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Republic of Trinidad and Tobago 2000 Population and Housing Census

[Table of Contents omitted]

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Enumerator's manual overview

The enumerator's manual is a comprehensive guide to the field aspects of the census activity. It outlines in details what is expected of the enumerators, in terms of the procedures involved in the enumeration of households. The manual also gives very specific instructions with respect to the various questions within the 2000 Population and Housing Census questionnaire. It also states what is expected of enumerators after Census Day.

The importance of the enumerator's manual cannot be over emphasized. The enumerator's manual is to be used as a practical guide not only to enumerators but also to the supervisors. All field staff must therefore be thoroughly familiar with the contents and hence instructions of this document. Failure to become conversant with the Manual will create problems on the field. Every effort will be made at the training sessions to ensure that concepts and definitions are understood.

Much of your success as an enumerator will depend on the co-operation you are able to obtain from respondents. This will depend largely on your approach, tact, patience, self-confidence and a thorough knowledge of your assignment.

As an enumerator you will inevitably be faced with challenges on the field. Do not hesitate to consult with your supervisor. A great deal is expected of all field personnel, in terms of dedication, commitment and thoroughness in completing the enumeration exercise.

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Enumerator's manual

Part I - Introduction

1. What is a census?

A census can be described as a form of national stocktaking. It is a complete count of the population and provides detailed benchmark data on the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labour force and socio-economic characteristics of all persons and living quarters in the country.

2. What is a population census?

A population census is defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time to all persons in a country.

3. What is a housing census?

A housing census is defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing or otherwise disseminating statistical data pertaining at a specified time to all living quarters/buildings in a country.

In Trinidad and Tobago both censuses are taken up as one national census. This is referred to as the Population and Housing Census. Therefore, population and housing data are collected at the same time in one operation.

4. Uses of the Population and Housing Census

The census will generate important and essential data that will be used both locally and internationally.

A brief outline of some of the major uses of the census data are as follows:

Development of policies and programmes

Census data are used for developing policies and programmes aimed at enhancing the welfare of a country and its population. The census will provide critical benchmark data in terms of size of the population, mid year population estimates during the inter censal years, age structure, birth rates, employment, educational attainment, income and the housing stock.


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The availability of these data can contribute to the overall planning process and management of national affairs. For example, the age structure of the population by Regions will inform the government where additional educational facilities are needed.

The information from the Census can also be used to formulate pension plans, health care packages, housing and employment programmes. The need for additional hospitals, roads and public transport can be determined based on the results of the Census. In essence, all aspects of the Census can be utilized to make decisions affecting your neighborhood, village or the entire country.

The business sector

The business sector may also utilize the data generated from the census. Information on the population distribution by age and sex as well as income levels may have a direct impact on the types of products companies invest in for the long term. Income levels also influence the demand for housing, food, clothing, medical supplies and so forth.

Research purposes

The census data can be used for research purposes. This is very important especially in the inter-censal years where data are required for policy and decision making. The Census of Population and Housing will provide a rich source of data for demographic, social and economic research. It will provide comprehensive information at the national, regional and local levels on the size, distribution and composition of the population.

The census also provides a frame that can be used to conduct sample surveys or other censuses

For example:

In the census, heads of households indicating agricultural activity are identified. Moreover, the Visitation Record collects data on persons who grow crops and rear livestock. This will provide a frame from which an agricultural census or agriculture sample surveys can be designed and conducted.

From the census, a frame can be developed for business establishments. This frame can be used to update the current Business Survey Register of Establishments.

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This register of establishments can then be assigned to their relevant sectors of the economy from which an annual sample survey can be designed to develop estimates of the Gross Domestic Product and other national economic accounting tables.

It is difficult to constantly update this register and the census provides an ideal opportunity to do so.

International comparison

Census information can be used to compare critical factors, such as size of population, age, sex distribution, income levels and educational attainment with other countries. It is vital to ensure a high degree of comparability and consistency not only in the Caribbean area but also internationally.

5. Overview of the Population and Housing Census

While the term census is generally taken to mean counting of the country's population and the recording of their characteristics at a particular point in time, several distinct operations have to be completed before a picture of the population can be presented.

These steps are as follows:

Plans must be developed detailing what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented.

Detailed training sessions are to be provided for trainers, supervisors and enumerators. This is to ensure that individuals are thoroughly familiar with the concepts and definitions utilized in the 2000 Population and Housing Census.

The next step is to organize the collection of the data in the field. The Enumerators must visit every building in the country in order to interview members of households and record the necessary information in the visitation records and the questionnaires.

These documents on which the required information is entered are the basic instruments of the enumeration exercise. Therefore, if the quality of enumeration is very good, the final tables or tabulations that will be eventually published will also be of a high quality.

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After these documents have been completed in the field, they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies.

A sample of the field interviews will be rechecked in the field during enumeration by the supervisor and after enumeration by trained Central Statistical Office staff to assess quality of the data collected.

When all checks have been completed in the field and office another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for computer processing.

The final stage is the production of the tabulations, which constitute the basis of the census reports.


6. Time of enumeration

An essential feature of any census is that the enumeration or count must refer to a particular point in time. This is referred to as a reference period, which is the 15th May, 2000, the designated Census Day.

The census moment is at midnight of Census Day, that is, the end of Census Day, 15th
May, 2000.

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is using the procedure of pre-enumerating the population before Census Day. Pre-enumeration is scheduled to begin on the 17th April, 2000.

7. Place of enumeration

Buildings and dwelling units (i.e. places of residence within buildings) have a fixed location and would provide little difficulty.

Information on households, and the persons in the households can be collected and entered on the census questionnaire either "where they spent Census Night" or at their "usual residence". It is important to note that persons are enumerated on the basis of "where they spent Census Night". The procedure for persons who are away from their usual residence at the time of the census is detailed later in the instructions.

The persons most affected are the military, the security services, medical personnel, and marine personnel. The instructions will outline procedures on how to handle these situations.

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8. Units of enumeration

Four units of enumeration are used in the conduct of the Population and Housing Census. These are:

Buildings

Dwelling units

Private households

Persons

The definitions of these various units of enumeration are provided later in the Manual.

9. Information to be collected

In the census, a wide variety of data is collected. For example, vital data such as, age, sex, religion, occupation, and housing is captured. This data can be used in social and economic planning.

10. The respondent: Person who provides census information

Wherever possible, the acknowledged head of the household, should be interviewed. The head of the household may be either male or female as was outlined in the concepts and definitions. Where the head of the household is not available, any responsible adult at least fifteen years old can give information on members of the household, as well as, the areas on crime, housing and household items and international migration.

Information should be obtained from children only as a last resort. Additional information will be provided in your training. It is of course desirable to obtain information directly from members of the household where this is possible. This is advisable to ensure the accuracy of the data supplied.

The following data are best obtained in an interview from the person directly concerned:

Education
Age
Economic activity
Occupation
Training
Income

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11. The Importance of your role in the Population and Housing Census

As an enumerator you play a vital part in the census operations. You are one of the many important links in the entire operation. Every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate answers to questions and to record these according to given instructions. You can only do this if you really understand the instructions and ask your supervisor when you are unsure as to how to deal with certain situations.

The accuracy and quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the thoroughness with which you and your fellow enumerators perform.

The respondent must also co-operate with you. Your manner of approach, mode of dress, and speech will help. Our publicity program will make your task easier but you must also try to display patience, confidence and tact. These qualities are the prerequisites of a good enumerator.

12. Standards of performance

Your assignment must be completed within the prescribed period. The preparatory work that went into planning the 2000 Population and Housing Census has ensured that your workload can be accomplished in the allotted time. Account was taken of the variable terrain and density of population, among other factors.

The following points will assist you in the timely completion of your task:

Efficient conduct of interview

Only through familiarity with the instructions will you be able to conduct your job efficiently and accurately. Questions should be asked directly as stated on the questionnaire and the respondent should be given time to respond.

Reduction of call - backs

You can do this by carefully planning your visits when respondents will be home. After properly identifying yourself, obtain some help from neighbours as to what time members of the household are most likely to be home or leave call back cards where it is possible.

Planning your travel

Hold travel to a minimum by planning. This can be achieved by grouping your call-backs and making appointments wherever possible.

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Familiarity with the enumeration district. (E.D.)

Your supervisor will show you your ED and its boundaries as well as the direction in which you are to locate the buildings i.e. by following the direction of the arrows on your map. You must be familiar with your ED map. Your supervisor will inform you of any variation that may have occurred in cases of new developments and or buildings that are not captured on your map. This is important. You must avoid double counting or undercounting of the population.

Re-interview

The Census Unit will interview some of the households you enumerated to ensure your performance attained the required standard.

13. Census information is confidential

Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction because you will be asking for information which they do not normally make available to strangers and due to security reasons may even be hesitant to allow you on their premises.

You can put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information.

These are as follows:

All enumerators engaged on the census have taken an oath of secrecy.

Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any enumerator or person engaged in Census work to make unauthorized disclosures of information to any individual or organization whatsoever.

The information collected will be used solely in the preparation of tables showing the structure and size of the population as a whole. Information about a particular individual is merely a unit essential in deriving overall totals. Information will never be used at the individual level.


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Part II - General instructions

14. Training

Prior to the commencement of fieldwork, enumerators will be trained at specified locations for a period of time. This training will include:

Exposure to all forms and documents to be utilized in the Census. For example, the Visitation Record, Household questionnaire, Institutional questionnaire and various Manuals.

Reading, interpreting, correcting and updating ED sketch maps.

Basic guidelines concerning interviewing techniques will be discussed.

Training will take the form of a combination of practical and theoretical training. Extensive use of mock interviews will be utilized, whereby you will be given the opportunity to participate as respondents and interviewers. It is imperative that you attend all training sessions, as this will equip you with the necessary tools required to become an efficient interviewer.

15. Interviewing techniques

An interview is a means of obtaining information from an individual by asking questions. It may be structured or unstructured. In the case of the census, a very organized structured format is provided via the 2000 Population and Housing Census questionnaire. The interview itself is conducted face to face with the person regarded as the head of the household.

A brief outline of some of the major points in conducting a successful interview include:

(a) Appearance - Wear neat, conservative clothes suitable for the area you are enumerating. First impressions are important.

(b) Introduction - Having made the initial contact with the household, identify yourself as a representative of the Central Statistical Office and present your Central Statistical Office identification card.

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Be sure the respondent clearly understands who you are and whom you represent. The following introduction is recommended:

'Good morning Sir/Madam. I am an Enumerator engaged by the Central Statistical Office to undertake the Population and Housing Census for this area'.

(c) During the interview
(i) Look at the respondent when asking questions.

(ii) Never anticipate or assume answers to be given. Wait for respondents to complete their answers and ask all questions in the format given.

(iii) Never by word, action or gesture, indicate surprise or disapproval over an answer. Maintain a professional attitude and disposition.

(iv) Keep the interview flowing. Do not rush or pause unduly between questions. If you appear to be in a hurry to complete your questionnaire, respondents may give inaccurate or incomplete answers. If on the other hand, there are too many pauses, the respondents may lose confidence in your ability.

(v) Do not address the respondent by first names unless invited to do so.
(d) Ending the interview
(i) Before leaving an interview you should check to make sure that all questions have been completed. Making corrections may be difficult after leaving the respondent.

(ii) Once your interview has been completed, you should make your exit in a very cordial manner. Please bear in mind that you have a rigid time schedule to maintain.

(iii) Thank respondents for their time and co-operation.

16. Your assignment

In a very special way you are the key person in the census since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. A report is only as good as the information that goes into it. It is imperative that you do your job precisely and in accordance with the procedures as outlined in this manual.

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You will be assigned to an area or an enumeration district, which you will canvass to locate all households. Questionnaires will then have to be completed for these households. Special instructions will be given by your supervisor concerning the treatment of the enumeration of Institutions in your area

There are no regular hours of work during enumeration. You will have to adjust your working hours to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this may often mean making visits early in the morning and more particularly in the afternoon and early evenings, as well as, on weekends.

17. Your enumeration kit

In order to carry out your assignment, you will be given by your supervisor all the necessary documents and materials.

In addition, you will receive a letter of appointment as a census enumerator and an identification card. These must be carried with you at all times during your duty as an enumerator. Always ensure that you show your identification card to establish the legality of your position as a census enumerator. A national ID may also be used, in addition to your census ID card.

The materials handed to you for the completion of your task as an enumerator are the property of the census office and your claim for payment will not be honoured until your supervisor receives the following from you at the end of enumeration:

The enumeration district map

All completed questionnaires duly secured

The visitation record

The identification card

The unused questionnaires

The bag for holding all materials

All other used and unused materials

18. Your enumeration district (E.D.) map

As was indicated above, your materials for enumeration include a sketch-map of your enumeration district, together with a description of its boundaries.
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Every effort has been made prior to the census to update your map and make it serviceable. However, problems may still exist. Whenever you are in doubt, seek clarification from your supervisor.

Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your enumeration district. He/she will also point out to you errors found on the enumeration district map as received from the census office.

You must correct your enumeration district map where necessary by crossing out streets which cannot be located and demolished buildings, which do not exist, drawing in new buildings, and correcting street names and roads which may have been omitted from the map.

All corrections and changes must be brought to the attention of your supervisor immediately. Should you find any errors in the description, write these out below the description of the enumeration district.

Quick and easy recognition of symbols is an advantage. It decreases the chances of error and provides even the most inexperienced enumerator with a guide, which can be readily understood. Enumerators should be familiar with these symbols.

See appendix I for mapping specifications.

Key points with respect to your E.D. map:

The map is the basic instrument used to locate your enumeration district.

It identifies clearly the boundaries of your workload/assignment.

It provides a systematic route to travel with a start point, canvassing arrows and a stop point for you to follow to complete the enumeration.

The map provides a one to one link with your visitation record. Therefore, each building you visit must be serially numbered on your map with a corresponding number on your Visitation Record.

It provides at an instant the progress of your work in the field.

The map permits the census office to check for completeness of coverage.

19. Pre-enumeration procedure

While the aim of the census is to determine the number and characteristics of persons to be found in each locality of the country on Census Day, that is, the 15th May 2000, this cannot be accomplished satisfactorily in one day. In fact, enumeration is a process planned to last approximately four (4) weeks

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On Monday 17th April or earlier your supervisor will take you to your enumeration district and show you its boundaries.

When you have become familiar with your district and with the route to be taken when enumerating, you are in a position to commence the preliminary enumeration. This involves visiting every building in your district and recording the names and particulars of persons expected to be spending Census Night at that building.

Preliminary enumeration must be completed by Monday 81h May. As each batch of questionnaires is completed, it must be thoroughly checked and handed over to your supervisor. On or before Census Day, your supervisor will return the questionnaires to you. It is then your duty to begin the final check of the position of your district on the day after Census Day that is, Tuesday 16th May, 2000.

20. Know your enumeration district

The boundaries have been clearly marked on your enumeration district map and the starting point indicated.

If a street, road, river, canal, alley, road junction or any other feature forms one of its boundaries, be sure you know which side of it is in your enumeration district. You will cause a great deal of trouble and double counting of the population if you enumerate households belonging to another enumerator's enumeration district.

On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook nor forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you. Every household in your area, no matter how remote, must be enumerated to ensure that the census is complete in its coverage.

If a householder tells you that an enumerator has already collected information from him, make certain that the enumerator is engaged in the Population and Housing Census and not in any other survey. Since there may be other surveys in the field at the same time conducted by other government agencies, you should not accept his word lightly.

If the household has in fact been previously enumerated by another census enumerator and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other enumerator is working in your area by mistake and there will be double counting of the population.

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21. Ensure that all households are located

Your supervisor will check the direction to be followed with you and if necessary introduce some amendment. It is especially important in covering rural districts to ensure that all sections of your enumeration district, especially those which appear to be uninhabited, are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or difficult to reach.

You must number each building on your map in serial order beginning at 001. Those numbers must correspond with the building numbers entered in the visitation record.

22. Enumerate every household

Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area and record particulars of all persons living in them

Inquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there.

Do not over-look the possibility of caretaker's quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures, even temporary shacks and mobile houses which may be located away from main roads. In rural areas, especially, the evidence of tracks may lead to a dwelling. The Census must account for everyone.

Within your enumeration district there may be hotels, boarding houses, nursing homes, hospitals, police stations, fire stations, and other types of institutions. Detailed instructions on the treatment of institutions, some of which will require special methods of enumeration, will be given to you by your supervisor. Your responsibility, nonetheless, is to record the existence of these Institutions on your visitation record.

However, in general, persons living in group A type Institutions will be required to complete the household questionnaire, whilst those in group B should complete the Institution questionnaire.

23. Refusals

From time to time respondents may refuse to cooperate. In order to produce the most accurate results, complete information is required. Therefore these households should not be ignored; rather all refusals should be immediately referred to your supervisor for further action.

You should ensure that no one refuses because of misunderstandings about the purpose of the Census or the manner in which the information will be utilized.

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24. No contacts

It may not always be possible to make contact on your first attempt. If you are unable to do so, make a note of the date and time and go back and try again, preferably at a different time of day. Seek any help from neighbours or some other reliable source. They might tell you when is the best time to call to find someone at home. They might be able to give you information, which will enable you to determine the number of persons who live there. If you cannot get any information on your second visit, then you should at least make one more visit. If you still do not make contact, report this to your supervisor. However, some attempt should be made to determine how many persons live there. Remember, to leave an appointment card.

In other words, households should not be treated as ''no contacts" until you have definitely established that no one in the household will be there until after May 15th.

25. The day after Census Day activity

On Tuesday 16th May you will revisit each building and ascertain if there are any changes or whether you have omitted any households.

(a) Additions to the household e.g. births or visitors from abroad who were not taken up during preliminary enumeration will necessitate that additional information be captured on the questionnaire for any new member of the household.

(b) Departures from the household will necessitate an indication at the appropriate person and line number of the questionnaire, or a cancellation of the information on a person in the case of death, while noting in the remarks Section of the questionnaire that the person has died.

(c) These instructions also hold for persons who have changed their usual residence between the period of preliminary enumeration and the Census Day check.

You will be working under the supervision and direction of your supervisor who will:

(1) Assist in your training

(2) Give you your assignment

(3) Supply you with your enumeration materials (kit)

(4) Locate your enumeration district and direct you (using your ED map) to locate the buildings and also to assist you in solving any difficulties you may encounter in the field

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(5) Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve i.e. your supervisor has been asked to revisit some of the households to ascertain whether you have followed the instructions and if any questions were omitted. Ensure that you understand and follow the instructions in this book and those given at training sessions

(6) Ensure that your assignment is completed within the specified time

(7) Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment only for work of an acceptable quality

(8) Be the link between you and the technical area supervisor

You must at all times keep in close contact with your supervisor, letting him know where you may be found, meeting him at such times and places as he may direct, and following carefully the instructions given to you. All appointments with your supervisor must be kept.

Part III - Basic concepts and definitions

Introduction

It is important to reiterate certain key concepts that are outlined in the concepts and definitions for emphasis. It is important for you to have a thorough understanding of the specified concepts since this will determine your understanding of the questions being asked in the questionnaire.

Concepts and definitions not supplied here or in your concepts and definitions manual must be referred to your supervisor.

Non-private dwellings/group dwellings/institutions

An institution is defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons.

These institutions have been divided into two major groups:

Group A: includes institutions such as hotels and large boarding houses which cater for six (6) or more paying guests, hostels, military barracks etc., the inhabitants of which, like the general non-institutional population, may engage in normal economic activity. Youth Development and Apprenticeship Centres (Youth Camp) and juvenile correctional institutions are also included under Group A.
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Group B: includes hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, geriatric homes and such institutions where inmates, during the period that they are in the institution, will in general not take part in any normal economic activity. The Institutional questionnaire should be completed for these persons.

Inmates in institutions categorized in group B are included in the Census for Economic Activity if as at Census Day; they would have been inmates in the institutions for less than six months. This information is to be collected from the household in which they normally reside.

Building

The building is the most important unit of enumeration since it must be accounted for on the enumeration district map and recorded in the visitation record. It is the major means of checking progress in the field and the coverage of the census.

A building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent of any other, comprising one or more rooms, or other spaces, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof and is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes, or for the provision of services. For example, a building may be a factory, shop, detached dwelling, apartment, warehouse, repair shop etc.

Detached rooms relating to the main building are treated as part of the main building, for example, detached kitchens, toilets, domestic employees' quarters etc.

Closed building

A closed building is one that is in use or occupied but during the enumeration period the tenants are temporarily away, that is, away for less than six (6) months.

Vacant building

A vacant building is one, which at the time of enumeration is not being used for any purpose. It will also include closed buildings for six (6) months or more. However, it will be necessary to check again on the day after Census Day in order to determine whether it was still vacant on Census Night.

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Dwelling unit

A dwelling unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons (private household) are living at the time of the census enumeration. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness" and "independence".

An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or some form of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons, can isolate hirnsell7themselves from other persons for purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals etc.

It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery, when occupants can come in and go out without passing through anyone else's living quarters.

Examples of dwelling units are:

Separate houses

Flats/apartments

Townhouses

Barracks

Part of commercial buildings

Group dwelling (institution, hotel, Youth Development and Apprenticeship Centre (Youth Camp) and boarding house).

The key concept for a dwelling unit is separateness and independence. Occupants of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance without passing through another household's living quarters. See appendix 11

Closed Dwelling Unit

A closed dwelling unit is one, which is occupied, but during the enumeration period the occupants are temporarily away, that is, away for less than six (6) months.

If the dwelling unit is temporarily unoccupied, information is obtained from neighbours to the effect that all the occupants are temporarily away, e.g. on holiday. You must get the surname of the persons who usually live in the house, and find out if possible, how many persons live there.

Tactfully, if at all possible, obtain information of the place of employment of the head or any member of the household in order to follow up the household.

Remember to check on the day after Census Day to ensure that the dwelling unit was still closed on Census Day.

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Private dwelling

Private dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, and part of commercial buildings and boarding houses catering for less than six (6) persons.

Household

A private household is defined as one or more persons living together and sharing at least one of the main daily meals. Traditionally, a household will usually comprise a father, mother and children living together.

It is important to note, however, a member of the household is not necessarily a relative of the main family. For example, a boarder or a domestic employee who sleeps in most nights of the week and shares at least one of the daily meals is also included as a member of the household.

The concept of the household and filmily is not the same. It is possible to encounter more than one filmily constituting a single household once they share common living arrangements. Certain other living arrangements will be met in the field and further guidance can be obtained by following certain rules.

These rules are as follows:

Even if a person has recently moved in with a group of persons as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them, that person is to be considered a member of the household.

A boarding house which caters for less than six (6) boarders/lodgers is to be classified as a private household.

If a building is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or sub-tenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.

If within the institution (non-private dwelling) there are separate quarters for all or any members of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such quarters form separate dwelling units occupied by private households.

A domestic employee including her filmily, if any, who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. However, if the domestic employee maintains separate living and eating arrangements on the premises, she will constitute an independent household.

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A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household, during most nights of a week, is to be considered a member of that household.

A person who rents a room from his landlady and does not share any meals with her, constitutes a separate household that is a single-person household.

A person who usually sleeps most nights away from his family is to be enumerated at the place where he sleeps most nights. He may be a boarder or lodger in a household, or constitute a separate household. However, a person who because of the nature of his job i.e. watchman, shift worker etc., spends most nights away from his home must be enumerated at the same place as the other members of his household, that is at his place of usual residence.

A visitor or guest intending to spend Census Night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.

A domestic employee who does not sleep on his/her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where she works.

It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household. The concepts of "sharing at least one daily meal" and "sharing common living arrangements" are used as indicators for identifying household membership.

Head of household

For census purposes every household must have a head. The head of the household is the person, male or female, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household. In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household. Usually he/she is the chief breadwinner. In any event, the person recognized by the respondent as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling unit on an equal basis, that member of the group who the others acknowledge as such is taken as the head.

A person in charge of a guesthouse or similar establishment that caters for less than six (6) guests is considered the head of that household.

On the questionnaire, the head of the household is the reference person to whom the relationships of the other household members are designated.

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Part IV - How to complete the visitation record

As the name implies, the visitation record is designed to monitor your field visits during preliminary enumeration. The visitation record is also used primarily to construct a register (frame) of all households, business places and institutions in Trinidad and Tobago. This register is used extensively to assist in the planning and conduct of household, business and agricultural Surveys during the inter-censal years. It is therefore vital for this document to be completed accurately.

On the cover page of your visitation record, you are required to fill out the region, locality and enumeration district number as well as the name and address of your supervisor and your own name and address before the start of enumeration. The rest of the information on the cover page is to be filled out on completion of enumeration. For example, the buildings number, dwelling units number, households number, population, of which male and female etc. must be entered.

The visitation record consists of twenty (20) columns, each of which is intended to serve a specific purpose.

Column 1 - Date of first visit

You are to enter here the date you first visited each building, household or business place during enumeration.

Column 2 - Date enumeration completed

Enter in this column the date on which enumeration of the entire household or business place was completed.

Column 3 - Building number

The purpose of this column is to provide a precise count of the number of buildings contained in each enumeration district.

Each building must be given a number in serial order as you locate them starting from 001, 002, 003, etc. Please adhere strictly to the route indicated on your sketch-map. Where you encounter a building and cannot obtain the required information give the building a building number in the Visitation Record and E.D. map and continue listing the next building. Do not leave out buildings.

It must be emphasized that the building number recorded on your sketch-map must agree with the number in the visitation record. The last recorded building number will indicate the number of buildings in the E.D.

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Remember that a building may contain several dwelling units (i.e. living quarters which are structurally separate and independent places of abode). In such cases, repeat the building number for every dwelling unit recorded in the Visitation Record, and sub-divide the symbol representing a building to show that the building contains more than one dwelling unit on the E.D. Map.

It is to be noted that for car-park lots with structures from which business is transacted i.e. the issuing of tickets and collection of parking fees must be assigned a building number, a business unit number and a remark recorded to this effect in the appropriate column.

Column 4 - Dwelling unit number

The approach to be adopted, regarding the numbering of the dwelling units, must be identical with the approach used in column 3. That is, you are required to number the dwelling units in serial order starting from 001. It is important to remember that it is possible to have more than one dwelling unit in a single building.

Additionally, there may be more than one household in a single dwelling unit. Repeat the identical dwelling unit number in cases where there are two or more households, within a dwelling unit. Using this procedure, it will be possible to associate each household, or more than one household where this occurs, to a single dwelling unit. The last number appearing in this column will represent the total number of dwelling units in your enumeration district.

Column 5 - Household number

Following an identical procedure to the two previous columns, the numbering of households must be in serial order starting from 001, 002, etc., and remembering that there can be more than one household in a dwelling unit. The last number appearing in this column, will represent the total number of households in your enumeration district.

Column 6 - Institutional number

The numbering of the institutions must also start from 001, 002, 003 etc. You must make every effort to adhere strictly to the instructions that will be given and to follow the prescribed route indicated on your sketch-map, so that the buildings, dwelling units, households, business places within your enumeration district will be numbered in the correct order or sequence. Always check back on the last number used to avoid repeating numbers.

Column 7 - Result code

You are required to enter the result code that appears on the front of the questionnaire in this column for every household.

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Column 8 - Surname and name of head of household / name of establishment / name of institution

You are required in the case of a household to write in block letters the name of the head of the household in this column, putting the surname first and the Christian name or other names after. With respect to a business place you must write both the name of the proprietor and the name of the establishment, e.g. "George John" - "Apollo Cafe" and a clear description of the type of business activity being carried on must be written in the remarks column.

In the case of an institution, write in the full name of the institution, e.g., "St. Clair Medical Centre."

Column 9 - Full address

You are required to record in this column the full address in as much detail as possible. In urban and semi-urban areas where the houses are numbered, you must record the name of the road or street, the number of the house and the town, village or locality.

In rural and remote areas, houses or buildings are more widely spaced and are not numbered. Where addresses are vague, the name of the road, trace or track (if named), milepost, electricity pole (lamp post) or other permanent landmarks can be used.

Note that the electricity poles carry a unique number and is also likely to carry the electoral polling division number. You must use these aids to facilitate the census office checks on the accuracy of your coverage.

The importance of the full address cannot be over-emphasized when one considers that the information recorded in Columns 8 and 9 will be used as the basis for identifying households or business places for the conduct of subsequent sample surveys during the intercensal years.

Column 10 - Total number of persons - Both sexes

You are required to record in this column the total number of persons, including members of the household who are temporarily away, in hospital or some other institution during preliminary enumeration, but are likely to return on or before Census Night. Babies and visitors from within the country or abroad who intend to spend Census Night in the household should be included. Record five (5) persons as 5. If blank put a dash (-).

Column 11 - Number of persons - Male

Enter the number of male members of the household, including male visitors and persons temporarily away or in institutions, but who are likely to return on or before Census Night.
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In brief, you will wish to record all male persons, visitors included, who are likely to be members of the household on Census Night, i.e. midnight of15th May, 2000.

Persons who are currently inmates of institutions, such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, etc. are recorded as members of the household if by Census Night, they would have been inmates for less than six months. Record three (3) persons as 3. If blank put a dash (-).

Column 12 - Number of persons - Female

The number of female members must be recorded in this column. In every instance, once this column is completed correctly, the addition of Columns 11 and 12 must equal the total shown in Column 10.

Note that female inmates of institutions are to be treated similarly to the male members. Any inmate of less than six months should be recorded as a member of the household. Record two (2) persons as 2. If blank put a dash(-).

Column 13 - Business unit number

Business places (i.e. any building, part of a building or area associated with a building in which economic activity is carried out, e.g. dry goods store, tailor shop, etc.) must be numbered serially starting from 001. The last number appearing in this column should represent the total number of business places within the enumeration district.

Column 14 - Type of business activity

You are required to enter any information on business activity. Be as specific as possible in your description.

This information is necessary in order to enable the Census Office to classify firms by type of economic activity. For example, manufactures of soft drinks, sewing of children clothes, sale of shoes, a drug store or hardware. Each of these activity can be classified into a specific sub-industry.

Column 15 - For office use only

This column is for office use only. It will be used by the census office to enter industry codes.

Column 16 - Number of paid employees

The total number of paid employees, that is, persons entered on the pay-sheets of the business place during the last pay period i.e. weekly, fortnightly, monthly, etc. must be recorded in this column.

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Column 17 - Size of acreage one eight acre and over

The head of the household must be asked "do you or any other member of this household operate land for agricultural purposes?" If the response is yes, record the total land area operated for agricultural purposes in this column, regardless of tenure and location. The total land area should include all agricultural lands operated by members within the household despite the fact that there may be more than one holder resident in this household. The minimum area of land to be included should be one eight (1/8) of an acre or one lot. In this latter case the land should be under agricultural cultivation for commercial purposes.

A holder may operate more than one parcel of land and usually:

Owns land for agricultural purposes.

Rents land for agricultural purposes.

Squats on land and operates it for agricultural purposes.

Operates agricultural land, which is not owned by him, the proceeds of which he may or may not share with the owner.

May be an individual, company, a commune, a trustee or some other organized entity.

A person who operates land for non-agricultural purposes must be excluded from this classification.

Column 18 - Principal crop

Every respondent must be asked "do you or any other member of this household cultivate crops?"

Code the principal crops as identified by the respondent up to a maximum of four (4) crops. See crop codes, which have been placed, at the bottom of every page for your convenience.

Column 19 - Type and number of livestock kept

Every respondent must be asked "do you or any other member of this household rear livestock?"

If the respondent rears more than one type of livestock, you are to record in coded format, up to a maximum of four (4) types, as reared by the holder including the number for each recorded type. See livestock codes which have been placed at the bottom of every page for your convenience.

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Racehorses and dogs are to be excluded from the Livestock classification.

Column 20 - Remarks

This column must be used for recording any information which may prove helpful e.g. call-backs, dates and times of appointment, problems in certain households to be discussed with your supervisor. If space provided is insufficient, use the pages at the back and be sure to enter the building, dwelling and household numbers along with the line and page numbers.

At the back of the visitation record, space is also provided for you to record any additional information about any building, household or business place you may visit. Use the building number, the business unit number, the name of the occupant and the household number along with the line and page number to identify a particular household or business.

Part V - The census questionnaire

The nature of the census questionnaire

1. Introduction

The census questionnaire that you are using was tested on many occasions and found most suitable to facilitate rapid collection of data with minimum inconvenience to the respondent.

2. Structure

The census questionnaire contains sixty-four (64) questions divided into fifteen (15) sections. The name of each section is written in bold type at the top of the page. Sections (13) crime, (14) housing and (15) international migration are to be asked of heads of households. If the head of the household is unavailable an adult member of the household should respond. In the latter case write in the name of the respondent. You must also complete, for the crime section, the identification at the top of the section by referring to your visitation record.

3. Handling of questionnaire

The census document will be punched by computer staff. It is essential that you record only one response per question except in certain instances where special instructions have been given, e.g. skip instructions and in multiple response questions. It is of utmost importance that the questionnaires are handled with great care.

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The questionnaires must not be defaced.

Suffer undue erasures (although clean and light erasures are permissible).

There must be no creasing or bending.

The forms must always be clean. No unnecessary ink or other marks must appear.

The questionnaire must be completed in a legible fashion.

Keep sufficient questionnaires for the day's enumeration in the bag given to you. At the end of the day store those completed in a safe place in your home with due "care for confidentiality".

4. How to make entries in the questionnaire

To produce a good questionnaire, you will have to take great care to make entries only in the way you are instructed. If the question is pre-coded, place a tick within the box, which indicates the response given.

Your tick should be clear and unambiguous. Careless ticks will present difficulties of interpretation to the data entry staff who will be left puzzled as to what entry should be made. Whenever you have to write in the answer, be legible and do not allow your writing to extend into the boxes which have been reserved for numeric data capture only. Abbreviations are not accepted, since from experience they are found very difficult and sometimes impossible to decipher.

Part VI - How to complete the census questionnaire

Introduction

It is important to note that in many of the items of information being collected during a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent. In some cases a deliberate attempt to mislead may be perceived. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude. Wherever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answers being intentionally given it is the duty of the enumerator to inform his Supervisor and document this fact on the questionnaire. Do not chance to your memory.

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On the other hand, it is possible that incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely unsure of answers to questions. This situation has to be appreciated especially in those questions dealing with employment, occupation, and income of other members of the household. Here, however, the chances are that an appointment may be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult the appropriate member(s) of the household and thus secure reliable information.

Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events.

Investigations have shown that in many cases the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have therefore the possibility of total omission of the event as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward on the time scale.

This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations. It is especially important in questions dealing with migration and information on fertility and union status. It is for this reason that the enumerator is strongly advised to note that linking up answers to associated questions are intended to aid the respondent to recall accurately, information about long past events.

The order of enumeration

Step one (1) the visitation record

Locate all buildings in your assigned enumeration district. Inquire whether anyone lives in the building.

Establish the presence of households occupying the building. In most residential areas, the building is readily visible as a house, apartment, flat or some similar private residence. Having identified a household, begin completing the Visitation Record as prescribed in your instruction.

The numbering of buildings, dwelling units and households must be done serially as explained in the visitation record. The inside cover of the visitation record also repeats detailed instructions already given in this manual on how this record should be completed. Your first task is to follow these instructions and make the necessary entries in the Visitation Record.

When you have finished making all the necessary entries in the Visitation Record for a given household, you should immediately begin to enumerate the household by completing the Questionnaire. Do not go to step two (2) before step one (1) is satisfactorily completed.

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Step two (2) the questionnaire

In enumerating a household, transcribe from the visitation record onto the cover page of the questionnaire the building number, dwelling unit number, the household number and address of household. Where the dwelling unit is closed or vacant, the cover page of the questionnaire should still be completed as far as possible.

In addition, insert the name of the respondent, the telephone number (if any) and the address of the household. The rest of the cover page, "result code" is to be completed at the end of the interview.

Section 1 - Characteristics

Question 1 - Names of residents

You are to write in the names of all persons who are members of the household at the time of enumeration, regardless of the fact that their usual residence may be elsewhere. Persons are enumerated on the basis of "where found" at the time of enumeration.

A household will usually consist of one person or group of persons living together and sharing at least one daily meal.

Write in block letters the Surname then other names of the head of the household, followed by persons related to the head beginning with his/her spouse, their unmarried children, married children, spouse/partner of children and their grandchildren (if any), other relatives and any other persons in the household. The head of the household is recorded at 01.

In the case of a baby who has not yet been named, enter the appropriate surname of the parents.

When it is necessary to use more than one questionnaire change the person's number on
all pages of the second questionnaire e.g. 01 to 07, 02 to 08, 03 to 09 and 01 to13, 02 to
14, 03 to 15 on the third questionnaire.

Head of household

In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household. Usually it is the person who is the chief breadwinner or the one who makes major decisions for that household. In any event the person recognized by the members of the household as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.

For the interviewer: It is to be noted that the head may be of either sex. Avoid any sex bias when recording head of household.

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In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling unit on an equal basis, the head is whom the others acknowledge as such.

A person who manages a guesthouse or similar establishment that caters for less than six guests is considered the head of that household.

Household membership

You are to include as members of the household, inmates of clinics, hospitals, prisons, etc. who would have been inmates for less than six months as at Census Day.

Since this information may be embarrassing or may not be considered, it is important to probe tactfully to ensure that you capture all members of the household.

Question 2 - Relationship to head of household

Nine types of relationships are specified here. These are:-

1. Head
2. Spouse/partner of head
3. Child of head/spouse
4. Spouse/partner of child
5. Grandchild of head/spouse
6. Other relative of head/spouse
7. Domestic employee
8. Other non-relative
9. Not stated

If the individual is the head of the household, then tick the box "head".

Question 3 - Sex

Tick the appropriate box for each person in the household, male or female as given by the respondent.

Note: Do not try to determine the sex of the person according to the name. Ask the question.

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Question 4 - Date of birth/age

You are required to write in the date of birth i.e. the day, month and year of birth for each person in the household. If the date of birth cannot be given, it is necessary to have, at least, a current estimate of the age of the person in completed years since the last birthday. If a person is six years old, the entry is written _ _ 6 all ages must be right justified. If a person is 10, the entry is written _ 10.

During the preliminary enumeration it must be ascertained by you whether any member of the household has a birthday between the day you are enumerating the household and Census Day.

You will find it necessary to circle the "person number" e.g. 01, of all persons who will be aged fifteen years between the start of enumeration on 17th April, 2000 and Census Day, 15th May, 2000; i.e. date of birth between the 17th April and 15'h May 1985. Females born between the 17th April and 15th May, 1986 should be also identified.

Such identification will assist you with:

Section 4 - Economic activity
Section 5 - Highest level of training
Section 8 - Income (apply to all persons fifteen years old and over)
Section 7 - Fertility (apply to all females fourteen years old and over)

Every effort should be made to obtain the date of birth. There may be instances, especially in the case of senior citizens, where respondents do not remember their correct ages.

Perhaps reference to some major events, such as World Wars I and II, 1914-1918 and 1939-1945, respectively, fires, floods, or hurricanes, may be helpful. By referring to such events and by considering other information available about the individual make every effort to estimate his/her age.

Do not leave this question blank. Obtain some estimate from the respondent.

Where age is estimated put an "e" after the age. For example, 75e

Question 5 - Ethnic group

Since you will be interviewing in general one member of any household, the ethnic group ticked must be the ethnic group to which the respondent says he and other members of the household belong.

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It is reasonable to classify all children of parents belonging to different ethnic groups as Mixed. For example, if a man of African descent is married or living common law with an East Indian woman, their children should be classified as mixed.

However, do not presume that all members of a household belong to the same ethnic group. Ensure that you ask the respondent about each household member separately.

Accept the respondent's classification. If you think you are being misled make a note in an appropriate part of the questionnaire and inform your supervisor.

Question 6 - Religion

Write in the appropriate code, which indicates the religion to which the respondent belongs. If the individual does not belong to one of the denominations/sects listed, write in the name of the denomination/sect given in the "other" category. Use the space also to write in "Atheist" for individuals who so respond.

For Baptists, Muslims and Hindus, write in the particular Association/Sect to which the person belongs together with the name of the religion e.g. Muslim - TML; Hindu - Arian; Baptist - Spiritual etc.

Section 2 - Migration

The main objective of this section is to determine the relative directions in which the local born population have tended to move over periods of one, five, and ten years. Migration is even more important when cross classified with age, sex, ethnic groups, levels or educational attainment and level of training.

Internal migration also provides vital information on the direction of the flow of the population from rural to urban areas. It also allows the determination of migration streams and volume of movement over time. Migration is also a major factor in population change and in the redistribution of population among geographic areas.

Question 7(a) - Place of Birth

The place of birth is the country in which the person was born.

This is a screening question used to determine those individuals who are local born as opposed to foreign-born.

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The responses given are:

1. Trinidad and Tobago
2. Foreign/abroad
9. Not stated

If the person's place of birth is Trinidad and Tobago go to the next question 7 (b).

However, if the person's place of birth was Foreign/Abroad, skip to question 7(c). Also complete question 7(d).

If the response given is not stated, skip to question 8(a).

Question 7 (b) - Address of mother (Trinidad and Tobago born only)

The information collected here must indicate the full address of the mother at the time of the birth of the individual. If the address of the mother is unknown, write don't know on the Jines provided for the address of the mother.

For persons born in Trinidad and Tobago, be sure to write out the full address of the usual place of residence of the person's mother at the time of the birth of the person in the space provided.

Do not enter hospitals, nursing homes or any place other than the residence of the mother as place of birth.

Question 7(c) - Country of birth - For foreign born only

For persons stating "foreign/abroad" in question 7(a), you are required to write in the individual's country of birth, for those cases where the country is not pre-coded. Otherwise write the appropriate code in the box.

Question 7(d) - Length of stay in Trinidad and Tobago - Foreign born only

For persons indicating "foreign/abroad" in Question 7(a), please obtain from the respondent the number of years living in Trinidad and Tobago and enter it in the space provided. Length of stay must be recorded in completed years. Less than one year is recorded as _0. If length of stay is nine (9) years, the entry is written _9. Right justify all entries. If length of stay is fifteen years, the entry is written as 15.

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Question 8(a) - Usual residence - All persons (both local and foreign born)

The response positions for this question are laid out in four categories:

1. This address
2. Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago
3. Abroad
4. Not stated

Please note the skip instructions.

If the response is 1 - This address, skip to question 9. Do not make an entry in question 8 (b).

If the response is 2 - Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago, go to question 8(b)

If 3 - Abroad, skip to question 9.

Use the ''not stated" box to refer to persons who refuse to state their usual residence, before skipping to question 9.

Question 8(b) - Address of place of usual residence

Although most persons will have no difficulty in stating their place of usual residence, some confusion may arise in a number of special cases where persons may appear to have more than one (1) usual residence.

These cases include persons:

Who maintain two or more residences-;

Who sleep away from their homes during the working week but return home for a few days at the end of the week.

Students living at a school away from their parental home;

Members of the armed forces living at a military barracks but still maintaining private living quarters away from the installation.

To avoid such problems take the place where the individual sleeps most nights of the week as his/her usual residence.

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Questions 9 - Address one year ago and question 10 address 5 years ago

Where these questions do not apply i.e. in cases when the individuals are less than one (1) year old and less than five (5) years old respectively, put not applicable (N.A.) in the space for the address. Do not make any entries. If it is a foreign address, just note the name of the country.

Question 11 - Address last census

The last census was held in May 1990. There may be some persons who may not remember the date. You can assist them by telling them that the last Census was taken ten years ago or in May 1990. For those persons who are less than ten years old, write Not Applicable (N.A.) in the space for the address.

Section 3 - Disability

The main objective of this section is to obtain information on the prevalence of certain types of disabilities among the population. This information can be utilized for monitoring and evaluating national programmes and services concerning the equalization of opportunity, rehabilitation and the prevention of disabilities.

Further, the information would assist in identifying the special needs of persons with disabilities, such as access to buildings, educational reform, training enhancement and employment opportunities.

Question 12 - Longstanding disability

Disability is defined as any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered to be normal for a human being.

For the purpose of the census, a disability is only a disability if it has a long lasting continuing consequence, that is, it is a disability provided it has lasted for at least six months or is expected to last for more than six months. Temporary conditions such as broken legs and other illnesses even though they may have restricted one's activities are not to be included.

This question is to be asked about every member of the family, regardless of age or current activity status.

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The response positions for this question are:

1. Yes
2. No
3. Not stated

If the response is 1 go to question 13.

If 2 or 9 skip to question 14.

Question 13 - Type of disability

Multiple responses can be ticked.

01. Seeing (even with glasses if worn)
02. Hearing (even with hearing aids if used)
03. Speaking (talking)
04. Moving/mobility (climbing stairs, walking, standing)
05. Body movements (reaching, crouching, kneeling)
06. Gripping (using fingers to grip or handle objects)
07. Learning (intellectual difficulties, retardation)
08. Behavioral (psychological, emotional problem)
77. Other (bathing, dressing, eating etc.)

If the other category is ticked, please specify

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Section 4 - Health

The main objective of this section is to obtain information on the type of chronic illnesses affecting the population, the type of medical facilities frequented and whether or not individuals are covered by some form of health insurance. Data from this section will assist in the further study of the health sector of Trinidad and Tobago.

Question 14 - Chronic illness

You are required to tick the appropriate box for the chronic illness or chronic illnesses affecting the respondents. A chronic illness is defined as a prolonged or long continued illness for which no cure exists. However, treatment can be used to control the symptoms of the illness. Multiple responses may be ticked for each member of the household.

The chronic illnesses identified are as follows:

01. Arthritis
02. Asthma
03. Diabetes
04. Hypertension
05. Heart disease
06. Kidney disease
07. Cancer
08. HIV/AIDS
09. Lupus
10. Sickle-cell anemia

There is also an "other" category, please specify.

It is important to note that these broad definitions are used for the sole purpose of clarifying concepts for you. Do not attempt to diagnose. Use the responses given by respondents, which they would have obtained from a medical doctor.

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Question 15 - Utilization of medical facility

This is a screening question for question 16. Responses are captured in three categories:

1. Yes
2. No
9. Not stated

If no or not stated, skip to question 17

It is important to probe since pharmacy is included as a type of medical facility utilized in question 16.

Question 16 - Type of medical facility

The main medical facility utilized in the past month is as follows:

1. Public hospital
2. Public health centre
3. Public maternity unit
4. Private clinic/hospital
5. Private doctor's office
6. Pharmacy
7. Other
9. Not stated

A single response is entered for the main facility utilized in the past month.

Question 17 - Health insurance

There are four categories to capture whether or not the individual is covered by a medical plan or not. You must probe individuals if a response of "don't know" was given.

Note: A medical plan is different from a life insurance, although most medical plan does include a life insurance component.
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A medical plan involves monthly contributions whereby an individual or entire family may be covered under one policy; for example, a father may have taken out a family medical plan with the Police Service Credit Union for the entire family. Claims can be made in terms of doctors' bills, x-rays , dental bills, spectacles and so on.

The categories are as follows:

1. Yes
2. No
3. Don't know
9. Not stated

Please tick the appropriate response.

Section 5 - Education

This section seeks to collect information on the persons attending schools and other educational institutions as well as their levels of educational attainment. It will also provide information on members of the population who have not attended school. For those attending school, the level of school completed is asked in the census.

The data on educational characteristics are useful in analysis relating education, to changes in occupation, the labour force, and fertility, as well as in the study of educational development.

These questions are to be answered for every individual. Whereas it is pointless to put all of these questions in respect of infants and very young children, a response position must still be ticked in question 18(a) for every individual. Please note skip instructions in questions 18(a) and 2l(a).

Question 18 - Attendance at school/university

In part (a) indicate whether the person is attending school or university. If the answer is yes, state in part (b) whether it is full-time or part-time. All attendance at adult/continuing classes must be recorded as attending school part - time.

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Question 19(a) - Type of school currently attending

01. Nursery school / kindergarten / preschool
10. Private primary
11. Government and assisted primary
12. Post-primary centre
20. Junior secondary
21. Senior comprehensive
22. Government and assisted secondary
23. Composite
24. Private secondary
30. Trade / vocational / youth development and apprenticeship centre
32. Commercial / secretarial
33. Business / computer science
40. Technical institute
41. Adult continuing classes
42. Distance learning
60. University
77. Other
99. Not stated

Tick the relevant box, which indicate the type of school being attended. Note that Schools for the Blind and the Deaf are included under special school. Adult classes will include classes sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Young Women's Christian Association, Ministry of Community Development, etc.

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Question 19 (b) - Address of school

The address of the school given in 19(a) must be recorded. Every effort must be made to collect information on the street, community and the region in order to collect precise information of the location of the school. If attending a foreign university just state country where school is located.

Question 20 - Usual mode of transportation to and from school.

This question relates to the type of transport used most often by the respondent for travel to and from school.

Public

0. Bus
1. Taxi
2. Maxi taxi

Private

3. Private car or vehicle
4. PH taxi
5. Bicycle
6. Walk
7. Other
8. Not applicable
9. Not stated

Question 2l(a) - Highest level of non-vocational educational attainment

This question relates to the highest standard of non-vocational education attained by the respondent, (excluding vocational training which is taken up in Section 7, Highest Level of Training) and must be obtained for all respondents, those still at school, as well as those who have had some form of education whether completed or on-going.

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In the case where the person was educated abroad, try to obtain the equivalent in the school system of Trinidad and Tobago and complete the answer.

For those replying not yet attending school tick, box 8 not applicable

Note the skip instructions of boxes 1, 8 and 9.

For highest level of non-vocational educational attainment where it is not clear what classification is to be applied, a remark must be recorded.

Question 2l(b) - Years of schooling at highest level

Tick a check mark in the appropriate box which indicates the number of completed years schooling the individual had at the highest level indicated at question 2l(a).

Question 21(c) - Highest examination ever passed

The types of examination referred to here are public examinations administered under the aegis of the government as distinct from examinations organized within particular schools. Examinations such as common entrance (C.E.) and fourteen plus (14+) are to be excluded.

Since it is possible that the individual may have passed more than one of the examinations specified, ensure that you ascertain which examination the individual considers as the highest he/she has passed and tick a check mark in the appropriate box.

Section 6 - Economic activity

The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals have been engaged in economic activity, that is, the production of goods and services during the week preceding enumeration and at any time during the past 12 months and those who were not so engaged. It is essential that the enumerator understands the concept of the term work as given in question (22) and makes use of it in his interviews.

Question 22 - Economic activity during the past week

This question aims at classifying persons according to their economic activity during the week preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked, those who sought work and those who did not seek work. The possible responses and definitions are given hereunder.

[p.43]

10. Had a job, worked

An individual is classified as having worked if he/she was engaged in the production of goods and or services, whether the job was temporary or even less than a week. Priority is given to worked/with a job over any other activity. e.g. if during the week prior to enumeration, the individual worked for two days and looked for work for three days, he is to be classified as worked.

Priority is given to economic activity in the reference week of enumeration beginning with had a job /worked, had a job/did not work and seeking work over such activities as home duties.

It is worth repeating for emphasis that temporary employment during the past week, regardless of the nature of the job, for example, the Unemployment Relief Program (URP) employees, porters, car wash attendants, labourers, street venders, etc. must be recorded as having a job. Probe eligible respondents for evidence of temporary and ad hoc nature of employment.

However, care must be taken not to capture information on full-time students who perform odd jobs. Remember the purpose of the question is to distinguish between economically active persons from those who are not.

However, if for whatever reason, i.e. during the school vacation, a person who is normally a student is found working i.e. holding a job during the reference week preceding the enumeration, he/she is to be recorded as "had a job/worked".

Similarly, there will be cases of persons attending university or other type of educational institutions holding jobs and working part time. In these instances, economic activity/work is given priority over non-economic activity.

A housewife who foremost performs home duties, if engaged in economic activity during the week preceding enumeration, must be considered as "had a job/worked".

Usually working/with a job entails the person receiving a wage, salary or other form of compensation, but trainees and apprentices whether paid or not, as well as unpaid helpers and family workers on commercial farms and other enterprises are also to be listed as worked.

[p.44]

Examples of work are:

Persons working for pay

Paid employee - Refers to those persons working for others for a wage or salary, that is, in the employ of a firm, individual or government.

Own account worker / self-employed - This include persons who are engaged in the production of goods and/or services but who are working for themselves in their own business or farm, but which does not employ paid help.

Employer - An Employer refers to a person running a business or farm with paid help.

Persons working without pay

Unpaid worker / family helper - Persons working without pay in a business or farm usually belonging to a relative.

Learner / apprentice - Refers to persons learning a trade or profession with a view to engaging in work for pay.

Note: Persons in category (b) may or may not work for pay.

11. Had a Job, did not work
Anyone who during the week preceding the enumeration (reference week) had a job, according to the definition above, but who did not work at all during that week, should be considered as "had a job but did not work".

This is straightforward in the case of employees who are away from their jobs during the week under review, either on vacation, maternity leave, on sick leave or on short lay-off with pay but with instructions to return to work at a given date. Also included are persons engaging in industrial dispute.

[p.45]

In the case of employers, self-employed persons and odd job persons, there may be need, sometimes, to give more thought. For example, if one of these categories of persons (Own Account) did not work during the reference week for reasons of illness, or there was no more work to do or for any other reason, then he/she "Had a job but did not work".

20. Persons seeking first job

Persons seeking first job include those who never worked, but were actively seeking work during the past week. Note, however, you must ensure that the person does not hold a temporary or part-time job since "working" holds priority over "not working". Persons seeking first job is an important category since it assists in identifying new entrants into the labour force and thus those without past work experience.

21. Others actively seeking work

Include persons previously employed and not currently employed but actively seeking work during the past week.

30. Did not look for work

Include persons who did not work nor had a job and did not look for work past week.

It applies to: Persons who did not work nor had a job past week but may have looked for work previous to the reference week and still wanted work.

Persons who are not economically active such as full-time students, homemakers (housewives), retirees, old age pensioners and those who did not want work.

Question 23 - Reason for not seeking work past week

This question is applicable to persons who have ticked box 30 in question 22. The following responses should be ticked:

40. At school/student
41. Home duties
42. Retired
43. Disabled
44. Old age pensioner

[p.46]

45. Did not want work
46. Discouraged
47. Awaiting results of previous applications
48. Knew of no vacancy where there was suitable employment
49. Temporarily ill and therefore could not look for work
77. Other reasons

Note: Response 40 to 45 refers to the not economically active population, therefore for those ticking 40 to 45 skip to Question 30. However, those ticking 46 to 49 refer to groups of persons who are willing, able and available for work and are grouped together with persons who actually looked for work and those who worked or had a job during the reference week to make up the labour force, given that they had looked for work not more than three months ago.

Question 24 - Last looked for work

This question applies to persons who neither worked nor looked for work past week. Please tick appropriate box, which will indicate when the individual last looked for work. The categories vary from under 1 month to 1 year and over. Allowances are also made for those individuals who never worked. For persons ticking 6 or 9 skip to question 30.

Question 25 - Type of worker status

This question is to be answered by all persons in the labour force both employed and unemployed. This question is also to be answered by those individuals indicating boxes 46 to 99 in question 23 and having responses in boxes 1 to 5 in question 24. For these individuals classify by where last applied for a job.

It also distinguishes between persons who:

Worked for others as employees (e.g. public service and state enterprises; non-government workers; unpaid workers and learners); and

Those who had their own business or farm and employed others (paid or unpaid);

Obtain the correct information and tick the appropriate box.

[p.47]

You are to check your list of the names of state enterprises if in doubt, in order to assist respondents who work for government but are unsure whether, it is the public service or state owned enterprise.

Types of worker status are categorized as follows:

1. Worked for others

(a) Statutory boards and similar bodies

For Example:
The National Housing Authority,
The National Lotteries Control Board,
The Princess Elizabeth Home for Handicapped Children, The Airports Authority of Trinidad and Tobago,
The Port Authority of Trinidad and Tobago and
The Public Transport Service Corporation.

(b) State owned enterprises

For Example:
Caroni (1975) Ltd.,
National Petroleum Marketing Company, National Quarries Limited,
National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago Limited,
First Citizens Bank,
Trinidad and Tobago Solid Waste Management Company Limited and National Flour Mills.

(c) Central / local government

Central government workers will be found in the Ministries and departments of government.

Local government workers will be found in the City corporation, Borough Corporation and Regional Corporations.

[p.48]

(d) Private enterprise

These workers will be found in privately owned companies such as:
West Indian Tobacco Company,
Lever Bros. (WI) Ltd.,
Trinidad Match Factory and
Coosal's Construction Company Limited.

(e) Unpaid worker

These are persons who work without pay but whose labour contributes to the operation of the business or farm.

(f) Learner / apprentice

This is a person who goes to work regularly and is learning a job or trade. Persons in this category may or may not receive an income.
2. Own account worker
This is a person who operates his/her own (economic) enterprise or is engaged independently in a profession or trade and hires no employees or paid help. However, he may run the business with unpaid help.
3. Employer
An employer is a person who operates his/her own (economic) enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires one or more employees.

Question 26 (a) - Main kind of occupation / work

You are required to obtain the kind of work the person has done during the past week. Where the person has done more than one job during the reference period, the job which the individual says is the main job is taken. If the respondent is still unsure of the main job done in the past week the one at which most time is spent will be recorded.

Probe for a description of the main duties performed. Examples of kind of work done are "preparing pay sheets", "filing correspondence", "teaching in primary school", "selling life insurance", etc. Be as specific as possible.

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Question 26 (b) - Job title

This refers to the official name given by the employer or appearing in the union agreement to classify the actual work done and is used to determine the person's rate of pay or pay-scale.

The job title should be written in as much detail as possible and vague terms must be avoided. Descriptions such as agent, apprentice, attendant, clerk, proprietor and salesman are insufficient. They must be qualified.

The following are some inadequate and adequate examples of job entries:

[Job examples omitted]

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Classifying the unemployed in relation to occupation

For those unemployed who are "seeking their first job" and those ticking boxes 1 to 5 state the kind of job last applied for. For all other unemployed, record, after enquiry, the occupation or kind of work last performed.

Question 27 - Industry or type of business

The industry or type of business describes the nature of economic activity or the establishment in which the economically active person worked during the past week or if unemployed, last worked or applied for work. Obtain the name of the firm.

In the case of persons employed by the local or central government, write the office or department in which they worked or were employed, whilst for self-employed persons with no fixed place of work or no business name, write "self" for name of establishment.

For domestic employees or other personal service workers who worked as paid employees in private homes, write in the space reserved for industry - private horne.

The following are some examples of inadequate and adequate entries for type of business:

[Business examples omitted]

Classifying the unemployed by industry

For persons "seeking first job", and those ticking boxes 1 and 5 obtain the name of the firm and kind of business to which an application was sent or employment sought. In the case of all other unemployed obtain the information on industry for the last place of employment.

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Question 28 (a) - Address of place of work (main job)

Give the full address of the business / firm where (N) is working/ worked or looked for work.

Question 28(b) - Transport

Tick the box, which illustrates the mode of transport used most often to travel to and from work.

Question 29 - Hours worked

Here you should enter the number of hours that the individual actually worked, which should include the following:

Hours actually worked during normal periods of work.

Time worked in addition to hours worked during normal periods of work and paid at higher rates than normal rates (overtime).

Time spent at the place of work, on work such as the preparation of the work place, repair and maintenance, preparation and cleaning of tools, and the preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports.

Time spent at place of work waiting or standing by for such reasons as lack of supply of work, break down of machinery or accidents.

Time corresponding to short rest periods including tea and coffee breaks.

Hours actually worked should exclude:

Hours paid for but not worked such as paid annual leave, paid public holidays, paid sick leave.

Meal breaks.

Time spent on travel from home to work and vice versa.

Hours spent on welfare and union activities.

Any time spent on travel from the entrance of the establishment to the place of work.

Time necessary to wash and change clothes.
[p.52]

For persons who worked at more than one job, record the number of hours worked on all jobs.

Persons paid by time, in particular salaried employees, the number of hours should relate to the normal working hours for which they are paid. It should not include extra time worked for which no additional pay is received.

Question 30 - Main activity during the past 12 months

This question aims at classifying persons aged fifteen years and over according to their main activity, that is, what they did most during the twelve-month period preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked (i.e. were economically active) and those who did not work (those who were not economically active).

Categories of persons who were not economically active in this context include persons who had never worked but who were seeking their first job, people engaged in home duties, full time students and those retired or disabled. The term "did not want work" refers to those persons who were neither students, retired, pensioned or those involved in home duties, etc. but clearly, did not wish to engage in any economic activity. Discrete prompting should be used to elicit a reply.

It is to be noted that the term most, need not be continuous.

Section 7 - Highest level of training

Questions 31(a) to 35 Applies to all persons Fifteen (15) years old and over

This section applies to all persons, fifteen years old and over. The main purpose is to distinguish between persons who have received, attempted or are now receiving special training to fit them for employment, as opposed to those who have not received any training at all.

This information is used by the government and employers to evaluate whether there are enough people with adequate education, training and job skills in particular areas of the work force, with a view to developing training programmes to meet the changing needs of the work force.

Students in primary and secondary schools, youth development and apprenticeship centers, etc. pursuing specialized technical/craft courses as part of their general education should be probed to respond. You should probe especially for the government secondary schools where it is now a regular part of the students' education to obtain training in some craft or trade such as masonry, carpentry, motor mechanics, welding etc.

[p.53]

Note: "Training can be practical or theoretical under an instructor to acquire a skill or capability to perform a task to some specified standard."

Question 3l(a) - Training attainment

You are required to obtain from the respondent whether or not that person has completed, attempted or is now receiving any special training to fit him/her for employment.

If the response is yes, then go to question 31(b), otherwise skip to question 36.

It is important that you be alert to probe situations where a person is recorded as a Teacher II in question 26 but fails to recognize that his/her University Degree in Science or Arts is a form of training for purposes of this section. This is considered training despite the fact that the person may not have been trained with a Diploma in education. Similar situations may occur in fields such as economics, chemistry, physics, etc. You should be alert to link question 26 and probe.

Note: Some individuals may need clarification on training. For the Census, training is any form of learning how to perform a job, practical or theoretical, whether it is computer programming or laying of blocks as long as the method of instruction is organized and systematic. There must be some type of formal instruction. There is no time limit to the exposure of students to training. Training may consist of a number of stages in a sequence of instructions e.g. learning to lay bricks, plastering, etc. eventually leading up to full certification as a qualified mason when all the stages (modules) in the sequence have been completed.

What is meant is that training need not be total or comprehensive. A modular or step-by-step method is also being considered here.

Question 31(b) - Training status

Obtain from the respondent whether or not he/she has completed, is under-going or has attempted but did not complete any special training.

Question 32 - Field of highest level of training

If the respondent was trained or is now being trained in more than one field then you are required to obtain from him/her the field which the person considers the highest field of training that was received or is being received.

For example, some lawyers were trained also as economists. It is the respondent who will decide what he/she considers the highest field of training.
[p.54]

Note: The field (area) of training is defined for the 2000 Population and Housing Census as the broad subject matter area consisting of one or more courses or combination of courses sometimes commonly referred to as a program of studies either completed or being pursued by persons to fit them for employment in a specialized job/occupation or general professional, administrative, managerial, technical occupation.

Question 33 - Main educational method / type of institution of highest level of training

A tick in the pre-coded box should indicate the main method or source from which the training has been completed or is being received and must relate to the field of training recorded in question 32. It is very important to determine the main method in order to facilitate office coding of question 32. For persons answering self-study or self-taught "other" box 77 must be ticked, except in cases where they indicate that a correspondence course is being pursued. In such case, tick box 02 private study.

Method by which training was acquired

The method by which training was acquired can be classified in the following groups:

01. On-the-job training

This refers to training received while the person is in the service of the establishment or a tradesman. (On-the-job training could take various forms e.g. a short course offered at the place of employment to acquire a specific skill).

02. Private study

This refers to forms of training acquired either through the reading of books, such as teach yourself manuals or correspondence courses.

03. Secondary schools

This category refers to the government and assisted, as well as private secondary schools providing a broad base of general education for children over eleven years of age.

04. Vocational/trade schools

A vocational or trade school is one which offers courses in trades such as welding, pipeĀ­ fitting, carpentry, printing, book-binding, electrical wiring, etc. Educational institutions such as Servol, Youth Development and Apprenticeship Centers and the Trade Schools are included in this category. Also included are The Point Fortin Vocational Centre, The National Energy Skills Center (NESC) and the Metal Industries Company (MIC).

[p.55]

05. Commercial / secretarial

Commercial school and secretarial schools can be described as educational institutions, which offer courses in one or more of the following subjects e.g. typing, shorthand, basic book- keeping and office procedure.

06. Business / computer science

This refers to schools, which offer specialized courses in either the business or computer science fields, for example, business management and information technology.

07. Technical institutes

Training provided in "technical institutes" within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago's educational system is usually at the technical level. Admission to the institutes in most cases, will require completion of a full five-year secondary education as a minimum.

Within the Unesco Isced system, education at this level may be classified as "third level first stage of the type that leads to an award not equivalent to a first university degree". Typical examples are John S. Donaldson Technical Institute, San Fernando Technical Institute and Eastern Caribbean Institute of Agriculture and Forestry.

08. Other institutional training

Training provided at a level above secondary education for teachers, nurses, police, etc. The level of instruction requires that students must have completed their secondary education.

09. University

Training provided at an institution offering courses, which lead to the award of a degree.

10. Distance learning

Distance Learning is any form of organized educational experience in which teaching and learning takes place with teachers at a distance from the learners for most of the time. It incorporates all levels of education and training using forms of technology that range from the simple medium of print to the more advanced medium of technology involving satellites, teleconferencing, networks, television/radio broadcast and other mechanisms.

77. Other

This category refers to training acquired through all other methods not previously stated. These include such methods as self-taught, trial and error etc.

[p.56]

Question 34 - Period of training at highest level

For those persons whose training is completed, or who had attempted but did not complete training, you are required to obtain the time spent being trained.

For those who indicated that their training is ongoing, that is box 2 of question 31(b) is ticked, obtain the time completed to date on training and tick the relevant box.

Question 35 - Qualification / certification obtained on completion of training

This question is only for those persons who have completed training i.e. for those ticking box 1 of question 31(b).

Ten (10) response positions are recorded. None, certification (with Examination), certification (without Examination), diploma, advanced diploma, associate degree, first degree, post graduate degree, other and not stated. You are required to tick only one box.

There are cases in which more than one qualification may be received as a result of preparing oneself in a specified field of training. Let the respondent decide upon the highest qualification received.

Section 8 - Marital status

Marital Status is a demographic characteristic involving biological, social, economic, legal and in many cases, religious aspects. For the purposes of the 2000 Population and Housing Census, emphasis is placed on the legal sanctions of the association between two persons. In essence, Marital Status is the personal status of each individual in relation to the Marriage Laws or Customs of Trinidad and Tobago.

This section is applicable to person's 14 years old and over.

Information on marital status classified by age and sex is used to indicate the extent to which people in the country are married, have failed to marry or have become widowed or divorced. The analysis of marital status becomes especially useful when further classified by characteristics of occupation, income, education and ethnic origin.

Question 36 - Marital status

This question is for all person's fourteen (14) years old and over. Emphasis here is placed on the presence of legal sanction of the association and should not be confused with "union status".

[p.57]

Marital Status can be classified as follows:

1. Never married - This category covers all individuals 14 years old and over who have never been married.

2. Married - This covers all married persons whether or not they are living with partners to whom they are married. Also to be included in this category are persons married according to Hindu or Muslim rites, whether or not these marriages have been formally registered. A person living apart though not legally separated from his or her married partner is to be recorded as married.

3. Widowed - This covers all married persons whose partners have died.

4. Legally separated - This applies where married persons are living apart and separated by a court order.

5. Divorced - This covers all persons whose marriages have been dissolved by legal proceedings.

Note to interviewer: There may be instances where the couple may be living apart but the divorce has not been made final. Such persons are not to be entered as divorced but as married or legally separated as the case may be.

Section 9 - Fertility

This Section will provide information on fertility of all females' 14 years and over. The census, moreover, seeks to obtain supplementary data of demographic interest than that provided from the Registrar's General Office.

The data collected are of even greater importance when cross-classified and analyzed by marital and union status, religion, ethnicity and other socioeconomic factors like occupational and educational attainment. Two examples of measures of fertility that can be obtained from the census are the ratio of young children to women of childbearing age and the number of children ever born to women. Additionally, fertility studies could be extended to population groups or communities within Trinidad and Tobago.

[p.58]

Fertility simply indicates the rate at which women of childbearing age are having children. This will have a direct impact on resource allocation in terms of medical, educational, health and training facilities.

Question 37 - Number of live births ever had

You may wish to introduce this section as follows: - "now I would like to ask a few census questions on number of live births, age at birth of first live born child, of all female members of this household who are fourteen (14) years of age and over". Although the question may be sensitive, you should not ask the question in an apologetic tone or change your approach.

Should you do this, you will discourage response or cause the respondent to observe your hesitancy to ask the question. Act naturally and maintain the pace of the interview.

Note to interviewer: The information sought is not the number of children alive at the time of the census but the total number of live born children the woman ever had, whether currently residing with her, elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago or abroad. Included also, are those who were born alive but are now dead. However, still births are not to be included.

Remember a live birth occurs when a baby cries or shows other signs of life when born. If the respondent states none then enter _0 in the boxes provided. If "none" is entered for question 37 then skip to question 39(b), since the women may have had a still birth. If the number of live births is six (6), entry is recorded as _6.

Question 38 - Age at birth of first live born child

This question is not applicable to persons answering none _0 in question 37.

Record in completed years the age of the woman at the time of birth of her first live born child. Answers to this question may prove useful in arriving at the estimate of the woman's present age, as well as checking for inconsistencies.

Question 39 (a) - Number of live births past twelve (12) months

If the response in question 37 is none question 39(a) should not be asked. In all other cases, tick the appropriate box, which indicates the response, for example, one, two, etc.

[p.59]

Question 39 (b) -Number of still births past twelve (12) months

The number of still births are recorded separately in question 39(b). Remember that a Still Birth occurs when a baby is born dead i.e. shows no signs of life at birth. It is possible, although the rate of occurrence is low, for a woman to have more than one delivery in the twelve (12) months preceding enumeration.

Question 40 - Union status at present or at age 45

The response to this question must indicate the type of family association in which the woman is or had been engaged. This question refers to females only.

In the case of women under 45 years of age, it refers to the relationship or association existing at the time of the census. In the case of women over 45 years of age, it must describe the relationship existing at the time when she was 45 years old.

Six response positions are possible: "Married", "common law" and "visiting" describe the type of union, whereas "no longer living with husband", "no longer living with common-law partner", and "never had a husband nor common law partner" indicate the absence of a union at present or at age 45.

Where a woman has had a child during the twelve (12) months preceding the census, three response positions are possible - "married", "common law", or "visiting".

A woman must only be ticked as being in a "visiting" union if she had a birth (live or still) within the twelve (12) month period preceding the census. This response must not be probed.

Section 10 - Income

The census is a major source of collecting income data for all persons and their families and households in Trinidad and Tobago. This section seeks to obtain information on the amount of and distribution of income earned by households. Income can also be related to other characteristics of persons in households for example occupation, industry and level of educational attainment.

Census income data are widely used by government to develop support programmes, public social assistance, welfare payments and social services. Income data are also used to identify specific geographic communities in need of assistance. Business enterprises also use income data to help market their products and target consumers to sell other goods and services produced.

[p.60]

Remember income is defined as sources of benefits in both cash and kind accruing to the members of the household regardless of whether the members are economically active or not.

It is important to keep in mind that many persons are hesitant to tell others how much money they earn. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the question answered correctly or willingly. You may need to emphasize or explain that the information is required to work out average income per individual for the entire country. If members of the household are still uncomfortable giving the exact amount of their income, use the income flash card provided by the Census Office as a last resort. Record the code that represent the income group to which the individual belongs.

In other cases, the head of the household may genuinely not be aware of the income of the other members. In cases like these, an effort must be made to obtain the information directly from the relevant member of the household. Perhaps an appointment can be made to meet the individual.

This Section is applicable to all persons 15 years and over whether working or not and is intended to reflect the situation at the time of enumeration. You are to obtain income data to complete items (1), (2), (3) and (7). Multiple entries are possible for any one individual.

Question 41 (1) - Paid employment

Income from paid employment include wages, salaries and other benefits in cash or in kind earned by individuals before deductions for social security schemes and income taxes. It also covers payments as commissions, tips and bonuses, cost of living allowances, vacation allowances, director's fees and the cost to employees of food, lodging, clothing which is provided free of charge or at a reduced cost. In other words, the total compensation package of the individual is recorded.

Question 41 (2) - Self-employment

For the self-employed, income reported should be net income i.e. total income less business operating expenses such as wages, rent, electricity and fuel. These persons may be those who operate agricultural operations, in addition to those who own and operate unincorporated business and persons in professional practice.

Question 41 (3) - Pension and annuities

Private and government pensions and annuities can be described as retirement benefits that individuals receive upon retirement to replace their earnings.

Many employers have established pension programmes for their employees so that upon retirement the employees will still receive some source of income. Included in pensions is the government's old age pension granted to senior citizens.

[p.61]

An annuity is a pension policy that the individual takes out or purchases on his or her own. These payments are usually made in a lump sum and then at a reduced monthly payment over a certain number of years.

Question 41 (7) - Other income

Is described as monies, which an individual receives from sources other than his/her wages, salaries, pensions and annuities. Other Income includes rent received, dividends, interest (investment income) and royalties. Periodic payments received regularly from an inheritance or trust fund are also regarded as Income, as well as alimony, unemployed benefits, sick pay, scholarships and remittances from abroad.

The following items should not be regarded as income:

Receipts from sale of possessions,
Withdrawals from savings,
Loans,
Tax refunds,
Maturity payments on Insurance policy,
Lump-sum compensation for injury,

For item, 1,2,3,7 income is recorded to the nearest dollar For example, $5000 is entered as _5000. Obtain from the respondent for each or any item indicated, whether the income relates to a daily (01), weekly (02), fortnightly (03), monthly (04), quarterly (05) or annually (06) period. These codes are inserted against each type of income recorded. If income is given monthly enter 04.

Section 11 - Time spent on unpaid household and other activities

This Section seeks to provide an estimate of the number of hours spent on unremunerated work by members of the household. Unremunerated work in the household is defined as unpaid labour on domestic and related activities. There is a lack of data and information on unremunerated work. This stems from the fact that unremunerated work in the household has always been excluded from estimates of Gross Domestic Product, because such work has traditionally been regarded as uneconomic, non-market activities.

However, in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the country's productive activity, productive non-market activities would have to be recognized and recorded as part of the economic activity of a country. Time spent on household and other activities will provide data on the division of labor between the sexes.

[p.62]

Question 42 - Hours spent on these activities in the past week applicable to all persons 15 years old and over.

It should be noted that people may perform more than one unpaid activity at the same time. For example, a person may spend one hour preparing a meal while at the same time looking after his/ her children. This person should report one hour in the meal preparation and related activities and another hour in the category assist with homework. It does not matter whether those activities took place at the same time.

It is important to note for the category, play and personal care of children, the hours spent performing these activities such as talking or playing with children is recorded, if during these activities, the person was responsible for their care.

If five hours is spent on cleaning the house the entry is recorded as follows, 01, checkmark, C/H. _ _5

If no time is spent on a particular activity for example, zero time is spent on "care of disabled, sick or aged relative" nothing is entered.

Do not report work performed for pay

Section 12 - Census Night

This section is to be completed on the day after Census day i.e. 16th May, 2000. During the preliminary enumeration, you must complete Sections 13,l 4 and 15 after completing Section 11.

Question 43 - Where did [the respondent] spend Census Night?

Census Night refers to the period up to midnight on the 15th May, 2000.

All members of the household enumerated in the preliminary enumeration and found absent on Census Night either because of death, no longer a member of the household, institutionalized or through permanent migration must be deleted from the household and an entry made in the relevant person number at the back of the questionnaire.

This does not apply to those persons, who because of their work, are away from the household on Census Night. Such persons include security personnel, watchmen, fishermen, taxi drivers, nurses, doctors and other hospital personnel. These persons are to be ticked as having spent Census Night in the household.
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It must be noted, however, that members of the household who were temporarily away on Census Night, should be left as members of the household and box 2, 3, 4, 7 of this question ticked.

Babies born prior to midnight of the 15th May, 2000 are to be included in the household and sections I, and 2, completed for such individuals, as well as suitable amendments made to section 9.

Temporary visitors, as well as persons who joined the household subsequent to the preliminary enumeration and who spent Census Night in that household, are to be enumerated on May l61 i.e. during the Census Night, as additions, that is, new members of the household. Such situations may arise through marriage or residents returning from abroad.

Heads of household have to complete sections 13, 14, and 15

Section 13 - Crime

Data with respect to reported crime are accessible from the Police Reports made available to the CSO. However, in Trinidad and Tobago there is some level of unreported crime.

This section will facilitate the capture of benchmark data for subsequent studies of crime related issues in households. The data will assist towards assessment of changes in the pattern and incidence of crime. For census purposes, the areas of concern are whether the household had been a victim of crime, the nature of the crime, and whether the crime was reported or not.

Identification

You are to complete the required information for the identification of the household being enumerated which must tally with the visitation record and the cover page of the questionnaire.

It is not necessary to burden the respondent with questions repeated here for which you have already obtained responses during the early part of the interview. For example, the name of the head of the household and the respondent should already have been determined.

Question 44 - Has any member of your household been a victim of crime?

This is a screening question to determine whether or not any member of the household has been a victim of crime during the period January - December 1999. If "no or not stated" skip to section 14.

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Question 45(a) - Nature of crime

1. Crime against the person
2. Crime against property
3. Other

Please indicate yes, no, or not stated to the relevant response. More than one response can be ticked.

Question 45 (b) - Was the crime reported to the police?

If a crime was reported to police or not stated, skip to section 14. Not applicable is for those who reported no in question 45 (a). If the crime was not reported, go to question 46. Ensure that the entry in 45(b) corresponds to the nature of the crime given in 45(a).

Question 46 - Why was the crime not reported to the police?

Tick the reason why the crime was not reported to police. For each crime not reported, give reasons for the non-reporting of the crime. For example, "no confidence in the administration of justice", "afraid of perpetrators" etc. One response has to be ticked.

Section 14 - Housing and household items

The main objective of this section on housing is to obtain accurate and reliable information on the housing stock and the condition of housing in the country. Moreover, information is also sought for assessing the living conditions of the inhabitants of the country. For example, overcrowding, homelessness, vagrancy, and squatting. Data on housing would facilitate analysis of levels of social welfare and housing needs of the population.

Characteristics of occupied building

Question 47 - Type of building

You are required to checkmark the particular type of building that is being enumerated. The function or purpose to which the building is put must be recorded and not the architectural style.

There are six categories:-

1. Residential
2. Residential and commercial
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3. Residential and professional
4. Commercial
5. Industrial
6. Community service - private / government
7. Other
9. Not stated

Question 48 - Material of outer walls

The information sought in this question is to identify the type of material of which the outer walls of the building is made. The types of material specified are:

1. Brick / concrete: This applies to buildings where the walls are made of hollow clay blocks or concrete bricks whether plastered or unplastered.

2. Wood: Tick this if the walls are made solely of wood.

3. Wood, brick, and concrete: This applies when the walls are made of these types of materials.

4. Wood and galvanise: This includes walls made of both wood and galvanise.

5. Wattle / adobe / tapia: This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle daub with mud. Walls made of tapia must also be included under this type.

7. Other: Tick this box for other types of material of construction of outer walls not previously described.

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Question 49 - Year when building was built

This question seeks to determine the year when the structure was originally built. In some cases, the owner/occupant of the dwelling may not be able to tell you the year when the structure was built.

Discrete inquiries from persons who have been living for a long time in the area may assist you in arriving at an accurate estimate. It is to be noted that the pre-coded time periods permit an approximation.

You may also find it useful to inquire from the occupier or owner how long he/she has been living at that address.

Where parts of a building have been constructed at different times, the year or period of construction should refer to the major part of the construction of the building

In the case of buildings which have been re-conditioned or have under-gone major structural changes, record the year when the major structural changes were completed.

There may be instances where a structure, though not completed, is occupied by a household. In such cases, you must record the period or year in which the incomplete structure was occupied for the first time. In these cases, for the purpose of the census, occupancy and not structural completion characterizes a finished building.

Characteristics of dwelling unit occupied by household

Question 50 - Type of dwelling

The information to be recorded in this question must relate to the building or part of the building used for residential accommodation by private households.

The categories are as follows:

01. Separate house: Defines a dwelling unit, which takes up the complete building. It may be inhabited by one or more households.

02. Flats / apartments / condominium: Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multistoried building. Apartment should be ticked where the household occupied part of the building but has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, or gallery
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A condominium is defined as a block of self-contained dwelling units, which may be flats or apartments for which legal title is held individually. Each unit is attached to or dependent to a substantial degree on the other unit for support, shelter or easement. Facilities such as security, grounds and maintenance cost are shared.

03. Town house: A block of self-contained units with separate legal title to ownership. Sometimes common facilities such as security and grounds may be shared.

04. Double house / duplex: A dwelling joined to only one other dwelling, separated from it by a wall extending from ground to roof, i.e. one or two dwellings attached side by side, having no other dwellings either above or below and separated by open space from all other structures.

05. Part of commercial / industrial building: This type of dwelling would be ticked when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as business places, lodges, garages, etc.

06. Barracks: A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.

07. Out-room: A room or rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household i.e. domestic employees' quarters, etc.

08. Other private dwelling: Mobile homes, derelict vehicles, etc. In short, a dwelling unit in conditions different from those specified above.

09. Group dwelling These have already been defined, and refer to certain types of institution i.e. boarding houses, hotels, and hostels.

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10. Wafda: A block of self-contained single storied units with separate legal title to ownership. These units are attached side by side having no dwelling either above or below.

11. Other: A category which describes a type of accommodation not defined from 01 to 09.

Question 51 - Tenancy

Tenure refers to the legal and financial arrangements under which a household is occupying its living quarters and the land on which it stands. The pre-coded categories are as follows:

01. Owned: This category applies when the head or any other member of the household owns the dwelling unit or is in the process of buying the dwelling unit.

02. Rented - private: Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling unit from an individual or a company. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.

03. Rented - government: This applies if the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling unit from government or government agency.

04. Leased private and 05. Leased government: A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract, which stipulates, in advance, the total rental sum for the dwelling unit during a fixed duration of the contract. This total sum may be paid in advance or by installments. Both government and private leases are captured.

06. Rent-free: When the head of the household does not pay a rent for the occupancy of the dwelling unit by the household, a tick should be made in this box.

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07. Squatted: This applies when households are found occupying a building or dwelling unit without permission of the owner or any legal rights to property.

77. Other: This description refers to situations where the head or members of the household are occupying the dwelling unit under conditions different from those specified above.

Note: 51 (b) is only applicable to those individuals who owned their dwelling unit.

Question 52 - Rent

This question is divided into two parts

For renters:

52 (a) This is straight forward. Simply record the rent paid in T.T dollars. For example, record six hundred and twenty-five dollars (625) as _ _ 625

Indicate he monthly rent paid for the dwelling unit to the nearest dollar.

For owner / occupied:

52 (b) Indicate the rent that would be paid for the dwelling unit if it was rented unfurnished. This may be difficult to obtain since some owners may say they would never rent. However, be tactful and allow the respondent time to think of the possible rent he can obtain on the market for his dwelling unit.

Question 53 - Single or multiple occupancy of dwelling unit

This question seeks to find out if the dwelling unit is being shared. If the answer is "yes" then a follow-up question must be asked to determine the number of households sharing or occupying the dwelling unit. Remember more than one household may occupy the same dwelling unit. Note skip instructions given.

Question 54 (a) - Number of bedrooms

Bedrooms are rooms used exclusively for sleeping. There must be some permanency about the walls enclosing the bedroom. If a dwelling unit, uses a room for other activities by day and sleeping by night, this room is not counted as a bedroom. Makeshift arrangements, blinds etc. do not count as rooms.

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Question 54(b) - Bedrooms available for use or occupied by household

This question seeks to obtain a more accurate measurement of persons per bedroom by relating the actual number of bedrooms occupied or available for use by the major household in cases where the dwelling unit is shared with one or more households. For example, there may be three (3) bedrooms in a dwelling unit to be shared by two households consisting of ten (10) persons altogether. There will be errors in the analysis if each household separately is considered as having three (3) bedrooms available. Hence, Question 54(b) is introduced and must be asked where there is double, triple, etc. household occupancy as the case may be.

Do not ask question 54(b) if only one (1) household occupies the dwelling unit

Question 55 - Number of rooms

A room is defined as an area permanently separated, by means of walls, from other parts of the building; but excludes galleries, bathrooms, toilets, pantries, corridors, kitchens. You are required to tick the pre-coded number of rooms occupied or available for use by the household for living purposes. Include as rooms, living rooms, bedrooms, dining rooms, sewing rooms, libraries, and domestic employees' rooms (attached or detached) from the main building.

If you find a room with a portion curtained off with a temporary partition, the whole area must be counted as one room. If, however, there is a permanent partition dividing the floor area, you must count this as two rooms. Curtains or blinds do not separate rooms, walls and permanent partitions do.

Tick the appropriate pre-coded box on the questionnaire as identified by the head of the household.

Question 56 - Water supply

The concept of water supply describes the water supply system to the dwelling unit, whether piped into dwelling, public, tank etc. Therefore, the primary source is not required. For example, the primary source may be a well but the water is received by the dwelling unit through pipes leading to the unit. In this example, the supply is recorded as piped into dwelling unit.

1. Public piped into dwelling: Describes a condition where running water from a public source is piped directly into the dwelling unit. It is to be noted that in cases where both truck-borne supplies and intermittent supplies from a public reservoir are used, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne.

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2. Public piped into yard: Applies in situations where the household receives running water from a public source through a pipe in the yard or compound on which the dwelling stands.

3. Public standpipe: Obtains when water is available to the household from a stand pipe in the street or elsewhere.

4. Private piped into dwelling: Refers to the water supply received by a household from a private source and piped into the dwelling. Such situations will occur for example, where the household pumps water from a river or pond through pipes directly to the dwelling.

5. Private catchment not piped: Obtains where the water supply to the household is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.

6. Truck-borne (and not piped into dwelling): This applies in a limited sense to a truck-borne water supply where the sole source of water to the household is truck borne. The water supply by truck must be from a public source. For example, the household stores its water in drums or barrels that are filled by a truck borne supply.

It is to be noted, again, that in cases of intermittent supplies from a public source, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne, especially where pipes are already laid from the mains to the house.

7. Spring / river: This applies when the main water supply available to the dwelling is from a spring or river.

8. Other: Obtains when the dwelling receives its water supply from a source not specified e.g. well, pond, etc. and there is no pipe borne supply.

Skip instructions: If response 4 to 9 is given skip to question 58.

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Question 57 - Frequency of water supply

Indicate how often water is obtain from a public supply.

Question 58 - Toilet facilities

This question is divided into two (2) parts - question 58(a) and question 58(b).

In Question 58(a) the tick must indicate the type of toilet facilities available to the household. i.e.

1. Water closet (W.C.) linked to sewer: This toilet facility is flush or water closet, which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.

2. Septic tank / soakaway (W.C. not linked to sewer): This toilet facility is water borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit (soakĀ­ away).

3. Pit / latrine: This describes the type of toilet facility available to the household as being pit or latrine. This toilet facility is not water-borne.

4. Other: This category refers to all other types of toilet facilities not described above.

5. None: Applies if no toilet facilities are available to the household on their premises. Immediately such an entry is made, question 58(b), box 8 must be ticked to indicate that the question does not apply.

For question 58 (b) the tick must indicate whether the household has its own private toilet facilities or shares with one or more households.

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Question 58(b) - Are these toilet facilities shared with another person not of this household?

1. Yes
2. No
8. Not applicable

Remember to tick box 8 where no toilet facilities exist.

Question 59(a) - Type of lighting

There are four categories identified:

1. Electricity
2. Gas
3. Kerosene
7. Other (inclusive of candles and flambeau)
9. Not stated

Please tick the category most frequently used.

Question 59(b) - Type of fuel

0. None
1. Electricity
2. L.P.G. / cooking gas
3. Kerosene
4. Wood / charcoal
7. Other
9. Not stated

Where more than one type of fuel is used, the one used the most should be recorded.

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Question 60 - Household facilities available

This question seeks to obtain information on household facilities available and enjoyed by households. Tick the pre-coded box for each household facility. Ensure boxes are properly ticked

Section 15 - International migration

International migration refers to the movements by individuals over national boundaries. Migration is an important element in the growth and decline of the population and the labour force. A knowledge of the number and the characteristics of the persons entering and leaving the country is required to analyze the changes in the structure of the population and the composition of the labour force of Trinidad and Tobago.

This section will compile information on the number of persons leaving the household to live abroad, by age group and sex. It will also collect information on the countries to which persons migrated, as well as, the number of persons returning to live here permanently.

Question 61 - Did any member of the household leave to live permanently abroad during the past ten (10) years?

If the response is no or not stated, end the interview for the household. Do not ask questions 62-64 unless the response given is yes.

Question 62 - Give the number of persons by age and sex at the time of leaving.

You are required to write in the number of persons by sex and age-group who have left the household to reside abroad.

Question 63 - How many persons from this household migrated to the following countries?

Please enter the number of persons by sex and age-group against the country shown in the questionnaire.

Question 64 - How many of those leaving have since returned to live here permanently?

Please enter the number of persons by sex and age-group who left the country and have since returned to live here permanently.

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Things you must do on the day after Census Day, May 16th 2000

Introduction

These instructions are to further assist you in completing Section 12 for all members of the household taken individually; and also to locate all households occupying buildings.

Check all buildings, in order to see if any which were not occupied at the preliminary enumeration were occupied on Census Day. So far as checks on individual households are concerned, your prime consideration is to ascertain whether there have been any changes in the numerical composition of the household.

Additions to a household may arise as a result of births, arrivals of members who were temporarily away at the time of preliminary enumeration or all other persons who have joined the household since preliminary enumeration and who spent Census Night in the household. The names and particulars of such persons should be written after the last recorded entry and the fact that these additions are made on the day after Census Day must be stated in the Remarks column at the back of the questionnaire.

Subtractions from a household may arise as a result of deaths or permanent departures of any member of the household since preliminary enumeration. In addition, the non-arrival of any person who at the time of preliminary enumeration was expected to spend Census Night in the household must be deleted. A bold line should be drawn through the line referring to such persons and the reasons for these deletions should be noted in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.

Having assured yourself that any changes that may be necessary in the numerical composition of the household have been made, you must next consider what alterations in the characteristics of the remaining members may become necessary. Such changes will most likely have to be made in question 2 - relation to head, and the sections on marital status and fertility respectively.

As a general rule, when in doubt, give detailed notes relating to an individual under query in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.

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Basic summary of enumeration procedures

1. Contact a responsible person in each building visited and explain why you are calling. Show your precept i.e. your identification card.

2. Ask for the name of the head of household and complete the visitation record.

3. Make sure the building is residential in wi1ole or part and privately occupied.

4. Find out how many households there are by an introductory question such as "Can you tell me who lives here, please?"

5. Deal with each household, if more than one, in tum.

6. Ascertain that the members of the household are expected to be present on Census Night, i.e. 15th May, 2000.

7. Complete the appropriate number of Census questionnaires for each household being mindful to promptly enter the Identifying Number from your Visitation Record. Do not leave this task for the end of the interview.

8. Do not trust your memory during an interview. Promptly record responses and tick the appropriate pre-coded boxes during the course of the interview.

9. Follow faithfully the instructions in the questionnaire and the wording of the questions. These have been field-tested to provide consistent information.

10. Make sure that you have not missed any members of the household enumerated or other households sharing accommodation with the household just enumerated.

11. Confirm to be sure of complete coverage whether any part of the building might be occupied separately and independently by another or other households before visiting another building. Always thank the respondent for their co-operation.

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