the woman you interview, and how many live with their mother in the household. Don't forget to ask how many are male and how many are female. Write the answers using two digits and shade the corresponding space.
[Illustration for question 21 is omitted]
[p. 63]
For example, if a woman has two male children, then shade code "02" in the space provided for male children and code "00" in the place provided for female children. If a woman does not live with the children or has never given birth to a live child, write "00" and shade the appropriate space depending on the sex of the child.
Question 22: How many children have you given birth to who live in other places? If a mother has children who live away from where you found her, write their total number differentiating between males and females and shading the corresponding spaces.
It must be stressed that if the children live near the mother's household (example in the same village), they should be considered as living away from the mother. If a woman does not have any male children who live away or doesn't have any children, write "00" and shade the corresponding space.
[Illustration for question 22 is omitted]
Note: Use two digits when filling the number of children.
Question 23: How many children did you give birth to who were alive but died?Most people do not like to talk about the deceased, and most of them feel pain to talk about their decease children. It is good to ask this question in a polite way without upsetting the respondent.
Write the number of male and female children who are deceased and shade the corresponding spaces. Children involved here are those who were born alive and later passed away. Use two digits in writing the answer given.
If the respondent has never lost a child, write "00" in the space for male children and "00" in the space for female children, then shade in the corresponding spaces.
[P. 64]
[Illustration for question 23 is omitted]
Question 24: How many live children have you given birth to in the past 12 months? How many are male? How many are female?The women who are to be asked this question are those between the ages of 12 and 49 years only. This question intends to find out the number of children who were born alive in the past 12 months. Here, the past 12 months refers to the period starting on the night between August 25th and 26th, 2001 and the night before the Census day, that is: between August 24th and 25th, 2002.
Therefore, if a mother gave birth to a child who was alive during that period, then the child should be recorded and the corresponding places should be shaded. Remember to ask if the child is a male or female. Children who were not born within that period should not be listed.
It is advised to use the clinic card (if available) to make sure that the child's age is correct.
Write the answer that you are given using one digit and shade on the corresponding places. For example, if the mother gave birth to one male child during that 12-month period, fill and shade the code "1" on the place of the male child and shade the code "0" on the place of the female child.
[Illustration for question 24 is omitted]
Care should be taken for cases where the child is born within the period of the past 12 months but the mother's age is not between 12 and 49 years. In this case, repeat [the information] to verify the age of the mother. Remember that under normal circumstances a woman is able to give birth when she is between 15 and 49 years.
[p.65]
F. Questions concerning deaths in households: People who died within the past 12 months.Questions concerning deaths that occurred within the past 12 months should be asked to and answered by the head of the household or any other person who will answer questions on his/her behalf. Here, the past 12 months refer to the period starting on the night between August 25th and 26th, 2001 and the night before the Census day, that is: between August 24th and 25th, 2002. If the death occurred after the night before Census day, then it should not be counted.
Remember: Most people do not like talking about their dead relatives, therefore be very careful when asking this question.
Question 25: Is there any death that occurred in the household for the past 12 months?The aim of this question is to get the number of deaths that occurred in the household in the past 12 months before the night before Census day. The deaths should be recorded in the household where it happened.
Ask if there is anyone who died within the past 12 months, i.e. from August 23rd, 2001 to August 24th, 2002. If the answer is yes, then ask how many deaths occurred during that period. In case more than one death occurred in that period, get the exact number and write it in the corresponding box available. This will help you know if you have used one questionnaire or more depending on the number of deaths.
Make sure you get the date and month of each death that occurred in order to certify that the death occurred during that period of 12 months and not otherwise.
The codes that are used in this question are:

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

[Illustration for question 25 is omitted]
[p.66]
If the answer is yes, put a shade on the code "1" and write the number of deaths in the corresponding box, then continue filling question 26. If the answer is no, shade the code "2" and skip to question 29 to continue with the interview.

Question 26: Number of deaths
This question helps the enumerator to know which deceased person is being recorded. Every questionnaire has six columns for deaths in one household.
[Illustration for questions 26 and 27 is omitted]
Question 27: Is the deceased male or female?If the answer to question 25 is "Yes" (code is "1"), it means that in the household there is someone who died within the past 12 months. In this question, the aim is to find out the sex of the deceased person. Therefore for each person who died, you have to know if the person was male or female. For example, if the deceased was female, shade the code "2".
The codes that are used for this question are:

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

Question 28: How old was the deceased person?This question refers to the age of the deceased when the death occurred. In order to get the correct age, ask for the date of birth and the date of death.
Remember to fill the age using two digits and shade the corresponding places. For example, if the deceased was 5 years old, then write and shade the code "05", or [if the deceased was] 42 years old, write and shade the code "42"; and so on. If the deceased was younger than one year, write and shade the code "00". And if the deceased was older than 97 years, then write and shade the code "97".
[p.67]
[Illustration for question 28 is omitted]
Every questionnaire has six columns for six deceased people from the same household. If there are more than six deaths that occurred, then use another questionnaire to fill the rest of the deaths. When using another questionnaire, do not forget to shade the place that shows that an additional questionnaire was used in that household.
This part is on the first page of the questionnaire. If you find such a situation, do not fill part "G" and "H" in the first questionnaire; those will be filled in the last questionnaire since they are about the whole household and total number of people. Do not forget to write and shade the identification code and household number in the extra questionnaires used so that the death statistics can be linked to the household and enumeration area they relate to.
G. Housing conditions and ownership of propertiesThese questions are about tools used in house construction, services available in this household (such as water, toilets, electricity), the total number of bedrooms used by the household, and ownership of properties. The head of household is asked these questions. If the head of household is absent, try to get another member of the household to answer these questions on behalf of the head of household.
Usually, if a household is using more than one house, all questions about the material used to construct the house and the electricity used in the house are to be asked for the main house where most household members live.
For Census purposes, a house is a building used by people for living. Workshops or store, places where people do not live, are not involved.
Note: Questions about house are to be asked to private households only. For collective households such as schools, hostels, camps, hospitals, etc. these questions should not be asked because they are not relevant.
[p. 68]
Material used in construction of the house where household members liveThe aim of questions 29-31 is to know the material used in construction of the main house in which household members live in. These materials are those used in roofing, building walls, and floor of the house.
Question 29: What material is used in roofing the main house?In this question different types of roofing materials are listed in order to help the enumerator to choose one depending on the answers provided by the respondent.
[Illustration for questions 29, 30, and 31 is omitted]
The following codes are used:

[] 1 Metal sheet
[] 2 Tiles
[] 3 Concrete
[] 4 Asbestos
[] 5 Grass / palm tree leaves
[] 6 Grass and soil
[] 7 Other
For example, a house has a palm tree leaves roof shade code "5". If a house has a roof with one side grass and the other metal sheets, shade code "1". If a larger part is made of grass, shade code "5".
Question 30: What are the walls of the house made of?As in question 29, here we want to know the materials used in building the walls of the main house where household members live. Shade according to the answer given by the respondent.
[p. 69]
The following codes will be used in this question:

[] 1 Stones
[] 2 Cement bricks
[] 3 Mud bricks (burnt / baked)
[] 4 Bricks (normal)
[] 5 Trees and mud
[] 6 Wood
[] 7 Grass / palm leaves

Question 31: What is the floor of the main house made of?Question 31 is about the material used in making the floor of the main house where household members live. Shade according to the answer given by the respondent.
The following codes will be used in this question:

[] 1 Cement
[] 2 Mud
[] 3 Wood
[] 4 Tiles
[] 5 Other

Question 32: How many bedrooms does your household have?The aim of this question is to know the number of people in the household. A "room" means a place surrounded by walls and separated from others parts of the house.
Write the total number of bedrooms used in the household, without taking into consideration if the rooms are of one house or more than one house. Don't write the rooms that are used as storage, kitchen, animal shed, or other works. Record only those used for sleeping. Remember to use two digits in writing the total number of bedrooms and shade the corresponding code.
[p. 70]
Use the following codes:
Number of rooms
[] 1 One room
[] 2 Two rooms
[] 3 Three rooms
...
[] 99 Ninety nine rooms and above

Question 33: What energy do you use in cooking?In this question we want to know the kind of energy used for cooking in the household. This information enables us to know the number of people using different types of energy for cooking. If it happens that a household uses more than one kind of energy for cooking, take the most used one.
Use the following codes:
Energy
[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Kerosene
[] 3 Gas
[] 4 Firewood
[] 5 Charcoal
[] 6 Other
[] 7 Not involved

[Illustration for question 33 is omitted]
Code "7" involves those who don't cook in their household and eat in restaurants and coffee shops.
Question 34: What energy do you use for lightning?In this question we want to know the kind of energy used for lighting, especially at night. This information will help us know the total number of people using different kinds of energy for lighting. It will also help to establish the level of electricity supply in the country. Shade the codes according to the answers given by the respondent.
[p.71]
Use the following codes:
Energy

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Pressure lamp
[] 3 Lamp
[] 4 Firewood
[] 5 Candle
[] 6 Wick lamp
[] 7 Solar
[] 8 Other

Question 35: What is the main source of your drinking water?The aim of the question is to know the main source of water used for drinking in the household. There are many sources of drinking water (such as tap water, water from wells, rain water, water from rivers, pools, lakes, etc.) Shade the code according to the answers provided by the respondent.
If there is a dry tap in the household and a well nearby where the household members get their drinking water, this household will be included among those who get drinking water from the wells and not the tap. Try to get the correct information and shade in the respective codes.
The following codes are to be used for this question:
Source of water
[] 1 Tap water
[] 2 Covered well
[] 3 Uncovered well
[] 4 Preserved spring
[] 5 Unpreserved spring
[] 6 River / stream
[] 7 Dams / pools
[] 8 Lake
[] 9 Rain water
[] 10 Water dealers
[] 11 Other source

[Illustration for question 35, 36, and 37 is omitted]
Question 36: What kind of toilet does your household use?Apart from knowing that a household has a toilet, there is a need to know what kind of toilet facility they are using. If a household has two types of toilets, take the most used one. Shade the code according to the answers of the respondent.
[p. 72]
The following are types of toilets and their codes:

[] 1 Flush toilet
[] 2 Pit latrine
[] 3 Ventilated pit latrine
[] 4 No toilet
[] 5 Other

Ownership of properties Question 37 enables us to know the properties owned and used in the household. As it is for other questions about the household, they will be answered by the head of household or anybody who will answer on behalf of head of household. For the properties listed, only one answer is needed: yes "1" or no "2". If the respondent tells you that he/she owns a certain property, ask if it works. If it has not been functioning for a long time, record as if [the head of household] did not have that property. The aim is to know the number of people [who own] the listed properties that function. Shade the codes according to the answer given by the respondent.
Question 37: Does your household have the following?
Radio
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Phone
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Two-wheel bicycle
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Hand hoe
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Wheel burrow
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Electric / coal iron
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Electricity
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Note: Each of the above mentioned items must have one answer (yes or no). Ask if it is working. If it is with the technician, the answer is no.
[p. 73]

Part five: Activities to be done after enumeration

5.1 Inspection of the filled questionnaire
After interviewing the household and filling the questionnaires, you are supposed to go over the questionnaires you have filled. Go over it carefully by looking at the answers given. When doing this work, make sure that your handwriting is readable, the shades are well visible, all the spaces provided are filled (especially the questions to be answered by everybody), and that you have carefully shaded in the right spaces.
Note: All these procedures are to be done after you have finished interviewing all members of the household.

5.2 Preparing a total number of enumerated people When you have finished listing them, interviewing all the members of the household, and writing and shading codes in a proper way, add the number of people in the household according to their gender from part "B" and write the answer in part "H".
Remember to write and shade the spaces provided for males and females.
The totals filled in part "H" must be transferred to a special form (SWT 15A), which is prepared to get the total number the people in the household and, later, the whole enumeration area.
The number is to be calculated by writing the total number of men, total number of women, and in the end the total number of both men and women in the household. This work is to be done after you have finished interviewing every household. Don't forget to write your name and shade the place that shows the date the household was enumerated.
[Illustration for question on total enumerated people is omitted]

[Pages 74-77 not translated. This includes: 5.3, "Summary statistics by household and enumeration area"; 5.4, "Handing over the census equipment to supervisor"; and part six, "Filling in the questionnaire for the Optical mark reader technology"]