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Commonwealth Caribbean Population Census, 1970

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Part I - Introduction

1. What is a Population Census

A modern population census may be defined as the total process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all persons in a country at a specified time. Briefly, it is the counting of the inhabitants of a country and. the recording of information on their characteristics.

2. Why is a Population Census being taken?

Since 1960 when the last population census was taken, the population has grown, persons have moved from one place to another, changes have taken place in the system and availability of education, and so on. The population census of 1970 is designed to provide the information needed to assess these changes as well as to provide benchmark data on which to base plans affecting the economic and social status of the population.

A rapidly growing population means rising demands for a wide variety of services, such as roads, schools, water supplies, houses and industrial sites. Information yielded by the 1970 Population Census about the growth and movement of the population will therefore be invaluable to those organizations, both public and private, which have the responsibility of meeting the growing demands for these services.

Businessmen and industrialists will also receive great assistance from the 1970 Census. Its data will enable them to organize their sales programmes more efficiently; to determine strategic points for siting their retail outlets; to select industrial sites to take advantage of population distribution; and in general to furnish guides for the profitable organization of their enterprises.

3. How is a Population Census taken?

(1) While the term census is generally taken to mean the counting of the country's population and the recording of certain of their characteristics at a particular time, several distinct operations have to be completed before a picture of the population can be presented.

(2) In the first place, plans must be drawn up outlining what information is to be collected, how it is to be recorded and how the findings are to be presented. After these have been settled the next step is to organise the collection of the data in the field. Trained enumerators visit every building in the country in order to interview members of households and record the necessary information on questionnaires. These questionnaires or documents on which the required information is entered, are the basic instruments of enumeration.

(3) After the questionnaires have been completed in the field they have to be thoroughly checked for omissions and inconsistencies. When all checking has been completed, another process begins. This process known as coding involves the translation of information into codes or appropriate numbers. The questionnaires are then ready for processing, the first step in which involves their passage through a Document Reader. This transfers the data onto magnetic tape for further steps in computer processing. The final step is the production of the tabulations which constitute the basis of the Census Report.

4. Relationship to other countries

The census of any country is of greater-value if it can be compared with censuses of other countries which are taken at approximately the same time. Many countries throughout the world will be taking Population Censuses in 1970. It has been agreed among the governments of the Commonwealth Caribbean, that Census Day (April 7th 19 70) will be the
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same throughout the region, all the participating territories will use the questionnaire of the same design; they will in general use similar approaches throughout the census operations in order to ensure a high degree of comparability and consistency throughout the area and as a result save on administrative and processing costs.

5. The Importance of your role in the Population Census

(1) As an enumerator you play a vital part in the census operations. You all have the job of taking the 1970 Census of Population. Every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate answers to questions and to record these according to your instructions.

(2) The accuracy and high quality of the census data depend to a very large extent on the interest you take and the thoroughness with which you and your fellow enumerators perform your task. You therefore hold a key position in this important undertaking.

6. Census information is confidential

The law requires that all information collected for the census be kept confidential. When you accept the job of enumerator you will be required to take an oath that you will complete your assignment and never reveal any census information to anyone who is not a sworn employee of the Census Organization. This means that you must not give any census information even to members of your family. The Census is being taken under laws appropriate to each of the participating countries.

7. Census information used only in totals

Some of the people whom you interview may hesitate to answer some of your questions. This is an understandable reaction, because you will be asking for information which they do not normally make available to strangers. You may put them at ease by telling them about the conditions under which you are collecting information. They are:-

(a) All enumerators engaged on the Census have taken an oath of secrecy.

(b) Information collected is strictly confidential. It is against the law for any enumerator or person engaged on census work to make unauthorised disclosures of information to any individual or organization, whatsoever, public or private.

(c) The information collected will be used solely in the preparation of tables showing the structure and size of the population as a whole. Information about a particular individual is merely a unit essential in deriving overall totals but will never be used as relative to that individual.

Part II - General instructions

8. Your assignment

Your assignment is to complete a questionnaire according to the instructions given herein in respect of each individual who sleeps in your enumeration district (E .D.) on the night of 7th April, 1970. In addition you are to provide a listing of vacant dwellings in your visitation record. Special enumerators will have the responsibility for the detailed enumeration of non-private dwellings. In a very special way you are the key person in the Census organization, since it is you who must obtain the basic facts from which all the results are going to be produced. A report is only as good as the information that goes into it, so that it is imperative that you do your job precisely and according to instructions.
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9. Enumeration procedure

(1) While the aim of the census is to determine the number and characteristics of persons to be found m each locality of your territory on Census day that is on the 7th April 1970 this cannot be accomplished satisfactorily in one day. In fact enumeration is a process planned to last for about three weeks, i.e., from Wednesday, 11th March to Thursday, 2nd April.

(2) Before Wednesday, 11th March your supervisor will take you to your enumeration district and show you its boundaries. When you have become familiar with your district and with the route to be taken when enumerating, you are in a position to commence the preliminary enumeration. This involves visiting every building in your district and recording the names and particulars of persons who expect to be spending census night there.

(3) Preliminary enumeration must be completed by Thursday, 2nd April. As each batch of questionnaires is completed these must be thoroughly checked by you, and handed over to your supervisor. On or before census day, your supervisor will return the questionnaires to you and it is then your duty to begin the final check of the position of your district on census day.

(4) On 7th April you will visit each occupied dwelling and ascertain whether there has been any numerical change in the composition of the household. Additions to the household necessitate the preparation of additional questionnaires, while departures from the household will necessitate an indication at Question 44 or a cancellation of the questionnaire in the case of death. But as will be emphasised m this Manual, no attempt is to be made to check all the information collected at pre-enumeration.

10. Your supervisor

You will be working under the super vision and direction of your Area Supervisor who will:

(a) Be involved in your training

(b) Ensure that the instruments of your appointment are properly executed

(c) Give you your assignment

(d) Supply you with your enumeration materials

(e) Observe and review your work and explain how you may need to improve it

(f) See that you understand and follow the instructions in this book and those given at training classes

(g) See that you complete your assignment as quickly as possible

(h) Receive your work at the end of enumeration and recommend payment. .

You must at all times keep in close touch with him, letting him know where you may be found, meeting him at such times and places as he may direct, and following carefully the instructions which he gives you.

11. Your enumeration kit

In order to carry out your assignment you will be given by your Supervisor all the necessary documents and material.

In addition, you will receive a letter of appointment as a census enumerator and an identification card. These must be carried around with you at all times during your duty as enumerator.
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The material handed to you for the completion of your task as enumerator is the property of the Census Office and your claim for payment will not be honoured until your Supervisor receives from you at the end of enumeration:

(a) The E .D. map and description

(b) The questionnaire-box with completed forms Cl.

(c) The visitation record

(d) The identification card

(e) The unused questionnaires (forms Cl) and pencils

(f) The bag for holding all materials.

12. Your hours of work

You should not expect to work regular hours during enumeration. Bear in mind that you will have to adjust your working hours to the time when you are most likely to find people at home and this may often mean making calls early in the morning and more particularly m the afternoon and early evenings, as well as on weekends.

13. Your E.D. map

As was indicated above, your materials for enumeration include a sketch map of your enumeration district, together with a description of its boundaries. It must be pointed out that this sketch map might not be drawn to scale.

Before enumeration begins, your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your E.D. He will also point out to you whatever errors he may have found on the E.D. map as received from Head Office. You must however correct your E.D. map where necessary by crossing out streets etc. which do not exist, drawing in and naming streets and roads which may have been omitted from the map, correcting street and road names where necessary.

All corrections changes etc. must be brought to the attention or your supervisor immediately. Should you find any errors in the description, write these out below the description of the E.D.

14. Know your E.D.

The boundaries have been clearly marked on your E.D. map, and the starting point indicated.

If a street, road, river, canal, alley, road junction or other feature forms one of its boundaries be sure you know which side of it is in your E .D. You will cause a great deal of trouble if you' enumerate households belonging to someone else's E.D.

On the other hand, it is important that you do not overlook or forget to enumerate any household in the area that has been assigned to you.

If a householder tells you that an enumerator has already collected information from him, make certain that the enumerator is engaged in Population Census work and not on any other survey. If the household has in fact been previously enumerated by another census enumerator, and you are convinced that the household is actually located within the boundaries of your area report the matter immediately to your Supervisor. It may be that some other enumerator is working in your area by mistake.

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15. Ensure that you locate all households

Your map will indicate the direction to be followed in covering your enumeration district. Your supervisor will check these with you and if necessary introduce some amendment. It is specially important in covering rural districts to ensure that all sections of your E.D. especially those which appear to be uninhabited are carefully examined in order to locate buildings which may be hidden or difficult of access.

Your principal responsibility is to make certain that you locate every building and habitation within your area, and record particulars of all persons living in them. Enquire at stores, shops, restaurants and other business places if anyone lives there. Do not overlook the possibility of caretakers' quarters in churches, schools, cinemas and all other non-residential structures.

Part III - Some basic definitions and concepts

16. Introduction

Before discussing the enumeration forms it is necessary for you to grasp some basic concepts and become familiar with the definitions of the terms which are used frequently in the instructions for enumeration.

If during the course of enumeration there is a case which is not covered by your instructor make a note of it in your visitation record and refer it to your supervisor for his advice.

17. What is a dwelling unit?

A dwelling unit is any room or group of rooms used or intended to be used for living purposes and which has separate access to the street or to a common landing or staircase. Thus a house built for and occupied by a single household is a single dwelling unit, while a building structurally divided into apartments or flats, each with a separate independent entrance comprises as many dwelling units as there are apartments or flats. In those cases where a number of households share a single building, the area occupied by a given household is a separate dwelling unit only if the members of that household can get into and out of their living quarters either by means of a separate entrance into the street or by means of a common landing or staircase that does not pass through any part of the living quarters of any other household. There may be more than one dwelling unit in a single building and there may be more than one household in a single dwelling unit. Note than a room which is semi-detached or fully detached from the house does not count as a separate dwelling unit if it is used by a domestic servant employed by the household, it is part of the household.

18. Private dwelling

Private type dwellings are those in which private households reside. A private type dwelling may be a single house, flat, apartment, outroom, or part of commercial building.

19. Non-private dwelling / group dwellings / institutions

A group dwelling or institution is defined as living quarters in which the occupants live collectively for disciplinary, health, educational, religious, military, work or other reasons.

Such institutions are homes for the aged, orphanages, prisons and reformatories, sanitaria, religious cloisters, military barracks, convents, monastries, boarding schools. In addition, hotels and rooming houses catering for six or more paying boarders or lodgers are classified as institutions or group dwellings.

If within the compound of an institution there are separate quarters for members of staff these must be taken as private households.

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20. Closed buildings

If you find a habitable building closed, find out from the neighbour or some responsible person in the immediate vicinity whether it is occupied or not. If it is occupied but the occupants are away for a short time, you must find out from the neighbour the surname of the occupants and at what time they are likely to be at home. You should try to find out, too, how many households share the building, and if possible, their surnames. You must then number the required schedules, leaving them otherwise blank. You must return to the household at a more suitable time. If, on subsequent visits, the house is still found closed, or you cannot get all the information about a particular member of the household, you must enter on ''request for appointment" card the date and time of your next visit, and either endeavour to get it into the house, or hand it to a neighbour or other member of the family. It is your duty to keep the appointment which you have made and you must be punctual.

21. Vacant buildings

If, however, the neighbours inform you that all the occupants are temporarily living elsewhere, e.g. on holiday, you must get the surname of the persons who usually live in the house, find out if possible how many people live there and the address of the place where they are staying. You must also find out whether they are expected home before Census Day, and pay periodic visits to the home to see whether they have returned.

22. Empty buildings

If the house is habitable, but no one lives there during your preliminary enumeration, you must also visit the house on Census day, so that you can enumerate anyone who moves in.

23. What is a household?

A household will usually consist of a person or a group of persons all living together and sharing at least one daily meal. In general therefore a household will comprise a father, mother and children living together. It is important to note however that a member of the household is not necessarily a member of the family nor will all members of the family be members of the household; it is also important to note that a household may include more than one family. Many other arrangements will however be encountered and further guidance can be obtained from the following rules:

(1) If a house is divided into flats or other separate dwellings, each such separate dwelling constitutes at least one separate household. A tenant or sub-tenant, if he makes his own arrangements for eating, also forms a separate household.

(2) If within the institution there are separate quarters for all or any members of the staff, with separate housekeeping arrangements, such quarters form separate households. For temporary or perm anent inmates of large institutions, however, special instructions for enumeration will be given by the Supervisor.

(3) A servant who sleeps in the house or in an outbuilding on the premises is to be listed as a member of the household. If her partner or children live with her on the premises all members of this family are to be included in the household.

(4) A boarder or lodger, that is a person who eats and sleeps with the household during most nights of a week, is to be considered a member of a household.

A person who rents a room from his landlady but who does not share any meals with her constitutes a separate household and should be treated as such.
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(5) A person who usually sleeps most nights away from his family for the purpose of work, is to be enumerated at the place where he sleeps most nights. He may be a boarder or lodger in a household, or constitute a separate household. Such situations arise especially with many junior workers on sugar estates.

Persons working and sleeping aback for most nights of the week should be included as members of the household which they maintain in the villages.

(6) A visitor or guest intending to spend Census night in the household must be counted as a member of the household.

(7) A servant who does not sleep on her employer's premises is not to be counted as a member of the household where she works.

(8) It will be seen from the definition of a household and the rules given that one person may comprise a household. Any person living alone in a house or part of a house constitutes a separate household.

24. The head of the household

For Census purposes every household must have a head.

The head of the household is the person man or woman who carries the main responsibility in the affairs of the household.

In most cases it will be obvious who is head of the household. Usually he is the chief bread winner. In any event the person recognised by the respondent as the head will be accepted as such for census purposes.

In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis take that member of the group as the head, whom the others acknowledge as such.

A person running a guest house or similar establishment that caters for less than six guests is considered the head of that household.

Part IV - The census questionnaire

25. The nature of the census questionnaire - form C1

(1) Introduction

The census questionnaire Form C1 is a mark-sensing document on which very little writing is required. Although it covers 46 questions, writing is used in six instances only. In the other questions the required information is recorded by making a mark in the appropriate place This in turn is "'sensed" or "read" by a special document reading machine. The use of this type of Questionnaire is intended to facilitate rapid collection and processing of the information, but you will defeat this purpose if you do not follow the instructions precisely.

(2) Dimensions of the form

The main part of the questionnaire is 8 1/2" x 11" with a folding strip on the left hand side listing the Census questions; in other words, all responses to the questions are to be recorded in the main body of the form and not on the strip. You will notice a column of black dashes at the right hand side of the form. Under no circumstances are you to mark or write on these lines. Your scoring marks are not to touch any of these lines.

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(3) Structure

The census questionnaire contains 46 questions divided into 10 sections. The name of each section is shown on the dark band of the folding strip. Open the strip to read questions 1-22, the response positions for which are on the left hand side of the main body of the form. Close the strip to read questions 23-46, the response positions for which are on the right hand side of the main body of the form. As is indicated on the questionnaire, there are five places on which the enumerator must never mark; these are indicated by shaded bands with "for office use only" printed on the slip.

(4) Handling the forms

The mark-sensing document will be fed directly into a document reading machine which accepts only questionnaires of good quality i.e. clean, unwrinkled documents containing good marks, in specified positions.

It is of utmost importance therefore that the questionnaires be handled with greatest care or the document reader will not accept them and non-acceptance by the machine means increases in cost of processing the information. The questionnaires must not be defaced, suffer undue erasures (although clean and light erasures are permissible), there must be no creasing, bending, dog-earing, etc. The forms must always be clean, no unnecessary pencil or other marks must appear. Keep sufficient schedules for the day's enumeration in the container given to you and at the end of the day store those completed in a safe place in your home.

(5) How to score the form

The term "scoring" refers to the technique of making marks in the appropriate place on the questionnaire. To produce a good questionnaire you will have to take great care to make the marks only in the way you are instructed. Make the marks only with the No. 2 pencil supplied to you: Do not use any other.

For each precoded question (that is, all questions except 1, 2, 12 (b), 20, 26, and 27) you will see either a set of numbers over-laid with small horizontal dashes or a series of category names identifying the horizontal dashes. For example in question 3 - Household Number - you will notice three rows of numbers where each number is over-laid by a series of dotted lines. In Question 8, you will see categories like the following:

[Diagram on page 8 omitted]

The technique of scoring is the same in all cases whether the category is numeric or descriptive. Use the No. 2 pencil supplied to you. To mark in the space between the broken lines. Full instructions on marking procedures are shown on the back of each census schedule.

26. The structure of coded question:

There is one further point to be explained concerning the lay-out of these questions.

Notice that the response area is comprised of rows of figures; the number of rows in the several questions ranges from one to four. These rows represent the expression of a given number in powers of tens that is a thousands row, a hundreds row, a tens row and a unit row. Each number used in the questionnaire can be expressed in terms of these components. For instance the number 7361 can be broken down as follows:

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[Diagram on page 9 omitted]

Where the number of digits to be recorded for a given answer is less than the number or rows provided, the principle is the same. For instance if the number 456 is to be entered the component points are as follows:

[Diagram on page 9 omitted]

Other questions - there is of course no problem with other types of precoded response. You simply score the category that relates to the answer you receive. Remember do not score more than one position in any row except where special instructions have been given as in the case of questions 21, 33, 39 and 43. Do not leave any row blank unless the question is inapplicable to the individual according to the instructions.

27. The write-in responses

As was mentioned before, there are six questions for which written answers are required. These are Numbers 1, 2, 12b, 20, 26 and 27. In the case of Guyana additional write-in positions are provided. Use block letters for these responses within the space provided for each.

Part V - How to deal with the census questions

28. Introduction

It is important to note that in many of the items of information being collected at a census there is the possibility of incorrect information being given by the respondent. In some cases a deliberate attempt to mislead has to be reckoned with. Such attempts may be detected by glaring inconsistencies in responses being given by the respondent, as well as by his or her general attitude. If there is any suspicion that deliberate attempts are being made to give incorrect information it is the duty of the enumerator to point out to the respondent the advantages of cooperating with the census organization and also to stress that it is being conducted under appropriate Laws.

Wherever there is the slightest indication of incorrect answer being intentionally given it is the duty of the enumerator to inform his Supervisor.

But incorrect information may also be given because the respondent is genuinely ignorant of answers to questions. This situation has especially to be appreciated in those questions dealing with employment and occupational status of other members of the household. Here however, the chances are that a call-back may be arranged in order that the
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respondent may have time to consult with the appropriate member(s) of the household and thus secure reliable information.

Incorrect information may also be given as a result of the respondent being genuinely unaware of the correct answers. This is especially important where the answer involves the recalling of long past events. Investigations have shown that in many cases the longer the period of time between the occurrence of an event and the time of the inquiry, the greater the chance of the individual being uncertain as to the time of occurrence of the event, and even as to the fact of its actual occurrence. We have therefore the possibility of total omission of the event, as well as a possibility of the event being moved forward or backward in the time scale. 'This is known as recall lapse and constitutes an important source of response errors in field investigations. It is especially important in questions dealing with dates of migration (13 to 16) and in information on fertility and union status (30 to 35). It is for this reason that the enumerator is strongly advised to note that linking up answers to associated questions and making use of the detailed classifications in some of these questions are intended to aid respondents to recall accurately information about long past events.

29. The order of enumeration

The numbering of the households which is consecutive is explained in the Visitation Record.

In enumerating a household:

(1) Enter in the visitation record the name of the head of the household and the household number.

(2) Write in the name of each household number on a questionnaire and insert the household number at question (1).

The order of enumeration which is to be followed among household members is:

(a) Head of household
(b) Spouse or common-law partner
(c) Child of head and/or spouse (or partner)
(d) Other relative of head and/or spouse (partner)
(e) Boarder or boarder's relative
(f) Domestic employee or employee's relative
(g) Other individuals

A. Section 1 - Identification

30. Question 1 - Identifying number

The identifying number of the household is comprised of thirteen digits all of which must be completed on every questionnaire. .

The first ten of these digits will be identical on every questionnaire which you complete for your E.D., and is given on your E.D. map. You must fill in every box of the identifying number as given. The last three digits of the identifying number relate to the household number and will be identical for all members of a household; here again, in completing the household number, all three boxes must be entered; thus the first household will be 001, the second 002, the third 003 and so on.

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31. Question 2 - Name of individual

The space for this entry is located at the top right hand side of the questionnaire. Write in block letters the individual's name in this space putting the surname first, and the Christian name or names after. In the case of a baby who has not yet been named enter the appropriate surname of the parent(s).

32. Question 3 - Household number

Mark the numbers relating to the household number which was previously entered at question 1 "household number" at the top of the form; remember to "score" on each of the three rows.

33. Question 4 - Individual number within household

You will remember that a separate questionnaire is to be completed for each member of the household. Enumerate household members in the order set out at (29) above.

Assign a number to each member of the household starting at 1 for the head of the household and continuing consecutively for the rest of the household; thus, if there are seven members in the household, the individual numbers will run from 1 to 7.

B. Section II - Characteristics

These questions, 5 to 12 provide some basic characteristics about the individual; and are to be answered for all members of the population. (Enumerators assigned to institutions will be given special instructions for this and the following sections).

34. Question 5 - Relationship to head of household

Seven types of relationship are specified here. These are:

(1) Head
(2) Spouse or common law partner
(3) Child of head or spouse
(4) Other relative
(5) Boarder or boarder's relatives
(6) Domestic employee or relatives
(7) Other non-relative

If the individual is the head of the household, as defined earlier in the manual, then mark the space ===== head.

Spouse or common law partner

This refers to a wife (or husband) if they are legally married, or to a common law partner. By common law partner is meant a woman (or man) who lives with the head of the household and assumes the domestic responsibilities of a married partner.

Child of head or spouse

This includes the children (natural or adopted) of the head of the household and/or of the spouse or common law partner. Children in this context refer not only to minors, but to all off spring regardless of age. On the other hand, not all children in the household are necessarily children of the head or spouse.
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Other relative of head or spouse

All other members of the household who are related to either the head of the household or his spouse or partner, or both, should be included in this category e.g. Uncle, Aunt, Nephew, Niece, Cousin, Brother, Sister.

Boarder or boarder's relatives

If a boarder and/or his relative fulfill the requirements for membership of the household, he should be classified under this head and scored accordingly.

Domestic employees or relatives

All domestic employees and/or their relatives who live with the main household and are considered members of that household must be "scored" under this head.

Other

All other members of the household who are not identified in the six categories given above must be scored under this head.

35. Question 6 - Sex

Mark the sex of the person, male or female, as given by the respondent.

36. Question 7 - Age

What is required here is age in completed years on or before 7th April, 1970, and not age next birthday. During the preliminary enumeration it must be ascertained whether any member of the household has a birthday between the day you are enumerating the household and Census day. For persons 99 years old or over score 99.

There may be instances, especially in the case of old people, where respondents do not remember their correct ages. Perhaps reference to some outstanding events, such as World Wars I and II, fires, floods or hurricanes, may be helpful. By referring to such events and by considering other information available about the individual make every effort to estimate his age. Do not leave this question blank.

37. Question 8 - Marital status

Emphasis here is placed on the presence of legal sanction of the association. Marital status carries a five-fold classification as follows:

Never married - This category covers all individuals 14 years or less as well as all persons of higher ages who have never been married, either formally or, in the case of East Indians in Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana, through customary marriage ceremonies.

Married - This covers all persons formally married, whether or not they are living with the partners to whom they are legally married. Also to be included in this category are persons married according to Hindu custom or Muslim rites, whether or not these marriages have been formally registered. A person living apart from, though not legally separated from, his or her married partner is to be recorded as married.

Widowed - This covers all persons married legally or through customary rites whose partners have died.

Divorced - This covers all persons whose marriages have been dissolved by legal proceedings.

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Legally separated - This applies only when the persons have been legally separated.

38. Question 9 - Usual residence

The response positions for this question are laid out in three fields:

(a) Local or foreign
(b) Area within the country
(c) Foreign country

Mark a response position at 9 (a) for all individuals. This mark will determine whether 9 (b) or 9 (c) is to be completed.

The town, parish, county or other major area in which "this household" or "elsewhere in country" is located must be marked.

Where "this household" or "elsewhere" is entered in 9(a), its location in the town, parish, county or other major division of the country must be marked in 9 (b).

Where "abroad" is entered in 9 (a), the particular country of usual residence must be marked in9 (c).

In the case of Guyana, the major divisions will have to be written in 9 (b).

39. Question 10 - Birthplace

This question is divided into two parts (a) local born and (b) foreign born. In the case of persons born in the country of enumeration, the name of the parish, county or other major division must be scored. (In the case of Guyana the entry must be written.)

Particular care must be taken in recording birthplace of children. The place of birth of the child must be the place of usual residence of the mother at the time of its birth.

For persons born outside of the country of enumeration, mark the name of the country in which they were born.

40. Question 11 - Race

Since you will be interviewing in general one member of any household, the race scored must be the race to which the respondent says he and other members belong. It is reasonable to classify all children of parents belonging to different racial groups as mixed. For example, if a Black man is married or living with an East Indian woman, their children should be classified as mixed.

Accept the respondent's classification. If you think you are being misled make a note in the remarks column of the visitation board.

41. Question 12 - Religion

Replies to this question will either be scored at 12(a) or written in at 12(b). The larger denominations are shown at 12(a), one of which is to be scored if the individual belongs to one of them; if the individual does not belong to one of the denominations shown at 12(a) write in the name of the denomination given at 12(b). Use the space also to write in ''no religion" for individuals who so respond, and ''not stated" for individuals for whom the information cannot be obtained.

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C. Section III - Migration

Questions 13 to 15 deal with movements from one major area to another, whereas question 16 applies only to persons born abroad. Answers to questions 14 and 15 depend on answers to question 13.

42. Question 13 - Number of years lived in this area

Mark the number of years that the individual has been residing in this major area. If the individual was born in this area and has never resided elsewhere in the country, the number of years will be the same as the age of the individual recorded at question 7. This holds even where he has been involved in intermediate movements.

43. Question 14 - Area last lived in

If the area of residence according to Question 9(b) is .the same as the area of birth, according to question 10(a), then this is the area that must be marked.

If on the other hand the area of residence is not the same as the area of birth then mark the name of the last area in the country in which the individual previously resided.

44. Question 15 - Number of areas lived in

If the area of residence differs from the area of birth, mark the number of areas in the country in which the individual has resided (including the area of birth).

If the area of residence is the same as the area of birth, mark one as the number of areas lived in.

45. Question 16 - Year of immigration

This question relates to persons born outside the country and refers to the period when they first came to live in the country. You are required to mark the relevant period on the questionnaire

D. Section IV - Education

These questions are to be answered for every individual. Whereas it is pointless to put all of these questions in respect of infants and very young children, a response position must be scored for every individual on questions 17 to 19.

46. Question 17 - Type of non-vocational school or university now being attended

This question seeks to obtain information on the type of school or university now being attended. The following types are specified: nursery / infant, primary, secondary, university, private study and other. Mark the relevant type as stated by the respondent. Note that included under other are schools for the blind, the deaf and for other forms of disability.

47. Question 18 - Attendance of school or university

Indicate whether the person is attending school or university as a full-time student or as a part-time student. For persons engaged in private study and not attending any school or university, score the entry not applicable.

48. Question 19 - Highest level of educational attainment

This question relates to education already received by children still at school as well as by those who have completed their formal education. In cases where the individual was educated abroad, try to obtain the equivalent in the school system of the country and complete the answer.

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49. Question 19A - Type of school/university attended

Score the appropriate type, as indicated by the respondent's reply. In the case of persons still attending school or university the score should be the same as that of question 17. For persons engaged in private study but not attending any school or university, the type they last attended should be marked.

Remember that "none" is to be scored for persons who have had no formal education as well as for babies.

50. Question 19B - Years of primary schooling

Score the number of completed years a person attended primary school. For persons who have had no formal schooling or attended primary school for less than one year score 0.

51. Question 19C - Examinations passed

The type of examinations dealt with here are public examinations, as distinct from examinations organized within particular schools. Since you can make only one mark in the row and it is possible that the individual has passed more than one of the examinations specified, ensure that you ascertain the highest examination passed before scoring.

E. Section V - Specialised training

This section deals with specialised training received by individuals which fits them for particular occupations. These questions are to be asked in respect of all persons aged 10 years and over.

52. Question 20 - Occupation for which trained or being trained

You are required to record here the occupation for which the individual has received special training. The nature of the training should be precisely stated.

53. Question 21 - Method by which vocational training acquired

This is a two-part question: it represents the first of four instances in which you are required to make two marks in the same row. The response area for the first part of the question is to the left of the bar or dividing line, while that for the second part is to the right of the dividing line.

The mark in part (a) must indicate the method by which the training has been received or is being received and must relate to the occupation recorded in question 20. Four kinds of training are specified: on the job; private study, institutional training, or some other form.

The mark in part (b) must indicate those persons who are still being trained as opposed to those who have completed their training.

54. Question 22 - Period of training (For person whose training has been completed)

This question relates to persons who at Question 21 (b) have been scored training completed. The answer must be scored m terms of completed years and parts of a year.

F. Section VI - Economic activity

One of the main purposes of this section is to determine which individuals have been in the working force of the country at any time during the 12 months preceding Census Day. It is essential that the enumerator understands the definition of the term work as given in question 2.3 and makes use of it in his interviews. Generally work done
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outside of the country is not relevant to the Census, but work done under contract on U.S. farms by residents is to be included, as also is work on ships and aircraft operating outside of the country.

55. Question 23 - Main activity during past 12 months

This question aims at classifying persons according to their main activity during the 12 months preceding enumeration, based upon what each person has been engaged in for most of that period. It is also intended to distinguish between persons who work (i.e. are economically active) and those who do not work. An individual is classified as working if he is engaged in the production of goods or services for sale. Usually this entails his receiving a wage, salary or other form of recompense; but trainees and apprentices, whether paid or not, as well as unpaid helpers in commercial farms and other enterprises a.re also to be classified as workers. All self-employed persons are also to be listed as worked.

Categories of persons who are not economically active in this context over persons who have never worked before but who are seeking their first job, people engaged in home duties, students and those retired or disabled.

56. Question 24 - Worker or occupational status during past year

The purpose of this question is to distinguish between persons who for most of the 12 months preceding census day worked for others as paid employees, or unpaid workers and those who worked for themselves.

In the case of persons who worked for others, the information sought is whether they worked for the government or not, or were engaged in a family or other business without pay.

For those who carried on their own business or farm your mark must indicate whether they operate with paid help or without.

57. Question 25 - Months worked during past 12 months

It must be remembered that periods spent on vacation or sick leave with pay are to be regarded as periods of work, as are also periods spent doing unpaid labour. This question must be asked of all persons aged 10 and over, including those whose main activity is something other than work, as it is possible that they could have worked for one or two months during the past 12 months. Particular attention must be paid to persons who worked for themselves, especially when this involves short periods each day. Some estimate of the overall time worked in number of months must be scored.

58. Question 26 - Occupation

You are required to write the type of job that the person has held for most of the past 12 months, and this must refer to questions 24 and 27. Where the person has done more than one job during this period the question relates to the principal job which, in general, will be the one at which he spent most time.

The type of job should be written in as much detail as possible and vague terms should be avoided. Descriptions such as agent, apprentice, attendant, clerk, engineer, proprietor, salesman are insufficient - they must be qualified.

For all other individuals who for most of the year were seeking their first job, were retired, disabled, were mental defectives, students and so on, write "not applicable"

The following are examples of acceptable designations: house agent, insurance agent, accounts clerk, shipping clerk, electrical engineer, bus inspector, police inspector.
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If the individual has never had a job or occupation write in "never had a job" and ignore Questions 27-29.

59. Question 27 - Industry or type of business

What is required here is the type of business in which the individual worked for the longest period during the 12 months preceding the Census (or was last employed at in the case of persons looking for work but not first jobs) and the type of business carried on by this employer. Give the name of the firm, and, where the firm carried on more than one type of activity, show the activity in which the person is mainly engaged. In the case of persons engaged by the local or central government, give the office or department in which they work or are employed by. For domestic servants and other personal service workers who work as paid employees in a private home, write in Industry as private home.

For all other individuals who for most of the year were seeking their first job, were retired, disabled, were mental defectives, students and so on, write in "not applicable".

As in the preceding question avoid vague descriptions of the type of business. For example, do not merely record the type of business as sugar, but indicate whether it is cane-growing, sugar manufacturing (factory) etc. Similarly, show oil refinery separately from oil distribution; do not merely record oil.

60. Questions 28 and 29 - (Relate to past week)

Questions 28 and 29 relate only to persons who did some work during the twelve-month period preceding the Census. For these persons, these two questions are intended to indicate what their activity was during the week preceding the census enumeration. They therefore do not apply to persons who at question 25 were scored "did no work".

61. Question 28 - Economic situation during past week

The categories here are almost the same as those of Question 23. One important difference is that here the question relates to the week before enumeration, instead of the 12 month period. Also instead of relating to the main activity, this question gives priority to the categories worked, with job not working and looked for work. Thus if someone both worked and was engaged in home duties, he should be classified as worked. Further if the individual worked for two days and looked for work for three days, he should be classified as worked rather than looking for work.

62. Question 29 - Number of hours worked

You are required to record here the actual number of hours worked during the week preceding enumeration by persons who at question 28 were classified as worked. The term work refers to actual work done, and does not, as in some questions, include paid vacation, or sick leave. For persons working, record the number of hours actually worked, including over-time. For persons working in their own business, record the time they were actually working.

G. Section VII - Fertility

This section is comprised of six questions and the information is to be completed only for females 14 years or older.

63. Question 30 - Number of liveborn children ever had

Enter the total number of liveborn children the woman has ever had. This consists of all children no living as well as those who are dead. In view of what has been said earlier about errors due to recall lapse, care should be exercised in putting this question and the answer to question 32 should be used as a check.

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64. Question 31 - Age of mother at birth of first liveborn child

Record in completed years, the age of the woman at the time of the birth of her first liveborn child. Answers to this question may prove useful in arriving at estimates of the woman's present age as well as in checking for inconsistencies.

65. Question 32 - Age of mother at birth of last liveborn child

This question applies where the woman has had one or more liveborn children; the age is to be given in completed years. It is advisable to ask whether this is her first, second, third... liveborn child, as the answer to this helps to check the number entered in question 30. These checks are of especial importance in the case of women over age 45.

66. Question 33 - Number of live birth / stillbirths

In this question one row is used for two closely connected question; one response position is to be marked on the left hand side for livebirths and another on the right hand side for stillbirths.

It is possible, although the rate of occurrence is low, for a woman to have more than one delivery in the 12 months preceding enumeration. The occurrence of one of these two types of events does not preclude the occurrence of the other. It is necessary therefore to ask about both live and stillbirths.

Remember that a stillbirth is a child which shows no sign of life on delivery.

67. Question 34 - Union status at present or at age 45

The mark made in response to this question must indicate the type of family association in which the woman is or has been engaged. (This question does not refer to males). In the case of a woman under 45 years of age the mark refers to the relationship or association existing at the time of the census. In the case of a woman over 45 years of age the mark must describe the relationship existing at the time when she was 45 years old.

When a woman has had children none of whom was born during the 12 months preceding enumeration (this can be checked from your mark in question 33 (a), five marks are possible. Two of these, "married" and "common law" describe the type of union , whereas the other three, "no longer with husband", "no longer with common law partner" and "never had husband or partner'' indicate the absence of a union at present or at age 45.

Where a woman has had a child during the 12 months preceding the census three marks are possible: married, common law and visiting.

The terms specified on the questionnaire are defined as follows:

Married - a woman is to be marked as married if she is living with the partner to whom she is married, either by formal marriage or by East Indian custom.

Common law - In this type of union the partners share a common household though the union has not been established by legal process or by East Indian custom. In the case of East Indians care must be taken to distinguish between common law relationships and Married unions established by traditional custom.

Visiting - This type of union indicates that the woman to whom the child was born, during the 12 months preceding the census, was in neither a married nor a common law relationship at the time of that birth. Where the woman to whom the child was born was in a union that has terminated before census date (that is between the time of the birth and the time of enumeration) the type of union which resulted in the birth of that child must be marked.
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No longer living with husband - This condition indicates the absence of a union and refers to a woman who has been in a married union, but whom at the time of the enumeration or at age 45 is no longer living with her husband.

No longer living with common law partner - This condition indicates the absence of a union and refers to a woman who has been in a common law union, but who at the time of the census or at Age 45, was no longer sharing a common household with a partner.

Never had a husband or common law partner - This classification applies where a woman has never been in a married or common law relationship, and in most cases this condition will be associated with the fact that she has had no children.

68. Question 35 - Duration of union

This question must be completed only for women who were marked married or common law, in question 34.

The marks must indicate the duration of the present union status in the case of women under 45, and must be marked in completed years.

For women over 45 years of age, the duration of the union must be calculated up to age 45.

H. Section VIII - Housing

This section, comprising eight questions - numbered 36 to 43 inclusive - must be marked on the questionnaire for the head of the household only.

69. Question 36 - Type of dwelling

The information to be recorded in this question must relate to the building or part of the building used for living purposes. The types of dwelling specified on the questionnaire are described as follows:

(a) Separate house - Here a dwelling unit takes up the complete building it consists of one or more households.

(b) Flat / apartment - Flats are self-contained private dwellings in a single or multi -storied building. Apartments would be marked, where the household occupies part of the building but, has separate and direct access to and from the street or from a public or communal staircase, passage, gallery, etc.

(c) Barracks - A room or division of a long building containing several independent or dependent private dwellings, with or without shared facilities.

(d) Outroom - A room or rooms separated from the main building and occupied by a separate household i.e. servant's quarters etc.

(e) Part of commercial building - This type of dwelling would be marked, when the household occupies part of the building for living purposes while other parts of the building are used as clubs, lodges, garages, etc.

(f) Group dwellings. - These have already been defined and refer to certain types of institutions i.e. boarding houses, hotels, etc.

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70. Question 37 - Type of tenure

Tenure refers to the arrangement under which a household is occupying its living quarters.

(a) Owner-occupied - Mark this space if the head or any other member of the household owns the dwelling.

(b) Leased - Mark this space if the dwelling is leased by the head or any other member of the household.

(c) Rented - Mark this space if the head or any other member of the household rents the dwelling

(e) Rent-free - This space must be marked when the household does not pay rent for occupying the dwelling.

(e) Squatted - This space must be marked when households are found occupying and area without the permission of the owner.

71. Question 38 - Water supply

The information marked here should indicate how the household gets its water supply, whether it is piped water within the dwelling unit, piped water outside the dwelling unit or any other specified source.

(a) Public piped into dwelling - Mark this when running water from a public source is piped into the dwelling unit.

(b) Public piped into yard - Mark this when running water is available in the yard.

(c) Private piped into dwelling - Mark this where the water is from a private source and piped into the dwelling.

(d) Private catchment not piped - Mark this where the water is from a private source and not piped into the dwelling.

(e) Public stand pipe - Mark this when water is available to the dwelling unit from a stand pipe in the street.

(f) Public tank - This applies when the supply from a dam, tank, reservoir, etc. established and maintained by government is not piped into the dwelling.

(g) Other - Mark here all other sources, e.g. well, river, stream, pond, etc.

72. Question 39 - Toilet facilities

This question is divided into two parts (a) and (b).

Part (a) your mark must indicate whether the household has its own private toilet facilities or shares with other households.

Part (b) your mark must indicate the type of toilet facilities available to the household.

Pit - Mark this is the type of toilet facility available to the household is a pit latrine

W.C. linked to sewer - Mark this if the toilet facility is a flush toilet or water closet which fills from a piped water supply and empties into a sewerage disposal system.

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W. C. not linked to sewer - Mark this if the toilet facility is water borne and empties into a septic tank or an absorption pit. (soak away)

Other - Mark this for all other types of toilet facilities.

None - Mark this if no toilet facilities are available to the household on the premises.

73. Question 40 - Year when dwelling built

This question is to determine the year or period during which the structure was built. In some cases, the occupier of the dwelling, especially if he is renting, may not be able to tell you the year or approximate time when the structure was built. Diligent enquiries from persons who have been living for a long time in the area, may assist you in arriving at an accurate estimate.

In the case of dwellings which have been re-conditioned or have undergone structural changes or additions, the year of the original building must be marked and not the period when the improvements were completed.

There may be instances where a structure, though not completed is occupied by a household. In such cases you must mark the year, the incomplete structure was occupied for the first time. In these cases, for the purpose of the Census, occupancy and not structural completion characterizes a finished dwelling. For all structures completed or occupied during 1950 or earlier, mark the relevant space.

74. Question 41 - Material of outer walls

The information sought in this question is to identify the type of material of which the outer walls of the dwelling is made. The types of material specified on the questionnaire are:

Wood - Mark this if the walls are made solely of wood.

Concrete, including concrete blocks - This includes walls made of concrete blocks with steel reinforcements as well as other reinforced concrete structures.

Stone - Self-explanatory.

Brick - Mark this if the walls are made of clay bricks, plastered or unplastered.

Nagging or stucco - This includes walls made mainly of concrete, but without steel reinforcements, also include constructions made of wooden frames with concrete fillings.

Wattle and adobe - This applies where the walls are some kind of wattle structure i.e. pure wattle walls or wattle daubed with mud. It also includes tapia.

Wood and concrete - This applies when the walls are made of both types of material.

Other - Mark here all other types of wall construction material.

75. Question 42 - Number of rooms

You are required to mark the number of rooms occupied by the household for living purposes. Included as rooms - living rooms, bedrooms, dining rooms, sewing rooms, libraries, servant rooms - attached or detached - from the main building. Do not count as rooms - bathrooms, toilets, kitchens, pantries, galleries and porches. If you find a room with a portion contained off or with a temporary partition, the whole area must be counted as one room. If however, there is a permanent partition dividing the floor area, you must count this as two rooms. Curtains or blinds do not separate rooms, Walls and permanent partitions do.

In all cases where the household occupies 7 or more rooms mark the space 7 and over.

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76. Question 43 - Type of lighting / fuel for cooking

This question is divided into two parts (a) and (b).

Part (a) - Type of lighting

The information marked here should indicate whether the dwelling is mainly lit by electricity, kerosene or other types e.g. candle, flambeau etc.

Electric - Mark this when electricity is used, whether from public or private mains.

Kerosene - Mark this when kerosene (pitch oil) is used.

Other - Mark this when any other type of lighting is used, i.e. candle, flam beau

.

Part (b) - Fuel for cooking

The mark in completing this question must state the main type of fuel used by the household for cooking. In cases where more than one type of fuel is used, you must mark the type that is used most of the time. Hereunder are the types specified in the questionnaire.

Gas

Electric

Wood or charcoal

Kerosene

Other types

77. Question 44 - Where did individual spend census night

This is a checking question and must be asked on census day.

78. Question 45 - Language - Belize only

In the case of Belize mark the language spoken at home. In all other countries ignore this question.

79. Question 46 - Total income

This question is divided into two parts. The first part refers to the last pay period, and the second part to the total income received for the pay period marked above.

Remember that many people do not like to tell others how much money they earn, often they do not even tell their own family or friends. You must therefore be tactful if you are to get the questions answered correctly and willingly. You must emphasize that it is not intended to pry into the private affairs of the individual and that the information is required only to work out estimated averages for the whole country.

Since in some cases respondents would not tell even their own families how much they work for correctly, if at all, you should not expect such a respondent to tell you how much he earned in the presence of others. You should therefore be on guard for such cases and try as far as possible to get this information from the respondent by himself or herself. Your marks must indicate the person's gross income from all sources for the last pay period.

In general there are two types of income to be dealt with. The first is wages and salaries, that is earnings as a paid employee. Commission, overtime payments, bonuses, and any other extras must be included, before deductions for taxes, etc. are made - in wages and salaries.

The second type covers income as an own-account worker or employer, i.e. a person who has his own business or farm, with or without paid help. For these persons total receipts from their business farm or profession must be marked
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Where a person receives income as a paid employee as well as an own-account worker or employer, the total income from all these sources must be marked.

Part (a) Pay period

Mark here whether the total income below relate to a week, fortnight, month, quarter or year.

Part (b) Total income

Your marks here must be in relation to the last pay period marked above and should be to the nearest dollar $.

Four rows of figures are printed on the questionnaire. You are required to make a mark in each row.

The first row represents "thousands", the second row represents "hundreds" the third row represents "tens" and the fourth row "units".

Hereunder are some examples:

A person who earned $25 in his last pay period must be marked:-

"0" in the first row "0" in the second row, "20" in the third row and "5" in the fourth row.

Another person earned $129 in his last pay period must be marked:-

"0" in the first row, "100" in the second row, "20" in the third row and "9" in the fourth row.

A person carrying on his own business or farm reports that for the past year he earned $2,706.

You should mark "year" in part (a) to represent the last pay period and part (b) should be marked.

"2000" in the first row, "700" in the second row, "0" in the third row and "6"in the fourth row.