Republic of Trinidad and Tobago central statistical office
1980 Population and Housing census
In spite of the fact that there has been a slowing down in population growth since the last census, the new prosperity and diversification of industry in the oil sector have increased demands for a wide variety of services and infrastructure such as roads, water and electricity, schools to provide scientific and technical education, houses and industrial sites. Information yielded by the 1980 population census about the growth and movement of the population, education, training and housing will therefore be invaluable to those organizations both public and private which have the responsibility to meet these needs. Without such basic data, planning will be virtually impossible.
Businessmen and industrialists will also receive great assistance from the 1980 census. The data from the census will enable them to plan their sales programs more effectively; identify potential markets; determine strategic points for siting their business to take advantage of population redistribution; and, in general, to perform more efficiently by complementing census data with other statistics produced by the central statistical office.
 In the first place, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled the next step is to organize the collection of the data in the field under careful supervision. Trained enumerators visit every building in the country in order to interview members of households and record the necessary information on questionnaires. These questionnaires or documents on which the required information is entered are the basic instruments of enumeration. Therefore, if the quality of enumeration is very good the final tables of tabulations which will be eventually published will also be of a high quality and usable for policy formulation.
 After the questionnaires have been completed in the field they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. A sample of the field interviews will be rechecked in the field during enumeration by the supervisor and after enumeration by trained central statistical office staff to assess quality. When all checking has been completed in the office and field another process begins. This process, known as coding, involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for processing, the first stage of which involves data being directly transferred to magnetic tape. The data on magnetic tape will then undergo further processing by computer. The final stage is the production of the tabulations which constitute the basis of the census report.
[ii] Dwelling Units.
[iii] Private Households.
The definition of these various units of enumeration are provided later in the instructions.
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is using the procedure of pre-enumerating the population before census day. Pre-enumeration is scheduled to begin on the 14th of April, 1980.
2 The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the interest you take and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow enumerators perform your tasks. You therefore hold a key position in this important undertaking.
3 The respondent must also co-operate with you. Your manner of approach, mode of dress, and speech will help. Our publicity program will make your task easier but you must also try to display patience, tolerance and tact, which are the prerequisites of a good enumerator.
 Planning your travel-Hold travel to a minimum by planning.
 Reduction of call-backs-You can do this by planning your visits when respondents will be home from work. Obtain some help from neighbors after duly identifying yourself or leave your "call-back" card. Reduce costs by grouping your call-backs.
 Efficient conduct of interview-Only through familiarity with the questionnaire and skip instructions will you be able to do your job efficiently and accurately.
 Reinterview-The census organization will reinterview some of the households you enumerated to ensure your performance attained the required standard.
[a] All enumerators engaged on the census have taken an oath of secrecy.
[b] Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any enumerator or person engaged in census work to make unauthorized disclosures of information to any individual or organization whatsoever.
[c] The information collected will be used solely in the preparation of tables showing the structure and size of the population as a whole. Information about a particular individual is merely a unit essential in deriving overall totals but will never be used as relating to that individual.
Special enumerators will have the responsibility for the detailed enumeration of non-private dwellings. In a very special way you are the key person in the census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. A report is only as good as the information that goes into it. It is imperative that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.
 On Monday 14th April, 1980 or earlier your supervisor will take you to your enumeration district and show you its boundaries. When you have become familiar with your district and with the route to be taken when enumerating, you are in a position to commence the preliminary enumeration. This involves visiting every building in your district and recording the names and particulars of persons who expect to be spending census night there.
 Preliminary enumeration must be completed by Tuesday 6th May, 1980. As each batch of questionnaires is completed, it must be thoroughly checked by you, and handed over to your supervisor. On or before census day, your supervisor will return the questionnaires to you and it is then your duty to begin the final check of the position of your district on the day after census day, i.e. 13th May, 1980.
Note, however, that in the event of a birth to a member of the household, questions 29-32 will have to be amended. This is the only case in the census where after census day you will have to amend the particulars of a member of the household.
 Be involved in your training.
 Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed.
 Give you your assignment.
 Supply you with your enumeration materials.
 Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve i.e. your supervisor has been asked to revisit some of the respondents after you have interviewed them.
 See that you understand and follow the instructions in this book and those given at training classes.
 See that you complete your assignment within the specified time.
 Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment only for work of an acceptable quality.
 Be the link between you and the headquarters of the Census.
 Assist you in solving any difficulties in the field.
You must at all times keep in close touch with your supervisor, letting him know where you may be found, meeting him at such times and places as he may direct, and following carefully the instructions which he gives you. All appointments with your supervisor must be kept.
In addition, you will receive a letter of appointment as a census enumerator and an identification precept. These must be carried around with you at all times during your duty as an enumerator. Always make sure that you show your identification to establish the legality of your position as a Census enumerator.
The materials handed to you for the completion of your task as an enumerator are the property of the census office and your claim for payment will not be honored until your supervisor receives the following from you at the end of enumeration:
[a] The enumeration district map and description.
[b] All completed questionnaires duly secured.
[c] The visitation record.
[d] The identification precept.
[e] The unused questionnaires and ball-point pens.
[f] The bag for holding all materials.
[g] All other used and unused materials.
Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your enumeration district. He will also point out to you whatever errors he may have found on the enumeration district map as received from head office. You must however correct your enumeration district map where necessary by crossing out streets which cannot be located, demolished buildings, etc. which do not exist, drawing in new buildings, and correcting street names and roads which may have been omitted from the map.
All corrections, changes, etc. must be brought to the attention of your supervisor immediately. Should you find any errors in the description, write these out below in the description of the enumeration district.
Key points with respect to your E.D. map
[i] Your map is the basic instrument to locate your enumeration district.
[ii] It identifies clearly the boundaries of your workload/assignment.
[iii] Provides a specific route for you to follow to complete enumeration.
[iv] Provides a one to one link with your visitation record. Therefore, each building you visit must be serially numbered on your map with a corresponding number on your visitation record.
[v] Provides at an instant the progress of your work in the field.
[iv] Permits the census office to check for completeness of coverage.
If a street, road, river, canal, alley, road junction or other feature, forms one of its boundaries, be sure you know which side of it is in your enumeration district. You will cause a great deal of trouble and double counting of the population if you enumerate households belonging to another enumerator's enumeration district.
On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook nor forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you. Every household in your area, no matter how remote, must be enumerated to ensure that the census is complete in its coverage.
If a householder tells you that an enumerator has already collected information from him, make certain that the enumerator is engaged in population census work and not in any other survey. Since there may be surveys by the central statistical office in the field at the same time or surveys conducted by other government agencies, you should not accept their word lightly.
If the household has in fact been previously enumerated by another census enumerator, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area, report the matter immediately to your supervisor. It may be that some other enumerator is working in your area by mistake and there will be double counting of the population.
Within your enumeration district there may be hotels, boarding houses, nursing homes, hospitals, police stations, fire stations, and other institutional households. Detailed instructions on the treatment of institutions, some of which will require special methods of enumeration will be given to you by your supervisor. Your responsibility, nonetheless, is to record the existence of these institutions on your visitation record.
If during the course of enumeration there is a case which is not covered by your instructions make a note of it in your visitation record and refer it to your supervisor for his/her advice.
Group A: includes institutions such as hotels and large boarding houses which cater for six  or more paying guests, hotels, hostels, barracks, etc., the inhabitants of which, like the general non-institutional population, may engage in normal economic activity.
Group B: includes hospitals and nursing homes, prisons, leprosaria and such institutions where inmates, during the period that they are in the institution, will in general not take part in any normal economic activity.
A building is defined as a physical structure which is separate and independent from any other comprising one or more rooms, or other spaces, covered by a roof and enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundations to the roof and designed for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial or cultural purposes, or for the provision of services. Detached rooms relating to main buildings are treated as part of the main buildings, for example detached kitchens, toilets, servants quarters, garages, etc. A building may be a factory, shop, detached dwelling, apartment building, warehouse, repair shop, poultry pen, etc.
The key concept for a dwelling unit is separateness and independence. Occupiers of a dwelling unit must have free access to the street by their own separate and independent entrance without having to pass through another household's living quarters [dwelling unit].
Certain other living arrangements will be met in the field and further guidance can be obtained from the following rules:
1. Even if a person has recently moved in with a group of persons as long as he/she intends to make his/her home with them that person is to be considered a member of the household.
2. A boarding house which caters for less than six  boarders/lodgers is to be classified as a private household.
3. If a house is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or subtenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.
4. If within the institution [non-private dwelling] there are separate quarters for all or any member of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such persons constitute separate households. For temporary or permanent inmates of large institutions, however, special instructions for enumeration will be given by the supervisor.
5. A servant who sleeps in the house or in an out-building on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. A servant who does not sleep on her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where she works.
6. A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household during most nights of a week, is to be considered a member of that household.
7. A person who rents a room from his landlady but who does not share any meals with her constitutes a separate household, i.e. a single person household and should be treated as such.
8. Persons living, working and sleeping away from their place of usual residence for most nights of the week should be included as members of the household in which they are found during pre-enumeration.
9. A visitor or guest intending to spend census night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.
10. Persons engaged in shift work or who work nights, such as security workers, are to be enumerated as members of the household of usual residence.
11. It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household. The concept of "sharing at least one daily meal" and "sharing common living arrangements" is used as an indicator for identifying household membership. For example, there is the familiar case of a servant and her family living on her employer's premises having separate living arrangements. Such an arrangement constitutes a separate household. With respect to the concept of "sharing at least one daily meal" it is not necessary that members sit at meals together. The alternative, "sharing common living arrangements", i.e. contributing to the maintenance of the household, groceries, etc. can also serve as a guide.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take the member of the group as the head, whom the others acknowledge as such.
A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six  guests is considered the head of that household.
On the cover page of your visitation record you are required to fill out the identifying number, county, ward and enumeration district number as well as your own name and address before the start of enumeration. The rest of the information on the cover page is to be filled out on completion of enumeration. For example, the number of buildings, dwelling units, households, population, etc. must be entered.
The visitation record consists of seventeen  numbered columns, each of which is intended to serve a specific purpose.
In the case of an institution, write in the full name of the institution, e.g. "Park's Nursing Home".
In rural and remote areas, houses or buildings are more widely spaced and are not numbered. Where addresses are vague, the name of the road, trace or track [if named], mile posts, electricity poles [lamp posts] or other permanent landmarks e.g. a large fruit tree or palm tree, should be inserted.
Note that the electricity poles carry a unique number and is also likely to carry the electoral polling division number. You must use these aids to facilitate the Census office checks on the accuracy of your coverage.
The importance of the full address cannot be over-emphasized when one considers that the information recorded in columns 6 and 7 will be used as the basis for identifying households or business places for the conduct of subsequent sample surveys during the intercensal years.
Persons who are currently inmates of institutions, such as hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, etc. are recorded as members of the household if by census night they would have been inmates for less than six months.
Note that female inmates of institutions are to be treated similarly to the male members. Any inmate of less than six months should be recorded as a member of the household.
1. One who owns land for agricultural purposes, whether it is cultivated or not at the time of the census.
2. One who rents land for agricultural purposes.
3. One who squats on land and works it for agricultural purposes.
4. A person who works land given to him for agricultural purposes.
A person who owns or rents land for non-agricultural purposes [e.g. housing, industrial estate, etc.] must not be recorded.
All land holders are to be entered regardless of the size of the plot which they own, rent or operate. Enter the size as follows: 2 acres, 3 lots, etc.
In cases where two or more members of the household are land holders, record the size of the holding held by each member and not just the total acreage for the entire household. For example:
 5/8 acre
 3 acres
 5 acres
Note that you may have to return to complete this section if during the course of the interview of the census questionnaire you find persons who depend on agriculture for a livelihood i.e., occupation is vegetable farmer, to enquire about land holding. This is especially the case in rural areas where you should encounter a fair number of land holders.
For purposes of the census a livestock holder is defined as anyone who keeps and rears especially for sale:
 Any number of cows.
 Any number of pigs.
 Any number of sheep.
 Any number of goats.
 Any number of bee hives.
 Twelve heads or more of poultry for the specific purpose of laying or production of broilers, and not for purely domestic consumption.
 Mixed livestock e.g. cows and goats, pigs and sheep, etc.
You are required to enter only the number of livestock in the space provided, headed "no" which is an abbreviation for "number".
In cases where the person keeps mixed livestock, you must record the number of livestock in the space provided in column 16 and indicate the type comprising the mixture in column 17-Remarks.
No information must be recorded in the sub-division of column 16 marked "type". This column is for office use only.
In the case of business places you must enter a description of the type of activity in which the establishment is engaged. Where more than one activity is carried out, record that activity from which the most revenue is received.
The entries here should be precise e.g. shoe manufacturer, bakery, barber shop, etc. Enter also the type of activity engaged in by the land holder, e.g. state whether the type of crops grown are:
 Tree crops [cocoa, coffee, citrus, coconuts, etc.].
 Ground vegetables [yam, dasheen, tannia, etc.].
 Green vegetables [tomatoes, cabbage, etc.].
 Sugar cane.
 Mixed vegetables.
In cases where livestock is kept, you are to enter the type, e.g. cows, pigs, sheep, goats, etc. Do not include race horses.
At the back of the visitation record space is also provided for you to record any additional information about any building, household or business place you may visit. Use the building number, the business unit number, the name of the occupant and the household number to identify a particular household or business.
The name of each section is written in bold type at the top of the page. Section -Housing is to be completed for heads of households only. You must also complete for the housing section the identification at top of the section by referring to your visitation record.
It is of utmost importance that the questionnaires be handled with greatest care. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures [although clean and light erasures are permissible]; there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earing, etc. The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary ball point pen or other marks must appear. Keep sufficient questionnaires for the day's enumeration in the kit given to you. At the end of the day store those completed in a safe place in your home with due "care for confidentiality".
In some instances you have to both write in a response and tick e.g.
Question 6 Religion: Other
Question 7[c] Address of foreign born
Question 14[c] Highest examination ever passed
Wherever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answers being intentionally given it is the duty of the enumerator to inform his supervisor and document this fact on the questionnaire. Do not chance to your memory. On the other hand, it is possible that incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. This situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment, occupation, and income of other members of the household. Here, however, the chances are that a call-back may be arranged in order that the respondent may have time to consult the appropriate member[s] of the household and thus secure reliable information.
Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of the occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have therefore the possibility of total omission of the event as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward on the time scale. This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations. It is especially important in questions dealing with migration and in information on fertility and union status. It is for this reason that the enumerator is strongly advised to note that linking up answers to associated questions are intended to aid respondent to recall accurately information about long past events.
The numbering of buildings, dwelling units and households must be done serially as explained in the visitation record. The inside cover of the visitation record also repeats detailed instructions already given in this manual on how this record should be completed. Your first task is to follow these instructions and make the necessary entries in the visitation record.
When you have finished making all the necessary entries in the visitation record for a given household, you should immediately begin to enumerate the household by completing the questionnaire. Do not go to step two  before step one  is satisfactorily completed.
In addition, insert the name of the respondent, the telephone number [if any] and the address of the household. The rest of the cover page, "result code" is to be completed at the end of the interview.
A household will usually consist of one person or group of persons living together and sharing at least one daily meal.
Write in block letters the name [surname first and other names] of the head of the household followed by persons related to the head beginning with his/her spouse, their unmarried children, married children and their spouse's grandchildren [if any], other relatives and any other persons in the household. In the case of a baby who has not yet been named, enter the appropriate surname of the parents. When it is necessary to use more than one questionnaire change the person's number on all pages of the questionnaire e.g. 01 to 07 for the second questionnaire and 01 to 13 on the third questionnaire.
In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take that member of the group as the head whom the others acknowledge as such.
A person who manages a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six  guests is considered the head of that household.
 Spouse/partner of head
 Child of head/spouse
 Spouse/partner of child
 Grandchild of head/spouse
 Other relative of head/spouse
 Domestic employee
 Other non-relative
 Not stated
If the individual is the head of the household, then tick the box "head".
Note: Do not try to determine the sex of the person according to the name, ask the question.
There may be instances, especially in the case of old people, where respondents do not remember their correct ages. Perhaps reference to some outstanding events, such as World Wars I 1914-1918 and II, 1939-1945, fires, floods, or hurricanes, may be helpful. By referring to such events and by considering other information available about the individual make every effort to estimate his age. Do not leave this question blank. Obtain some estimate from the respondent.
Accept the respondent's classification. If you think you are being misled make a note in an appropriate part of the questionnaire and inform your supervisor.
For Baptists [other than "Orthodox"] Muslims and Hindus write in the particular association/ sect to which the person belongs together with the name of the religion.
The response positions for this question are laid out in two fields:
 Trinidad and Tobago
For persons born in Trinidad and Tobago, be sure to write out the full address of the usual place of residence of the person's mother at the time of the birth of the person in the space provided. Do not enter hospitals, nursing homes or any place other than the residence of the mother as place of birth. If the response to this question is "Trinidad and Tobago" then write out the full address in question 7[b] before going to question 8[a].
If the response is "foreign" then skip to Question 7[c].
 This address.
 Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago.
 Not stated.
Please note the skip instructions.
If the response is  i.e. This address, skip to question 9. If  i.e. Elsewhere in Trinidad and Tobago, go to question 8[b], as directed on the questionnaire. For persons whose usual residence is abroad, you are to skip to question 10[a]. Use the "Not stated" box to refer to persons who refuse to state their usual residence, before skipping to question 10[a].
Although most persons will have no difficulty in stating their place of usual residence, some confusion is bound to arise in a number of special cases where persons may appear to have more than one  usual residence. These cases might include persons who maintain two or more residents, students living at a school away from their parental home, members of the armed forces living at a military barracks but still maintaining private living quarters away from the installation and persons who sleep away from their homes during the working week but return home for a few days at the end of the week. To avoid such problems take the place where the individual sleeps most nights of the week as his/her usual residence.
Note: That if the respondent has lived at his present residence since birth or in the case of the foreign born since the date of his immigration, then, address of previous residence and his/her present residence would be the same and box . This address should be ticked.
These questions are to be answered for every individual. Whereas it is pointless to put all of these questions in respect of infants and very young children, a response position must still be ticked in question 11[a] for every individual. Please note skip instructions in questions 11[a] and 14[a].
Question 12 - Type of school now being attended
 Private Primary
 Government and Assisted Primary
 Junior Secondary
 Youth Camp
 Senior Comprehensive
 Private Secondary
 Government and Assisted Secondary
 Technical Institute
 Not stated
Be sure to write in the name of the school being attended before writing the relevant code in the box.
Note that included under "other" are schools for the blind, the deaf, and other forms of disability.
You are required to obtain from the respondent the full address of the school or university that is now being attended. This consists of the name of the city, town or village and if possible ward and county. The county should be given to facilitate office coding.
The following types are specified:
 Bus [P.T.S.C.]
 Private car
 Motor cycle
 Not applicable
 Not stated
There may be instances where persons attending school/university use two or more of the types of transport specified above. In such cases tick the type that is used most frequently.
Question 14[a] - Highest level of Non-Vocational educational attainment
Since it is possible that the individual may have passed more than one of the examinations specified, ensure that you ascertain which examination the individual considers as the highest he/she has passed. Write in the name of the examination passed before ticking the appropriate box. Examinations such as the "common entrance" and "fourteen  plus" must not be entered.
It should be noted that priority is given to work over all other activities. Also, economic activity holds precedence over non-economic.
For job seekers and similar unemployed persons, you are to record information on job last held. Persons seeking first job are classified as never worked.
[i] Worked for others, i.e. employee
[a] Government-Central and local including Statutory boards, Quasi Government.
[b] Government-Public enterprises and/or state-owned enterprises, i.e. and enterprise where government holds the controlling interest 51% or more of shares.
[c] Non-Government-That is private employment.
[d] Unpaid worker and learner- These are apprentices, unpaid family worker in a business establishment or enterprise whether agricultural or non-agricultural.
The job title refers to the official name given by the employer or appearing in the union agreement to classify the actual work done and is used to determine the person's rate of pay or pay scale. The job title should be written in as much detail as possible and vague terms must be avoided. Descriptions such as agent, apprentice, attendant, clerk, proprietor, and salesman are insufficient - they must be qualified.
The following are examples of acceptable designations: house real estate agent, life insurance agent, chartered accountant, departmental store sales clerk, electrical engineer I, bus driver, police sergeant, secondary school teacher or teacher II.
For domestic servants or other personal service workers who worked as paid employees in private homes write in the space reserved for Industry - Private home.
As in the preceding question, avoid vague descriptions of the type of business. For example, do not merely record the type of business as sugar, but indicate whether it is cane-growing, sugar manufacturing [factory], etc. Similarly, show oil refinery separately from bulk oil distribution. Do not merely record oil.
For persons working, record the number of hours actually worked, including overtime. Persons operating their own business either as self-employed or employers should be enumerated by the time they were actually working. Note that for persons who are paid by the "day" but work "task", the enumerator should record the hours for which they were paid. Time taken to and from work is not counted unless payment is made for such hours. Finally, as a guide in difficult cases, some estimate should be made for "hours" normally worked per week in the pre-coded categories.
Categories of persons who were not economically active in this context include persons who had never worked but who were seeking their first job, people engaged in home duties, full-time students and those retired or disabled. The term "did not want work" refers to those persons who were neither students, retired, pensioned, home duties, etc. but clearly did not wish to engage in economic activity. Discrete prompting should be used to elicit a reply.
It is to be noted that the term "most" referring to a period of six months and over need not be continuous.
Students in primary and secondary schools, youth camps, etc. pursuing specialized technical/craft courses as part of their general education should be probed to respond. You should probe especially for the government secondary schools where it is now a regular part of the student's education to obtain training in some craft or trade such as masonry, carpentry, motor mechanic, welding etc.
Note: "Training can be practical or theoretical under an instructor to acquire a skill or capability to perform a task to some specified standard."
Note: The field [area] of training is defined for the 1980 census as the broad subject matter area consisting of one or more courses or combination of courses sometimes commonly referred to as a program of studies either completed or being pursued by persons to fit them for employment in a specialized job/occupation or general professional, administrative, managerial, technical occupation. Respondents may have to be probed to indicate a university degree in Science as their preparatory training for an occupation in Engineering or Social Sciences for an administrative career. It is to be noted that there is a close association between occupation and training, especially for the professions. A description of the occupation or subject matter of a discipline will be accepted where applicable e.g. chartered accountant, medicine, nursing, engineering, law.
Method by which training was acquired
The method by which training was acquired can be classified in the following groups:-
On-the-job training - This refers to training received while the person is in the service of the establishment or a tradesman. [On-the-job training could take various forms e.g. a short course offered at the place of employment to acquire a specific skill].
 Private study - This refers to forms of training such as correspondence courses or that acquired either through the reading of books, such as teach yourself manuals, written instructions or oral instructions such as radio and television programs.
 Secondary schools - This category refers to the government and assisted, as well as private secondary schools providing a broad base of general education for children over eleven years of age [i.e. the 11+] or common entrance.
 Vocational, trade, commercial
[a] Commercial schools / secretarial college - Commercial schools and Secretarial colleges can be described as educational institutions which offer courses in one or more of the commercial subjects, e.g. typing, shorthand, accountancy, business management, etc.
[b] Vocational / trade school - A vocational or trade school is one which offers courses in trades such as welding, pipe-fitting, carpentry, printing, book-binding, electrical wiring, etc. Educational institutions such as Servol, youth camps and the trade school attached to various oil fields are included in this category.
 Technical institute - Training provided in "technical institutes" within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago's educational system is usually at the technical level. Admission to the institutes, in most cases, will require completion of a full five-year secondary education as a minimum. Within the Unesco ISCED system, education at this level may be classified as "third level first stage of the type that leads to an award not equivalent to a first university degree". Typical examples are John S. Donaldson, San Fernando Technical School and ECIAF.
 Other institutes - Training - Training provided at a level above secondary education for teachers, nurses, etc. The level of instruction requires that students must have completed their secondary education.
 University - Training provided at an institution offering courses which lead to the level of a degree.
 Other - This category refers to training acquired through all other methods not previously stated. These include such methods as self-taught or trial and error.
Married - This covers all married persons whether or not they are living with partners to whom they are married. Also to be included in this category are persons married according to Hindu custom or Muslim rites, whether or not these marriages have been formally registered. A person living apart though not legally separated from his or her married partner is to be recorded as married.
Widowed - This covers all married persons whose partners have died.
Legally separated - This applies where married persons are living apart and separated by a court order.
Divorced - This covers all persons whose marriages have been dissolved by legal proceedings.
Note to interviewer - There may be instances where the couple may be living apart but the divorce has not been made final. Such persons are not to be entered as divorced but as married or legally separated as the case may be.
Note to interviewer - The information sought is not the number of children alive at the time of the census but the total number of live born children the woman ever had, whether currently residing with her or elsewhere. Included, also, are those who may have since died. Probe skillfully. Remember a live birth occurs when a baby cries or shows other signs of life when born. If the respondent states none then enter in the boxes provided. If none is entered for question 29 then skip to question 31.
A woman must only be ticked as being in a "visiting" union if she had a birth [live or still] within the twelve  month period preceding the census. This response must not be probed.
Note to interviewer - Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn. Often they do not even tell their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must emphasize, if called upon to explain, that it is not intended to pry into the private affairs of the individual and that the information is required only to work out estimated average income per individual for the entire country. As a last resort use the "income flash card" supplied to you.
Section 9 - Census night
It must be noted, however, that members of the household who were temporarily away on census night should be left as members of the household and box , ,  or  of Question 34[a] ticked. Babies born prior to midnight of the 12th May, 1980 are to be included in the household and sections 1-3 completed for such individuals as well as suitable amendments made to section 7. Temporary visitors as well as persons who joined the household subsequent to the preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in that household are to be enumerated on 13th May, 1980, i.e. during the census night check as additions, that is new members of the household. Such situations may arise through marriage or returning residents from abroad.
Persons answering ,  and  in question 34[a] must answer question 34[b] whilst "heads of households" should have completed section 10-Housing.
It must be remembered that persons who are expected to be in hospital and prisons or similar institutions for a period of six  months or more are to be commented upon individually at the back of the questionnaire by the relevant person number.
Question 34[b] - Address where [N] spent census night
For persons answering ,  be sure to write out the full address whilst for those stating  institution, write both the name and address of the institution. At the back of the questionnaire, write the expected length of stay in the institution next to the relevant person number.
There are six categories:-
 Mainly residential
 Residential and commercial
 Community service - Private/Government
Community service building refers to a building used primarily in the interest of the public and provides a service [e.g. hospital, community centre, government building, sports club]. Your supervisor can assist you with any concepts not clear with respect to the above categories.
Brick - This applies to buildings where the walls are made of hollow clay blocks or concrete bricks whether plastered or unplastered.
Concrete including concrete blocks - This includes walls made of both concrete and concrete blocks with steel reinforcements as well as reinforced concrete structures.
Wood and concrete - This applies when the walls are made of both types of material.
Wood and brick - This includes walls made of both wood and concrete or hollow clay.
Wood - Tick this if the walls are made solely of wood.
Wattle/adobe/tapia - This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle dabbed with mud. Walls made of tapia must also be included under this type.
Other - Tick for other types of material of construction of outer walls not previously described.
In the case of buildings which have been re-conditioned or have undergone major structural changes, record the year when the major structural changes were completed.
There may be instances where a structure, though not completed, is occupied by a household. In such cases you must record the period or year in which the incomplete structure was occupied for the first time. In these cases, for the purpose of the census, occupancy and not structural completion characterizes a finished building.
For persons living in temporary buildings during construction of their own houses take the year the temporary building was built.
 Either by a separate entrance.
 Through a common landing or passage way.
 Or through someone else's living quarters.
This question should serve as a check to determine and satisfy the conditions for identifying a dwelling unit which are separateness and independence of the residential accommodation. It will be recalled that a dwelling unit is essentially residential accommodation, privately occupied, in which the persons who live there can enter and leave their accommodation without passing through someone else's accommodation.
Tick  Yes or  No
Please note the skip instructions.
You may probe by simply asking whether there are any other persons who are not members of the household or family that live in the same dwelling. Do not confuse the occupants of separate flats and apartments which may be in the same buildings with question 40[a] and [b]. These separate living quarters constitute individual dwelling units.
Please note that the size of the household might change between preliminary enumeration and the census day check. You must make the appropriate changes where necessary.
 Owned - This category applies when the head or any other member of the household owns the dwelling, or is in the process of buying the dwelling.
 Rented - Private - Included in this concept is the situation where the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from an individual or a company. Rental, although it may be covered by a contract, conveys the idea of payments being made monthly.
 Rented - Government - This applies if the head of the household or any other member rents the dwelling from government or government agency.
 Leased - A lease differs from a rental by an agreed contract which stipulates, in advance, the total rental sum for the dwelling during a fixed duration of the contract. This total sum may be paid in advance or by installments.
 Rent-free - When the head of the household does not pay a rent for the occupancy of the dwelling by the household, a tick should be scored in this box.
 Squatted - This applies when households are found occupying a building or dwelling unit without permission of the owner or any legal rights to the property.
 Other - This description refers to situations where the head or members of the household are occupying a dwelling under conditions different from those specified above.
The pre-coded categories are as follows:-
 Separate house - Defines a dwelling unit which takes up the complete building; it may be inhabited by one or more households.
 Flats/ Apartments - Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multistoried building. Apartments should be ticked where the household occupied part of the building but has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery, etc.
 Condominium - A block of self-contained dwelling units which may be flats or apartments for which legal title is held individually. Additionally, security grounds and other facilities may be shared.
 Double house - A dwelling joined to only one other dwelling, separated from it by a wall extending from ground to roof, i.e. one or two dwellings attached side by side, having no other dwellings either above or below and separated by open space from all other structures.
 Duplex - One of two dwellings, one on top of the other, separated by open space from all other structures. Include any dwelling built as a single house but in which the basement or upper storey has been converted to form another separate dwelling.
 Part of commercial/Industrial building - This type of dwelling would be ticked when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as business places, lodges, garages, etc.
 Barracks - A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.
 Outroom - A room or rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household i.e. servants' quarters, etc.
 Other private dwelling - Mobile homes, derelict vehicles, etc. In short, a dwelling in conditions different from those specified above.
 Group dwellings - These have already been defined and refer to certain types of institutions i.e. boarding houses, hotels, hostels, etc.
 Other - A category which describes a type of accommodation not defined from  to .
[Pictures of dwelling units omitted]
 Public piped into dwelling - Describes a condition where running water from a public source is piped directly into the dwelling unit. It is to be noted that in cases where both truck-borne supplies and intermittent supplies from a public reservoir are used, public piped takes precedence over "truck-borne".
 Public piped into yard - Applies in situations where the household receives running water from a public source through a pipe in the yard or compound on which the dwelling stands.
 Private piped into dwelling - Refers to the water supply received by a household from a private source and piped into the dwelling. Such situations will occur, for example, where the household pumps water from a river or pond through pipes directly to the dwelling.
 Private catchment not piped - Obtains where the water supply to the household is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.
 Public stand pipe - Obtains when water is available to the household from a stand pipe in the street or elsewhere.
 Truck-borne [and not piped into dwelling] - This applies in a limited sense to a truck-borne water supply where the sole source of water to the household is truck borne. The water supply by truck must be from a public source. For example, the household stores its water in drums or barrels which are filled by a truck borne supply.
It is to be noted, again, that in cases of intermittent supplies from a public source, public piped takes precedence over truck-borne, especially where pipes are already laid from the mains to the house.
 Spring / River - This applies when the main water supply available to the dwelling is from a spring or river.
 Other - Obtains when the dwelling receives its water supply from a source not specified e.g. well, pond, etc. and there is no pipe borne supply.
Question 45[a] - Type of toilet facilities
W. C. linked to sewer - This toilet facility is a flush or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.
W. C. not linked to Sewer - This toilet facility is water-borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit [soakaway].
Other - This category refers to all other types of toilet facilities not described above.
None - Applies if no toilet facilities are available to the household on the premises. Immediately such an entry is made, question 45[b], Box  must be ticked to indicate that the question does not apply.
 Not shared
 Not applicable
Remember to tick not applicable where no toilet facilities exist.
If you find a room with a portion curtained off with a temporary partition, the whole area must be counted as one room. If, however, there is a permanent partition dividing the floor area, you must count this as two rooms. Curtains or blinds do not separate rooms, walls and permanent partitions do. Tick the appropriate pre-coded box on the questionnaire.
Check all buildings in order to see whether any which were not occupied at the preliminary enumeration have since been occupied. On the other hand you must make sure that all which were occupied at the preliminary enumeration were occupied on census day. So far as checks on individual households are concerned your prime consideration is to ascertain whether there have been any changes in the numerical composition of the household.
Additions to a household may arise as a result of births; arrivals of members who were temporarily away at the time of preliminary enumeration; all other persons who have joined the household since preliminary enumeration and who spent census night in the household. The names and particulars of such persons should be written after the last recorded entry, and the fact that these additions are made on the day after census day must be stated in the remarks column at the back of the questionnaire.
Subtractions from a household may arise as a result of deaths or permanent departures of any member of the household since preliminary enumeration. In addition the non-arrival of any person who at the time of preliminary enumeration was expected to spend census night in the household must be deleted. A bold line should be drawn through the line referring to such persons and the reasons for these deletions should be noted in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.
Having assured yourself that any changes that may be necessary in the numerical composition of the household have been made, you must next consider what alterations in the characteristics of the remaining members may become necessary. Such changes will most likely have to be made in question 2 - Relation to head, and questions 28-32 - Marital status and fertility.
As a general rule, when in doubt, give detailed notes relating to an individual under query in the remarks and specific comments section at the back of the questionnaire.
2. Make sure the building is residential in whole or part and privately occupied.
3. Find out how many households there are by an introductory question such as "can you tell me who lives here, please?"
4. Deal with each household, if more than one, in turn.
5. Ascertain that the members of the household are expected to be present on census night, i.e. 12th May, 1980.
6. Ask for the name of the head of household and complete the visitation record.
7. Complete the appropriate number of census questionnaires for each household being mindful to promptly enter the identifying number from your visitation record. Do not leave this task for the end of the interview.
8. Do not trust your memory during an interview. Promptly record responses and tick the appropriate pre-coded boxes during the course of the interview. Follow faithfully the instructions in the questionnaire and the wording of the questions. These have been field tested to provide consistent information. Flexibility is allowed sparingly as shown in Appendix 1.
9. Make sure that you have not missed any members of the household enumerated or other households sharing accommodation with the household just enumerated.
10. Confirm to be sure of complete coverage whether any part of the building might be occupied separately and independently by another or other households before visiting another building. Always thank the respondent for their cooperation.