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[Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
1990 Population and Housing Census]
Enumerator's Manual

Part I

1. What is a population census?

A modern population census may be defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all persons in a country at a specified time. Census can also be described as a form of national stock-taking. The census is a complete count of the population and provides detailed benchmark data on the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labor force and other socio-economic characteristics.

2. Why is a population census being taken?

Since the last population and housing census conducted in May 1980, significant changes in both the economic and social structure of the country have taken place. These have impacted upon population characteristics such as age, birth rates, employment and occupation status and on incomes. People have tended to move between administrative regions thus altering the pattern of population distribution and significant external migration has altered the size and structure of the population.
These then are but some of the changes we have observed. The 1990 census is designed to collect empirical data of the changes we have observed, so as to provide benchmark data on which to base the economic and social plans that will take us into the next century.
Along with these changes, the demand for various social services such as health and education and infrastructure including roads, water and electricity has increased because of population growth. Population shifts have created the demand for such facilities and amenities across regions.
The information that is expected to be generated from the 1990 population and housing census will be essential if these demands are to be met.

3. How is a population census taken?

[1] While the term census is generally taken to mean counting of the country's population and the recording of certain of their characteristics at a particular point in time, several distinct operations have to be completed before a picture of the population can be presented.
[2] In the first place, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled the next step is to organize the collection of the data in the field under careful supervision. Trained enumerators visit every building in the country in order to interview members of households and record the necessary information on questionnaires. These questionnaires or documents on which the required information is entered are the basic instruments of enumeration. Therefore, if the quality of enumeration is very good the final tables or tabulations which will be eventually published will also be of high quality and usable for policy formulation.
[3] After the questionnaires have been completed in the field they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. A sample of the field interviews will be rechecked in the field during enumeration by the supervisor and after enumeration by trained central statistical office staff to assess quality. When all checking has been completed in the office and field another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for computer processing. The final stage is the production of the tabulations which constitute the basis of the census report.

4. Units of enumeration

Four units of enumeration are used in carrying out the Trinidad and Tobago 1990 population and housing census. These are:
[i] Buildings
[ii] Dwelling units
[iii] Private households
[iv] Persons
The definitions of these various units of enumeration are provided later in the instructions.

5. Place of enumeration

Buildings and dwelling units [i.e. places of residence within buildings] have a fixed location and would provide little difficulty. Information on households, however, and the persons in the households can be collected and entered in the census questionnaire either "where they spent census night", or at their "usual residence". The 1990 Population and Housing Census of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago attempts to collect both sets of information. It is important to note that persons are enumerated on the basis of "where they spent census night". The procedure for persons who are away from their usual residence at the time of the census is detailed later in the instructions. The persons most affected are the military, the security services, medical personnel, marine personnel, etc. The instructions will give procedures on how to handle these.

6. Time of enumeration

An essential feature of any census is that the enumeration or count must refer to a particular point in time, referred to as a reference period, the 15th May, 1990 designated census day, that is the end of census day, 15th May, 1990.
The republic of Trinidad and Tobago is using the procedure of pre-enumerating the population before census day. Pre-enumeration is scheduled to begin on the 17th April, 1990.

7. Information to be collected

Data are collected in the census on age, sex, religion, occupation, housing etc., for purposes of social and economic planning. This manual will provide details on how best to collect census information.

8. The respondent: person who provides census information

Wherever possible, the acknowledged head of the household should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only when absolutely necessary. Any responsible adult person at least fifteen years old, can give information on members of the household. More information will be given on this in your training. It is of course desirable to obtain information directly from members of the household where this is possible. This is advisable to ensure the accuracy of the data supplied. In particular, data on age, economic activity, occupation, education, training, and income are best obtained in an interview from the person concerned.

9. Relationship to other countries

The census of any country is of greater value if it can be compared with censuses of other countries which are taken at approximately the same time. Many countries throughout the world will be taking population censuses in 1990. It has been agreed, in principle, among the Governments of Commonwealth Caribbean that census day [15th May, 1990] will be the same throughout the region. All the participating countries will use a set of common core questions to facilitate regional comparability. Similar concepts, definitions and procedures will be used in order to ensure a high degree of comparability and consistency throughout the area.

10. The importance of your role in the population census

[1] As an enumerator you play a vital part in the census operations. You are one of the important links in the entire operation. Every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate answers to questions and to record these according to your instructions. You can only do this if you really understand the instructions and ask your supervisor when you do not know what to do.
[2] The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the interest you take and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow enumerators perform your tasks. You therefore hold a key position in this important undertaking.
[3] The respondent must also co-operate with you. Your manner of approach, mode of dress, and speech will help. Our publicity program will make your task easier but you must also try to display patience, tolerance and tact, which are the prerequisites of a good enumerator.

11. Standards of performance

Quality must be your watchword. Your assignment can be completed within the prescribed period. The preparatory work which went into planning the 1990 census has shown this.
[1] Planning your travel- Hold travel to a minimum by planning
[2] Reduction of call-backs- You can do this by planning your visits when respondents will be home from work. Obtain some help from neighbors after duly identifying yourself or leave your 'call-back' card. Reduce costs by grouping your call backs.
[3] Efficient conduct of interview- Only through familiarity with the instructions will you be able to do your job efficiently and accurately.
[4] Reinterview- The census organization will interview some of the households you enumerated to ensure your performance attained the required standard.

12. Census information is confidential

The law requires that all information collected for the census must be kept confidential. When you accept the job of enumerator you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone who is not a sworn employee of the census organization. This means that you must not give any census information under any circumstances even to members of your family. The census is being taken under laws appropriate to each of the participating countries. Do not leave your questionnaires lying unprotected. The assurance of confidentiality will put many a hesitant respondent at ease.

13. Census information used only in totals

Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction because you will be asking for information which they do not normally make available to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. They are:
[a] All enumerators engaged on the census have taken an oath of secrecy.
[b] Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any enumerator or person engaged in census work to make unauthorized disclosures or information to any individual or organization whatsoever.
[c] The information collected will be used solely in the preparation of tables showing the structure and size of the population as a whole. Information about a particular individual is merely a unit essential in deriving overall totals but will never be used as relating to that individual.

Part II
General Instructions

14. Your assignment

Your assignment is first to record basic information in the visitation record and complete questionnaire[s] for each household and institution according to the instructions given herein.
In a very special way you are the key person in the census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. A report is only as good as the information that goes into it. It is imperative that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.

15. Pre-enumeration procedure

[1] While the aim of the census is to determine the number and characteristics of persons to be found in each locality of the country on census day, that is the 15th May, 1990 this cannot be accomplished satisfactorily in one day. In fact, enumeration is a process planned to last approximately three [3] weeks.
[2] On Tuesday 17th April or earlier your supervisor will take you to your enumeration district and show you its boundaries. When you have become familiar with your district and with the route to be taken when enumerating, you are in a position to commence the preliminary enumeration. This involves visiting every building in your district and recording the names and particulars of persons who expect to be spending census night there.
[3] Preliminary enumeration must be completed by Tuesday 8th May. As each batch of questionnaires is completed, it must be thoroughly checked by you, and handed over to your supervisor. On or before census day, your supervisor will return the questionnaires to you and it is then your duty to begin the final check of the position of your district on the day after census day, i.e. 16th May, 1990.

16. The day after census day activity

On the 16th May, 1990 you will revisit each building and ascertain whether you have omitted any households, or, for that matter, if there are any changes. Additions to a household e.g. births, visitors from abroad, who were not taken up during preliminary enumeration, will necessitate the additional information on the questionnaire for the new member of the household, while departures from the household will necessitate an indication at the appropriate person and line number of the questionnaire, or a cancellation of the information on a person in the case of death, while noting in the remarks section of the questionnaire that the person has died. These instructions also hold for persons who have changed their usual residence between the period of preliminary enumeration and census day. As will be emphasized in this manual, no attempt is to be made to check all the information collected during pre - enumeration. Your duty at this stage is to ensure one hundred percent coverage.
Note, however, that in the event of a birth to a member of the household, questions 28 - 30 will have to be amended. This is the only case in the census where after census day you will have to amend the particulars of a member of the household.

17. Your supervisor

You will be working under the supervision and direction of your supervisor who will:
[1] Be involved in your training.
[2] Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed.
[3] Give you your assignment.
[4] Supply you with your enumeration materials.
[5] Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve i.e. your supervisor has been asked to revisit some of your work.
[6] See that you understand and follow the instructions in this book and those given at training classes.
[7] See that you complete your assignment within the specified time.
[8] Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment only for work of an acceptable quality.
[9] Be the link between you and the headquarters of the census.
[10] Assist you in solving any difficulties in the field.
You must at all times keep in close touch with your supervisor, letting him know where you may be found, meeting him at such times and places as he may direct, and following carefully the instructions which he gives you. All appointments with your supervisor must be kept.

18. Your enumeration kit

In order to carry out your assignment you will be given by your supervisor all the necessary documents and materials.
In addition, you will receive a letter of appointment as a census enumerator and an identification precept. These must be carried around with you at all times during your duty as an enumerator. Always make sure that you show your identification to establish the legality of your position as a census enumerator.
The materials handed to you for the completion of your task as an enumerator are the property of the census office and your claim for payment will not be honored until your supervisor receives the following from you at the end of enumeration:
[a] The enumeration district map and description.
[b] All completed questionnaires duly secured.
[c] The visitation record.
[d] The identification precept.
[e] The unused questionnaires and ball-point pens.
[f] The bag for holding all materials.
[g] All other used and unused materials.

19. Your hours of work

You should not expect to work regular hours during enumeration. Bear in mind that you will have to adjust your working hours to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this may often mean making calls early in the morning and more particularly in the afternoon and early evenings, as well as on weekends.

20. Your enumeration district [E.D.] map

As was indicated above, your materials for enumeration include a sketch-map of your enumeration district, together with a description of its boundaries. It must be pointed out that this sketch-map is not drawn to scale. Every effort has been made prior to the census to update your map and make it serviceable. However, problems may still exist. Whenever you are in doubt, seek clarification from your supervisor.
Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your enumeration district. He will also point out to you whatever errors he may have found on the enumeration district map as received from head office. You must however correct your enumeration district map where necessary by crossing out streets which cannot be located, demolished buildings, etc. which do not exist, drawing in new buildings, and correcting street names and roads which may have been omitted from the map.
All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor immediately. Should you find any errors in the description, write these out below the description of the enumeration district.
Key points with respect to your E.D. map
[i] Your map is the basic instrument to locate your enumeration district.
[ii] It identifies clearly the boundaries of your workload/assignment.
[iii] Provides a specific route for you to follow to complete enumeration.
[iv] Provides a one to one link with your visitation record. Therefore, each building you visit must be serially numbered on your map with a corresponding number on your visitation record.
[v] Provides at an instant the progress of your work in the field.
[vi] Permits the census office to check for completeness of enumeration.

21. Know your enumeration district

The boundaries have been clearly marked on your enumeration district map and the starting point indicated.
If a street, road, river, canal, alley, road junction or other feature, forms one of its boundaries, be sure you know which side of it is in your enumeration district. You will cause a great deal of trouble and double counting of the population if you enumerate households belonging to another enumerator's enumeration district.
On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook nor forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you. Every household in your area, no matter how remote, must be enumerated to ensure that the census is complete in its coverage.
If a householder tells you that an enumerator has already collected information from him, make certain that the enumerator is engaged in population census work and not in any other survey. Since there may be surveys by the central statistical office in the field at the same time or surveys conducted by other government agencies, you should not accept his word lightly.
If the household has in fact been previously enumerated by another census enumerator, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other enumerator is working in your area by mistake and there will be double counting of the population.

22. Ensure that you locate all households

Your map will indicate the direction to be followed in covering your enumeration district. Your supervisor will check these with you and if necessary introduce some amendment. It is especially important in covering rural districts to ensure that all sections of your enumeration district, especially those which appear to be uninhabited, are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or difficult to reach. You must number each building on your map in serial order beginning at 001. Those numbers must correspond with the building numbers entered in the visitation record. It has been found useful in rural areas to make a chalk-mark in an appropriate spot on a building enumerated, to avoid double counting.

23. Enumerate every household

Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building-and habitation within your area and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretaker's quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures, even temporary shacks and mobile houses which may be located away from main roads. In rural areas, especially, the evidence of tracks may lead to a dwelling. The census must account for everyone.
Within your enumeration district there may be hotels, boarding houses, nursing homes, hospitals, police stations, fire stations, and other institutional households. Detailed instruction on the treatment of institutions, some of which will require special methods of enumeration will be given to you by your supervisor. Your responsibility, nonetheless, is to record the existence of these institutions on your visitation record. However, in general, persons living in Group A type institutions will be required to complete the household type questionnaire, whilst those in Group B should complete the institutional questionnaire.

Part III
Some basic concepts and definitions


Before discussing the census questions and how they are to be asked, it is necessary for you to grasp some basic concepts and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which are used frequently in the instructions for enumeration. Concepts and definitions not supplied here or in your concepts and definitions manual can be referred to your supervisor.
If during the course of enumeration there is a case which is not covered by your instructions make a note of it in your visitation record and refer it to your supervisor for his/her advice.

Non-private dwellings/Group dwellings/Institutions

An institution is defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons. These institutions have been divided into two major groups.
Group A: includes institutions such as hotels and large boarding houses which cater for six (6) or more paying guests, hostels, barracks, etc., the inhabitants of which, like the general non-institutional population, may engage in normal economic activity. These persons should complete the household questionnaire. Enumerate six (6) persons per questionnaire and use up to person number 99.
Group B: includes hospitals and nursing homes, prisons, leprosaria, homes for the aged and such institutions where inmates, during the period that they are in the institution, will in general not take part in any normal economic activity. These persons should complete the institutional questionnaire.


The building is the most important unit of enumeration since each building, that is an independent physical structure, must be accounted for on the enumeration district map and recorded in the visitation record. It is the major means of checking progress in the field and the coverage of the census.
A building is defined as a physical structure, which is separate and independent from any other, comprising of one or more rooms, or other spaces, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof and is designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes, or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings, for example detached kitchens, toilets, servants quarters, garages, etc. A building may be a factory, shop, detached dwelling, apartment building, warehouse, repair shop, poultry pen, etc.

Dwelling unit

A dwelling unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons are living at the time of the census enumeration. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence". An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or other forms of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons can isolate themselves from other persons for sleeping and preparing and sharing meals. It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery, when occupants can come in and go out of it without passing through anybody else's accommodation. Examples of "dwelling units" are separate houses, flats/apartments, townhouses, barracks, part of commercial buildings and group dwellings.

Private dwelling

Private type dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, outrooms, part of commercial buildings, boarding houses catering for less than six persons etc.


A private household consists of one or more persons living together [i.e. sleeping most nights of the week with the household] and sharing at least one of the main daily meals. In general, therefore, a household will comprise a father, mother and children living together. It is important to note, however, a member of the household is not necessarily a relative of the main family, for example, a boarder or a servant who sleeps in most nights of the week and shares at least one of the daily meals is also included as a member of the household. The concept of the household and family is not the same. It is possible to encounter more than one family constituting a single household once they share common living arrangements.

Certain other living arrangements will be met in the field and further guidance can be obtained from the following rules:

[1] Even if a person has recently moved in with a group of persons as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them that person is to be considered a member of the household.
[2] A boarding house which caters for less than six [6] boarders/lodgers is to be classified as a private household.
[3] If a house is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or subtenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.
[4] If within the institution [non-private dwelling] there are separate quarters for all or any member of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such persons constitute separate households. For temporary or permanent inmates of large institutions, however, special instructions for enumeration will be given by the supervisor.
[5] A servant who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. A servant who does not sleep on her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where she works.
[6] A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household during most nights a week, is to be considered a member of that household.
[7] A person who rents a room from a landlord/landlady but who does not share any meals with his/her household, constitutes a separate household; i.e. a single person household and should be treated as such.
[8] Persons living, working and sleeping away from their place of usual residence for most nights of the week should be included as members of the household in which they are found during pre-enumeration.
[9] A visitor or guest intending to spend census night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.
[10] Persons engaged in shift work or who work nights, such as security workers, are to be enumerated as members of the household of usual residence.
[11] It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household. The concept of "sharing at least one daily meal" and "sharing common living arrangements" is used as an indicator for identifying household membership. For example, there is the familiar case of a servant and her family living on her employer's premises having separate living arrangements. Such an arrangement constitutes a separate household. With respect to the concept of sharing at least one daily meal it is not necessary that members sit at meals together. The alternative, "sharing common living arrangements", i.e. contributing to the maintenance of the household, groceries, etc. can also serve as a guide.

The head of the household

For census purposes every household must have a head. The head of the household, is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household. In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household, usually the chief breadwinner. In any event the person recognized by the respondent as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take the member of the group as the head, whom the others acknowledge as such.
A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six [6] guests is considered the head of that household.

Closed building

A closed building is one that is in use or occupied but during the enumeration period the tenants are temporarily away, that is, away for less than six [6] months. However, you are still to check on the day after census day to see whether it is still in use and closed.

Vacant building

A vacant building is one which at the time of enumeration is not being used for any purpose. Also to be included in this category are buildings which are closed for six [6] months or more. However, you still have to revisit it on the day after census night to determine whether it was still vacant on census night.

Closed dwelling unit

If there are situations in which the dwelling unit may be temporarily unoccupied, information is obtained from neighbors to the effect that all the occupants are temporarily away, e.g. on holiday, you must get the surname of the persons who usually live in the house, find out, if possible, how many people live there and the address of the place where they are staying. You must also find out whether they have returned. Tactfully, if at all possible, obtain information of the place of employment of the head or any working member of the household in order to follow up the household. Remember to check on the day after census day to ensure that the dwelling unit was still closed on census day.

Vacant dwelling unit

If the house is habitable, but no one lives there during your preliminary enumeration, you must also visit the house on the day after census day, so that you can enumerate anyone who may have moved in subsequent to your previous visit.

Part IV
How to complete the visitation record

As the name implies the visitation record, is designed to monitor your field visits during preliminary enumeration. The visitation record is also used primarily to construct a register [frame] of all households, business places and institutions in Trinidad and Tobago. This register is used extensively for the conduct of household, business and agriculture surveys during the intercensal years. It is therefore vital for this document to be completed accurately.
On the cover page of your visitation record you are required to fill out the identifying number, country, ward and enumeration district number as well as your own name and address before the start of enumeration. The rest of the information on the cover page is to be filled out on completion of enumeration. For example, the number of buildings, dwelling units, households, population etc. must be entered.
The visitation record consists of eighteen [18] numbered columns, each of which is intended to serve a specific purpose.

Column 1 - Date of first visit

You are to enter the date you first visited each building, household or business place during enumeration.

Column 2 - Date enumeration completed

Enter in this column the date on which enumeration of the entire household or business place was completed.

Column 3 - Building number

The purpose of this column is to provide a precise count of the number of buildings contained in each enumeration district. Each building that you visit must be given a number in serial order as you visit them starting from 001, 002, 003, etc. Please adhere strictly to the route indicated on your sketch-map. It must be emphasized that the building number recorded on your sketch-map must agree with the number in the visitation record. The last recorded building number will indicate the number of buildings in the E.D. Remember that a building may contain several dwelling units [i.e. living quarters which are structurally separate and independent places of abode]. In such cases, repeat the building number for every dwelling unit recorded, and on your E.D. map, sub-divide the symbol representing a building to show that the building contains more than one dwelling unit.

Column 4 - Dwelling unit number

The approach to be adopted, regarding the numbering of the dwelling units, must be identical with the approach used in Column 3. That is, you are required to number the dwelling units in serial order starting from 001. It is important to remember that it is possible to have more than one dwelling unit in a single building. Additionally, there may be more than one household in a single dwelling unit. Repeat the identical dwelling unit number in cases where there are two or more households, within a dwelling unit. Using this procedure, it will be possible to associate each household, or more than one household where this occurs, to a single dwelling unit. The last number appearing in this column will represent the total number of dwelling units in your enumeration district.

Column 5 - Household number

Following an identical procedure to the two previous columns, the numbering of households must be in serial order, starting from 001, 002, etc., and remembering that there can be more than one household in a dwelling unit. You must make every effort to adhere strictly to the instructions that will be given and to follow the prescribed route indicated on your sketch-map, so that the buildings, dwelling units, households, business places within your enumeration district will be numbered in the correct order or sequence. Always check back on the last number used to avoid repeating numbers. The last number appearing in this column will represent the total number of households in your enumeration district.

Column 6 - Name and surname of head of household/Name of establishment/Name of institution

You are required in the case of a household to write in block letters the name of the head of the household in this column, putting the surname first and the Christian name or names after. With respect to a business place you must write both the name of the proprietor and the name of the establishment, e.g. "John Blackman"-"Black Cat Bar", and a clear description of the type of business activity being carried on must be written in the 'remarks' column.
In the case of an institution, write in the full name of the institution, e.g. "St. Clair Nursing Home."

Column 7 - Full address

You are required to record in this column the full address in as much detail as possible. In urban and semi-urban areas where the houses are numbered, you must record the name of the road or street, the number of the house and the town, village or locality.
In rural and remote areas, houses or buildings are more widely spaced and are not numbered. Where addresses are vague, the name of the road, trace or track [if named], mile post, electricity pole [lamp post] or other permanent landmarks e.g. a large fruit tree or palm tree, should be inserted.
Note that the electricity poles carry a unique number and is also likely to carry the electoral polling division number. You must use these aids to facilitate the Census office checks on the accuracy of your coverage.
The importance of the full address cannot be over-emphasized when one considers that the information recorded in Columns 6 and 7 will be used as the basis for identifying households or business places for the conduct of subsequent sample surveys during the intercensal years.

Column 8 - Total number of persons - both sexes

You are required to record in this column the total number of persons, including members of the household who are temporarily away, in hospital or some other institution during preliminary enumeration, but are likely to return on or before census night, babies, days old and visitors from within the country or abroad who intend to spend census night in the household. If blank put a dash [-].

Column 9 - Number of persons - Male

Enter the male members of the household, including male visitors who are expected to stay for at least one month and persons temporarily away, or in institutions but who are likely to return on or before census night. In brief, you will wish to record all persons, visitors included, who are likely to be members of the household on census night, i.e. midnight of 15th May, 1990.
Persons who are currently inmates of institutions, such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, etc. are recorded as members of the household if by census night, they would have been inmates for less than six months. If blank put a dash [-].

Column 10 - Number of persons - Female

The number of female members must be recorded in this column. In every instance, once this column is completed correctly, the addition of columns 9 and 10 must equal the total shown in column 8.
Note that female inmates of institutions are to be treated similarly to the male members. Any inmate of less than six months should be recorded as a member of the household. If blank put a dash [-].

Column 11 - Business unit number

Business places [i.e. any building, part of a building or area associated with a building in which economic activity is carried out, e.g. dry goods store, tailor shop, etc.] must be numbered serially starting from 001. The last number appearing in this column should represent the total number of business places within the enumeration district.

Column 12 - Type of business activity

You are required to enter any information on business activity.

Column 13 - For office use only

This column is for office use only. It will be used by the census office to enter industry codes.

Column 14 - Number of paid employees

The total number of paid employees, that is, persons entered on the pay-sheets of the business place during the last pay period i.e. week, fortnight, month, etc. must be recorded in this column.

Column 15 - Size of holding [acreage] - One eight acre and over

Every respondent must be asked if he or any other member of the household operates land for agricultural purposes. If the response is yes, record the total land area operated for agricultural purposes in this column, regardless of tenure and location. The total land area should include all agricultural lands operated by members within the household despite the fact that there may be more than one holder resident in this household. The minimum area of land to be included should be one eight [1/8] of an acre or one lot.
A holder may operate more than one parcel of land and usually:
[1] Owns land for agricultural purposes;
[2] Rents land for agricultural purposes;
[3] Squats on land and operates same for agricultural purposes.
[4] Operates agricultural land which is not owned by him, the proceeds of which he may or may not share with the owner
A person who operates land for non-agricultural purposes [e.g. housing and industrial estates,] does not fall in this classification and should be excluded.

Column 16 - Principal crop

Code the principal crops as identified by the respondent up to a maximum of four [4] crops. See crop codes which have been put at the bottom of every page for your convenience.

Column 17 - Type and number of livestock kept

If the respondent rears more than one type of livestock, you are to record in coded format, up to a maximum of four [4] types, as reared by the holder including the number for each recorded type. See livestock codes which have been put at the bottom of every page for your convenience.
Livestock that are to be excluded from this classification are race horses and dogs.

Column 18 - Remarks

This column must be used for recording any information which may prove helpful e.g. call-backs, dates and times of appointment, problems in certain households to be discussed with your supervisor. If space provided is insufficient, use the pages at the back and be sure to enter the building, dwelling and household numbers along with the line and page numbers.
At the back of the visitation record space is also provided for you to record any additional information about any building, household, or business places you may visit. Use the building number, the business unit number, the name of the occupant and the household number along with the line and page number to identify a particular household or business.

Part V
The census questionnaire

The nature of the census questionnaire
[1] Introduction

The census questionnaire which you are using was tested on many occasions and found most suitable to facilitate rapid collection of data with minimum inconvenience to the respondent.

[2] Dimensions of the form

The census questionnaire is an 217 mm x 280 mm booklet, with a cover page which is to be used strictly for purposes of identification.

[3] Structure

The census questionnaire contains forty-nine [49] questions divided into ten [10] sections.
The name of each section is written in bold type at the top of the page. Section [10]-housing is to be completed for heads of households only. You must also complete, for the housing section, the identification at top of the section by referring to your visitation record.

[4] Handling of questionnaire

The census document will be punched by computer staff. It is essential that you record only one response per question except in certain instances where special instructions have been given, e.g. skip instructions.
It is of utmost importance that the questionnaires be handled with greatest care. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures [although clean and light erasures are permissible]; there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earing, etc. The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary ball point pen or other marks must appear. Keep sufficient questionnaires for the day's enumeration in the kit given to you. At the end of the day store those completed in a safe place in your home with due "care for confidentiality".

[5] How to make entries in the questionnaire

To produce a good questionnaire you will have to take great care to make entries only in the way you are instructed. If the question is pre-coded, place a tick within the box which indicates the correct response to the answer you receive. Your tick should be clear and unambiguous. Careless ticks will present difficulties of interpretation to the key punch operators who will be left puzzled as to what entry should be punched. Whenever you have to write in the answer, be legible and do not allow your writing to extend into the boxes which have been reserved for numeric data only.
P.S. Abbreviations are not accepted, since from experience they are found very difficult and sometimes impossible to decipher.

Part VI
How to complete the census questionnaire


It is important to note that in many of the items of information being collected during a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent. In some cases a deliberate attempt to mislead may be perceived. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude.
Wherever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answer being intentionally given it is the duty of the enumerator to inform his supervisor and document this fact on the questionnaire. Do not chance to your memory. On the other hand, it is possible that incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. This situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment, occupation, and income of other members of the household. Here, however, the chances are that a call-back may be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult the appropriate member[s] of the household and thus secure reliable information.
Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have therefore the possibility of total omission of the event as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward on the time scale. This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations. It is especially important in questions dealing with migration and information on fertility and union status. It is for this reason that the enumerator is strongly advised to note that linking up answers to associated questions are intended to aid the respondent to recall accurately information about long past events.

How the interview should be conducted

Hints on principles of interviewing and how to ask the census questions where respondents fail to understand the exact from of the questions in the questionnaire are given at the end of this manual. These should be studied to aid you in the interview situation. The final section of the manual will also provide additional guidelines.

The order of enumeration
Step one [1] the visitation record
Locate all buildings in your assigned enumeration district. Enquire whether anyone or persons live in the building. Establish the presence of private households living in the building. In most residential areas, the building is readily visible as a house, apartment, flat or some similar private residence. Having identified a private household, begin completing the visitation record as prescribed in your instruction.
The numbering of buildings, dwelling units and households must be done serially as explained in the visitation record. The inside cover of the visitation record also repeats detailed instructions already given in this manual on how this record should be completed. Your first task is to follow these instructions and make the necessary entries in the visitation record.
When you have finished making all the necessary entries in the visitation record for a given household, you should immediately begin to enumerate the household by completing the questionnaire. Do not go to step two [2] before step one [1] is satisfactorily completed.

Step two [2] the questionnaire
In enumerating a household transcribe from the visitation record into the cover page of the questionnaire for the country/ward code; the E.D. number, the household number, address of household, ward/parish, county, dwelling unit number, building and household number. Where the dwelling unit is closed or vacant the cover page of the questionnaire should not be completed.
In addition, insert the name of the respondent, the telephone number [if any] and the address of the household. The rest of the cover page, "result code" is to be completed at the end of the interview.

Section 1 Characteristics

Question 1 - Names of residents

You are to write in the names of all persons who are members of the household at the time of enumeration, regardless of the fact that their usual residence may be elsewhere. Persons are enumerated on the basis of "where found" at the time of enumeration in terms of their current membership.
A household will usually consist of one person or group of persons living together and sharing at least one daily meal.
Write in block letters the name [surname first and other names] of the head of the household followed by persons related to the head beginning with his/her spouse, their unmarried children, married children and their spouse's grandchildren [if any], other relatives and any other persons in the household. In the case of a baby who has not yet been named, enter the appropriate surname of the parents. When it is necessary to use more than one questionnaire change the person's number on all pages of the questionnaire e.g. 01 to 07 for the second questionnaire and 01 to13 on the third questionnaire.

Head of household

In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household. Usually it is the person who is the chief bread winner or the one who makes major decisions for that household. In any event the person recognized by the members of the household as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes. It is to be noted that the head may be of either sex. Avoid any bias in sex when determining headship.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take that member of the group as the head whom the others acknowledge as such.
A person who manages a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six guests is considered the head of that household.

Household membership

You are to include, as members of the household, inmates of clinics, hospitals, prisons, etc. who would have been inmates for less than six months as at census day.

Question 2 - Relationship to head of household

Nine types of relationships are specified here. These are:-
[1] Head
[2] Spouse/partner of head
[3] Child of head/spouse
[4] Spouse/partner of child
[5] Grandchild of head/spouse
[6] Other relative of head/spouse
[7] Domestic employee
[8] Other non-relative
[9] Not stated
If the individual is the head of the household, then tick the box "Head".

Question 3 - Sex

Tick the appropriate box for each person in the household, male or female as given by the respondent.
Note: Do not try to determine the sex of the person according to the name, ask the question.

Question 4 - Date of birth/age

You are required to write in the date of birth i.e. the day, month and year of birth for each person in the household. If the date of birth cannot be given, it is necessary to have, at least, a current estimate of the age of the person in completed years since the last birthday or as at 15th May 1990. During the preliminary enumeration it must be ascertained by you whether any member of the household has a birthday between the day you are enumerating the household and census day. You will find it necessary to circle the "person number" e.g. 01, of all persons who will be aged fifteen years between the start of enumeration on 17th April, 1990 and census day 15th May, 1990; i.e. date of birth between the 17th April and 15th May 1975. Young persons of the female sex born between 17th April and 15th May 1976 should be also identified. Such identification will assist you with sections 4, economic activity; 5, highest level of training and 8, income which apply to all persons fifteen years old and over; while section 7, fertility applies to females fourteen years old and over not attending primary or secondary school full time. For persons 99 years old and over, record age and date of birth. Every effort should be made to obtain the date of birth.
There may be instances, especially in the case of old people, where respondents do not remember their correct ages. Perhaps reference to some outstanding events, such as World Wars I, 1914-1918 and II, 1939-1945, fires, floods, or hurricanes, may be helpful. By referring to such events and by considering other information available about the individual make every effort to estimate his/her age. Do not leave the question blank. Obtain some estimate from the respondent.

Question 5 - Ethnic group

Since you will be interviewing in general one member of any household, the ethnic group ticked must be the ethnic group to which the respondent says he and other members of the household belong. It is reasonable to classify all children of parents belonging to different ethnic groups as mixed. For example, if a man of African descent is married or living common law with an East Indian woman, their children should be classified as mixed.
Accept the respondent's classification. If you think you are being misled make a note in an appropriate part of the questionnaire and inform your supervisor.

Question 6 - Religion

Write in the appropriate code which indicates the religion to which the respondent belongs. If the individual does not belong to one of the denomination/sects listed write in the name of the denomination/sect given in "other" category. Use the space also to write in "Atheist" for individuals who so respond.
For Baptists [other than "Orthodox"] Muslims and Hindus write in the particular association/sect to which the person belongs together with the name of the religion e.g. Islam-TML; Hinduism-Arian; Baptist-Spiritual, etc.

Section 2 Migration

Question [7a] - Place of birth

The information collected here must indicate the address of the mother at the time of the birth of the individual. Be sure to record the name of the town/village and, as far as possible, ward and county to facilitate coding.
The response positions for this question are laid out in two fields:
[1] Trinidad and Tobago
[2] Foreign
For persons born in Trinidad and Tobago, be sure to write out the full address of the usual place of residence of the person's mother at the time of the birth of the person in the space provided. Do not enter hospitals, nursing homes or any place other than the residence of the mother as place of birth. If the response to this question is "Trinidad and Tobago" then write out the full address in question 7[b] before going to question 8[a]. If the response is "Foreign" then skip to question 7[c].

Question 7[c] - Country of birth-for foreign born only

For persons stating "Foreign" in question 7[a], you are required to write in the individual's country of birth for those cases where the country is not pre-coded otherwise write the appropriate code in the box.

Question 7[d] - Length of stay-foreign born only

For persons indicating "Foreign" in question 7[a], please obtain from the respondent the number of years living in Trinidad and Tobago and enter it in the space provided. Length of stay must be recorded in completed years. Less than one year is recorded as 00.

Question 8[a] - Usual residence-all persons

The response positions for this question are laid out in four fields
[1] This address
[2] Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago
[3] Abroad
[9] Not stated
Please note the skip instructions.
If the response is 1 i.e. This address, skip to question 9. If 2 i.e. Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago, go to question 8[b], as directed on the questionnaire. For persons whose usual residence is abroad, you are to skip to question 9. Use the "Not stated" box to refer to persons who refuse to state their usual residence, before skipping to question 9.
Although most persons will have no difficulty in stating their place of usual residence, some confusion is bound to arise in a number of special cases where persons may appear to have more than one [1] usual residence. These cases might include persons who maintain two or more residences, students living in school away from their parental home, members of the armed forces living at a military barracks but still maintaining private living quarters away from the installation and persons who sleep away from their homes during the working week but return home for a few days at the end of the week. To avoid such problems take the place where the individual sleeps most nights of the week as his/her usual residence.

Questions 9, 10

Where these questions do not apply i.e. in cases where the individuals are less than one [1] year and less than five [5] years respectively, put not applicable [N.A.] in the space of the address.

Question 11 - Address last census

The last census was held in May 1980. There may be some persons who might not remember this date. You can assist them by telling them that the last census was taken ten [10] years ago or in May 1980. For those persons who are less than ten years old, write not applicable [N.A.] in the space for the address.

Section 3 - Education

These questions are to be answered for every individual. Whereas it is pointless to put all of these questions in respect of infants and very young and very young children, a response position must still be ticked in question 12[a] for every individual. Please note skip instructions in questions 12[a] and 14[a].

Question 12 - Attendance at school/university

In part [a] indicate whether the person is attending school or university. If the answer is yes, state in part [b] whether it is full-time or part-time attendance. All attendance at adult classes/extra mural must be recorded as attending school part-time.

Question 13 [a] - Type of school now being attended

[01] Nursery/Kindergarten school
[02] Private primary
[11] Government and assisted primary
[20] Junior secondary
[21] Trade/Vocational
[22] Youth camp
[30] Senior comprehensive
[32] Government and assisted secondary
[33] Composite
[34] Technical institute
[40] Adult/ Extra mural classes
[60] University
[90] Special school
[98] Other
[99] Not stated
Tick the relevant box which indicates the type of school being attended. Note that included under special school are schools for the blind, the deaf and other forms of mental and/or physical disability. Adult classes will include classes sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Y.W.C.A, Ministry of Community Development etc.

Question 14 [a] - Highest level of non-vocational educational attainment

The question relates to the highest standard of education attained by the respondent, [excluding vocational training which is taken up in Section 5, highest level of training] and must be obtained for all respondents-those still at school as well as those who have had some form of education whether "completed " or "on-going". In the case where the person was educated abroad, try to obtain the equivalent in the school system of Trinidad and Tobago and complete the answer. For those replying "Other" please specify, whilst for those not yet attending school tick box [8] Not Applicable. Note the skip instructions of boxes [1], [8] and [9].

Question 14 [b] - Years of formal schooling at highest level

Tick the appropriate box which indicates the number of completed years' schooling the individual had at the highest level indicated at Question 14 [a].

Question 14 [c]-highest examination ever passed

The types of examination referred to here are public examinations administered under the aegis of the Government as distinct from examinations organized within particular schools. Examinations such as Common Entrance [C. E.] and Fourteen plus [14+] are to be excluded.
Since it is possible that the individual may have passed more than one of the examinations specified, ensure that you ascertain which examination the individual considers as the highest he/she has passed and tick the appropriate box.

Section 4 - Economic activity-questions [15] to [21]
The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals have been engaged in economic activity, that is the production of goods and services for sale during the week preceding enumeration and at any time during the past twelve [12] months and, those who were not so engaged. It is essential that the enumerator understands the concept of the term work as given in question [15] and makes use of it in his interviews. Generally, work done outside Trinidad and Tobago is not relevant to the census, but work done under contract on Canadian farms by residents is to be included, as also is work by resident crew on ships and aircraft operating outside of the country.
It should be noted that priority is given to work over all other activities. Also, economic activity holds precedence over non-economic.

Question [15] - Economic activity during the past week

This question aims at classifying persons according to their economic activity during the week preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked [i.e. were economically active] and those who did not work. The possible responses and definitions are given hereunder.

[10] Had a job, worked

An individual is classified as having worked if he/she was engaged in the production of goods and services for sale, whether the job was temporary or even less than a week. Priority is given to worked/with a job over any other activity. For example, if during the week prior to enumeration the individual worked for two days and looked for work for three days, he is to be classified as worked. Usually working/with a job entails the person receiving a wage, salary or other form of recompense, but trainees and apprentices, whether paid or not, as well as unpaid helpers and family workers on commercial farms and other enterprises are also to be listed as worked. Priority is given to economic activity in the reference week of enumeration beginning with worked/had a job, not working and seeking work over such activities as home duties etc.
It is worth repeating for emphasis that temporary employment during the past week, regardless of the nature of the job, for example, LID employee, or ten-day stints, porter, car wash attendant, laborer, street vendor, etc. must be recorded as having a job. Probe eligible respondents for evidence of temporary and ad hoc nature of employment.

[11] Had a job, did not work

This category includes persons who had a job during the past week but did not work because of illness, injury or because of vacation leave or some other form of leave. Also included are persons on temporary lay-off or industrial dispute.

[20] Persons seeking first job

Persons seeking first job include those who never worked, but were actively seeking work during the past week. Note, however, you must ensure that the person does not hold a temporary or part-time job since "working" holds priority over "not working".

[21] Others seeking work

Include persons previously employed and not currently employed but actively seeking work during the past week.

[30] Wanted work and available past three [3] months

Persons wanting work and available but not actively seeking work during the past week, but have actively looked for work during the past three-months. These persons must have worked in the past.
Note: Questions [16] to [18] apply to job seekers and persons wanting work as well as persons with jobs. For those on the LID roll [Labor intensive development] and waiting for a call to work classify as wanting work.


Categories of persons who are not economically active cover persons engaged in home duties, full-time students and those retired or disabled. Persons who fall under categories [40] to [99] i.e. from "student" to "not stated", skip to question [21].
Note: "Did not want to work" refers only to those persons who are eligible for work and definitely state that they did not want work. At no time must this category refer to retired persons, old age pensioners and the disabled. Be sure to double check instances of "home duties" for males so as to ascertain that the right code has been ticked.

Question 16 - Type of worker status

The purpose of this question is to distinguish between persons who worked for others as employees [e.g. Government, Public service and Public enterprise; Non-government workers; Unpaid workers and learners]: those who had their own business or farm and employed others [paid or unpaid]. Obtain the correct information and tick the appropriate box. You are to check your list of the names of Government public enterprises if in doubt, to assist respondents who work for Government but are unsure whether it is the Public service or Public enterprise.
For job seekers and similar unemployed persons, you are to record information on job last held. Record persons seeking first job as never worked.

The type of worker status [in employment] can be defined as follows:

[i] Worked for others, i.e. employee
An employee is defined as a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates or pay in kind. Two [2] types of employees are identified:
[a] Government
-Central and local including statutory boards, Quasi government.
-Public enterprises and/or state-owned enterprises, i.e. an enterprise where government holds the controlling interest-51% or more of shares.
[b] Non-government
-Private employment
[ii] Employer [has own business/farm with paid help]
A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more paid employees.
[iii] Own account worker [has own business/farm without paid help]
A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires no employees.
[iv] Unpaid worker
A person who works in a business or farm which is run for profits, belonging to a relative or persons and who receives no payment in cash, but who benefits from the operation of the business or farm because he is a member of the proprietor's household.
[v] Learner
A person who is being taught a trade or a profession without receipt of any remuneration but contributes to the production of economic good and/or services.

Question 17 - Main type of occupation/work

You are required to write the kind of work the person has done during the past week. Where the person has done more than one job during the reference period the question relates to the principal job, this in general, will be the one at which he spent most time. Probe for a description of the main duties performed. Examples of kind of work done are "preparing pay sheets", "filling correspondence", "teaching in primary school", "selling life insurance", etc. Be as specific as possible.
The job title refers to the official name given by the employer or appearing in the union agreement to classify the actual work done and is used to determine the person's rate of pay or pay-scale. The job title should be written in as much detail as possible and vague terms must be avoided. Descriptions such as agent, apprentice, attendant, clerk, proprietor, sales man are insufficient-they must be qualified.
The following are examples of acceptable designations: House real estate agent, Life insurance agent, Chartered accountant, Departmental store sales clerk, Electrical engineer I, Bus driver, Police sergeant, Secondary school teacher or Teacher II, Maxi taxi driver, Sales manager etc.

Classifying the unemployed in relation to occupation

For those unemployed who are seeking their first job state the kind of job applied for within the past week or past three months. For all other unemployed, i.e. seeking work, wanting work, etc. record, after enquiry, the occupation or kind of work last done.

Question 18 - Industry or type of business

The industry or type of business describes the nature of the kind of economic activity or the establishment in which the economically active person worked during the past week or if unemployed, last worked or applied for work. Obtain the name of the firm. In the case of persons employed by the local or central government, write the office or department in which they worked or were employed, whilst for self-employed persons with no fixed place of work or no business name write 'self' for name of establishment.
For domestic servants or other personal service workers who worked as paid employees in private homes write in the space reserved for industry-private home.
As in the preceding question, avoid vague descriptions of the type of business. For example, do not merely record the type of business as sugar, but indicate whether it is cane-growing, sugar manufacturing [factory], etc. Similarly, show oil refinery separately from bulk oil distribution. Do not merely record oil.

Classifying the unemployed by industry

For persons seeking First Job, obtain the name of firm and kind of business to which an application was sent or employment sought. In the case of all other unemployed obtain the information on industry for the last place of employment.

Question 20 - Hours worked during the past week for person[s] with jobs coded [10] on question 15

You are required to record in this question the actual number of hours worked, including overtime whether paid for or not, during the week preceding enumeration. The term work refers to actual work done and does not as in some previous questions, include paid vacation, or sick leave. For persons working, record the number of hours actually worked, including overtime. Persons operating their own business either as self-employed or employers record the time they actually worked. Note that for persons who are paid by the "day" but work "task", the enumerator should record the hours for which they were paid. Time taken to and from work is not counted unless payment is made for such hours. Finally, as a guide in difficult cases, some estimate should be made for "hours" normally worked per week in the pre-coded categories.

Question 21 - Main activity during the past twelve months

This question aims at classifying persons aged fifteen years and over according to their main activity, that is, what they did most during the twelve-month period preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked [i.e. were economically active] and those who did not work [those who were not economically active].
Categories of persons who were not economically active in this context include persons who had never worked but who were seeking their first job, people engaged in home duties, full-time students and those retired or disabled. The term "did not want work" refers to those persons who were neither students, retired, pensioned, home duties, etc. but clearly did not wish to engage in economic activity. Discrete prompting should be used to elicit a reply.
It is to be noted that the term "most" need not be continuous.

Section 5- Highest level of training

Questions 22[a] to 26 apply to all persons fifteen [15] years old and over


This section applies to all persons fifteen years old and over. The main purpose is to distinguish between persons who have received, attempted or are now receiving special training to fit them for employment, as opposed to those who have not received any training at all.
Students in primary and secondary schools, youth camps, etc. pursuing specialized technical/craft courses as part of their general education should be probed to respond. You should probe especially for the government secondary schools where it is now a regular part of the student's education to obtain training in some craft or trade such as masonry, carpentry, motor mechanics, welding etc.
Note: "Training can be practical or theoretical under an instructor to acquire a skill or capability to perform a task to some specified standard."

Question 22[a] - Training attainment

You are required to obtain from the respondent whether or not that person has completed, attempted or is now receiving any special training to fit him/her for employment. If the response is "Yes" then go to question 22[b], otherwise skip to question 27. It is important that you be alert to probe situations where a person is recorded as a teacher II in question 17 but fails to recognize that his/her university degree in science or arts is a form of training for purposes of this section. This is considered training despite the fact that the person may not have been trained with a diploma in education. Similar situations may occur in fields such as Economics, Chemistry, Physics, etc. You should be alert to link question 17 and probe.

Note: An individual may need some help in being clear about "training". For the census, "training" is any form of learning how to perform a job, practical or theoretical, whether it is computer programming or laying of blocks, as long as the method of instruction is organized and systematic. There must be some type of formal instruction. There is no time limit to the exposure of students to training. "Training" may consist of a number of stages in a sequence of instructions e.g. "learning to lay bricks", "plastering", etc. eventually leading up to full certification as a qualified mason when all the "stages [modules]in the sequence have been completed". What is meant is that training need not be total or comprehensive. A "modular or step-by-step method" is also being considered here.

Question 22[b] - Highest level of training status

Obtain from the respondent whether or not he/she has completed, is undergoing or has attempted but did not complete any special training.

Question 23 - Field of highest level of training

If the respondent was trained or is not being trained in more than one field, then you are required to obtain from him/her the field which the person considers the highest field of training that was received or is being received. For example, some lawyers were trained also as economists. It is the respondent who will decide what he/she considers the highest field training.

Note: The field [area] of training is defined for the 1990 census as the broad subject matter area consisting of one or more courses or combination of courses sometimes commonly referred to as a program of studies either completed or being pursued by persons to fit them for employment in a specialized job/occupation or general professional, administrative, managerial, technical occupation. Respondents may have to be probed to indicate a university degree in science as their preparatory training for an occupation in Engineering or Social Sciences for an administrative career.

Question 24 - Main educational method/type of institution of highest level of training

A tick in the pre-coded box should indicate the main method or source from which the training has been completed or is being received and must relate to the field of training recorded in question 23. It is very important to determine the main method in order to facilitate office coding of question 23. For persons answering self-study or self-taught "other" Box [10] must be ticked, except in cases where they indicate that a correspondence course is being pursued. In such cases tick box [02] private study.

Method by which training was acquired
The method by which training was acquired can be classified in the following groups:-

[01] On-the-job training
This refers to training received while the person is in the service of the establishment or a tradesman. [On-the-job training could take various forms e.g. a short course offered at the place of employment to acquire a specific skill].
[02] Private study
This refers to forms of training such as correspondence courses or that acquired either through the reading of books, such as teach yourself manuals, written instructions or oral instructions such as radio and television programs.
[03] Secondary schools
This category refers to the government and assisted, as well as private secondary schools providing a broad base of general education for children over eleven years of age.
[04] Y.T.E.P.P
This category refers to the government's youth training employment partnership program.
[05] Vocational, trade, commercial

[a] Commercial schools/secretarial colleges
Commercial schools and secretarial colleges can be described as educational institutions which offer courses in one or more of the commercial subjects, e.g. typing, shorthand, accountancy, business management, etc.
[b]Vocational/trade schools
A vocational or trade school is one which offers courses in trades such as welding, pipe-fitting, carpentry, printing, book-binding, electrical wiring, etc. Educational institutions such as Servol, Youth camps and the trade schools attached to various oil fields are included in this category.
[06] Technical institute
Training provided in "technical institutes" within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago's educational system is usually at the technical level. Admission to the institutes, in most cases, will require completion of a full five-year secondary education as a minimum. Within the UNESCO ISCED system, education at this level may be classified as "Third level first stage of the type that leads to an award not equivalent to a first university degree". Typical examples are John S Donaldson, San Fernando technical school and ECIAF.
[07] Other institutional-training
Training provided at a level above secondary education for teachers, nurses, police, etc. The level of instruction requires that students must have completed their secondary education.
[08] University
Training provided at an institution offering courses which lead to the level of a degree.
[10] Other
This category refers to training acquired through all other methods not previously stated. These include such methods as self-taught, trial and error etc.

Question 25 - Period of training at highest level for persons trained or being trained

For those persons whose training is completed, or who had attempted but did not complete training, you are required to obtain the time spent being trained. For those who indicated that their training is ongoing [i.e.] tick in box [2] of question 22[b] obtain from them the tome completed to date on training and tick the relevant box.

Question 26 - Qualification/certification received on completion of training

This question is only for those persons who have completed training i.e. for those ticking box 1 in question 22 [b]. Six [6] response positions are recorded here. None, Certificate [with examination], Certificate [without examination], Diploma, Degree and Other. You are required to tick only one box. There are cases in which more than one qualification may be received as a result of preparing oneself in a specified field of training. Let the respondent decide upon the highest qualification received.

Section 6 - Marital status

Question 27 - Marital status

This question is for all persons fourteen [14] years old and over and not currently attending primary or secondary school full-time. Emphasis here is placed on the presence of legal sanction of the association which should not be confused with "Union Status". Marital status carries a five-fold classification as follows:
Never Married - This category covers all individuals 14 years old and over who have never been married.
Married - This covers all married persons whether or not they are living with partners to whom they are married. Also to be included in this category are persons married according to Hindu or Muslim rites, whether or not these marriages have been formally registered. A person living apart though not legally separated from his or her married partner is to be recorded as married.
Widowed - This covers all married persons whose partners have died.
Legally separated - This applies where married persons are living apart and separated by a court order.
Divorced - This covers all persons whose marriages have been dissolved by legal proceedings.
Note to interviewer: There may be instances where the couple may be living apart but the divorce has not been made final. Such persons are not to be entered as divorced but as married or legally separated as the case may be.

Section 7 - Fertility

Questions 28-31
This section applies only to females fourteen [14] years of age and over and who are not currently attending primary or secondary school full-time.

Question 28 - Number of live births ever had

You may wish to introduce this section as follows:- "Now I would like to ask a few census questions on number of live births, age at birth of first live born child, etc. of all female members of this household who are fourteen [14] years of age and over and not currently attending primary or secondary school full-time". Although the question may be sensitive you should not ask the question in an apologetic tone or change your approach. Should you do this, you will discourage response or cause the respondent to observe your hesitancy to ask the question. Act naturally and maintain the pace of the interview.
Note to interviewer: The information sought is not the number of children alive at the time of the census but the total number of live born children the woman ever had, whether currently residing with her or elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago or abroad. Included, also, are those who were born alive but are now dead. However, still births are not to be included. Remember a live birth occurs when a baby cries or shows other signs of life when born. If the respondent states none then enter [0] [0] in the boxes provided. If none is entered for question 28 then skip to question 30[b].

Question 29 - Age at birth of first live born child

This question does not apply to those persons answering none [0][0] in question 28.
Record in completed years the age of the woman at the time of birth of her first live born child. Answers to this question may prove useful in arriving at the estimate of the woman's present age as well as checking for inconsistencies.

Question 30 - Number of live births/still births past twelve [12] months

If the response in question 28 is [0][0] [none], question 30 [a] should not be asked. In all other cases tick the appropriate box which indicates the response, for example, one, two, etc.

Question 30 [b] - Still births

Record the still births separately in question 30 [b]. Remember that a still birth occurs when a baby is born dead i.e. shows no signs of life at birth. It is possible, although the rate of occurrence is low, for a woman to have more than one delivery in the twelve [12] months preceding enumeration.

Question 31 - Union status at present or at age 45

The response to this question must indicate the type of family association in which the woman is or had been engaged. This question refers to females only. In the case of women under 45 years of age, it refers to the relationship or association existing at the time of the census. In the case of women over 45 years of age it must describe the relationship existing at the time when she was 45 years old. Six response positions are possible here. Three of these, "married", "common-law" and "visiting" describe the type of union, whereas the other three, "no longer living with husband", "no longer living with common-law partner" and "never had a husband or partner" indicate the absence of a union at present or at age 45. Where a woman has had a child during the twelve [12] months preceding the census, three response positions are possible- "married", "common-law" and "visiting".
A woman must only be ticked as being in a "visiting" union if she had a birth [live or still] within the twelve [12] month period preceding the census. This response must not be probed.

Question 32

These questions apply to all persons 15 years and over whether working or not and are intended to reflect the situation which existed during the past [12] months. You are to obtain income data to complete question 32[b] for those persons on a pension or living off their investments as well as the unemployed who may receive income from odd jobs or other sources. Income here refers to money received from all sources e.g. gifts, remittances from abroad, rents, interest, dividends, and financial support. It should be noted here that as long as the individual is fifteen years or older the response cannot be box [8]. Where the response is box [7] or [8] the next question to be answered is question 33.

Question 32[a] - Last pay/income period past twelve [12] months

Obtain from the respondent whether the gross income relates to a week, fortnight, month, quarter or other time period. For persons who are either out of the labor force or on pension, record the period of time during which receipts of income are usually obtained. Be careful to specify in other, Box [6] of quest ion 32 [a] the actual time reference of payment, i.e. year, task work, etc.

Question 32[b] - Gross income [nearest dollar]

Your entry here must be in relation to the last pay/income period ticked, and should be recorded to the nearest dollar. Obtain income from each source separately then add to get total. For persons ticking box [5] or [6] in question 16. Gross income should be net income after normal business expenses. These persons may quote annual income. Please note that net income is total income less salaries and business operating expenses, especially with reference to the "self-employed" for those persons replying "none" in Question 32[a] record income as [0][0][0][0][0], in Question 32[b], whilst for all others ticking 6 in Question 32 [a] record income in the blank space above the boxes in question 32[b] . The census office will make the necessary calculations and enter the correct amount. In cases where the income flash card is used, record the code for the group indicated.
Note to interviewer: Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn. Often they do not even tell their own family or friends, you must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must emphasize, if called upon to explain, that it is not intended to pry into the private affairs of the individual and that the information is required only to work out estimated average income per individual for the entire country. As a last resort use the "income flash card" supplied to you.

Section 9 - Census night

This section is to be completed on the day after census day i.e. 16th May, 1990. During the preliminary enumeration, you will be expected to complete section 10 after completing section 8.

Question 33 - Where did [the respondent] spend census night?

Census night refers to the period up to midnight on the 15th May, 1990. All members of the household enumerated in the preliminary enumeration and found absent on census night either because of death, no longer a member of the household, institutionalized, etc. or through permanent migration must be deleted from the household and an entry made in the relevant person number or the "Comments Section" at the back of the questionnaire. This does not apply to those persons, who because of their work, are away from the household on census night. Such persons include security personnel, watchmen, nurses, doctors, fishermen, taxi drivers, wardsmaids and other hospital personnel etc. These persons are to be ticked as having spent census night in the household.
It must be noted, however, that members of the household who were temporarily away on census night should be left as members of the household and box [2], [3], [4], [5] of this question ticked. Babies born prior to midnight of the 15th May, 1990 are to be included in the household and sections 1-3 completed for such individuals, as well as suitable amendments made to section 7. Temporary visitors, as well as persons who joined the household subsequent to the preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in that household, are to be enumerated on Wednesday May 16, i.e. during the Census Night check as additions, that is new members of the household. Such situations may arise through marriage or returning residents from abroad.
It must be remembered that persons who have been in hospitals and prisons or similar institutions for a period of six [6] months or more are to be commented upon individually at the back of the questionnaire by the relevant person number.

N.B. Heads of households should now complete section 10-Housing.

Section 10 - Housing


The main objectives of section 10 - Housing are to obtain accurate and reliable information on the housing stock, the condition of housing, and measures of overcrowding. Section 10 is to be completed for the head of household only.


You are to complete the required information for the identification of the household being enumerated which must tally with the visitation record, and the cover page of the questionnaire. It is not necessary to burden the respondent with questions repeated here for which you already obtained responses during the early part of the interview. For example, the name of the head of the household and the respondent should already have been determined.

Question 34 - Type of building

You are required to tick the particular type of building that is being enumerated. The function or purpose to which the building is put must be recorded and not the architectural style. There are six categories:-
[1] Mainly residential
[2] Residential and commercial
[3] Commercial
[4] Industrial
[5] Community service-private/government
[6] Other
Community service building refers to a building used primarily in the interest of the public and provides a service [e.g. hospital, community center, government building, sports club]. Your supervisor can assist you with any concepts not clear with respect to the above categories.

Question 35 - Material of outer walls

The information sought in this question is to identify the type of material of which the outer walls of the building is made. The types of material specified are:-
This applies to buildings where the walls are made of hollow clay blocks or concrete bricks whether plastered or unplastered.
-Concrete, including concrete blocks
This includes walls made of both concrete and concrete blocks with steel reinforcements as well as reinforced concrete structures.
-Wood and concrete
This applies when the walls are made of both types of material.
-Wood and brick
This includes walls made of both wood and concrete or hollow clay blocks.
Tick this if the walls are made solely of wood.
This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle dabbed with mud. Walls made of tapia must also be included under this type.
Tick this box for other types of material of construction of outer walls not previously described.

Question 36 - Year when building was built

This question seeks to determine the year when the structure was originally built. In some cases, the owner/occupant of the dwelling may not be able to tell you the year when the structure was built. Diligent enquiries from persons who have been living for a long time in the area may assist you in arriving at an accurate estimate. It is to be noted that the pre-coded time periods permit an approximation. You may also find it useful to enquire from the occupier or owner how long he/she has been living at that address.
In the case of buildings which have been re-conditioned or have undergone major structural changes, record the year when the major structural changes were completed.
There may be instances where a structure, though not completed, is occupied by a household. In such cases you must record the period or year in which the incomplete structure was occupied for the first time. In these cases, for the purpose of the census, occupancy and not structural completion characterizes a finished building.

Characteristics of the dwelling unit

Question 37 - Tenancy

Tenure refers to the legal and financial arrangements under which a household is occupying its living quarters and the land on which it stands. The pre-coded categories are as follows: -
[1] Owned
This category applies when the head or any other member of the household owns the dwelling/land, or is in the process of buying the dwelling land.
[2] Rented-private
Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling/land from an individual or a company. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.
[3] Rented-government
This applies if the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling/land from government or government agency.
[4] Leased
A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract which stipulates, in advance, the total rental sum for the dwelling/land during a fixed duration of the contract. This total sum may be paid in advance or by installments.
[5] Rent-free
When the head of the household does not pay a rent for the occupancy of the dwelling/land by the household, a tick should be scored in this box.
[6] Squatted
This applies when households are found occupying a building or dwelling unit/land without permission of the owner or any legal rights to property.
[7] Other
This description refers to situations where the head or members of the household are occupying the dwelling/land under conditions different from those specified above.

Question 38 - Type of dwelling

The information to be recorded in this question must relate to the building or part of the building used for residential accommodation by private households. There is also a pictorial chart which will further assist you in classifying dwelling units.
The pre-coded categories are as follows:-
[01] Separate house
Defines a dwelling unit which takes up the complete building; it may be inhabited by one or more households.
[02] Flats/apartments
Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multi-storied building.
Apartments should be ticked where the household occupied part of the building but has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, or gallery, etc.
[03] Town house/wafda
A block of self-contained units with separate legal title to ownership. Sometimes common facilities such as security and grounds may be shared.
[04] Double house/duplex
A dwelling joined to only one other dwelling, separated from it by a wall extending from ground to roof, i.e. one or two dwellings attached side by side, having no other dwellings either above or below and separated by open space from all other structures.
[05] Part of commercial/industrial building
This type of dwelling would be ticked when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as business places, lodges, garages, etc.
[06] Barracks
A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.
[07] Outroom
A room or rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household i.e. servant's quarters, etc.
[08] Other private dwelling
Mobile homes, derelict vehicles, etc. In short, a dwelling in conditions different from those specified above.
[09] Group dwellings
These have already been defined and refer to certain types of institutions i.e. boarding houses, hotels, hostels.
[10] Other
A category which describes a type of accommodation not defined from [01] to [09].

Question 39 - Single or multiple occupancy

This question seeks to find out if the dwelling unit is being shared. If the answer is "yes" then a follow-up question must be asked to determine the number of households [sharing] or occupying the dwelling unit.

Question 40 - Water supply

The information recorded here should indicate how the household obtains its water supply, whether it is piped water within the dwelling unit, piped water outside the dwelling unit or any other specific source. You should note that the primary source of supply is not being sought in this question.
[1] Public piped into dwelling
Describes a condition where running water from a public source is piped directly into the dwelling unit. It is to be noted that in cases where both truck-borne supplies and intermittent supplies from a public reservoir are used, public piped takes precedence over truck -borne.
[2] Public piped into yard
Applies in situations where the household receives running water from a public source through a pipe in the yard or compound on which the dwelling stands.
[3] Private piped into dwelling
Refers to the water supply received by a household from a private source and piped into the dwelling. Such situations will occur, for example, where the household pumps water from a river or pond through pipes directly to the dwelling.
[4] Private catchment not piped
Obtains where the water supply to the household is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.
[5] Public stand pipe
Obtains when water is available to the household from a stand pipe in the street or elsewhere.
[6] Truck-borne [and not piped into dwelling]
This applies in a limited sense to a truck-borne water supply where the sole source of water to the household is truck borne. The water supply by truck must be from a public source. For example, the household stores its water in drums or barrels which are filled by a truck borne supply.
It is to be noted, again, that in cases of intermittent supplies from a public source, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne, especially where pipes are already laid from the mains to the house.
[7] Spring/river
This applies when the main water supply available to the dwelling is from a spring or river.
[8] Other
Obtains when the dwelling receives its water supply from a source not specified e.g. well, pond, etc. and there is no pipe borne supply.

Question 41[a] type of toilet facilities

This describes the type of toilet facility available to the household as being pit or latrine. This toilet facility is not water-borne.
-W.C. linked to sewer
This toilet facility is flush or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.
-W.C not linked to sewer
This toilet facility is water-borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit [soak-away].
This category refers to all types of toilet facilities not described above.
Applies if no toilet facilities are available to the household on the premises. Immediately after such an entry is made, question 41[b], box [8] must be ticked to indicate that the question does not apply.

Question 41[b] - Are facilities shared or not shared?

[1] Shared
[2] Not shared
[8] Not applicable
Remember to tick box [8] where no toilet facilities exist.

Question 42[a] - Number of bedrooms

Bedrooms are rooms used exclusively for sleeping. There must be some permanency about the walls enclosing the bedroom. A dwelling unit which uses a room for other activities by day and sleeping by night has "no bedrooms". Makeshift arrangements, blinds etc. do not count as rooms.

Question 42 [b] - Bedrooms available for use or occupied by household

This question seeks to obtain a more accurate measurement of persons per bedroom by relating the actual number of bedrooms occupied or available for use by the major household in cases where the dwelling unit is shared with one or more households. For example, there may be three [3] bedrooms in a dwelling unit to be shared by two households consisting of ten [10] persons altogether. There will be errors in the analysis if each household separately is considered as having three [3] bedrooms available. Hence, question 42[b] is introduced and must be asked where there is double, triple, etc. household occupancy as the case may be. Do not ask question 42[b] if the dwelling unit is occupied by only one [1] household.

Question 43 - Number of rooms

A room is defined as an area permanently separated, by means of walls, from other parts of the building; but excludes galleries, bathrooms, toilets, pantries, corridors, kitchens. You are required to tick the pre-coded number of rooms occupied or available for use by the household for living purposes. Include as rooms, living rooms, bedrooms, dining rooms, sewing rooms, libraries, servant rooms [attached or detached] from the main building.
If you find a room with a portion curtained off with a temporary partition, the whole area must be counted as one room. If, however, there is a permanent partition dividing the floor area, you must count this as two rooms. Curtains or blinds do not separate rooms, walls and permanent partitions do. Tick the appropriate pre-coded box on the questionnaire.

Question 44 - Household facilities available

This question seeks to obtain information on household facilities owned and enjoyed by households.
A tick in the pre-coded box for each household facility is required.

Question 45

This question seeks to find out whether any member of the household left to live abroad during the past ten [10] years.
Note: If the response is "no" or "not stated", end the interview for the household. Do not ask questions 46-49.

Questions 46-49
These questions are to be answered if the response to question 45 is "yes".

Question 46

You are required to write in the number of males and females who have left the household to reside abroad.

Question 47

Please enter the number against the country shown in questionnaire.

Question 48

Please enter the number of persons within age group shown, at time of leaving.

Question 49

Please enter the number of those who left the country and have since returned to live here permanently.

Things you must do on the day after census day that is on Wednesday May 16, 1990

These instructions are to further assist you in completing section 9 for all members of the household taken individually; and, also to locate all households occupying buildings.
Check all buildings in order to see whether any which were not occupied at the preliminary enumeration were occupied on census day. So far as checks on individual households are concerned your prime consideration is to ascertain whether there have been any changes in the numerical composition of the household.
Additions to a household may arise as a result of births; arrivals of members who were temporarily away at the time of preliminary enumeration; all other persons who have joined in the household since preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in the household. The names and particulars of such persons should be written after the last recorded entry, and the fact that these additions are made on the day after census day must be stated in the remarks column at the back of the questionnaire.
Subtractions from a household may arise as a result of deaths or permanent departures of any member of the household since preliminary enumeration. In addition the non-arrival of any person who at the time of preliminary enumeration was expected to spend census night in the household must be deleted. A bold line should be drawn through the line referring to such persons and the reasons for these deletions should be noted in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.
Having assured yourself that any changes that may be necessary in the numerical composition of the household have been made, you must next consider what alterations in the characteristics of the remaining members may become necessary. Such changes will most likely have to be made in question 2-relation to head, and questions 26-30-marital status and fertility.
As a general rule, when in doubt, give detailed notes relating to an individual under query in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.

Basic summary of enumeration procedures
1 Contact a responsible person in each building visited and explain why you are calling. Show your precept i.e. your identification card.
2 Make sure the building is residential in whole or part and privately occupied.
3 Find out how many households there are by an introductory question such as "Can you tell me who lives here, please?"
4 Deal with each household, if more than one, in turn.
5 Ascertain that the members of the household are expected to be present on census night, i.e. 15th May, 1990.
6 Ask for the name of the head of household and complete the visitation record.
7 Complete the appropriate number of census questionnaires for each household being mindful to promptly enter the identifying number from your visitation record. Do not leave this task for the end of the interview.
8 Do not trust your memory during an interview. Promptly record responses and tick the appropriate pre-coded boxes during the course of the interview. Follow faithfully the instructions in the questionnaire and the wording of the questions. These have been field-tested to provide consistent information.
9 Make sure that you have not missed any members of the household enumerated or other households sharing accommodation with the household just enumerated.
10 Confirm to be sure of complete coverage whether any part of the building might be occupied separately and independently by another or other households before visiting another building. Always thank the respondent for their co-operation.