Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart


Republic of Trinidad and Tobago central statistical office
1980 Population and Housing census
Enumerator's Manual

[Table of contents omitted]

Part I
Introduction

1. What is a population census?

A modern population census may be defined as the total process of collecting, compiling, and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all persons in a country at a specified time. A census can also be described as a form of national stock taking. The census is a complete count of the population and provides detailed benchmark data on the size of the population, age structure, educational attainment, labor force and other socio-economic characteristics.

2. Why is a population census being taken?

Since 1970 when the last population census was taken, the population has increased through the excess of births over deaths. Persons have also moved from one place to another within the country causing some areas to grow in population while others to show a decrease. Significant changes have taken place in the economy since the "oil crisis" and the economic boom of the mid-seventies. The educational system has changed considerably and more school places have become available. The population census of 1980 is designed to provide the information needed to assess these changes as well as to provide benchmark data on which to base plans affecting the economic and social status of the population.

In spite of the fact that there has been a slowing down in population growth since the last census, the new prosperity and diversification of industry in the oil sector have increased demands for a wide variety of services and infrastructure such as roads, water and electricity, schools to provide scientific and technical education, houses and industrial sites. Information yielded by the 1980 population census about the growth and movement of the population, education, training and housing will therefore be invaluable to those organizations both public and private which have the responsibility to meet these needs. Without such basic data, planning will be virtually impossible.

Businessmen and industrialists will also receive great assistance from the 1980 census. The data from the census will enable them to plan their sales programs more effectively; identify potential markets; determine strategic points for siting their business to take advantage of population redistribution; and, in general, to perform more efficiently by complementing census data with other statistics produced by the central statistical office.

3. How is a population census taken?

[1] While the term census is generally taken to mean counting of the country's population and the recording of certain of their characteristics at a particular point in time, several distinct operations have to be completed before a picture of the population can be presented.

[2] In the first place, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled the next step is to organize the collection of the data in the field under careful supervision. Trained enumerators visit every building in the country in order to interview members of households and record the necessary information on questionnaires. These questionnaires or documents on which the required information is entered are the basic instruments of enumeration. Therefore, if the quality of enumeration is very good the final tables of tabulations which will be eventually published will also be of a high quality and usable for policy formulation.

[3] After the questionnaires have been completed in the field they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. A sample of the field interviews will be rechecked in the field during enumeration by the supervisor and after enumeration by trained central statistical office staff to assess quality. When all checking has been completed in the office and field another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for processing, the first stage of which involves data being directly transferred to magnetic tape. The data on magnetic tape will then undergo further processing by computer. The final stage is the production of the tabulations which constitute the basis of the census report.

4. Units of enumeration

Four units of enumeration are used in carrying out the Trinidad and Tobago 1980 Population and Housing Census. These are:
[i] Buildings.
[ii] Dwelling Units.
[iii] Private Households.
[iv] Persons.

The definition of these various units of enumeration are provided later in the instructions.

5. Place of enumeration

Buildings and dwelling units [i.e. places of residence within buildings] have a fixed location and should provide little difficulty. Information on households, however, and the persons in households can be collected and entered in the census questionnaire either "where they spent census night", or at their "usual residence". The 1980 Population and Housing Census of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago attempts to collect both sets of information. It is important to note that persons are enumerated on the basis of "where they spent census night". The procedure for persons who are away from their usual residence at the time of the census is detailed later in the instructions. The persons most affected are the military, the security services, medical personnel, marine personnel, etc. The instructions will give procedures on how to handle these.

6. Time of enumeration

An essential feature of any census is that the enumeration or count must refer to a particular point in time, referred to as a reference period. The national census has as its reference period the 12th May, 1980, designated census day, and the census moment is at midnight of census day, that is, the end of census day, 12th May, 1980.

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is using the procedure of pre-enumerating the population before census day. Pre-enumeration is scheduled to begin on the 14th of April, 1980.

7. Information to be collected

Data are collected in the census on age, sex, religion, occupation, housing et cetera for purposes of social and economic planning. This manual will provide details on how best to collect census information.

8. The respondent: person who provides census information

Whenever possible, the acknowledged head of the household should be interviewed. Information should be obtained from children only when absolutely necessary. Any responsible adult person, at least fifteen years old, can give information on members of the household. More information will be given on this in your training. It is of course desirable to obtain information directly from members of the household where this is possible. This is advisable to ensure the accuracy of the data supplied. In particular, data on age, economic activity, occupation, education, training, and income are best obtained in an interview from the person concerned.

9. Relationship to other countries

The census of any country is of greater value if it can be compared with censuses of other countries which are taken at approximately the same time. Many countries throughout the world will be taking population censuses in 1980. It has been agreed, in principle, among the governments of the Commonwealth Caribbean that census day [12th May, 1980] will be the same throughout the region. All the participating countries will use a set of common core questions to facilitate regional comparability. Similar concepts, definitions and procedures will be used in order to ensure a high degree of comparability and consistency throughout the area.

10. The importance of your role in the population census

1 As an enumerator you play a vital part in the census operations. You are one of the many important links in the entire operation. Every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate answers to questions and to record these according to your instructions. You can only do this if you really understand the instructions and ask your supervisor when you do not know what to do.

2 The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the interest you take and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow enumerators perform your tasks. You therefore hold a key position in this important undertaking.

3 The respondent must also co-operate with you. Your manner of approach, mode of dress, and speech will help. Our publicity program will make your task easier but you must also try to display patience, tolerance and tact, which are the prerequisites of a good enumerator.

11. Standards of performance

Quality must be your watchword. Your assignment can be completed within the prescribed period. The preparatory work which went into planning the 1980 census has shown this.

[1] Planning your travel-Hold travel to a minimum by planning.
[2] Reduction of call-backs-You can do this by planning your visits when respondents will be home from work. Obtain some help from neighbors after duly identifying yourself or leave your "call-back" card. Reduce costs by grouping your call-backs.
[3] Efficient conduct of interview-Only through familiarity with the questionnaire and skip instructions will you be able to do your job efficiently and accurately.
[4] Reinterview-The census organization will reinterview some of the households you enumerated to ensure your performance attained the required standard.

12. Census information is confidential

The law requires that all information collected for the census must be kept confidential. When you accept the job of enumerator you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone who is not a sworn employee of the census organization. This means that you must not give any census information under any circumstances even to members of your family. The census is being taken under laws appropriate to each of the participating countries. Do not leave your questionnaires lying unprotected. The assurance of confidentiality will put many a hesitant respondent at ease.

13. Census information used only in totals

Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction because you will be asking for information which they do not normally make available to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. They are:

[a] All enumerators engaged on the census have taken an oath of secrecy.

[b] Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any enumerator or person engaged in census work to make unauthorized disclosures of information to any individual or organization whatsoever.

[c] The information collected will be used solely in the preparation of tables showing the structure and size of the population as a whole. Information about a particular individual is merely a unit essential in deriving overall totals but will never be used as relating to that individual.

Part II
General Instructions

14. Your assignment

Your assignment is first to record basic information in the visitation record and complete questionnaire[s] for each household according to the instructions given herein.

Special enumerators will have the responsibility for the detailed enumeration of non-private dwellings. In a very special way you are the key person in the census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. A report is only as good as the information that goes into it. It is imperative that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.

15. Pre-enumeration procedure

[1] While the aim of the census is to determine the number and characteristics of persons to be found in each locality of the country on census day, that is the 12th May, 1980, this cannot be accomplished satisfactorily in one day. In fact, enumeration is a process planned to last approximately three [3] weeks.

[2] On Monday 14th April, 1980 or earlier your supervisor will take you to your enumeration district and show you its boundaries. When you have become familiar with your district and with the route to be taken when enumerating, you are in a position to commence the preliminary enumeration. This involves visiting every building in your district and recording the names and particulars of persons who expect to be spending census night there.

[3] Preliminary enumeration must be completed by Tuesday 6th May, 1980. As each batch of questionnaires is completed, it must be thoroughly checked by you, and handed over to your supervisor. On or before census day, your supervisor will return the questionnaires to you and it is then your duty to begin the final check of the position of your district on the day after census day, i.e. 13th May, 1980.

16. The day after census day activity

On the 13th May, 1980, you will revisit each building and ascertain whether you have omitted any households, or, for that matter, if there are any changes. Additions to a household e.g. births, visitors from abroad who were not taken up during preliminary enumeration will necessitate the additional information on the questionnaire for the new member of the household, while departures from the household will necessitate an indication at the appropriate person and line number of the questionnaire or a cancellation of the information on a person in the case of death while noting in the remarks section of the questionnaire that the person died. These instructions also hold for persons who have changed their usual residence between the period of preliminary enumeration and census day. As will be emphasized in this manual, no attempt is to be made to check all the information collected during pre-enumeration. Your duty at this stage is to ensure one hundred percent coverage.

Note, however, that in the event of a birth to a member of the household, questions 29-32 will have to be amended. This is the only case in the census where after census day you will have to amend the particulars of a member of the household.

17. Your supervisor

You will be working under the supervision and direction of your supervisor who will:

[1] Be involved in your training.
[2] Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed.
[3] Give you your assignment.
[4] Supply you with your enumeration materials.
[5] Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve i.e. your supervisor has been asked to revisit some of the respondents after you have interviewed them.
[6] See that you understand and follow the instructions in this book and those given at training classes.
[7] See that you complete your assignment within the specified time.
[8] Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment only for work of an acceptable quality.
[9] Be the link between you and the headquarters of the Census.
[10] Assist you in solving any difficulties in the field.

You must at all times keep in close touch with your supervisor, letting him know where you may be found, meeting him at such times and places as he may direct, and following carefully the instructions which he gives you. All appointments with your supervisor must be kept.

18. Your enumeration kit

In order to carry out your assignment you will be given by your supervisor all the necessary documents and materials.

In addition, you will receive a letter of appointment as a census enumerator and an identification precept. These must be carried around with you at all times during your duty as an enumerator. Always make sure that you show your identification to establish the legality of your position as a Census enumerator.

The materials handed to you for the completion of your task as an enumerator are the property of the census office and your claim for payment will not be honored until your supervisor receives the following from you at the end of enumeration:

[a] The enumeration district map and description.
[b] All completed questionnaires duly secured.
[c] The visitation record.
[d] The identification precept.
[e] The unused questionnaires and ball-point pens.
[f] The bag for holding all materials.
[g] All other used and unused materials.

19. Your hours of work

You should not expect to work regular hours during enumeration. Bear in mind that you will have to adjust your working hours to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this may often mean making calls early in the morning and more particularly in the afternoon and early evenings, as well as on weekends.

20. Your enumeration district [E.D] map

As was indicated above, your materials for enumeration include a sketch-map of your enumeration district, together with a description of its boundaries. It must be pointed out that this sketch-map is not drawn to scale. Every effort has been made prior to the census to update your map and make it serviceable. However, problems may still exist. Whenever you are in doubt, seek clarification from your supervisor.

Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your enumeration district. He will also point out to you whatever errors he may have found on the enumeration district map as received from head office. You must however correct your enumeration district map where necessary by crossing out streets which cannot be located, demolished buildings, etc. which do not exist, drawing in new buildings, and correcting street names and roads which may have been omitted from the map.

All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor immediately. Should you find any errors in the description, write these out below in the description of the enumeration district.

Key points with respect to your E.D. map
[i] Your map is the basic instrument to locate your enumeration district.
[ii] It identifies clearly the boundaries of your workload/assignment.
[iii] Provides a specific route for you to follow to complete enumeration.
[iv] Provides a one to one link with your visitation record. Therefore, each building you visit must be serially numbered on your map with a corresponding number on your visitation record.
[v] Provides at an instant the progress of your work in the field.
[iv] Permits the census office to check for completeness of coverage.

21. Know your enumeration district

The boundaries have been clearly marked on your enumeration district map and the starting point indicated.

If a street, road, river, canal, alley, road junction or other feature, forms one of its boundaries, be sure you know which side of it is in your enumeration district. You will cause a great deal of trouble and double counting of the population if you enumerate households belonging to another enumerator's enumeration district.
On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook nor forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you. Every household in your area, no matter how remote, must be enumerated to ensure that the census is complete in its coverage.

If a householder tells you that an enumerator has already collected information from him, make certain that the enumerator is engaged in population census work and not in any other survey. Since there may be surveys by the central statistical office in the field at the same time or surveys conducted by other government agencies, you should not accept their word lightly.

If the household has in fact been previously enumerated by another census enumerator, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other enumerator is working in your area by mistake and there will be double counting of the population.

22. Ensure that you locate all households

Your map will indicate the direction to be followed in covering your enumeration district. Your supervisor will check these with you and if necessary introduce some amendment. It is especially important in covering rural districts to ensure that all sections of your enumeration district especially those which appear to be uninhabited are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or difficult to reach. You must number each building on your map in serial order beginning at 001. Those numbers must correspond with the building numbers entered in the visitation record. It has been found useful in rural areas to make a chalk-mark on a building enumerated in an appropriate spot to avoid later double counting.

23. Enumerate every household

Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures, even temporary shacks and mobile houses which may be located away from main roads. In rural areas, especially, the evidence of tracks may lead to a dwelling. The census must account for everyone.

Within your enumeration district there may be hotels, boarding houses, nursing homes, hospitals, police stations, fire stations, and other institutional households. Detailed instructions on the treatment of institutions, some of which will require special methods of enumeration will be given to you by your supervisor. Your responsibility, nonetheless, is to record the existence of these institutions on your visitation record.

Part III
Some basic concepts and definitions

Introduction

Before discussing the census questions and how they are to be asked, it is necessary for you to grasp some basic concepts and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which are used frequently in the instructions for enumeration. Concepts and definitions not supplied here can be referred to your supervisor.

If during the course of enumeration there is a case which is not covered by your instructions make a note of it in your visitation record and refer it to your supervisor for his/her advice.

Non-private dwelling/Group dwellings/Institutions

An institution is defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons. These institutions have been divided into two major groups.

Group A: includes institutions such as hotels and large boarding houses which cater for six [6] or more paying guests, hotels, hostels, barracks, etc., the inhabitants of which, like the general non-institutional population, may engage in normal economic activity.

Group B: includes hospitals and nursing homes, prisons, leprosaria and such institutions where inmates, during the period that they are in the institution, will in general not take part in any normal economic activity.

Buildings

The building is the most important unit of enumeration since each building, that is an independent physical structure, must be accounted for on the enumeration district map and recorded in the visitation record. It is the major means of checking progress in the field and the coverage of the census.

A building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent from any other comprising one or more rooms, or other spaces, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof and designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes, or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings, for example detached kitchens, toilets, servants quarters, garages, etc. A building may be a factory, shop, detached dwelling, apartment building, warehouse, repair shop, poultry pen, etc.

Dwelling unit

A dwelling unit is any building or separate and independent part of a building in which a person or group of persons are living at the time of the census enumeration. The essential features of a dwelling unit are "separateness and independence." An enclosure is separate if surrounded by walls or other form of partitioning, covered by a roof so that a person or group of persons, can isolate themselves from other persons for purposes of sleeping, preparing and sharing meals. It is independent when it has direct access from the street or common landing, staircase, passage or gallery, when occupants can come in and go out of it without passing through anybody else's accommodation. Examples of "dwelling units" are separate houses, flats/apartments, condominiums, townhouses, barracks, part of commercial buildings, group dwellings.

The key concept for a dwelling unit is separateness and independence. Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance without having to pass through another household's living quarters [dwelling unit].

Private dwelling

Private type dwellings are those in which private households reside. Examples are single houses, flats, apartments, outrooms, part of commercial buildings, boarding houses catering for less than six persons.

Household

A private household consists of one or more persons living together [i.e. sleep most nights of the week with the household] and sharing at least one of the main daily meals. In general, therefore, a household will comprise a father, mother and children living together. It is important to note, however, a member of the household is not necessarily a relative of the main family. For example, a boarder or a servant who sleeps in most nights of the week and shares at least one of the daily meals is also included as a member of the household. The concept of the household and family is not the same. It is possible to encounter more than one family constituting a single household once they share common living arrangements.

Certain other living arrangements will be met in the field and further guidance can be obtained from the following rules:

1. Even if a person has recently moved in with a group of persons as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them that person is to be considered a member of the household.

2. A boarding house which caters for less than six [6] boarders/lodgers is to be classified as a private household.

3. If a house is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or subtenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.

4. If within the institution [non-private dwelling] there are separate quarters for all or any member of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such persons constitute separate households. For temporary or permanent inmates of large institutions, however, special instructions for enumeration will be given by the supervisor.

5. A servant who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. A servant who does not sleep on her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where she works.

6. A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household during most nights of a week, is to be considered a member of that household.

7. A person who rents a room from his landlady but who does not share any meals with her constitutes a separate household, i.e. a single person household and should be treated as such.

8. Persons living, working and sleeping away from their place of usual residence for most nights of the week should be included as members of the household in which they are found during pre-enumeration.

9. A visitor or guest intending to spend census night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.

10. Persons engaged in shift work or who work nights, such as security workers, are to be enumerated as members of the household of usual residence.

11. It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household. The concept of "sharing at least one daily meal" and "sharing common living arrangements" is used as an indicator for identifying household membership. For example, there is the familiar case of a servant and her family living on her employer's premises having separate living arrangements. Such an arrangement constitutes a separate household. With respect to the concept of "sharing at least one daily meal" it is not necessary that members sit at meals together. The alternative, "sharing common living arrangements", i.e. contributing to the maintenance of the household, groceries, etc. can also serve as a guide.

The head of the household

For census purposes every household must have a head. The head of the household, is the person, man or woman, who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household. In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household, usually the chief breadwinner. In any event the person recognized by the respondent as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take the member of the group as the head, whom the others acknowledge as such.

A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six [6] guests is considered the head of that household.

Closed buildings

A closed building is one which at the time of enumeration is in use but from all indications the tenants are temporarily absent. You are still to check on census day to see whether it is still in use and closed.

Vacant building

A vacant building is one which at the time of enumeration is not in use. However on census day you are still to check to see whether or not it is still vacant.

Closed dwelling unit

If there are situations in which the dwelling unit may be temporarily unoccupied, information is obtained from neighbors to the effect that all the occupants are temporarily away, e.g. on holiday, you must get the surname of the persons who usually live in the house, find out, if possible, how many people live there and the address of the place where they are staying. You must also find out whether they are expected home before census day, and pay periodic visits to the home to see whether they have returned. Tactfully, if at all possible, obtain information of the place of employment of the head or working member of the household in order to follow up the household.

Vacant dwelling unit

If the house is habitable, but no one lives there during your preliminary enumeration, you must also visit the house on census day, so that you can enumerate anyone who may have moved in subsequent to your previous visit.

Part IV
How to complete the visitation record

As the name implies the visitation record, is designed to monitor your field visits during preliminary enumeration. The visitation record is also used primarily to construct a register [frame] of all households, business places and institutions in Trinidad and Tobago. This register is used extensively for the conduct of household, business and agricultural surveys during the intercensal years. It is therefore vital for this document to be completed accurately.

On the cover page of your visitation record you are required to fill out the identifying number, county, ward and enumeration district number as well as your own name and address before the start of enumeration. The rest of the information on the cover page is to be filled out on completion of enumeration. For example, the number of buildings, dwelling units, households, population, etc. must be entered.

The visitation record consists of seventeen [17] numbered columns, each of which is intended to serve a specific purpose.

Column 1 - Date of first visit

You are to enter here the date you first visited each building, household or business place during enumeration.

Column 2 - Date enumeration completed

Enter in this column the date on which enumeration of the entire household or business place was completed.

Column 3 - Building number

The purpose of this column is to provide a precise count of the number of buildings contained in each enumeration district. Each building that you visit must be given a number in serial order as you visit them starting from 001, 002, 003, etc. Please adhere strictly to the route indicated on your sketch-map. It must be emphasized that the building number recorded on your sketch-map must agree with the number in the visitation record. The last recorded building number will indicate the number of buildings in the E.D. Remember that a building may contain several dwelling units [i.e. living quarters which are structurally separate and independent places of abode]. In such cases, repeat the building number for every dwelling unit recorded, and on your E.D. map, sub-divide the symbol representing a building to show that the building contains one or more dwelling units.

Column 4 - Dwelling unit number

The approach to be adopted regarding the numbering of the dwelling units must be identical with the approach used in column 3. That is, you are required to number the dwelling units in serial order starting from 001. It is important to remember that it is possible to have more than one dwelling unit in a single building. Additionally, there may be more than one household in a single dwelling unit. Repeat the identical dwelling unit number in cases where there is more than one household within a dwelling unit. Using this procedure, it will be possible to associate each household or more than one household where this occurs to a single dwelling unit. The last number appearing in this column will represent the total number of dwelling units in the country.

Column 5 - Household number

Following an identical procedure to the two previous columns, the numbering of households must be in serial order, starting from 001, 002, etc. You must make every effort to adhere strictly to the instructions that you will be given and to follow the prescribed route indicated on your sketch-map, so that the buildings, dwelling units, households, business places within your enumeration district will be numbered in the correct order or sequence. Always check back on the last number used to avoid repeating numbers. The last number appearing in this column will represent the total number of households in the E.D.

Column 6 - Name and surname of head of household/Name of establishment / Name of institution

You are required in the case of a household to write in block letters the name of the head of the household in this column, putting the surname first and the christian name or names after. With respect to a business place you must write both the name of the proprietor and the name of the establishment, e.g. "John Blackman" - "Black Cat Bar".

In the case of an institution, write in the full name of the institution, e.g. "Park's Nursing Home".

Column 7 - Full address

You are required to record in this column the full address in as much detail as possible. In urban and semi-urban areas where the houses are numbered, you must record the name of the road or street, the number of the house and the town, village or locality.

In rural and remote areas, houses or buildings are more widely spaced and are not numbered. Where addresses are vague, the name of the road, trace or track [if named], mile posts, electricity poles [lamp posts] or other permanent landmarks e.g. a large fruit tree or palm tree, should be inserted.

Note that the electricity poles carry a unique number and is also likely to carry the electoral polling division number. You must use these aids to facilitate the Census office checks on the accuracy of your coverage.

The importance of the full address cannot be over-emphasized when one considers that the information recorded in columns 6 and 7 will be used as the basis for identifying households or business places for the conduct of subsequent sample surveys during the intercensal years.

Column 8 - Number of persons - Both sexes

You are required to record in this column the total number of persons, including members of the household who are temporarily away, in hospital or some other institution during preliminary enumeration, but are likely to return on or before census night, babies, days old and visitors from within the country or abroad who intend to spend census night in the household.

Column 9 - Number of persons - Male

Enter the male members of the household, including male visitors who are expected to stay for at least one month and persons temporarily away, or in institutions but who are likely to return on or before census night. In brief, you will wish to record all persons, visitors included, who are likely to be members of the household on census night, i.e. midnight of 12th May, 1980.

Persons who are currently inmates of institutions, such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, etc. are recorded as members of the household if by census night they would have been inmates for less than six months.

Column 10 - Number of persons - Female

The number of female members must be recorded in this column. In every instance, once this column is completed correctly, the addition of columns 9 and 10 must equal the total shown in column 8.

Note that female inmates of institutions are to be treated similarly to the male members. Any inmate of less than six months should be recorded as a member of the household.

Column 11 - Business unit number

Business places [i.e. any building, part of a building or area associated with a building in which economic activity is carried out, e.g. dry goods store, tailor shop, etc.] must be numbered serially starting from 001. The last number appearing in this column should represent the total number of business places within the enumeration district.

Column 12 - Number of paid employees

The total number of paid employees, that is, persons entered on the pay-sheets of the business place during the last pay period i.e. week, fortnight, month, etc. must be recorded in this column.

Column 13 - Business activity

You are required to enter any information on business activity. This column is for office use only. It will be used by the census office to enter industry codes.

Column 14 - Size of holding [acreage]

Every respondent must be asked if he/she or any other member of the household is a land holder and the relevant information entered under this column. For purposes of the census a land holder is defined as:

1. One who owns land for agricultural purposes, whether it is cultivated or not at the time of the census.
2. One who rents land for agricultural purposes.
3. One who squats on land and works it for agricultural purposes.
4. A person who works land given to him for agricultural purposes.

A person who owns or rents land for non-agricultural purposes [e.g. housing, industrial estate, etc.] must not be recorded.

All land holders are to be entered regardless of the size of the plot which they own, rent or operate. Enter the size as follows: 2 acres, 3 lots, etc.

In cases where two or more members of the household are land holders, record the size of the holding held by each member and not just the total acreage for the entire household. For example:
[1] 5/8 acre
[2] 3 acres
[3] 5 acres

Note that you may have to return to complete this section if during the course of the interview of the census questionnaire you find persons who depend on agriculture for a livelihood i.e., occupation is vegetable farmer, to enquire about land holding. This is especially the case in rural areas where you should encounter a fair number of land holders.

Column 15 - Type of crop

Do not enter any information on type of crop. This column is reserved for office use only.

Column 16 - Number and type of livestock kept

Each respondent must be asked whether he/she or any other member of the household rears livestock for commercial purposes.

For purposes of the census a livestock holder is defined as anyone who keeps and rears especially for sale:
[1] Any number of cows.
[2] Any number of pigs.
[3] Any number of sheep.
[4] Any number of goats.
[5] Any number of bee hives.
[6] Twelve heads or more of poultry for the specific purpose of laying or production of broilers, and not for purely domestic consumption.
[7] Mixed livestock e.g. cows and goats, pigs and sheep, etc.

You are required to enter only the number of livestock in the space provided, headed "no" which is an abbreviation for "number".

In cases where the person keeps mixed livestock, you must record the number of livestock in the space provided in column 16 and indicate the type comprising the mixture in column 17-Remarks.

No information must be recorded in the sub-division of column 16 marked "type". This column is for office use only.

Column 17 - Remarks

Record in this column any information which may prove useful e.g. call-backs, dates and times of appointments, problems encountered in certain households to be discussed with your supervisor, etc.

In the case of business places you must enter a description of the type of activity in which the establishment is engaged. Where more than one activity is carried out, record that activity from which the most revenue is received.

The entries here should be precise e.g. shoe manufacturer, bakery, barber shop, etc. Enter also the type of activity engaged in by the land holder, e.g. state whether the type of crops grown are:
[1] Tree crops [cocoa, coffee, citrus, coconuts, etc.].
[2] Ground vegetables [yam, dasheen, tannia, etc.].
[3] Green vegetables [tomatoes, cabbage, etc.].
[4] Sugar cane.
[5] Mixed vegetables.

In cases where livestock is kept, you are to enter the type, e.g. cows, pigs, sheep, goats, etc. Do not include race horses.

At the back of the visitation record space is also provided for you to record any additional information about any building, household or business place you may visit. Use the building number, the business unit number, the name of the occupant and the household number to identify a particular household or business.

Part V
The census questionnaire

The nature of the census questionnaire

1. Introduction

The census questionnaire which you are using was tested on many occasions and found most suitable to facilitate rapid collection of data with minimum inconvenience to the respondent.
2. Dimensions of the form
The census questionnaire is an 8 1/2" x 11" booklet, with a cover page which is to be used strictly for purposes of identification.
3. Structure
The census questionnaire contains forty-nine [49] questions divided into ten [10] sections.

The name of each section is written in bold type at the top of the page. Section [10]-Housing is to be completed for heads of households only. You must also complete for the housing section the identification at top of the section by referring to your visitation record.
4. Handling of questionnaire
The census document will be punched by computer staff. It is essential that you record only one response per question except in certain instances where special instructions have been given, e.g. skip instructions.

It is of utmost importance that the questionnaires be handled with greatest care. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures [although clean and light erasures are permissible]; there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earing, etc. The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary ball point pen or other marks must appear. Keep sufficient questionnaires for the day's enumeration in the kit given to you. At the end of the day store those completed in a safe place in your home with due "care for confidentiality".
5. How to make entries in the questionnaire
To produce a good questionnaire you will have to take great care to make entries only in the way you are instructed. If the question is pre-coded, place a tick within the box which indicates the correct response to the answer you receive. Your tick should be clear and unambiguous. Careless ticks will present difficulties of interpretation to the key punch operators who will be left puzzled as to what entry should be punched. Whenever you have to write in the answer, be legible.

In some instances you have to both write in a response and tick e.g.
Question 6 Religion: Other
Question 7[c] Address of foreign born
Question 14[c] Highest examination ever passed

Part VI
How to complete the census questionnaire

Introduction

It is important to note that in many of the items of information being collected during a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent. In some cases a deliberate attempt to mislead may be perceived. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude.

Wherever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answers being intentionally given it is the duty of the enumerator to inform his supervisor and document this fact on the questionnaire. Do not chance to your memory. On the other hand, it is possible that incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. This situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment, occupation, and income of other members of the household. Here, however, the chances are that a call-back may be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult the appropriate member[s] of the household and thus secure reliable information.

Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have therefore the possibility of total omission of the event as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward on the time scale. This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations. It is especially important in questions dealing with migration and in information on fertility and union status. It is for this reason that the enumerator is strongly advised to note that linking up answers to associated questions are intended to aid respondent to recall accurately information about long past events.

How the interview should be conducted

Hints on principles of interviewing and how to ask the census questions where respondents fail to understand the exact form of the questions in the questionnaire are given at the end of this manual. These should be studied to aid you in the interview situation. The final section of this manual will also provide additional guidelines.

The order of enumeration
Step one [1] the visitation record

Locate all buildings in your assigned enumeration district. Enquire whether anyone or persons live in the building. Establish the presence of private households living in the building. In most residential areas, the building is readily visible as a house, apartment, flat or some similar private residence. Having identified a private household, begin completing the visitation record as prescribed in your instructions.

The numbering of buildings, dwelling units and households must be done serially as explained in the visitation record. The inside cover of the visitation record also repeats detailed instructions already given in this manual on how this record should be completed. Your first task is to follow these instructions and make the necessary entries in the visitation record.

When you have finished making all the necessary entries in the visitation record for a given household, you should immediately begin to enumerate the household by completing the questionnaire. Do not go to step two [2] before step one [1] is satisfactorily completed.
Step two [2] the questionnaire
In enumerating a household transcribe from the visitation record into the cover page of the questionnaire the county/ward code; the E.D. number, the household number, address of household, ward/parish, county, dwelling unit number, building number and household number.

In addition, insert the name of the respondent, the telephone number [if any] and the address of the household. The rest of the cover page, "result code" is to be completed at the end of the interview.

Section 1 Characteristics

Question 1 - Names of residents

You are to write in the names of all persons who are members of the household at the time of enumeration, regardless of the fact that their usual residence may be elsewhere. Persons are enumerated on the basis of "where found" at the time of enumeration in terms of their current household membership.

A household will usually consist of one person or group of persons living together and sharing at least one daily meal.

Write in block letters the name [surname first and other names] of the head of the household followed by persons related to the head beginning with his/her spouse, their unmarried children, married children and their spouse's grandchildren [if any], other relatives and any other persons in the household. In the case of a baby who has not yet been named, enter the appropriate surname of the parents. When it is necessary to use more than one questionnaire change the person's number on all pages of the questionnaire e.g. 01 to 07 for the second questionnaire and 01 to 13 on the third questionnaire.

Head of household

In most cases it will be obvious who is the head of the household. Usually it is the person who is the chief bread winner or the one who makes major decisions for that household. In any event the person recognized by the members of the household as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes. It is to be noted that the head may be of either sex. Avoid any bias in sex when determining headship.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take that member of the group as the head whom the others acknowledge as such.

A person who manages a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six [6] guests is considered the head of that household.

Household membership

You are to include, as members of the household, inmates of clinics, hospitals, prisons, etc. who would have been inmates for less than six months as at census day, 12th May, 1980.

Question 2 - Relationship to head of household

Nine types of relationships are specified here. These are:-
[1] Head
[2] Spouse/partner of head
[3] Child of head/spouse
[4] Spouse/partner of child
[5] Grandchild of head/spouse
[6] Other relative of head/spouse
[7] Domestic employee
[8] Other non-relative
[9] Not stated
If the individual is the head of the household, then tick the box "head".

Question 3 - Sex

Tick the appropriate box for each person in the household, male or female as given by the respondent.

Note: Do not try to determine the sex of the person according to the name, ask the question.

Question 4 - Date of birth / Age

You are required to write in the date of birth i.e. the day, month and year of birth for each person in the household. If the date of birth cannot be given, it is necessary to have, at least, a current estimate of the age of the person in completed years since the last birthday or as at 12th May, 1980. During the preliminary enumeration it must be ascertained by you whether any member of the household has a birthday between the day you are enumerating the household and census day. You will find it necessary to circle the "person number" e.g. 01 of all persons who will be aged fifteen years between 1st January and 12th May, 1980 i.e. date of birth between 1st January and 12th May, 1965. Young persons of the female sex born between the 1st January and 12th May, 1966 should be also identified. Such identification will assist you with sections 4, economic activity; 5, training and 8, income which apply to all persons fifteen years old and over; while section 7, fertility applies to females fourteen years old not attending primary or secondary school. For persons 99 years old and over, record age and date of birth. Every effort should be made to obtain the date of birth.

There may be instances, especially in the case of old people, where respondents do not remember their correct ages. Perhaps reference to some outstanding events, such as World Wars I 1914-1918 and II, 1939-1945, fires, floods, or hurricanes, may be helpful. By referring to such events and by considering other information available about the individual make every effort to estimate his age. Do not leave this question blank. Obtain some estimate from the respondent.

Question 5 - Ethnic group

Since you will be interviewing in general one member of any household, the ethnic group ticked must be the ethnic group to which the respondent says he and other members belong. It is reasonable to classify all children of parents belonging to different ethnic groups as mixed. For example, if a man of African descent is married or living common law with an East Indian woman, their children should be classified as mixed.

Accept the respondent's classification. If you think you are being misled make a note in an appropriate part of the questionnaire and inform your supervisor.

Question 6 - Religion

Write in the appropriate code which indicates the religion to which the respondent belongs. If the individual does not belong to one of the denominations listed write in the name of the denomination given in the "other" category. Use the space also to write in "Atheist" for individuals who so respond.

For Baptists [other than "Orthodox"] Muslims and Hindus write in the particular association/ sect to which the person belongs together with the name of the religion.

Section 2 Migration

Question 7[a] - Place of birth

The information collected here must indicate the address of the mother at the time of the birth of the individual. Be sure to record the name of the town/village and, as far as possible, ward and county to facilitate coding.

The response positions for this question are laid out in two fields:
[1] Trinidad and Tobago
[2] Foreign
For persons born in Trinidad and Tobago, be sure to write out the full address of the usual place of residence of the person's mother at the time of the birth of the person in the space provided. Do not enter hospitals, nursing homes or any place other than the residence of the mother as place of birth. If the response to this question is "Trinidad and Tobago" then write out the full address in question 7[b] before going to question 8[a].

If the response is "foreign" then skip to Question 7[c].

Question 7[c] - Country of birth-for foreign born only

For persons stating "foreign" in Question 7[a], you are required to write in the appropriate code together with the respondent's country of birth. Write in code [16] for countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean not listed and code [98] for all others.

Question 7[d] - Length of stay - Foreign born only

For persons indicating "foreign" in question 7[a] please obtain from the respondent the number of years living in Trinidad and Tobago and enter it in the space provided. Length of stay must be recorded in completed years. Less than one year is recorded as [0][0].

Question 8[a] - Usual residence - All persons

The response positions for this question are laid out in four fields:
[1] This address.
[2] Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago.
[3] Abroad.
[9] Not stated.
Please note the skip instructions.

If the response is [1] i.e. This address, skip to question 9. If [2] i.e. Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago, go to question 8[b], as directed on the questionnaire. For persons whose usual residence is abroad, you are to skip to question 10[a]. Use the "Not stated" box to refer to persons who refuse to state their usual residence, before skipping to question 10[a].

Although most persons will have no difficulty in stating their place of usual residence, some confusion is bound to arise in a number of special cases where persons may appear to have more than one [1] usual residence. These cases might include persons who maintain two or more residents, students living at a school away from their parental home, members of the armed forces living at a military barracks but still maintaining private living quarters away from the installation and persons who sleep away from their homes during the working week but return home for a few days at the end of the week. To avoid such problems take the place where the individual sleeps most nights of the week as his/her usual residence.

Question 9 - Number of years lived at place of usual residence

Write in the number of years that the respondent and other members of the household have been living at his/her place of usual residence.

Question 10 - Address in Trinidad and Tobago / Abroad previously lived

Obtain from the respondent the exact address of his/her previous residence. Ensure you obtain the name of the town or village of his/her previous address and at least the country, since there are cases of villages with the same name in different countries. For those whose previous residence is elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago, tick box [2] then write in the full address at question 10[b]. If the person's previous residence is abroad then write in the name of the country in 10[b] after ticking box [3].

Note: That if the respondent has lived at his present residence since birth or in the case of the foreign born since the date of his immigration, then, address of previous residence and his/her present residence would be the same and box [1]. This address should be ticked.

Section 3 Education

These questions are to be answered for every individual. Whereas it is pointless to put all of these questions in respect of infants and very young children, a response position must still be ticked in question 11[a] for every individual. Please note skip instructions in questions 11[a] and 14[a].

Question 11 - Attendance at school/universities

In part [a] indicate whether the person is attending school or university. If the answer is yes, state in part [b] whether it is full-time or part-time attendance.

Question 12 - Type of school now being attended
This question seeks to find out the type of school now being attended by those answering "yes" in Question 11[a]. The following types are specified:

[01] Nursery/Kindergarten
[10] Private Primary
[11] Government and Assisted Primary
[20] Junior Secondary
[21] Trade/Vocational
[22] Youth Camp
[30] Senior Comprehensive
[31] Private Secondary
[32] Government and Assisted Secondary
[33] Composite
[34] Technical Institute
[60] University
[98] Other
[99] Not stated

Be sure to write in the name of the school being attended before writing the relevant code in the box.

Note that included under "other" are schools for the blind, the deaf, and other forms of disability.

Question 13[a] - Address of school/university for persons attending school

Question 13[a] will apply only to persons attending school

You are required to obtain from the respondent the full address of the school or university that is now being attended. This consists of the name of the city, town or village and if possible ward and county. The county should be given to facilitate office coding.

Question 13[b] - Usual mode of transportation to school

You are required to obtain from the respondent the principal type of transport used by all members of the household now attending school/university.

The following types are specified:
[1] Bus [P.T.S.C.]
[2] Taxi
[3] Private car
[4] Motor cycle
[5] Bicycle
[6] Walk
[7] Other
[8] Not applicable
[9] Not stated

There may be instances where persons attending school/university use two or more of the types of transport specified above. In such cases tick the type that is used most frequently.

Question 14[a] - Highest level of Non-Vocational educational attainment
This question relates to the highest standard of education attained by the respondent, excluding vocational training which is taken up in section 5, highest level of training, and must be obtained for all respondents - those still at school as well as those who have had some form of education whether "completed" or "on-going". In the case where the person was educated abroad, try to obtain the equivalent in the school system of Trinidad and Tobago and complete the answer. For those replying "other" please specify, whilst for those not yet attending school tick box [8] not Applicable.

Question 14[b] - Years of formal schooling at highest level

Tick the appropriate box which indicates the number of completed years' schooling the individual had at the highest level indicated at question 14[a].

Question 14[c] - Highest examination ever passed

The type of examination dealt with here are public examinations administered under the aegis of the government as distinct from examinations organized within particular schools.

Since it is possible that the individual may have passed more than one of the examinations specified, ensure that you ascertain which examination the individual considers as the highest he/she has passed. Write in the name of the examination passed before ticking the appropriate box. Examinations such as the "common entrance" and "fourteen [14] plus" must not be entered.

Section 4 - Economic Activity, questions [15] to [23]

The main purpose of this section is to determine which individuals have been engaged in economic activity, that is the production of goods and services for sale during the week preceding enumeration and at any time during the past twelve [12] months and, those who were not so engaged. It is essential that the enumerator understands the concept of the term work as given in question [15] and makes use of it in his interviews. Generally, work done outside Trinidad and Tobago is not relevant to the census, but work done under contract on Canadian farms by residents is to be included, as also is work by resident crew on ships and aircraft operating outside of the country.

It should be noted that priority is given to work over all other activities. Also, economic activity holds precedence over non-economic.

Question [15] - Economic activity during the past week

This question aims at classifying persons according to their economic activity during the week preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked [i.e. were economically active] and those who did not work. The possible responses and definitions are given hereunder.

[10] Had a job, worked

An individual is classified as having worked if he/she was engaged in the production of goods and services for sale, whether the job was temporary or even less than a week. Priority is given to worked/with a job over any other activity. For example, if during the week prior to enumeration the individual worked for two days and looked for work for three days, he is to be classified as worked. Usually working/with a job entails the person receiving a wage, salary or other form of recompense, but trainees and apprentices, whether paid or not, as well as unpaid helpers and family workers on commercial farms and other enterprises are also to be listed as worked. Priority is given to economic activity in the reference week of enumeration beginning with worked/had a job, not working and seeking work over such activities as home duties et cetera. It is worth repeating for emphasis that temporary employment during the past week regardless of the nature of the job, for example, DEWD employees, on ten-day stints, porter, car wash attendant, laborer, street vender, etc. must be recorded as having a job. Probe eligible respondents for evidence of temporary and ad hoc employment since this type of activity tends to be overlooked by respondents because of the temporary nature and ad hocness of employment.

[11] Had a job, did not work

This category includes persons who had a job during the past week but did not work because of illness, injury or because of vacation leave or some other form of leave. Also included are persons on temporary lay-off or industrial dispute.

[20] Persons seeking first job

Persons seeking first job include those who never worked, but were actively seeking work during the past week. Note, however, you must ensure that the person does not hold a temporary or part-time job since "working" holds priority over "not working".

[21] Others seeking work

Include persons previously employed and actively seeking work during the past week.

[30] Wanted work and available past three [3] months

Persons wanting work and available but not actively seeking work during the past week, but have actively looked for work during the past three months.

Note: Questions [16] to [18] apply to job seekers and persons wanting work as well as persons with jobs. For those on the special works roll and waiting for a call to work classify as wanting work.

[40]-[45]
Categories of persons who are not economically active cover persons engaged in home duties, full-time students and those retired or disabled. Persons who fall under categories [40] to [99] i.e. from "student" to "not stated', skip to question [22].


Note: "did not want work" refers only to those persons who are eligible for work and definitely state that they did not want work. At no time must this category refer to retired persons, old age pensioners and the disabled.

Question 16 - Type of worker

The purpose of this question is to distinguish between persons who worked for others as paid employees [e.g. government, public service and public enterprise; non-government workers; unpaid workers and learners]; those who worked for themselves without any help - paid or unpaid, those who had their own business or farm and employed others [paid or unpaid]. Obtain the correct information and tick the appropriate box. You are to check your list of the names of government public enterprises if in doubt, to assist respondents who work for government but are unsure whether it is the public service or public enterprise.

For job seekers and similar unemployed persons, you are to record information on job last held. Persons seeking first job are classified as never worked.

The type of worker [status in employment] can be defined as follows:

[i] Worked for others, i.e. employee

An employee is defined as a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates or pay in kind. Four [4] types of employees are identified:

[a] Government-Central and local including Statutory boards, Quasi Government.
[b] Government-Public enterprises and/or state-owned enterprises, i.e. and enterprise where government holds the controlling interest 51% or more of shares.
[c] Non-Government-That is private employment.
[d] Unpaid worker and learner- These are apprentices, unpaid family worker in a business establishment or enterprise whether agricultural or non-agricultural.

[ii] Employer [has own business/farm with paid help]

A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

[iii] Own account worker [has own business/farm without paid help]

A person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires no employees.

[iv] Unpaid worker

A person who works in a business or farm which is run for profit, belonging to a relative or other persons and who receives no payment in cash, but who benefits from the operation of the business or farm either because he is a member of the proprietor's household or because he is being taught a trade or profession.

[v] Learner

A person who is being taught a trade or a profession without receipt of any remuneration but contributes to the production of economic goods and/or services.

Question 17 - Main type of occupation/work

You are required to write the kind of work the person has done during the past week. Where the person has done more than one job during the reference period the question relates to the principal job, which, in general, will be the one at which he spent most time. Probe for a description of the main duties performed. Examples of kind of work done are "preparing pay sheets", "filing correspondence", "teaching in primary school", "selling life insurance", etc. Be as specific as possible.

The job title refers to the official name given by the employer or appearing in the union agreement to classify the actual work done and is used to determine the person's rate of pay or pay scale. The job title should be written in as much detail as possible and vague terms must be avoided. Descriptions such as agent, apprentice, attendant, clerk, proprietor, and salesman are insufficient - they must be qualified.

The following are examples of acceptable designations: house real estate agent, life insurance agent, chartered accountant, departmental store sales clerk, electrical engineer I, bus driver, police sergeant, secondary school teacher or teacher II.

Classifying the unemployed in relation to occupation

For those unemployed who are seeking their first job state the kind of job applied for within the past week or past three months. For all other unemployed, i.e. seeking work, wanting work, etc. record, after enquiry, the occupation or kind of work last done.

Question 18 - Industry or type of business

The industry or type of business describes the nature of the kind of economic activity of the establishment in which the economically active person worked during the past week or if unemployed, last worked or applied for work. Obtain the name of the firm. In the case of persons employed by the local or central government, write the office or department in which they worked or were employed.

For domestic servants or other personal service workers who worked as paid employees in private homes write in the space reserved for Industry - Private home.

As in the preceding question, avoid vague descriptions of the type of business. For example, do not merely record the type of business as sugar, but indicate whether it is cane-growing, sugar manufacturing [factory], etc. Similarly, show oil refinery separately from bulk oil distribution. Do not merely record oil.

Classifying the unemployed by industry

For persons seeking first job, obtain the name of firm and kind of business to which an application was sent or employment sought. In the case of all other unemployed obtain the information on industry for the last place of employment.

Question 19 - Address of place of work

Questions 19 and 20 apply only to persons who worked [10] or those who had jobs but did not work [11]. Write out the full address of the place of work. For the self-employed such as taxi drivers, tradesmen [with no fixed place of work] doing private jobs, fishermen, etc. - record not applicable for address. For persons working at various job sites or out-stations give the address of the office where the person reports for work.

Question 20 - Usual mode of transportation to work

You are required to tick the box which indicates the mode of transportation used by the respondent to travel to work.

Question 21 - Hours worked during the past week for person[s] with jobs coded [10] in question 15.

You are required to record in this question the actual number of hours worked including overtime whether paid for or not during the week preceding enumeration. The term work refers to actual work done and does not as in some previous questions, include paid vacation, or sick leave.

For persons working, record the number of hours actually worked, including overtime. Persons operating their own business either as self-employed or employers should be enumerated by the time they were actually working. Note that for persons who are paid by the "day" but work "task", the enumerator should record the hours for which they were paid. Time taken to and from work is not counted unless payment is made for such hours. Finally, as a guide in difficult cases, some estimate should be made for "hours" normally worked per week in the pre-coded categories.

Question 22 - Main activity during the past twelve months

The question aims at classifying persons aged fifteen years of age and over according to their main activity, that is, what they did most for six months and over during the twelve-month period preceding enumeration. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who worked [i.e. were economically active] and those who did not work [those who were not economically active].

Categories of persons who were not economically active in this context include persons who had never worked but who were seeking their first job, people engaged in home duties, full-time students and those retired or disabled. The term "did not want work" refers to those persons who were neither students, retired, pensioned, home duties, etc. but clearly did not wish to engage in economic activity. Discrete prompting should be used to elicit a reply.

It is to be noted that the term "most" referring to a period of six months and over need not be continuous.

Question 23 - Months worked during the past twelve [12] months

It must be remembered that periods spent on vacation leave, and sick leave with pay are to be regarded as periods of work, also too must periods spent performing unpaid labor. This question must be asked of all persons fifteen [15] years and over, including those whose main activity is other than work, as it is possible that they could have worked for one or two months during the past twelve [12] months while being in search of a job during the remaining period. Particular attention must be paid to persons who worked for themselves, especially when this involves short periods each day. Some estimate of the overall time worked in number of months must be ticked. It may be necessary to probe the respondent on "worked' to include temporary jobs such as "DEWD - Development of Environmental Works Department". Some persons do not regard this form of activity as work because of the temporary nature of the job.

Section 5 -Training

Questions 24 to 27 Apply to all persons fifteen [15] years old and over

Introduction

This section applies to all persons fifteen years old and over. The main purpose is to distinguish between persons who have received special training or are receiving special training to fit them for employment, as opposed to those who have not received any training at all.

Students in primary and secondary schools, youth camps, etc. pursuing specialized technical/craft courses as part of their general education should be probed to respond. You should probe especially for the government secondary schools where it is now a regular part of the student's education to obtain training in some craft or trade such as masonry, carpentry, motor mechanic, welding etc.

Note: "Training can be practical or theoretical under an instructor to acquire a skill or capability to perform a task to some specified standard."

Question 24[a] - Special training completed

You are required to obtain from the respondent whether or not that person has completed any special training to fit him/her for employment. If the response is "yes" then skip to Question 24[c]. If "no" go to question 24[b]. It is important that you be alert to probe situations where a person is recorded as a teacher II in question 17 but fails to recognize that his or her university degree in science or arts is a form of training for purposes of this section. This is considered training despite the fact that the person may not have been trained with a diploma in education. Similar situations may occur in fields such as economics, chemistry, physics, etc. You should be alert to link question 17 to 24 and probe.

Note: An individual may need some help in being clear about "training". For the census, "training" is any form of learning how to perform a job, practical or theoretical, whether it is computer programming or laying of blocks, as long as the method of instruction is organized and systematic. There must be some type of formal instruction. There is no time limit to the exposure of students to training. ''training" may consist of a number of stages in a sequence of instructions e.g. "learning to lay bricks", "plastering", etc. eventually leading up to full certification as a qualified mason when all the "stages [modules] in the sequence have been completed". What is meant is that training need not be total or comprehensive. A "modular or step-by-step method" is also being considered here.

Question 24[b] - Special training now undergoing

Obtain from the respondent whether or not he/she is undergoing any special training. If "yes" go to question 24[c]. If "no" skip to question 28 of section 6.

Question 24[c] - Field or occupation of highest level of training

If the respondent was trained or is being trained in more than one field, then you are required to obtain from him/her the field which the person considers the highest field of training that was received or is being received. For example, some lawyers were trained also as economists. It is the respondent who will decide what he/she considers the highest field of training.

Note: The field [area] of training is defined for the 1980 census as the broad subject matter area consisting of one or more courses or combination of courses sometimes commonly referred to as a program of studies either completed or being pursued by persons to fit them for employment in a specialized job/occupation or general professional, administrative, managerial, technical occupation. Respondents may have to be probed to indicate a university degree in Science as their preparatory training for an occupation in Engineering or Social Sciences for an administrative career. It is to be noted that there is a close association between occupation and training, especially for the professions. A description of the occupation or subject matter of a discipline will be accepted where applicable e.g. chartered accountant, medicine, nursing, engineering, law.

Question 25 - Main method of highest level of training

A tick in the pre-coded box should indicate the main method or source from which the training has been completed or is being received and must relate to the field of training recorded in question 24[c]. It is very important to determine the main method in order to facilitate office coding of question 24 [c]. For persons answering self-study or self-taught "other" box [7] must be ticked except in cases where they indicate that a correspondence course is being pursued. In such cases tick box [1] private study.

Method by which training was acquired
The method by which training was acquired can be classified in the following groups:-

[0]On-the-job training - This refers to training received while the person is in the service of the establishment or a tradesman. [On-the-job training could take various forms e.g. a short course offered at the place of employment to acquire a specific skill].

[1] Private study - This refers to forms of training such as correspondence courses or that acquired either through the reading of books, such as teach yourself manuals, written instructions or oral instructions such as radio and television programs.

[2] Secondary schools - This category refers to the government and assisted, as well as private secondary schools providing a broad base of general education for children over eleven years of age [i.e. the 11+] or common entrance.

[3] Vocational, trade, commercial

[a] Commercial schools / secretarial college - Commercial schools and Secretarial colleges can be described as educational institutions which offer courses in one or more of the commercial subjects, e.g. typing, shorthand, accountancy, business management, etc.

[b] Vocational / trade school - A vocational or trade school is one which offers courses in trades such as welding, pipe-fitting, carpentry, printing, book-binding, electrical wiring, etc. Educational institutions such as Servol, youth camps and the trade school attached to various oil fields are included in this category.

[4] Technical institute - Training provided in "technical institutes" within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago's educational system is usually at the technical level. Admission to the institutes, in most cases, will require completion of a full five-year secondary education as a minimum. Within the Unesco ISCED system, education at this level may be classified as "third level first stage of the type that leads to an award not equivalent to a first university degree". Typical examples are John S. Donaldson, San Fernando Technical School and ECIAF.

[5] Other institutes - Training - Training provided at a level above secondary education for teachers, nurses, etc. The level of instruction requires that students must have completed their secondary education.

[6] University - Training provided at an institution offering courses which lead to the level of a degree.

[7] Other - This category refers to training acquired through all other methods not previously stated. These include such methods as self-taught or trial and error.

Question 26[a] - Training completed or ongoing at highest level

Tick the appropriate box which indicates whether the person's training is "completed" or "ongoing". This answer should correspond with the one given in question 24[a] or 24[b].

Question 26[b] - Period of training at highest level for persons trained or being trained

For those persons whose training is completed, you are required to obtain the time spent being trained. For those who indicated that their training is ongoing [i.e.] tick in box 2 of question 26[a], obtain from them the time completed to date on training and tick in the relevant box.

Question 27 - Qualification received on completion of training

Six [6] response positions are recorded here. None, certificate [with examination], certificate [without examination], diploma, degree and other. You are required to tick only one box. There are cases in which more than one qualification may be received as a result of preparing oneself in a specified field of training. Let the respondent decide upon the highest qualification received.

Section 6 - Marital status

Question 28 - Marital status

This question is for all persons fourteen [14] years old and over and not currently attending primary or secondary school full-time. Emphasis here is placed on the presence of legal sanction of the association which should not be confused with "Union Status". Marital Status carries a five-fold classification as follows:

Never married - This category covers all individuals 14 years old and over who have never been married.

Married - This covers all married persons whether or not they are living with partners to whom they are married. Also to be included in this category are persons married according to Hindu custom or Muslim rites, whether or not these marriages have been formally registered. A person living apart though not legally separated from his or her married partner is to be recorded as married.

Widowed - This covers all married persons whose partners have died.

Legally separated - This applies where married persons are living apart and separated by a court order.

Divorced - This covers all persons whose marriages have been dissolved by legal proceedings.

Note to interviewer - There may be instances where the couple may be living apart but the divorce has not been made final. Such persons are not to be entered as divorced but as married or legally separated as the case may be.

Section 7 - Fertility

Questions 29-32

This section applies only to females fourteen [14] years of age and over and who are not currently attending Primary or Secondary School full-time.

Question 29 - Number of live births ever had

You may wish to introduce this section as follows:- "Now I would like to ask a few census questions on number of live births, age at birth of first live born child, etc. of all female members of this household who are fourteen [14] years of age and over and not currently attending primary or secondary school full-time". Although the question may be sensitive you should not ask the question in an apologetic tone or change your approach. Should you do this, you will discourage response or cause the respondent to observe your hesitancy to ask the question. Act naturally and maintain the pace of the interview.

Note to interviewer - The information sought is not the number of children alive at the time of the census but the total number of live born children the woman ever had, whether currently residing with her or elsewhere. Included, also, are those who may have since died. Probe skillfully. Remember a live birth occurs when a baby cries or shows other signs of life when born. If the respondent states none then enter [0][0]in the boxes provided. If none is entered for question 29 then skip to question 31.

Question 30 - Age at birth of first live born child

This question does not apply to those persons answering none [0][0] in question 29. Record in completed years the age of the woman at the time of birth of her first live born child. Answers to this question may prove useful in arriving at the estimates of the woman's present age as well as checking for inconsistencies.

Question 31 - Number of live births / Still births past twelve [12] months

This question is divided into two parts, live and still births. It is useful since it helps us to determine if any babies were left out of the household during enumeration. It is to be noted that the expulsion of a fetus whether induced or not before the full term [twenty-eight [28] weeks or seven [7] months] is considered a miscarriage/abortion and not a birth.

Question 31 [a] - Live births

If the response in question 29 is [0][0] [none]. Box [0] is to be ticked in question 31[a]. Tick the appropriate box which indicates the response, for example, one, two, etc.

Question 31 [b] - Still births

Record the still births separately in question 3l[b]. Remember that a still birth occurs when a baby is born dead i.e. shows no signs of life at birth. It is possible, although the rate of occurrence is low, for a woman to have more than one delivery in the twelve [12] months preceding enumeration.

Question 32 - Union status at present or at age 45

The response to this question must indicate the type of family association in which the woman is or had been engaged. This question refers to females only. In the case of women under 45 years of age, it refers to the relationship or association existing at the time of the census. In the case of women over 45 years of age it must describe the relationship existing at the time when she was 45 years old. Six response positions are possible here. Three of these, "married'' and "common law" and "visiting" describe the type of union, whereas the other three "no longer living with husband", "no longer living with common law partner" and "never had a husband nor partner" indicate the absence of a union at present or at age 45. Where a woman has had a child during the twelve [12] months preceding the census, three response positions are possible - "married" "common law" and "visiting".

A woman must only be ticked as being in a "visiting" union if she had a birth [live or still] within the twelve [12] month period preceding the census. This response must not be probed.

Section 8 - Income

Question 33

These questions apply to all persons 15 years and over whether working or not and are intended to reflect the situation which existed during the past twelve [12] months. You are to obtain income data to complete question 33 for those persons on a pension or living off their investments as well as the unemployed who may receive income from odd jobs or other sources. Income here refers to money received from all sources e.g. gifts, remittances from abroad, rent, interest and dividends.

Question 33[a] - Last pay/Income period past twelve [12] months

Obtain from the respondent whether the gross income relates to a week, fortnight, month, quarter or other time period. For persons who are either out of the labor force or on pension, record the period of time during which receipts of income are usually obtained. Be careful to specify in other, box [6] of question 33[a] the actual time reference of payment, i.e. year, task work, etc.

Question 33[b] - Gross income [nearest dollar]

Your entry here must be in relation to the last pay/income period ticked, and should be recorded to the nearest dollar. Obtain income from each source separately then add to get total. For persons ticking box [5] or [6] in question 16, gross income should be net income after normal business expenses. These persons may quote annual income. Please note net income is total income less salaries and business operating expenses, especially with reference to the "self-employed". For those persons replying "none" in question 33[a] record income as[0][0][0][0][0], in question 33[b], whilst for all others ticking [6]in question 33[a] record income in the blank space above the boxes in question 33[b]. The census office will make the necessary calculations and enter the correct amount.

Note to interviewer - Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn. Often they do not even tell their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must emphasize, if called upon to explain, that it is not intended to pry into the private affairs of the individual and that the information is required only to work out estimated average income per individual for the entire country. As a last resort use the "income flash card" supplied to you.


Section 9 - Census night

This section is to be completed on the day after census day i.e. 13th May, 1980. During the preliminary enumeration, you will be expected to complete section 10 after completing section 8.

Question 34[a] - Where did [N] spend census night?

Census night refers to the period up to midnight on the 12th May, 1980. All members of the household enumerated in the preliminary enumeration and found absent on census night either because of death, no longer a member of the household, institutionalized, etc. or through permanent migration must be deleted from the household and an entry made in the relevant person number of the "Comments Section" at the back of the questionnaire.
It must be noted, however, that members of the household who were temporarily away on census night should be left as members of the household and box [2], [3], [4] or [5] of Question 34[a] ticked. Babies born prior to midnight of the 12th May, 1980 are to be included in the household and sections 1-3 completed for such individuals as well as suitable amendments made to section 7. Temporary visitors as well as persons who joined the household subsequent to the preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in that household are to be enumerated on 13th May, 1980, i.e. during the census night check as additions, that is new members of the household. Such situations may arise through marriage or returning residents from abroad.

Persons answering [2], [3] and [5] in question 34[a] must answer question 34[b] whilst "heads of households" should have completed section 10-Housing.

It must be remembered that persons who are expected to be in hospital and prisons or similar institutions for a period of six [6] months or more are to be commented upon individually at the back of the questionnaire by the relevant person number.

Question 34[b] - Address where [N] spent census night
For persons answering [2], [5] be sure to write out the full address whilst for those stating [3] institution, write both the name and address of the institution. At the back of the questionnaire, write the expected length of stay in the institution next to the relevant person number.

Section 10 - Housing

Introduction

The main objectives of section 10-Housing are to obtain accurate and reliable information on the housing stock, the condition of housing, and measures of overcrowding. Section 10 is to be completed for the head of household only.

Identification

You are to complete the required information for the identification of the household being enumerated which must tally with the visitation record, and the cover page of the questionnaire. It is not necessary to burden the respondent with questions repeated here which you already obtained during the early part of the interview. For example, the name of the head of the household and the size of the household, question 41 should already have been determined.

Question 35 - Type of building

You are required to tick the particular type of building that is being enumerated. The function or purpose to which the building is put must be recorded and not the architectural style.

There are six categories:-
[1] Mainly residential
[2] Residential and commercial
[3] Commercial
[4] Industrial
[5] Community service - Private/Government
[6] Other

Community service building refers to a building used primarily in the interest of the public and provides a service [e.g. hospital, community centre, government building, sports club]. Your supervisor can assist you with any concepts not clear with respect to the above categories.

Question 36 - Material of outer walls

The information sought in this question is to identify the type of material of which the outer walls of the building is made. The types of material specified are:-

Brick - This applies to buildings where the walls are made of hollow clay blocks or concrete bricks whether plastered or unplastered.

Concrete including concrete blocks - This includes walls made of both concrete and concrete blocks with steel reinforcements as well as reinforced concrete structures.

Wood and concrete - This applies when the walls are made of both types of material.

Wood and brick - This includes walls made of both wood and concrete or hollow clay.

Wood - Tick this if the walls are made solely of wood.

Wattle/adobe/tapia - This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle dabbed with mud. Walls made of tapia must also be included under this type.

Other - Tick for other types of material of construction of outer walls not previously described.

Question 37 - Year when building was built

This question seeks to determine the year when the structure was originally built. In some cases, the owner/occupant of the dwelling may not be able to tell you the year when the structure was built. Diligent enquiries from persons who have been living for a long time in the area may assist you in arriving at an accurate estimate. It is to be noted that the precoded time periods permit an approximation. You may also find it useful to enquire from the occupier or owner how long he/she has been living at that address.

In the case of buildings which have been re-conditioned or have undergone major structural changes, record the year when the major structural changes were completed.

There may be instances where a structure, though not completed, is occupied by a household. In such cases you must record the period or year in which the incomplete structure was occupied for the first time. In these cases, for the purpose of the census, occupancy and not structural completion characterizes a finished building.

For persons living in temporary buildings during construction of their own houses take the year the temporary building was built.

Characteristics of the dwelling unit

Question 38 - Major household in dwelling unit

You are required to identify the head of the major household which will be extremely important for analyzing the housing section at the tabulation stage.

Question 39 - Living arrangements

You are required to indicate the conditions under which the respondent enters his/her living quarters.
[1] Either by a separate entrance.
[2] Through a common landing or passage way.
[3] Or through someone else's living quarters.

This question should serve as a check to determine and satisfy the conditions for identifying a dwelling unit which are separateness and independence of the residential accommodation. It will be recalled that a dwelling unit is essentially residential accommodation, privately occupied, in which the persons who live there can enter and leave their accommodation without passing through someone else's accommodation.

Question 40[a] - Dwelling unit

This question is intended to establish whether any part of the dwelling unit in which the respondent lives is occupied by another or other households, either for rent or rent-free. Largely because of the housing situation, more than one household can occupy a dwelling unit. Determine by probing whether there are any additional households/families in the dwelling unit which have their own sleeping and eating arrangements.

Tick [1] Yes or [2] No
Please note the skip instructions.

You may probe by simply asking whether there are any other persons who are not members of the household or family that live in the same dwelling. Do not confuse the occupants of separate flats and apartments which may be in the same buildings with question 40[a] and [b]. These separate living quarters constitute individual dwelling units.

Question 40[b] - How many other households?

For all heads of households answering "yes" in question 40[a] you are required to tick the appropriate box which is pre-coded.

Question 41 - Size of household

This question is a repeat of information already collected and serves as a check in the event that a member was omitted. In which case, you will have to go back to the main questionnaire and complete a person's history.

Please note that the size of the household might change between preliminary enumeration and the census day check. You must make the appropriate changes where necessary.

Question 42 - Tenancy

Tenure refers to the legal and financial arrangements under which a household is occupying its living quarters. The pre-coded categories are as follows:-

[1] Owned - This category applies when the head or any other member of the household owns the dwelling, or is in the process of buying the dwelling.

[2] Rented - Private - Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from an individual or a company. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.

[3] Rented - Government - This applies if the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from government or government agency.

[4] Leased - A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract which stipulates, in advance, the total rental sum for the dwelling during a fixed duration of the contract. This total sum may be paid in advance or by installments.

[5] Rent-free - When the head of the household does not pay a rent for the occupancy of the dwelling by the household, a tick should be scored in this box.

[6] Squatted - This applies when households are found occupying a building or dwelling unit without permission of the owner or any legal rights to the property.

[7] Other - This description refers to situations where the head or members of the household are occupying a dwelling under conditions different from those specified above.

Question 43 - Type of dwelling

The information to be recorded in this question must relate to the building or part of the building used for residential accommodation by private households. The types of dwellings specified on the questionnaire are described. There is also a pictoral chart which will further, assist you in classifying dwelling units.

The pre-coded categories are as follows:-
[01] Separate house - Defines a dwelling unit which takes up the complete building; it may be inhabited by one or more households.

[02] Flats/ Apartments - Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multistoried building. Apartments should be ticked where the household occupied part of the building but has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery, etc.

[03] Condominium - A block of self-contained dwelling units which may be flats or apartments for which legal title is held individually. Additionally, security grounds and other facilities may be shared.

[04] Double house - A dwelling joined to only one other dwelling, separated from it by a wall extending from ground to roof, i.e. one or two dwellings attached side by side, having no other dwellings either above or below and separated by open space from all other structures.

[04] Duplex - One of two dwellings, one on top of the other, separated by open space from all other structures. Include any dwelling built as a single house but in which the basement or upper storey has been converted to form another separate dwelling.

[05] Part of commercial/Industrial building - This type of dwelling would be ticked when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as business places, lodges, garages, etc.

[06] Barracks - A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.

[07] Outroom - A room or rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household i.e. servants' quarters, etc.

[08] Other private dwelling - Mobile homes, derelict vehicles, etc. In short, a dwelling in conditions different from those specified above.

[09] Group dwellings - These have already been defined and refer to certain types of institutions i.e. boarding houses, hotels, hostels, etc.

[10] Other - A category which describes a type of accommodation not defined from [01] to [09].

[Pictures of dwelling units omitted]

Question 44 - Water supply

The information recorded here should indicate how the household obtains its water supply, whether it is piped water within the dwelling unit, piped water outside the dwelling unit or any other specified source. You should note that the primary source of supply is not being sought in this question.

[1] Public piped into dwelling - Describes a condition where running water from a public source is piped directly into the dwelling unit. It is to be noted that in cases where both truck-borne supplies and intermittent supplies from a public reservoir are used, public piped takes precedence over "truck-borne".

[2] Public piped into yard - Applies in situations where the household receives running water from a public source through a pipe in the yard or compound on which the dwelling stands.

[3] Private piped into dwelling - Refers to the water supply received by a household from a private source and piped into the dwelling. Such situations will occur, for example, where the household pumps water from a river or pond through pipes directly to the dwelling.

[4] Private catchment not piped - Obtains where the water supply to the household is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.

[5] Public stand pipe - Obtains when water is available to the household from a stand pipe in the street or elsewhere.

[6] Truck-borne [and not piped into dwelling] - This applies in a limited sense to a truck-borne water supply where the sole source of water to the household is truck borne. The water supply by truck must be from a public source. For example, the household stores its water in drums or barrels which are filled by a truck borne supply.

It is to be noted, again, that in cases of intermittent supplies from a public source, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne, especially where pipes are already laid from the mains to the house.

[7] Spring / River - This applies when the main water supply available to the dwelling is from a spring or river.

[8] Other - Obtains when the dwelling receives its water supply from a source not specified e.g. well, pond, etc. and there is no pipe borne supply.

Question 45 - Toilet facilities

This question is divided into two [2] parts - question 45[a] and question 45[b]. In question 45[a]; your tick must indicate the type of toilet facilities available to the household. For question 45(b); your tick must indicate whether the household has its own private toilet facilities or shares with one or more households.


Question 45[a] - Type of toilet facilities

Pit - This describes the type of toilet facility available to the household as being a pit or latrine. This toilet facility is not water-borne.

W. C. linked to sewer - This toilet facility is a flush or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.

W. C. not linked to Sewer - This toilet facility is water-borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit [soakaway].

Other - This category refers to all other types of toilet facilities not described above.

None - Applies if no toilet facilities are available to the household on the premises. Immediately such an entry is made, question 45[b], Box [8] must be ticked to indicate that the question does not apply.

Question 45[b] - Are facilities shared or not shared?

[1] Shared
[2] Not shared
[3] Not applicable
Remember to tick not applicable where no toilet facilities exist.

Question 46 - Type of lighting

Tick box [1] when lighting is supplied by the Trinidad and Tobago electricity commission. Where the electricity is generated by the household itself or some private company tick box [2].

Question 47 - Number of rooms

A room is defined as an area permanently separated, by means of walls, from other parts of the building; but excludes galleries, bathrooms, toilets, pantries, corridors, kitchens. You are required to tick the pre-coded number of rooms occupied or available for use by the household for living purposes. Include as rooms, living rooms, bedrooms, dining rooms, sewing rooms, libraries, servant rooms [attached or detached] from the main building.

If you find a room with a portion curtained off with a temporary partition, the whole area must be counted as one room. If, however, there is a permanent partition dividing the floor area, you must count this as two rooms. Curtains or blinds do not separate rooms, walls and permanent partitions do. Tick the appropriate pre-coded box on the questionnaire.

Question 48[a] - Number of bedrooms

Bedrooms are rooms used exclusively for sleeping. There must be some permanency about the walls enclosing the bedroom. A dwelling unit which uses a room for other activities by day and sleeping by night has "no bedrooms". Makeshift arrangements, blinds et cetera do not count as rooms.

Question 48[b] - Bedrooms available for use or occupied by household

This question seeks to obtain a more accurate measurement of persons per bedroom by relating the actual number of bedrooms occupied or available for use by the major household in cases where the dwelling unit is shared with one or more households. For example, there may be three [3] bedrooms in a dwelling unit to be shared by two households consisting of ten [10] persons altogether. There will be errors in the analysis if each household separately is considered as having three [3] bedrooms available. Hence, question 48[b] is introduced and must be asked where there is double, triple, etc. household occupancy as the case may be. Do not ask question 48[b] if the dwelling unit is occupied by only one [1] household i.e. box [2] in question 40.

Question 49 - Monthly rent of dwelling unit

The information obtained here should indicate the monthly rental that is being paid by the occupier of the dwelling. You should make every effort to obtain a response to the nearest dollar.

Things you must do on the day after census day that is on 13th May, 1980

Introduction

These instructions are to further assist you in completing section 9 for all members of the household taken individually; and, also to locate all households occupying buildings.
Check all buildings in order to see whether any which were not occupied at the preliminary enumeration have since been occupied. On the other hand you must make sure that all which were occupied at the preliminary enumeration were occupied on census day. So far as checks on individual households are concerned your prime consideration is to ascertain whether there have been any changes in the numerical composition of the household.

Additions to a household may arise as a result of births; arrivals of members who were temporarily away at the time of preliminary enumeration; all other persons who have joined the household since preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in the household. The names and particulars of such persons should be written after the last recorded entry, and the fact that these additions are made on the day after census day must be stated in the remarks column at the back of the questionnaire.

Subtractions from a household may arise as a result of deaths or permanent departures of any member of the household since preliminary enumeration. In addition the non-arrival of any person who at the time of preliminary enumeration was expected to spend census night in the household must be deleted. A bold line should be drawn through the line referring to such persons and the reasons for these deletions should be noted in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.

Having assured yourself that any changes that may be necessary in the numerical composition of the household have been made, you must next consider what alterations in the characteristics of the remaining members may become necessary. Such changes will most likely have to be made in question 2 - Relation to head, and questions 28-32 - Marital status and fertility.

As a general rule, when in doubt, give detailed notes relating to an individual under query in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.

Basic summary of enumeration procedures

1. Contact a responsible person in each building visited and explain why you are calling. Show your precept i.e. your identification card.

2. Make sure the building is residential in whole or part and privately occupied.

3. Find out how many households there are by an introductory question such as "can you tell me who lives here, please?"

4. Deal with each household, if more than one, in turn.

5. Ascertain that the members of the household are expected to be present on census night, i.e. 12th May, 1980.

6. Ask for the name of the head of household and complete the visitation record.

7. Complete the appropriate number of census questionnaires for each household being mindful to promptly enter the identifying number from your visitation record. Do not leave this task for the end of the interview.

8. Do not trust your memory during an interview. Promptly record responses and tick the appropriate pre-coded boxes during the course of the interview. Follow faithfully the instructions in the questionnaire and the wording of the questions. These have been field tested to provide consistent information. Flexibility is allowed sparingly as shown in Appendix 1.

9. Make sure that you have not missed any members of the household enumerated or other households sharing accommodation with the household just enumerated.

10. Confirm to be sure of complete coverage whether any part of the building might be occupied separately and independently by another or other households before visiting another building. Always thank the respondent for their cooperation.