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Concepts and Definitions for the 2010 Population and Housing Census

[Table of Contents omitted]


A. General definitions

1. Population and Housing Census

A Population and Housing Census can be described as a form of national stocktaking. It is a complete count of the population and living quarters in a country.

2. Population Census

A Population Census provides detailed benchmark data on the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labour force and other socio- economic characteristics of all persons in a country at a specified time.

3. Housing Census

A Housing Census provides detailed benchmark data on the living quarters and household amenities in a country at a specified time.

4. Units of enumeration

In the case of the population census, the primary unit of enumeration is the person. There are two frameworks in which individuals are identified: (a) households (see 1.1?section 1 for definition) and (b) collective living quarters.

The household is the general framework in which most individuals are identified, since the majority of the population lives in households. The second framework comprises collective living quarters. In addition to persons identified within households, there are persons living in hotels, institutions and camps who are not members of a household. This group constitutes the institutional population.

In the case of the housing census, the household is one of three (3) units of enumeration, the other two being living quarters (private dwelling units and collective living quarters) and buildings.

5. Total population

In the broadest sense, the total population may comprise either all usual residents of the country or all persons present in the country at the time of the Census. The total of all usual residents is generally referred to as the de jure population and the total of all persons present at the time of


the census as the de facto population. Various population groups are enumerated:

(a) Persons living in private households.

(b) Persons living in non-private dwellings, group dwellings and institutions (collective living quarters).

(c) Persons with no fixed place of abode (socially displaced or homeless).

(d) Persons, including crew on ships in port at the time of the census.

(e) Foreign military, naval, diplomatic personnel and their respective families located in the country at the time of the census.

(f) Persons living on offshore islands which are geographically part of Trinidad and Tobago

6. Place of enumeration

The place of enumeration is the geographic locality at which the individual was enumerated at the time of the census.

7. Census moment

Census moment can be described as a well-defined point in time and is one of the essential features of population and housing censuses. Each person and/or each set of living quarters must be enumerated as nearly as possible in respect to census moment. The census moment is midnight of the 16th May 2010.

B. Housing concepts

1. Building

A building is defined as any physical structure separate and independent of any other comprising one or more rooms, or other spaces, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof. It is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes, or for the provision of services. Detached rooms or out-rooms relating to the main building are treated as part of the main building.

In some instances, buildings may not conform to the definition outlined above and may consist of a roof with supports only. These include garages, wayside vegetable stalls and poultry pens, where there may or may not be external walls extending from foundation to roof as specified. These are to be taken up as buildings and are to be further classified according to "type of business activity" on the Visitation


Record, so as to be distinguished from other types of buildings, which conform to the full description of the definition. Car-park lots with structures from which business is transacted i.e. the issuing of tickets and collection of parking fees must be assigned a building number, a business unit number and a remark to this effect recorded in the appropriate column.

Closed building - A closed building is one that is in use or occupied, but during the enumeration period, the tenants are temporarily away, that is, away for less than six (6) months.

Vacant building - A vacant building is one, which at the time of enumeration is not being used for any purpose. It will also include a building where the tenants are away for six (6) months or more.

2. Dwelling unit

A dwelling unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons (private household) are living at the time of the census enumeration.

The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness" and "independence".

A dwelling unit may be considered separate if surrounded by walls, fences or some form of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons can isolate himself/herself/themselves from other persons in the community for the purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals, and protecting themselves from the hazards of climate and environment.

It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery or grounds, i.e. when the occupants can come in and go out of their living quarters without passing through another person's premises.

Examples of dwelling units are:

(i) Separate house
(ii) Flat / apartment / condominium
(iii) Townhouse
(iv) Double house / duplex
(v) Part of commercial / industrial building
(vi) Barracks
(vii) Out-room
(viii) Improvised housing unit
(ix) Other private dwelling
(x) Group dwelling
(xi) Wafda


(a) Closed dwelling unit - A closed dwelling unit is one, which is occupied, but during the enumeration period the occupants are temporarily away, that is, away for less than six (6) months.

(b) Vacant dwelling unit - A vacant dwelling unit is one, which at the time of enumeration is not being used for habitation. It will also include dwelling units that are closed for six (6) months or more.

(c) Private dwelling - Private-type dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, and part of commercial buildings and boarding houses catering for less than six (6) persons.

3. Collective living quarters (non-private dwellings)

Collective living quarters include structurally separate and independent places of abode intended for habitation by large groups of households or several households and are occupied at the time of the census. Such quarters usually have certain common facilities such as cooking and toilet installations, lounge rooms which are shared by the occupants. They may be classified as follows:

3.1 Hotels, rooming houses and other lodging houses

3.2 Institutions

3.3 Camps

3.1 Hotels

Hotels are defined as permanent structures that provide lodging on a fee basis and which cater for six (6) or more paying guests, boarders or lodgers. Hotels, motels, inns, boarding houses and lodging houses and so forth fall within this category.

3.2 Institutions

Institutions are any set of premises in a permanent structure or structures designed to house usually large groups of persons who are bound by a common public objective or a common personal interest. Such sets of living quarters usually have certain common facilities shared by the occupants. The following fall within this category.

hospitals, nursing homes, correctional and penal institutions, military institutions, monasteries, convents, retirement homes, hostels, boarding schools, student dormitories, orphanages.

Inmates in institutions are included in the household if as at Census Day they were inmates in the institutions for less than six (6) months.

Note: This information is to be collected from the household in which these inmates normally reside.

3.3 Camps

Camps are sets of premises originally intended for the temporary accommodation of persons with common activities or interests. Included in this category are military camps, refugee camps and camps established for the housing of workers involved in construction, agriculture or other types of enterprise.

C. Agricultural concepts

1. Holding

An agricultural holding is an economic unit of agricultural production producing primarily for sale under single management, comprising all livestock and poultry kept, and all land used either wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, without regard to title, legal form, size or location.

Single management may be exercised by an individual or household, jointly by two or more individuals or households or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency.

A holding may be owned, leased, rented or operated under some other form of tenure, including squatting.

A holding's land may range from one lot (1/8 of an acre) to several acres. Note also that the holding does not include lands which the holder is renting out to other persons, but it does cover lands which the holder is renting from other persons if such land is operated as part of the holding. For any piece of land to be distinguished as a holding it must be associated with, at the time of enumeration at least:

(a) Two or more heads of cattle, or pigs, or goats, or rabbits, or sheep or any other type of livestock being raised for agricultural purposes primarily for sale; or

(b) A flock of at least 12 poultry of which all or some are being raised for sale or

(c) Bee-keeping or fish farming activities primarily for sale; or

(d) Land being cultivated for crops (vegetables, fruits and other tree crops) primarily for sale; or

(e) The growing of ornamental plants or flowers primarily for sale

A backyard garden on which crops are being grown solely for home consumption is NOT considered a holding.

2. Parcel

This is defined as a contiguous piece of land of a holding held under one form of tenure, whether or not a road, river or administrative boundary cuts this land. As such, a parcel may comprise the entire holding or it may be part of a holding.

3. Holder

A Holder may operate more than one parcel of land and usually:

(a) Owns land for agricultural purposes.

(b) Rents land for agricultural purposes.

(c) Squats on land and operates it for agricultural purposes.

(d) Operates agricultural land, which is not owned by him, the proceeds of which he may or may not share with the owner.

In addition, a holder may be an individual, a company, a cooperative society, an institution, a government agency, a commune, a trustee or some other organized entity.

Where two or more individuals of different households jointly operate a holding, they should each be recorded as a joint holder; separate data should be collected for the household of each joint holder.

Where two or more members of the same household jointly operate the same holding, the holder is considered to be the person who makes the major decisions. It is possible that a household member who jointly operates such a holding may also be the sole holder of another holding operated independently of other household members.

Note: A person who operates land for non-agricultural purposes must be excluded from this classification.


Section 1 - Characteristics

1.1. Household

A private household consists of one or more persons living together (sleeping most nights of a week) and sharing at least one of the main daily meals. In general, a household will comprise a father, mother and children living together.

It is important to note a member of the household is not necessarily a relative of the main family. For example, a boarder or a domestic employee who sleeps in most nights of the week and shares at least one of the daily meals is also included as a member of the household.

The concept of the household and family is not the same. It is possible to encounter more than one family constituting a single household once they share common living arrangements. Certain other living arrangements will be met in the field and further guidance can be obtained by observing the following rules.

These rules are as follows:

(a) Where a person has recently moved in with a group of persons, as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them and spent Census Night in the household, that person is to be considered as a member of the household. However, anyone who moves into the household after Census Night is not to be counted as a member of that household.

(b) A Boarding House, which caters for less than six (6) boarders/lodgers, is to be classified as a private household.

(c) If a building is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or sub-tenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.

(d) If within the institution (non-private dwelling) there are separate quarters for all or any members of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such quarters form separate dwelling units occupied by private households. For temporary or permanent inmates of large institutions, however, the supervisor will give special instructions for their enumeration.

(e) A domestic employee including her family, if any, who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. However, if the domestic employee maintains separate eating arrangements on the premises, she will constitute an independent household. Additionally, a domestic employee who does not sleep on his/her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where he/she works.


(f) A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household, during most nights of a week, is to be considered a member of that household.

(g) A person who rents a room from his/her landlord/landlady and does not share any meals with him/her constitutes a separate household, that is a single-person household.

(h) A person who sleeps most nights away from his/her family is to be enumerated at the place where he/she usually sleeps. He/she may be a boarder or lodger in a household, or constitute a separate household. However, a person who because of the nature of his/her job (e.g. watchmen, medical personnel, care-givers or shift workers), spends most nights away from his/her home must be enumerated at the same place as the other members of his household, that is, at his/her place of usual residence.

(i) A foreign visitor or guest who spent Census Night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.

(j) Students who are studying abroad and students studying locally who spend most nights away from home because of rental arrangements must be counted as a member of the household.

It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household. The concepts of "sharing at least one daily meal" and "sharing common living arrangements" are used as indicators for identifying household membership.

1.2. Head of household

In identifying the members of a household, it is useful to identify first the household head or household reference person and then the remaining members of the household according to their relationship to the head or reference person.

For census purposes every household must have a head. The head of the household is the person, male or female, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household. In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household. Usually he/she is the chief breadwinner. In any event the person recognized by the respondent, as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, that member of the group who the others acknowledge as such would be taken as the head.

A person running a guesthouse or similar establishment that caters for less than six
(6) guests is considered the head of that household as long as he/she lives at the guesthouse or similar establishment.


1.3. Relationship to head of household

For purposes of being able to derive from the census, possible types of household compositions, members of the household are classified in terms of their relationship to the head.

The following distinctions are made:

(i) Head

(ii) Spouse of head - Is defined as the husband or wife of the head of the household, who is a member of the household.

(iii) Partner of head - Is defined as the common-law partner of the head of the household, who is a member of the household.

(iv) Child of head and spouse/partner - This refers to the child of the spouse/partner of the head and the head, or the child of the common-law partner of the head and the head, who is a member of the household. This does not include adopted children.

(v) Child of head only

(vi) Child of spouse/partner only

(vii) Adopted child of head and spouse/partner - This refers to the adopted child of the spouse/partner of the head and the head, who is a member of the household. The adoption may or may not be legal.

(viii) Spouse/partner of child - Is defined as the spouse/partner of either the child of the head or the child of the spouse/partner of the head, who is a member of the household.

(ix) Grandchild of head/spouse/partner - Is defined as the grandchild of either the head, the spouse, or partner of the head, who is a member of the household.

(x) Parent of head/spouse/partner - Is defined as the parent of either the head, the spouse or partner of the head, who is a member of the household.


(xi) Other relative of head/spouse/partner - This refers to cousins, uncles, grandparents, great grandparents, in-laws etc., of the head, the spouse or partner of the head of the household who are members of the household.

(xii) Domestic Employee - This refers to a domestic employee, for example maid, gardener or other employee who is a member of the household.

(xiii) Other Non-relative - Is categorized as a boarder or lodger who is a member of the household.

1.4. Sex

This is reported for each person (male or female) and depends on the respondent's answer.

1.5. Age

Age is the interval of time between the date of birth and the date of the census expressed in completed years. When age is not known, estimates should be made based on references to major national events such as hurricanes, civil unrest etc.

1.6. Ethnic group

Broadly defined, ethnicity pertains to people of the same race sharing a common history and distinctive cultural characteristics. This is the ethnic group to which the respondent says he/she or other members of the household belong.

Indigenous refers to people of Amerindian descent, commonly known as Caribs and Arawaks.

1.7. Religion

Religion may be defined as an affiliation with an organized group having specific religious or spiritual tenets.


Section 2 - Migration

2.1. Place of birth

The place of birth is the geographical location in which the mother of the individual resided at the time of the person's birth.

2.2. Foreign born

This is defined as any person not born in Trinidad and Tobago.

2.3. Foreign born ? Duration of residence in Trinidad and Tobago

This is the interval of time up to the date of the census expressed in completed years during which each foreign born person has lived in Trinidad and Tobago.

2.4. Place of usual residence

Usual residence is defined as the place where the person lives at the time of the census, and has been there for some time, or intends to stay there for some time.

2.5. Place of residence at a specified time in the past

This refers to the geographic location in which the individual resided at a specified time preceding the census. National circumstances such as hurricanes, civil unrest etc. may make it possible for the time reference to be easily remembered.

2.6. Place of previous residence

This is the locality or foreign country in which the individual resided prior to returning to or migrating to the person's present place of usual residence.

Section 3 - Disability

3.1. Disability

Persons with disabilities are defined here as those persons who are at greater risk than the general population for experiencing restrictions in performing specific tasks or participating in role activities.


Data about impairments (problems at the level of organs and anatomical structures) is different from data about activity limitations (limitations on the capacity of a person to act or behave in a desired manner, because of a health condition), which again is different from data about participation restrictions (limitations in what a person does that result from an interaction between impairments or activity limitations and barriers created by the person's environment).

Short-term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illness are excluded. Only disabilities lasting for at least six months or expected to last for more than six (6) months are to be included.

The following categories focus on whether the individual has any impairments:

(i) Seeing even if wearing glasses
(ii) Hearing even if using hearing aid
(iii) Walking or climbing stairs (Moving /being mobile)
(iv) Remembering or concentrating
(v) Gripping
(vi) Speaking and understanding because of a physical, mental or emotional health condition

Participation restrictions are problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations. A participation restriction can be determined by comparing an individual's normal and regular involvement in activities with that expected of an individual without a disability.

The following categories focus on whether the individual has any participation/activity limitations:

(i) Taking care of himself/herself
(ii) Getting around within the home
(iii) Going outside the home
(iv) Working at a job or business.
(v) Undertaking educational activities
(vi) Participating in social activities


Section 4 - Health

4.1. Chronic illness

This is defined as a prolonged or long continued illness for which no available cure exists. However, treatment can be used to control the symptoms of the illness.

The following categories are included in this section:

(i) Alzheimer's disease - This is a neurological disease characterized by loss of mental ability marked by a decline in cognitive functions such as remembering, reasoning, and planning. It usually occurs in old age.

(ii) Arthritis - This is a general term covering any inflammation of the joints.

(iii) Asthma - This is a respiratory disease affecting one's breathing.

(iv) Cancer - Cancer refers to a malignant tumor.

(v) Clinical mental disease - Any disease of the mind; the psychological state of someone who has emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to require psychiatric intervention.

(vi) Diabetes - Is a metabolic disorder that causes surplus sugar in the blood and urine.

(vii) HIV/AIDS - This is the condition caused by the Human Immune Deficiency Virus, which manifests itself in many ways.

(viii) Heart Disease - Any disease affecting the heart.

(ix) Hypertension - This occurs where a person's blood pressure is higher than what is considered normal as specified by a medical doctor.

(x) Kidney Disease - This refers to any disease affecting the kidney.


(xi) Lupus - Is a destructive type of skin disease marked by nodules.

(xii) Parkinson's disease - This is a degenerative disease of the brain that often impairs motor skills, speech, and other functions. It is characterized by shaking and difficulty with movement coordination.

(xiii) Sickle cell anemia - This is a severe hereditary disease occurring among the offspring of parents who have sickle- cell traits. It is a general or local deficiency in the amount or quality of red blood corpuscles or of hemoglobin in the blood or both.

It is important to note that these broad definitions are to clarify concepts for you. Do not attempt to diagnose respondents. Use the responses given by individuals, which should have been diagnosed by a medical doctor.

4.2. Health insurance

Health insurance is insurance that pays for medical expenses. It may be purchased on a group basis (e.g., by a firm to cover its employees) or purchased by individual consumers from private insurance companies. In each case, the covered groups or individuals pay premiums. Health surcharge, NIS and other mandatory government health plans are not to be included.

Section 5 - Education

5.1. Education is defined as formal sustained and organized communication designed to bring about learning.

These concepts are defined as follows:

(a) Formal - This is the hierarchical, structured "education system" running from primary school through to university, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialised programmes and institutions for full-time technical and professional training.

(b) Sustained - Is intended to mean that the learning experience has the elements of duration and continuity.


(c) Organized - Planned in a pattern or sequence with explicit or implicit aims.

(d) Communication - This refers to the relation that exists between two or more persons involved in the transfer of information.

(e) Learning - Is defined as any change in behavior, information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, skills, or capabilities which can be retained and which cannot be ascribed to physical growth or to the development of inherited behavioral patterns.

All forms of learning are included such as academic, vocational and physical skills, e.g. athletics. Training to perform a job is therefore a learning experience and part of education.

5.2. School / Educational institution

A school is defined as an institution where teaching and learning activities are organized as a regular and exclusive activity.

Special mention is made of the following schools:

1. Early childhood care and education / nursery school / kindergarten

These schools cater for children in the age group 2 ½ to 5 years of age. It is important to note that children in Day Care Centers are not to be taken up in this category. Remember that a school is a place where teaching and learning activities are organized as a regular and exclusive activity.

2. Special schools

These are schools designed for educating children "with disabilities". For example:

(a) Trinidad and Tobago Association for Retarded Children (Lady Hochoy Home).
(b) Princess Elizabeth Home for Handicapped Children.
(c) School for Deaf Children.
(d) School for the Blind.

3. Home school

This is a type of "school? where students are taught at home but follow a curriculum with a view to writing the national examinations such as SEA and CAPE or internationally equivalent examinations.


5.3. School attendance

This is defined as regular attendance at any accredited educational institution or programme, public or private, for organized learning at any level of education at the time of the census. It is important to distinguish attendance from enrolment since a person can be enrolled in school but not necessarily attending.

A "full time" student is one whose main activity is attending school, university, or some other educational institution.

A "part time" student can be defined as one, whose main activity is other than attending school or being engaged in the learning process.

"Distance learning" is defined as any form of organized educational experience in which teaching and learning take place with teachers at a distance from the learners for most of the time. It incorporates all levels of education and training using forms of technology that range from the simple medium of print to the more advanced medium of technology involving satellites, tele-conferencing, networks, television, radio broadcast and other mechanisms.

5.4. Highest level of educational attainment.

This refers to the highest level completed within the most advanced level attended in the educational system. This concept relates to non-vocational education, i.e. attainment at primary, secondary, post-secondary and university.

In Secondary Schools where vocational and trade subjects were incorporated within the system, the concept is also applicable. It should be noted that in cases where the respondents were educated abroad, the equivalent is to be recorded.

5.5 Years of schooling at the highest level of education

The number of years completed at the highest level of education is taken up in the census.

5.6. Highest qualification ever attained

Qualifications are the degrees, diplomas, certificates, professional titles that an individual has acquired, whether by full time or part-time study, whether conferred by educational authorities, special examining bodies or professional bodies. The acquisition of an educational qualification therefore implies the successful completion of a course of study or training program.

The type of examinations dealt with here is public examinations, (except SEA/Common Entrance and 14 plus Exams) as distinct from examinations organized within particular schools. The examination, which the respondent classifies as the highest, is to be recorded. The responses try to make provisions for persons educated at a time when the national education system differed from the one in place at the time of the census.


"Diploma / equivalent certificate of achievement" refers to certificates that have been awarded for shorter courses and should not be confused with a diploma that is done at the post secondary level as a step towards further degreed qualification.

Section 6 - Economic activity

The population is classified into two groups:

(a) Children and
(b) Adults 15 years and over

The scope of the population to be considered for the measurement of the economically active population is adults 15 years and over.

6.1. Time reference period

Two time reference periods are used for the questions on economic activity, that is, past calendar week (Sunday to Saturday) and the past twelve (12) months.

For the employed and unemployed population classified by occupation, industry, hours worked etc. the time reference period is the past calendar week, in order, inter- alia "to obtain precise information on current activity that is particularly useful as an input into a system of integrated data on employment, unemployment, and other labour force related information obtained from the census".

6.2. Economically active population

The economically active population comprise all persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of economic goods and services during the time reference period chosen for the Census, i.e. past calendar week and past twelve (12) months. It includes both persons in the civilian labour force and those serving in the armed forces.

The economically active population is also referred to as the labour force which consists of two groups:

(a) The employed
(b) The unemployed

6.3. The economically inactive population (out of the labour force)

This general category consists of:

(i) Persons who explicitly stated that they did not want work


(ii) Students (full time)
(iii) Persons engaged in home duties
(iv) The retired
(v) The disabled
(vi) Old age pensioners
(vii) Other persons, e.g. mentally challenged, inmates of prisons, hospitals, mental institutions etc.

[Chart on page 18 omitted]


6.4. Current activity status

Current activity status is determined on the basis of what the person was actually doing during a short reference period usually one (1) week. It is to be noted that Trinidad and Tobago collects current labour force data through its Continuous Sample Survey of Population. Current economic characteristics are simpler to investigate than "usual characteristics" (i.e. past twelve months) because the brief reference period avoids many of the complications that can occur when the longer period of twelve (12) months is used.

Equally important to bear in mind is that such data collected for the shorter period (the past week) can be more usefully correlated with other characteristics of the individual collected during the time reference.

Note: Past week means the calendar week (Sunday to Saturday) before enumeration

6.5. Usual activity status

Usual activity status is determined on the basis of what the person was actually doing during a longer reference period usually twelve (12) months. The advantage of the longer reference period applies in situations where the seasonality of employment can affect the occupation and industry reported by an individual on a shorter reference period.

Conversely, where persons may have changed occupations or industry frequently, there is difficulty both for the respondent and enumerator in determining his "usual" occupation or industry. A specific period in time as a point of reference does not overcome the problems described above but, at least, sets more precise criteria for both the respondent and enumerator to follow.

6.6. The employed

The employed comprises all persons above fifteen (15) years of age, trainees including apprentices whether paid or not, and unpaid family workers, who worked or held a job during the past calendar week. Persons who had a job in which they had already assumed duties, after which they were temporarily absent because of illness or injury, industrial dispute, vacation or other leave of absence, bad weather or mechanical breakdown are also considered as employed.

It is to be noted that priority in classifying respondents during the reference period of a week begins with "had a job and worked" and "had a job, but did not work". Work must be for at least one (1) hour to be considered employed.


6.7. The unemployed

The unemployed consists of three categories of persons:

(i) Those who never worked but during the past calendar week were seeking their first job.

(ii) Those not working but were actively seeking work during the past calendar week.

(iii) Those who wanted work but were not actively seeking work for the past calendar week but actively looked for work sometime during the past three months.

These three categories are defined operationally as follows:

(i) Persons seeking first job - This concept covers persons who never worked, but were taking steps to seek work during the past calendar week. Persons who hold a part-time or temporary job as their first job ever held are not included in this category since priority is given to ''work'' over ''not working''.

(ii) Actively seeking work - This includes persons previously employed and were taking steps to seek work during the past calendar week.

(iii) Did not look for work - Persons wanting work and available for work but were not taking steps to seek work during the past calendar week, but have actively looked for work during the past three (3) months, at the time of the interview, are classified under this category.

6.8. Type of worker (status of employment)

The status of employment refers to the status of the economically active (both employed and unemployed) with respect to his/her place of employment.

The following categories are identified:-

(i) Statutory boards and similar bodies - This refers to any commission, board, committee, council or similar body established by an Act of Parliament.

Examples are: National Insurance Board, National Lotteries Control Board, Princess Elizabeth Home for Handicapped Children, the Airport Authority of Trinidad and Tobago, Port Authority of Trinidad and Tobago and the Public Transport Service Corporation.


(ii) State owned enterprises - This refers to enterprises where the Government of Trinidad and Tobago owns controlling interest i.e. 51% or more of shares.

Examples are: National Petroleum Marketing Company Limited, National Flour Mills Limited.

(iii) Central or local government - Central government workers will be found in the Ministries and Departments of Government. Local Government workers will be found in City Corporations, Borough Corporations and Regional Corporations.

(iv) Private Establishment - These workers will be found in privately owned companies such as West Indian Tobacco Company Limited and Nestle Trinidad and Tobago Limited.

(v) Paid employee, private home - These workers will be found in privately owned homes such as maids, gardeners etc.

(vi) Self employed with paid employees - A person who operates his or her own (economic) enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

(vii) Self employed with no paid employees - A person who operates his or her own (economic) enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires no employees.

(viii) Apprentice / Learner - A person who is being taught a trade or a profession with or without receipt of any remuneration.

(ix) Unpaid family worker/employee - A person who works in a business or farm, belonging to a relative who receives no payment in cash, but who benefits from the operation of the business or farm.

(x) Other unpaid worker/employee - A person who works in a business or farm belonging to other persons and who receives no payment in cash, but who benefits from the operation of the business or farm.


6.9. Occupation

Occupation refers to the main type of work done in a job by the person employed, during the time reference period established for data on economic characteristics.

For the unemployed, occupation refers to the main kind of work done during the last job held.

First seekers will indicate the last job for which they applied.

6.10. Industry

Industry refers to the kind of activity of the establishment in which an employed person worked during the time-reference period established for data on economic characteristics or last worked, if unemployed. Activity of the establishment refers to the kinds of goods or services produced.

Goods producing establishments include, those engaged in the manufacture of paints, cement and fruits or vegetable canning plants. Examples of service-producing establishment are hospitals, barber shops and elementary schools.

It is to be noted that for persons reporting more than one industry during the time reference period, the industry used for classification must be the same as that to which the main occupation relates.

6.11. Main activity during past twelve (12) months

The main activity during the past twelve (12) months refers to what the individual did most during the twelve (12) month period preceding enumeration. It is to be noted that the term "most" need not be continuous.

Section 7 - Marital status

Marital status is the personal legal status of each individual enumerated in relation to the marriage laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. The question on marital status is addressed to all persons fourteen (14) years old and over.

The following categories are identified:

(i) Never married - A person who has never been married, either formally (that is in accordance with the marriage laws of the country) or through customary marriage ceremonies which are prescribed under Hindu or Muslim rites.


(ii) Married - Applied to persons who have gone through a legal marriage ceremony. Also included in this category are persons married according to Hindu or Muslim rites, whether or not such marriages have been legally registered.

A person, living apart from, though not legally separated from his/her married partner is to be recorded as married.

(iii) Widowed - This category applies to all persons, married legally or through customary Hindu or Muslim rites, whose partners have died and who have not remarried.

(iv) Legally separated - A person who is married but not living with his/her spouse and has obtained a separation by means of legal proceedings.

(v) Divorced - A person, having formally dissolved his/her marriage through legal proceedings, and has not remarried.

Section 8 - Fertility

8.1. Children ever born

This refers to all children born alive (excluding fetal deaths) during a woman's lifetime, whether currently residing with her, elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago or abroad. Also included are the children born alive, but who have died.

Please note that children born dead (still births) are not to be included here.

8.2. Age at birth of first live born child

Refers to the age, in completed years, at which the mother gave birth to her first live-born child.

8.3. Age at birth of last live born child

Refers to the age, in completed years, at which the mother gave birth to her last live- born child.


8.4. Live birth

A live birth means the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy; which, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles, whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached; each product of such a birth is considered live born.

8.5. Still birth

A still birth is defined as death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, provided that the product is one of twenty-eight (28) weeks gestation or over; the death is indicated by the fact that after such separation the product does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

8.6. Children born in the past twelve (12) months who have died

Refers to children who were born and who have died in the twelve (12) months preceding the census.

8.7. Union status

Union status refers to the type of relationship in which persons are engaged.

There are six (6) categories of union status. The definition of each category is as follows:

(i) Married and living with spouse - This refers to a union in which the woman is living with the partner to whom she is married, either by formal (legal) marriage or by Hindu or Muslim rites.

(ii) Common-Law and living with partner - This category indicates a union in which the partners share a common household though the union has not been established by legal processes or by Hindu or Muslim rites.

(iii) Visiting partner - Visiting refers to a union in which a woman who was neither married nor living in a common-law union, but who had a birth during the twelve(12) months preceding the census.


(iv) No longer living with spouse - This category refers to a woman who had been married and at the time of the Census, is no longer living with her husband. This category also applies to women who are widowed, divorced or separated.

(v) No longer living with common-law partner - No longer living with common-law partner designates a woman who has been in a common law union, but at the time of the Census is no longer sharing a common household with a partner. This situation would arise either as a result of the death of her common-law partner or a dissolution of the relationship.

(vi) Never had a spouse nor common- law partner - This category refers to a woman who has never been in a married nor common-law relationship. It is actually a residual category, embracing women who were in visiting unions but did not have a birth during the previous year as well as those who throughout their life time have never been in a family union.

Section 9 - Census Night

Census Night is concerned with where the individual actually spent census night. This refers to the period up to midnight of Census Day i.e. up to midnight on the 16th May 2010.

Section 10 - Individual use of information and communication technology

Applicable to persons three (3) years old and over

10.1. Information and communications technology

ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software satellite systems and so on as well as the various services and applications associated with them such as teleconferencing and distance learning.


10.2. Mobile cellular phone

A mobile cellular telephone refers to a portable telephone subscribing to a
public mobile telephone service using cellular technology. This includes analogue and digital cellular systems. Users of both post-paid subscriptions and pre-paid accounts are included.

10.3. Use of mobile telephone

Use of a mobile cellular telephone does not mean that the telephone is owned or paid for by the person but should be reasonably available through work, a friend or family member, etc. It excludes occasional use, for instance, borrowing a mobile phone to make a call.

10.4. Computer

A computer refers to a desktop or a laptop computer. It does not include equipment with some embedded computing abilities such as mobile cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) or TV sets.

10.5. Internet

The Internet is a world-wide public computer network. It provides access to a number of communication services including the World Wide Web and carries e-mail, news, entertainment and data files, irrespective of the device used (not assumed to be only via a computer - it may also be by mobile phone, PDA, games machine, digital TV etc.). Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.

Section 11 - Housing

The concepts on household, building, dwelling unit, have previously been defined, under Section B.

11.1. Type of Building

(i) Residential - This is defined as a household occupying the entire building area solely for living purposes e.g. a detached dwelling or apartment building. It is possible to have more than one household occupying a building.


(ii) Residential / commercial - This is a building which is used for dual purposes, that is part of the building is utilized for living purposes and the other part is used for commercial activities.

Encompassed in a definition of commercial activities are activities such as the operation of a grocery, shop, pharmacy, jewelry shop, beauty salon, bar, lodge and so on.

(iii) Residential / professional - Is also categorized as a building which is being utilized for dual purposes, such as, living and the operation of a professional office or activity, for example, a building may have a household occupying the upper floor of a building while the ground floor houses an office such as a doctor's or lawyer's office.

(iv) Residential / industrial - This is a building which is being utilized for dual purposes, such as, living and the production of goods and services, for example, a custodian that lives in the back room of a factory.

(v) Community services private / government - A community service building whether private or government owned refers to a building used primarily in the interest of the public and provides services, for example, a community center.

11.2. Material of outer walls

Information is collected on the major construction materials of outer walls.

(i) Wood - This is applicable where the walls are made solely of wood.

(ii) Wood and brick - This category includes walls that are made of both wood and hollow clay blocks.

(iii) Wood and concrete - This category includes walls that are made of both wood and concrete blocks or wood and reinforced concrete.

(iv) Wood and galvanize - This is defined as where the walls are made of both wood and galvanize.


(v) Concrete and brick - This applies to buildings where the walls are made of hollow clay blocks or concrete bricks whether plastered or unplastered.

(vi) Stone - This applies to buildings where the walls are made of natural stone.

(vii) Stone and brick - This applies to buildings where the walls are made of natural stone and hollow clay blocks.

(viii) Wattle / adobe / tapia - This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle plastered with mud. Walls made of Tapia must also be included under this type. Adobe refers to sun dried bricks.

(ix) Other - Other types of material of construction of outer walls not previously described.

11.3. Material of the roof

(i) Sheet metal - This includes zinc, aluminum and galvanize

(ii) Shingle (asphalt)

(iii) Shingle(wood)

(iv) Concrete - This is usually referred to as concrete slab.

(v) Tile - Refers to concrete, clay or other tiles.

(vi) Thatch / Makeshift - A thatch roof usually refers to a roof made up of leaves, especially those of palms. Makeshift refers to cases of any unconventional materials, including flattened metal drums, discarded sheets of metal etc.

(vii) Other - Other types of material of roofing not previously described.


11.4. Year when building was built

The census will collect information on the year when the building was originally built. Where parts of buildings have been constructed at different times, the year or period of construction should refer to the time in which the major part of construction of the building was undertaken. In the event of major structural changes to the building affecting foundation, walls and ceiling, the year in which the building underwent such major structural changes will be acceptable.

11.5. Type of dwelling unit

Dwelling units are classified into eleven (11) categories.

The information to be recorded in this question must relate to the building or part of the building used for living purposes. The types of dwellings specified in the 2010 Population and Housing Census are described as follows:

(i) Separate house - The dwelling unit comprises an entire separate building, though more than one household may occupy it.

(ii) Flat / apartment / condominium - Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multi-storied building. Apartments are dwelling units within buildings where the household occupies part of the building but has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery.

A condominium is defined as a block of self contained dwelling units, which may be flats or apartments for which legal title is held individually. Each unit is attached to or dependent to a substantial degree on the other unit for support shelter or easement. Facilities such as security, grounds and maintenance cost are shared.

(iii) Town house - A block of self-contained units with separate legal title to ownership. These units are attached side by side having no other dwelling either above or below. Sometimes common facilities such as security and grounds are shared.

(iv) Double house / duplex - A dwelling joined to only one other dwelling, separated from it by a wall extending from ground to roof, i.e. one of two dwellings attached side by side, having no other dwellings either above or below and separated by open space from all other structures.


(v) Part of commercial / industrial building - This type of dwelling would be recorded when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as business places, garages, etc.

(vi) Barracks - A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.

(vii) Out-room - One or more rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household, i.e. quarters for domestic employee

(viii) Improvised housing unit - This is an independent makeshift structure built of waste materials such and/or without a predetermined plan for habitation by a household, but is being used for habitation at the time of the census.

(ix) Other private dwelling - This category is used for households living in none of the dwelling types so far specified. Included in this category are units where members of households live in boats, tents, trailers etc.

(x) Group dwelling - These have already been defined and refer to certain types of institutions, i.e. retirement homes, hostels, youth camps etc.

(xi) Wafda - A block of self contained single storied units with separate legal title to ownership. These units are attached side by side having no dwelling either above or below. Examples of these can be found in La Horquetta and Maloney Gardens

11.6. Type of tenure / ownership dwelling unit

The type of tenure of the dwelling unit refers to the conditions / living arrangements under which a private household occupies all or part of it. It is important to note that information on land will only be collected for those individuals who own their dwelling unit.


Ten (10) categories are identified:

(i) Owned fully - This category applies to heads of households who possess legal title to the dwelling.

(ii) Owned with mortgage / loan - This category applies to heads of households who are in the process of buying the dwelling by means of having taken a mortgage/loan with a financial institution.

(iii) Rent to own - This is a situation where persons who are unable to qualify for a mortgage are allowed to occupy the property under a license-to-occupy agreement for a period of five (5) years with the option to afterwards purchase the property.

(iv) Rented private - Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from a private individual or group. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.

(v) Rent-free - This refers to the situation whereby the household does not pay a rent for occupying the dwelling. This situation may apply to households occupying dwellings rent free, which are owned by relatives or even friends who are not members of the household. Other rent-free arrangements also exist such as government and private employees who occupy dwellings owned by their employers.

(vi) Rented government - Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from the government or a government agency. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.

(vii) Leased private - A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract, which stipulates payment in advance of the total rent for the dwelling during the entire duration of the contract. The arrangement is made with a private individual or group.


(viii) Leased government - A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract, which stipulates payment in advance of the total rent for the dwelling during the entire duration of the contract. This arrangement is made with the government or a government agency.

(ix) Squatted - This applies when households are found occupying an area without permission of the owner or any legal rights to the dwelling.

(x) Other - This applies when households are occupying the dwelling under conditions different from those specified on the questionnaire, choose "Other (specify)?.." and specify the type of tenure/ownership.

11.7. Rooms

A room is defined as a space in a dwelling unit enclosed and permanently separated, by means of walls, from other parts of the building. It excludes kitchens, galleries, bathrooms, toilets, storerooms, laundry rooms, pantries and corridors.

Separate spaces used or intended for habitation all count as rooms. The walls of a room ought to be of a permanent nature, not a "blind" and should be at least two (2) metres high above the ground or ground to ceiling.

11.8. Bedrooms

A bedroom is a room equipped with a bed and used for night rest. These rooms should be at least large enough to hold a bed for an adult (4 square metres at the very least). There must be some permanency about the walls enclosing the bedroom. A room in a dwelling unit, which is used for recreation by day and sleeping by night, is not regarded as a bedroom.

11.9. Water supply

(i) Public piped into dwelling - Describes a condition where running water from a public source is piped into the dwelling unit. It is to be noted that in cases where both truck-borne supplies and intermittent supplies from a public reservoir are used, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne.


(ii) Public piped into yard - Applies in a situation where the household receives running water from a public source through a pipe in the yard or compound on which the dwelling stands.

(iii) Public stand pipe - Obtains when water is available to the household, occupying a dwelling unit, from a stand pipe in the street or elsewhere.

(iv) Private piped into dwelling - Refers to water supply obtained from a private source and piped into the dwelling. Such a situation will occur, for example, where the household pumps water from a river or pond through pipes directly to the dwelling.

(v) Private catchment not piped - Obtains where the water is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.

(vi) Truck-borne (and not piped into dwelling) - This applies when a truck-borne water supply is the sole source of water to the household. To satisfy the condition of truck-borne, the water supplied by trucks must be from a public source and the water so received is stored in drums or barrels from which the household draws its supply.

(vii) Spring / river / well / pond - This applies when the main water supply available to the dwelling is from a spring, river, well or pond.

(viii) Other - Obtains when the dwelling receives its water supply from a source not specified above.

11.10. Toilet facilities

Toilet facilities are categorized as follows:

(i) Water closet (W.C.) linked to sewer - This is a toilet facility, which is a flush or water closet that fills from a piped water supply and empties into a central sewerage disposal system.


(ii) Water closet (W.C.) linked to septic tank / soakaway - This is defined as a toilet facility, which is a flush or water closet and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soakaway).

(iii) Pit / latrine - A toilet facility available to household which is a pit/latrine. This toilet facility is not water-borne.

(iv) Other - All other types of toilet facilities not described above.

11.11. Shared toilet facilities

Shared toilet facilities refer to whether the household shares facilities with other households.

11.12. Household access to Internet

Internet access from home refers to the ability of the household to connect to the public Internet using TCP/IP protocols. Internet access at home is meant to include both narrowband and broadband connections. Broadband may be defined loosely as transmission capacity with sufficient bandwidth to permit combined provision of voice, data and video. The lower limit of broadband access is set at 256Kbit/sec as the sum of uploading and downloading capacities. It is implemented mainly through xDSL, cable, wireless local area network, satellite broadband Internet or fiber-to-the-home Internet access. Narrowband access is typically carried up through dial-up, modems, ISDNs and some mobile cellular phones.

Note that since households can use more than one type of access service, multiple responses are possible.

(i) Narrowband - Narrowband includes analogue modem (dial-up via standard phone line), ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), DSL at speeds below 256 kilobits per second and mobile phone and other forms of access with a download speed of less than 256 kilobits per second

(ii) ISDN - ISDN stands for "Integrated Services Digital Network." ISDN is a data transfer technology that can transfer data significantly faster than a dial-up modem. ISDN enables wide-bandwidth digital transmission over the public telephone network, which means more data can be sent at one time. A typical ISDN connection can support transfer


rates of 64 kilobits or 128 kilobits of data per second. While these speeds are faster than what you can get with a dial-up modem, the newer DSL technology can support even faster transfer rates.

(iii) Dial Up (Analogue) - Dial-up refers to an Internet connection that is established using a modem that connects the computer to standard phone lines, which serve as the data transfer medium. When a user initiates a dial-up connection, the modem dials a phone number of an Internet Service Provider that is designated to receive dial-up calls. The ISP then establishes the connection, which usually takes about ten seconds and is accompanied by several beeping and buzzing sounds.

(iv) Broadband - This refers to high-speed data transmission in which a single cable can carry a large amount of data at once. The most common types of Internet broadband connections are cable modems (which use the same connection as cable TV) and DSL modems (which use your existing phone line). Because of its multiple channel capacity, broadband has started to replace narrowband, the single-channel technology originally used in most computer networks.

(v) DSL - Stands for "Digital Subscriber Line." It is a medium for transferring data over regular phone lines and can be used to connect to the Internet. It is much faster than the dial up connection and allows download speeds of up to about 1.5 megabits (not megabytes) per second, and upload speeds of 128 kilobits per second.

(vi) Cable Modem - A cable modem is used for connecting to the Internet and is much faster than a typical dial-up modem. Cable modems support data transfer rates of up to 30 Mbps, over 500 times faster. A cable modem does not connect to a phone line but to a local cable TV line. This allows a continuous connection to the Internet.

(vii) Mobile broadband - Mobile broadband refers to technologies at speeds of at least 256 kilobits per second, in one or both directions, such us Wideband CDMA Access which can be via any device (handheld computer, laptop or mobile cellular telephone etc.).


Section 12 - Environment

12.1. Environmental factors as it relates to the household refer to all aspects of the external world that form the context of members of the household's lives and, as such, have an impact on their functioning. Environmental factors include the physical world and its features, the human-made physical world, other people in different relationships and roles, attitudes and values, social systems and services, and policies, rules and laws.

(i) Solid waste - This is the disposition or placement of refuse that is not salvaged or recycled and it includes predominantly household waste.

(ii) Water contamination - The presence in water of harmful and objectionable material - obtained from sewers, industrial wastes and rainwater run-off - in sufficient concentrations to make it unfit for use.

(iii) Air pollution - The presence of contaminant or pollutant substances in the air that do not disperse properly and that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects.

(iv) Drainage - This is the removal of excess water from land through the construction of channels or conduits.

(v) Use of pesticide - Any substance or mixture of substances that is used to prevent, destroy or control pests - including vectors of human or animal disease, and unwanted species of plants or animals.

(vi) Deforestation - This describes the clearing of tree formations and their replacement by non- forest land uses.

(vii) Destruction of mangrove - This is an area of low-lying land where the water table is at or near the surface most of the time. Wetlands include swamps and the proper functioning of this system can be impaired by agricultural, industrial and organic pollutants.


(viii) Soil erosion - This is the wearing away of the land by running water, rainfall and wind. Erosion is often intensified by land-clearing human activities related to farming, residential and industrial development.

(ix) Flooding - This is an overflow of water onto land that is normally dry. Floods can occur when the strength of a river is so high it flows out of the river channel and causes damage to homes and businesses along such rivers.

(x) Sewerage discharge - This is organic waste and waste water produced by residential and commercial establishments. Sewerage is the part of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine.

(xi) Wastewater discharge - This is used water, it contains matter and bacteria which is released into water courses/bodies or soil. This water is the residual of production and consumption.

Section 13 - International migration

13.1. International migration refers to the movements of individuals over national boundaries. International migrants are those persons who have spent at least one (1) year of their lives in a country other than the one in which they live at the time of the census. This Section will focus on those persons who have left for more than one (1) year and are still living abroad at the time of the census. It does not include those persons who have returned i.e. returning migrants.