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Republic of Turkey
Prime Ministry
State Institute of Statistics

The 2000 General Population Census
Census Enumerator and Control Officer
Handbook

IV. Explanation of questions in the 2000 General Census questionnaire

The Questionnaire consists of four sections:

Section I: Address
Section II: Nature of the location where the census was conducted
Section III: Questions related to household and dwelling (Question 1-12)
Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics (Question 13-43)
Section 1: Address
Attention! The Address section is to be filled out separately for every location where a household is or is not constituted.

In the address section, the name or number of the major thoroughfare, square or boulevard, street, division, building complex, block, the building's outer door number, the interior door or apartment number, of the place where the census is being administered is to be filled out, utilizing the Population Census Region Building Table (Reference C). Should there be gaps or errors in the Reference C entries for this section, the address section must be filled out accurately drawing upon information from those people with whom the census is being conducted.

Section II: Nature of location where the census was carried out

Attention! Only one option is to be marked

Being referenced in this section in terms of the nature of the place where the census was conducted and in which people are living/being sheltered, or are present on census day are [places like] a detached house; an apartment flat; a prefabricated house; a tent, a shack, etc.; a hotel, motel, hostel; a train, a boat, a bus, a terminal, etc.; a hospital, a health clinic; a military post, garrison, an officer's club, etc.; a boarding school, a dormitory; a child daycare facility, an orphanage, a nursing home; a prison, a reform school, or other places (a factory, an official office, an embassy, etc.).

This section is to be filled out in accordance with the definitions provided below.

"Detached house": Structures, which regardless of the number of floors they comprise, are divided into one or two residences.
If the dwelling is a single story, duplex, triplex, villa, waterfront residence, mansion or squatter settlement, etc., all such structures are to be regarded as a "Detached house"

"Apartment flat": Structures divided up into three or more residential flats, no matter how many stories they consist of.

"Prefabricated house": One- or two-story structures that are produced by special techniques, with parts mass produced in another location, and assembled in a sequential and rapid manner in the place where they will be used.

Taking note of the nature of the place where the census is being carried out, an "X" mark is to be entered into the applicable box.

Section III: Questions related to households and dwellings

Attention! Section III is to be filled out for places where a household [housing unit] is constituted.

Questions 1 to 12 in this section are to be asked of the household head or someone able to answer in his/her place.

The definitions of household and household head are provided below:
Household [housing unit]: Social entities made up of one or more persons, whether bound by kinship or not, living in the same dwelling or in a portion of the same dwelling, participating in the provision of service or management to the household, who make no distinctions among themselves in terms of their income or expenses.

A household may consist of one or more people.

Pursuant to the definition of household provided above:

Those, who despite being relatives, are living in separate dwellings,
Those, who despite being relatives and living in the same dwelling, do not contribute in providing services or to the management of the household, and those separating their income and expenses,

are considered to be a discrete household.

However, people living in the same house not sharing any kinship ties -- a student, a worker, etc. -- are to be considered as belonging to the same household. That person, from among these people declaring himself/herself to be the household head, or the one who is the oldest, or whoever is named in the rental contract of the dwelling they are living in, is to be regarded being the "Household head".

Household head: The household head is that person, from among members of the household who is the one generally responsible when it comes to the household's income and expenses and who is actually in charge of managing the household.

In places where a household is not constituted:

In the Census questionnaire; Section III: The section with questions related to household and dwelling, must be left blank, without fail.

Section III is not to be filled out for places such as a hotel, a motel, a hostel, a train, a boat, a bus, a train station, a terminal, a port, a hospital, a health clinic, a military post, a garrison, an officer's club, a boarding school, a dormitory, a nursing home, a child daycare facility, an orphanage, a jail, a reform school, and others (a factory, an official office, an embassy, etc.). For people located in such places, only the questions in Section IV "Questions related to individual characteristics" are to be asked. Section IV "Questions related to individual characteristics" is to be filled out separately for each individual.

Question 1. Name and surname of the household head.

For this question, even if the person declared to be the household head is not present at the time of the census, the [person's] name and surname are to be written down.

Question 2. Is the household head at home at the moment?

If the household head recorded in the first question is at home on census day, an "X" is to be placed into the "Yes" box, and if not into the "No" box.

Question 3. How many people are now present in this house (home), including guests?

Regardless of whether or not they belong to the household, the total number of people at home at the moment of the census, including guests, is to be written down. The number entered in response to this question must be the same or one less (if the household head is not at home) than the number of people in the household list in Section III Question 12.

The household head or other household members not at home on census day are not to be included in this number.

Question 4. How many guests are now present in your house, whether they are relatives or not?

Attention! Even if they are relatives, those people not living at home (on a regular basis is implied, but not explicitly stated) are guests.

This question seeks to reveal the number of people who do not belong to the household. In this context, those people, whether relatives or not, who are temporarily at home at the moment of the census because they are visiting, are there for work, for health or for other reasons, are to be designated as a "Guest". The total number of these guests is to be entered in numeric form into the pertinent boxes. If at the time of the census there are no guests, an "X" is to be entered into the "None" box.

Guest[s]: People, whether relatives or not, who do not belong to the household, and are at home at the time of the census.

Question 5. Of members of this household, not at home at this time
how many people are within the country?
how many people are abroad?

For this question, the number of this household's members who are temporarily absent from home at the time of the census, either within the country and/or abroad, for any reason (education, practical training, for a conference, seminar, military service, medical treatment, jail, sport activities, touring and traveling, work (seasonal worker, temporary assignment, long-distance drivers, road workers, etc.), are to be respectively entered in numeric form into the applicable boxes. (Those who, instead of being present where their household is located, are guests in another dwelling or are on duty at the time of the census, are to be regarded as being inside the country.) If at the time of the census, none of the household members are "Inside the country" and/or "Abroad", an "X" is to be placed into the "None" box.

Except for the household head, for those individuals not at home, who are in the country and/or abroad, Section IV portion of the questionnaire, "Questions regarding individual characteristics", is not to be filled out.

[Two examples in the original document have been omitted here]

Question 6: What is your ownership status with respect to this dwelling?

This question seeks to reveal the ownership status of the dwelling the household is living in. The box corresponding to the ownership status of the dwelling the household is living in is to be marked with an "X".

In this question an "X" is to be placed into the box for:

  • "Home owner", if the household itself owns the dwelling it is living in,
  • "Renter", if the household pays either in-kind or in cash (rent) for the dwelling it is living in,
  • "Employee quarters" [lodgment], if the dwelling the household is living in is owned by the State or the employer being worked for,
  • "Not home owner, but not paying rent", if the dwelling being lived in by the household does not belong to it, but it is not paying rent (For example: the house of a father, mother or relative, a caretaker's or heating maintenance person's flat in an apartment building, etc.),
  • "Other", if the type of ownership of the dwelling the household is living in does not correspond to any of the above-specified statuses.

Question 7. How many rooms are there in your dwelling, including the living room?

This question seeks to reveal the number of rooms in the dwelling that the household is living in, including the living room. The number of rooms in the dwelling being lived in is to be entered in numeric form into the pertinent box. For example, if the dwelling consists of three rooms and one living room, "4" is to be written; and for two rooms and one living room, "3" is to be written.

"Room": A place (including a living room) extending from floor to ceiling, enclosed by walls on four sides, with an area of at least 4 square meters, and with a ceiling height of no less than two meters.

No matter what their extent, the kitchen, bathroom, toilet, entry way, hallway, balcony and coal storage room are not to be considered rooms.

Question 8. Which of the following are to be found in your dwelling?

An "X" to be entered into the boxes corresponding to each one of the amenities (toilet, bath, kitchen and piped in water) that exist in the dwelling that the household is living in, doing so according to whether these amenities are located inside or outside the dwelling. For dwellings occupied by a household lacking a toilet, bath, kitchen or piped water either inside or outside the dwelling, an "X" is to be entered for the "None" option for each one of these non-existent amenities.

In filling out this question, the following definitions should be kept in mind:

Toilet (inside the dwelling): That area situated inside the dwelling, enclosed on four sides, with a separate door, from which human feces and dirty water are conveyed via pipe, tile/clay pipe, etc., to a main canal, a septic tank or to the sewer lines.

Toilet (outside the dwelling): A place enclosed on four sides, located outside the dwelling being lived in (in the yard, in the garden, or on empty land), built with the purpose of permitting people to meet their toilet needs.

Bathroom (inside the dwelling): A place inside the dwelling being lived in, enclosed on four sides, with a separate door, that has been set aside for washing.

Bathroom (outside the dwelling): A place outside the dwelling that is being lived in (in the yard, in the garden, or on empty land), enclosed on four sides with a separate door, that has been set aside for washing.

Kitchen (inside the dwelling): A place inside the dwelling being lived in, enclosed on four sides, closed off on top, with a separate door in which food may be cooked, dishes washed, and where essential kitchen utensils may be placed.

Kitchen (outside the dwelling): A place outside the dwelling being lived in (in the yard, in the garden, or on empty land) enclosed on four sides, closed off on top, with a separate door, within which food may be cooked, dishes washed, and where essential kitchen utensils may be placed.

Piped water (inside the dwelling): Running water brought all the way into the dwelling by means of a pipe connection to the city water network or to a private system such as a water tank pump.

Piped water (outside the dwelling): Running water located outside the dwelling delivered by means of a pipe connection to the city water network or to a private system such as a water tank pump.

If a toilet or piped water exists both inside and outside the dwelling that the household lives in, the toilet or piped water shall be designated as being "Inside the dwelling". If a section of the toilet inside the dwelling the household lives in is used as a bathroom, then both the toilet and bathroom will be deemed to be "Inside the dwelling".

For situations not covered by those defined above, the "None" option is to be marked.

Question 9. Have any members of this household died within the last year (since October 22, 1999)?

This question seeks to find out whether any of the members of this household died within the period beginning from October 22, 1999 until the moment of the census. According to the answer obtained, an "X" shall be entered into the appropriate box. If the answer is "Yes", continue the interview from question 10, whereas if the answer is "No", skip over to question 12.

For a "Yes" answer to be valid for this question, it is necessary for the deceased person to have truly been a member of the household being administered the census. Here it is not the degree of kinship that is important but instead, being a member of the household. With due attention paid to the definition of household, an "X" will be entered according to whether the deceased person conforms to these characteristics.

The deceased person may have been the member of more than one household. In other words, the person may have lived with different households during certain periods of the year. In that situation, whichever household the person stayed with the longest is the one that the person should be deemed to have belonged to and information about the death should be obtained from that household. For example, upon the death of a father or mother who had lived together with their married children during different periods, the deceased person is to be designated as having belonged to the household of the child with whom he/she had lived for the longest time within a year, and the information concerning that person's death is to be obtained only from that child's household, not from those of other children.

There is also the possibility that the deceased person stayed for equal periods in more than one household. In that situation, that person is to be designated as part of the household in which the person stayed last before dying, and information is to be obtained from that household.

If the deceased person had been one of those who temporarily did not reside with that household for any of a variety of reasons such as military service or study in another town, then information about the death is to be obtained from that household under the presumption that such a person had died at that home.

Question 10. How many people died?

This question is to be asked if the answer provided to question 9 is "Yes". The number of people who had died is to be entered as a numeral into the appropriate box.

Question 11. What were the deceased persons' genders, completed ages and dates of death?

For people belonging to the household who had died within the past one year, this question seeks to find out the completed age, gender, and the dates of their deaths to be stated in terms of the day, month and year when they died. An "X" is to be entered into the box corresponding to the deceased person's gender. The age and the day, month, and year on the date of death are to be entered as numbers in the applicable boxes. In the year box, only the years 1999 and 2000 are to be written. If the day of the date of death is not known, then the month and year should be obtained, without fail.

In Question 11, there is only enough room to write in information about the gender, age, and date of death for a maximum of five deceased people. If the number of this household's deceased individuals is 5 or fewer, the number of people entered in question 10 and question 11 should be the same. If the number of deceased people elicited in question 10 exceeds five, then in question 11 only the information about the first five mentioned should be entered, beginning with the oldest one first. In that case, the number of people entered in question 11 will be smaller than that in question 10.

Question 12. Beginning with the household head, indicate the names and surnames of everyone now present in this house (dwelling).

(Even if the household is not at home, write that person's name and surname on the first line. After the household head, write in the names and surnames of household members beginning with the oldest. Finally, write the names and surnames of guests, beginning with the oldest one.)

The names and surnames of those present in the household at the time of the census are to be formed into a list in the order specified below:

The household head's name and surname is to be written into the first row of the list in question 12, even if he/she is not at home.

After the household head, the names and surnames of individuals present at home, are to be entered beginning with those who are household members and in order of age, beginning with the ones who are oldest.

After writing in the household members, the names and surnames of those guests temporarily present at that home (even if relatives), are to be written in, beginning with the oldest.

This question was designed to provide room for writing in the names and surnames of 28 people. If there are more than 28 people at home, then, on a subsequent household questionnaire, Section I and II are to be left blank and the listing of the individuals' names and surnames is are to be continued in Section III question 12, by replacing the starting "Individual sequential number" of 1 that is on this page with a starting number of "29".

Attention! Questions in Section IV regarding individual characteristics are to be asked for each person on this list, based on their order in this list. That is why the number of people listed in Question 12 should be the same as the number of forms being filled out for each individual in Section IV.

Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics
In filling out this section, the following guidelines are to be adhered to:

In places where a household is constituted

Whether or not the household head is at home, all his/her characteristics are to be written in as the first individual, just as in question 12. Besides that, all individuals at home at the time of the census are also to be written in.

If at home, information about the household head's personal characteristics is to be obtained from the household head him/herself; otherwise if not present, the respective questions are to be filled out by obtaining the information from someone else present in the household able to provide the answers.

Regardless of whether the household head is at home of not, the name and surname of the household head is initially to be written in as the first individual in Section IV. Care should be taken to meet the requirement that the name and surname entered in this section is identical to the name and surname entered in question 1 of Section III and as the name and surname entered into the first row of question 12.

Regardless of whether the household head is at home of not, after entering all his/her characteristics, all the characteristics of other household members at home at the time of the census are to be entered onto the pages found in Section IV in conformity with the ordering from oldest to youngest, as in the list set up in question 12.

Attention! The following points are to be kept in mind with regard to guests:

In Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics, after completing entries for household members, entries are then to be made for guests in order of age, from oldest to youngest.

All questions in Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics are also to be asked of guests, and in question 17, "What is the degree of kinship to the household head?", the "Guest" option is to be marked.

For places where no household has been constituted, the page with Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics is to be filled out for every individual present at the place and time where the census is being conducted.
Question 13. Write the household individual's sequential number.
(Write the individual sequential number of question 12 here)

In this question, the sequential number for each individual with whom the census is being carried out is to be written into the applicable box in numeric form, identically matching the "Individual order number" entered in the list of question 12.

However, for places where no household is constituted, this question shall be left empty, since Section III where question 12 is located has not been filled out.

Question 14. Your name and surname?

(Write these for everyone living at home at the time of the census. However, even if the household head is not at home, write his/her name and surname along with all his/her characteristics.)

Whether at home or not, the household head's name and surname are to be entered as the first individual. If at home, information about the household head is to be obtained from the household head him/herself; otherwise the respective questions are to be asked of someone else able to provide the answers.

The names and surnames of the people included in the census are to be written into the applicable boxes in capital letters.

Question 15. Your gender?

If the gender of the person with whom the census is being conducted is male, an "X" is to be entered into the "Male" box, and if female, into the "Female" box.

Question 16. What is your completed age?

(For babies not yet fully one year old, write "0")

Answers to this question are to be based on people's declarations, without reference to ID cards, driver's licenses or other documents.

The completed age at the time of the census of the person with whom the census is being carried out, is to be written into the applicable boxes as numbers. For example: Let's say someone was born on November 2 1992. Even if that person would be completing the age of 9 ten days after the date of the census, the completed age that is to be written down is "8". For babies who had not yet completed one year (12 months), "0" is to be entered.

Among our people there is a general tendency to express their ages in round numbers ending in a 5 or a 0. For example: 21 or 22 year-old people may state their age as "20", and 36 or 37-year-olds, as "35". If such round numbers are provided in response to the age question, an effort is to be made to obtain accurate information about the completed age by asking for the year and month born in order to determine the true age, doing so in such a way that would not give rise to an argument.

When necessary in entering the completed age, "Age based on year of birth table" on the back cover of the census notebook may be used. If the birthday's day and month fall between the dates of October 21 - December 31, one should be subtracted from the completed age displayed in the table. If, however, the birthday falls between the dates of January 1 - October 21, the ages displayed in the table are to be taken just as they are.

Question 17. What is your degree of kinship to the household head?

(For those not living in this home continuously, mark the "Visitor" box. In places where a household is not constituted, do not ask this question.)

Whether they are relatives of the household head or not, for those not living continuously in this home, the "Visitor" box is to be marked. For individuals in places where households are not constituted (such as a military post, a jail, a hospital, a train, a boat, a bus, a bus terminal, a hostel, a school, a dormitory, a hotel, etc.), this question is not to be asked of those individuals present.

For people being administered the census, an "X" is to be placed into the box corresponding to the degree of kinship with the household head.

Explained below are points requiring attention when asking the question about the degree of kinship to the household head:

1. An "X" mark is to be placed into the "Visitor" box for those people who are not household members and who, at the time the census, are being administered the census together with the household (whether related by kinship to the household head or not).

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

2. For those lacking any kinship tie to the household head, but living in the same home, an "X" is to be placed into the box for the "Other" option. For example; a domestic servant, guard, gardener and other such people.

3. For those living together with the household, but whose kinship relation to the household head is other than "Spouse", "Son", "Daughter", "Father", "Mother", "Brother", "Father-in-law", "Mother-in-law", "Daughter-in-law", "Son-in-law", and "Grandchild" (For example: for a maternal uncle, maternal aunt, paternal uncle, sister-in-law, cousin, an "X" is to be marked in the box for the option "Other" option).

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

4. People living together, whether bound by blood ties or not, who are living together for education, work, and other reasons, are to be considered as a household, and the person among these people declaring him/herself to be household head is to be accepted as being the household head. For other individuals, an "X" is to be placed into the applicable boxes, based on their degree of kinship.

[An example in the original document has been omitted here.]

Question 18. What is the current name of the province and district that your birthplace belongs to?

(For those born abroad, write only the name of the country)

To be entered into the appropriate boxes for those born in Turkey, are the current names of the province and district that the place where they were born belongs to, whereas for those born abroad, the name of the country is to be entered.

In answering the question about birthplace, the person being administered the census may reply by giving the name of the village where he/she was born. In such a case, asking for the current names of the province and district that this village belongs to, the current name of that district and province are to be entered into the pertinent box.

The province and district names corresponding to our country's current administrative structure are provided in Appendix 2.

If the province and district names specified in response to this question are wrong, or if there is doubt about whether a specified district belongs to [the stated] province, the correct names shall be entered, by referencing the province and district list in Appendix 2.

In writing the names of the province and district that the birthplace belongs to, care should be taken to determine if the district is not one of the central districts in the 8 provinces with metropolitan areas (Adana, Ankara, Bursa, Gaziantep, Istanbul, Kayseri, and Konya). In these provinces, the provincial center is comprised of the districts displayed below.

In all provinces except those provinces specified above, "Center" is to be written for the provincial center, into the space for "District name".

[Two examples in the original document have been omitted here]

Question 19. Your nationality?

(For non-nationals of the Republic of Turkey, write the country name)

In filling out this question:

For people who are citizens of the Turkish Republic, an "X" is to be placed into the T.R. box.

For people who are not citizens of the Turkish Republic, the name of the country corresponding to their nationality is to be written into this question's "Country name" section.

For people with more than one nationality, if one of those nationalities is the Turkish Republic, an "X" is to be entered into the T.R. box for that person's nationality.

If a person who is a not a Turkish citizen has multiple nationalities, the one preferred is to be entered into this question's "Country name" section.

For those declaring that they have no nationality, an "X" is to be marked for this question's "No nationality" option.

Question 20. Do you have any physical or mental handicap (disability)?

Attention! To categorize someone as handicapped, care must be taken to conform to the definition of disability provided below.

Handicapped (disabled):

Resulting from any illness or accident originating at birth or thereafter,

Being unable to adapt to the normal requirements of living, due to some degree of physical, mental, psychological, emotional and social loss of capacity,

An individual requiring training, protection, care, rehabilitation, counseling and support services.

While those handicapped (disabled) temporarily on a short-term basis due to a broken leg or some other such disorder are not to be covered by this question, those handicapped (disabled) for more than six months are to be considered.

In this question, an "X" is to be entered into the "Has" box for those with a physical or mental handicap, and into the "None" box for those without such a handicap. If the answer is "Has", one is to continue from question 21, whereas if the answer is "None", one should skip over to question 22.

Question 21. What kind of handicap (disability) do you have?

(More than one option may be marked)

This [question] seeks to reveal the type of disability that the person being administered the census is suffering from. An "X" is to be marked for the option applicable to the person's type of disability.

In this question, the type of handicap individuals have is to be marked keeping the definitions below in mind:

Visually impaired: Refers to individuals who cannot see at all or have limited sight in one or both eyes, or have no eyes at all.

Hearing impaired: Inability or limited ability to hear in one or both ears, or under some circumstances, only barely able to hear using a hearing aid.

Speech impaired: Refers to individuals who have experienced loss of the lower or upper jaw, of the tongue, palate, those with cleft or defective tongue, palate, lips, who while they may be able to hear cannot speak or who can in some circumstances [only] speak using a device held up to their larynx.

Physically/orthopedically handicapped: Refers to individuals with a deficiency, redundancy, or abnormality visible in the body and in the organs. Those belonging to this group are characterized by a deficiency, disrepair or absence of arms, legs and feet, as well as to paralyzed people -- suffering from childhood paralysis or paralyzed later in life.

Mentally impaired: Refers to people whose learning and comprehension develop later or are slowed down, due to a mental deficiency (retardation). The mentally handicapped (retarded), may vary in the degree of their ability to be taught and to learn, ranging from mild, intermediate, difficult, and very difficult.

People with mental handicaps, may not be able to adjust to their environment, may suffer from difficulties in establishing social relationships, and depending on the severity of their mental handicap (mentally retardation), and may not be able to handle their daily routine needs without the help of others.

If the person suffers from a type of handicap not encompassed by the options provided above, the option of "Other" is to be marked.

Question 22. Do you reside in (live in) this place that you just mentioned?

Place of residence: A person's place of residence is the place lived in with the intention of settling. A person may not simultaneously have more than one place of residence.

This question is meant to reveal whether or not the place (provincial center, district center, sub-district/village) where the census is being carried out is where the person being administered the census resides on a continuous basis. If the person being administered the census does continuously live in this place, an "X" is to be placed into the box labeled with the "Yes" option, and if he/she does not reside in this place continuously, into the box for the "No" option. For those answering "Yes" to this question, go on to question 24.

Question 23. What is the current name of the province, district, sub-district or village that you now reside in (live in)?
(For those living abroad, write only the name of the country)

To be asked of those saying "No" to question 22.

The names of the province and district and, if applicable, the name of the sub-district and village, which are the place of residence where the people being administered the census belong, are to be entered into the appropriate boxes. If there is no sub-district or village, the respective boxes for these are to be left blank (If there is any doubt about the accuracy of the names of the province and district resided in, the correct names are to be entered by referring to the list provided in Appendix 2).

[Three examples in the original document have been omitted here]

For those residing abroad, write in only the "Country name". Leave the "Province name", "District name", "Sub-district name", and "Village name" portions blank.

The place where a reserve officer, a soldier, or students live on a continuous basis (that they reside in) is the place where their households are located. However, if they declare the place they are located as their place of residence, the place they state is to be considered as the place they reside in.

Questions 24, 25 and 26 are to be asked of people aged 5 and above.

Question 24. Were you living in the in the place you presently reside in (that you live in) five years ago (on October 22, 1995)?

If the place where the person who is being administered the census is now residing in is the same [place] as the one resided in five years ago (on October 22, 1995), an "X" is to be placed into the "Yes" option box, and if the person lives in a different place now, into the "No" option box. For those answering "Yes", go on to question 28.

For example, the "Yes" option should be marked in this question for a person who on the date of the census is living in Ankara province, Cankaya district, but who was living in Izmir province, Bornova district five years ago.

Question 25. What is the current name of the province and district you were residing in five years ago (on October 22, 1995)?

(For those whose place of residence five years ago was abroad, write only the name of the country)

For those being administered the census whose residence on October 22, 1995 was in Turkey, write the current names of the province and district where they were living on a continuous basis, into the respective boxes.

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

For those who had been living outside the country on October 22, 1995, only the name of the country where they had been living in on a continuous basis is to be entered into the "Country name" section boxes.

Question 26. Was the place you were residing in five years ago (on October 22, 1995) a provincial center, a district center, a sub-district, or village?

(Do not ask those whose residence five years ago was abroad.)

An "X" is to be put into the boxes that are applicable, based on whether it was a provincial center, district center, a sub-district/village that the person being administered the census had been living in on October 22, 1995.

In provinces with metropolitan areas (Adana, Ankara, Bursa, Gaziantep, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, Konya), an "X" is to be placed into the box for the "Provincial center" option for provincial center districts [Those districts administratively annexed by the respective greater metropolitan areas].

This question is not to be asked of those who had been living abroad on October 22, 1995.

Question 27. What was your reason for having departed (migrating) from the place you resided in on October 22, 1995?
(Mark only a single option)

a. Job search/finding job
b. Job assignment/appointment
c. Migration linked to that of one of the household members
d. Education
e. Marriage
f. Earthquake
g. Security
h. Other

If the person to whom the Census is administered, the mother, the father, or any one of the other household members had changed their residence due to reasons such as job assignment, employment search, or education, the "Migration linked to that of one of the household's members" option is to be marked in this question.

As is known, a segment of the population, especially among those in earthquake-prone regions, had to migrate due to earthquakes that transpired in our country between August 17 and November 1999. If the person to whom the Census is administered changes residence due to the impact of an earthquake, the "Earthquake" option is to be marked in this question.

If the person to whom the Census is administered had to change residence due to reasons such as a blood feud or terror, the "Security" option is to be marked in this question.

If the person to whom the Census is administered left the residence from five years ago for reasons other than those specified above -- such as for job search, being assigned to another place, for marriage or for education -- the appropriate option for this question is to be marked. If none of the options cited apply to a person's reasons for leaving the residence of five years ago, an "X" is to be placed to mark the "Other" option.

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

Questions 28 and 29 are to be asked of people aged 6 or older

Question 28. Do you know how to read and write?

In indicating the household head's literacy status, the following points are to be kept in mind:

a. Those able to read and write using the Turkish alphabet are to be considered as literate.

b. For citizens of foreign countries, if they know how to read and write in their own language, they are to be considered as being literate.

c. Those able to read using the Turkish alphabet, but unable to write are not to be considered as literate.

d. Those able to read and write using the old Turkish alphabet are not to be considered as literate.

An "X" is to be placed into the "Yes" box for the person being administered the census if that person is literate and into the "No" box, if not.

If the "No" option is marked, skip to question 30.

Question 29. Which is the highest level school that you completed?

(Mark the school from which the highest level diploma was obtained.)

This question is to be asked of those people who answered "Yes" to question 28.

Taking note of the highest level school completed (from which a diploma was obtained) by the person to whom the Census is administered, an "X" is to be placed into the applicable box. This question should be filled out keeping the following instructions in mind:

a. For those who are literate but have not graduated from any educational institution, an "X" should be entered into the box for the option "Has not completed any school".

b. Those who participated in literacy courses and have obtained an primary school diploma shall be considered as graduates of primary school, and an "X" shall be entered to mark this option.

c. For those continuing their primary schooling who have not yet completed the fifth grade, an "X" is to mark the option "Has not competed any school".

d. For those having completed eight years of uninterrupted basic education and schools of instruction, an "X" is to be mark the "Primary school" option.

Question 30 is only to be asked about persons age 12 or older

Question 30. What is your marital status?

An "X" is to be placed into the box corresponding to the person's marital status. In specifying the marital status, the basis is to be the de facto situation rather than the legally formalized one. For example, if those living as husband and wife based only on common-law, or married through a religious wedding (wedding ceremony conducted by an imam) declare themselves to be married, they are to be accepted as being "Married".

Questions 31, 32, and 33 are to be asked of women age 12 or older, replying to question 30 with the answer that they were married, that their husband had died, or that they were divorced.

Question 31. Up to this point, have you ever given birth?

(Whether they [i.e., the children] are presently alive or dead)

An "X" is to be placed into the box corresponding to the answer of the person being administered the census. If the answer to this question is "No", other birth-related questions pertaining to this woman's fertility are not to be asked, with questioning to continue from question 35. If the answer is "Yes", continue from question 32.

This question is meant to reveal whether a woman did or did not experience a live birth.

Live birth: This refers to births where the infant lives for at least a few minutes after being born, displaying signs of life such as crying, breathing, or movement. In the absence of any of these conditions, the birth is not to be considered a live birth, but rather a dead birth. For women being administered the census who had not experienced any live birth up to that point, the "No" option is to be marked.

This question:

is to be answered for all live births, including instances of children who had died after being alive for some time, or in reference to children not living in that house (those who had married and left home or those away from home because they were students).

On the other hand, the "No" option for this question is to be marked if the only children that the woman being administered the census has are adopted children or children of the husband's previous wife. Furthermore, the "No" option for this question is to be marked, even if at the time of the census the woman is pregnant and has not had any live births up to that point in time.

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

Question 32. How many boys or girls have you given birth to?

(Whether alive or dead at this point in time)

The number of girls or boys that this woman has given birth to, whether they are living at this moment or not, or whether they are living at home or not, is to be entered in numeric form into the boxes pertaining to the number of live births of boys and girls, doing so separately for and distinguishing between males and females. In situations where only sons or daughters were born, a "0" is to be entered either into the female or male box, depending on whichever of these there are no children of.

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

Even if the children born to the woman to whom the Census is administered died after birth or survived and were living in a house other than that in which the census was being conducted, these children are to be included in the number of born children.

Question 33. Of these children of yours, how many are presently alive?

Whatever the age and gender of the children to whom the woman gave (live) birth, and regardless of whether they are living in that house or not, the number of living children is to be entered in numeric form separately into the "Female" and "Male" sections, respectively. In situations where it is only female or male children that are alive, a "0" is to be entered either into the female or male box, depending for which of these [genders] there are no children.

For women among whom none of the children they had given birth to had survived as of the time of the census, "0" is to be entered both into the "Female" and "Male" boxes.

Attention! The gender-specific total numbers obtained in the answer to question 33, should be equal to or less than the total numbers in the responses to question 32. (The number of a woman's surviving children, is equal to or less than the number of children she gave birth to).

Question 34. When did you last give birth?
Question 34 is to be asked of women between the ages of 12 and 50, who responded "Married", "Spouse died" or "Divorced" to Question 30, and "Yes" to Question 31.

The day, month and year of the date that the woman being administered the census had her last live birth, are to be entered in numeric form. For births that occurred after January 1999, the month of birth must be specified. If the woman only knows the year that the birth occurred, but does not remember the month, probing is to be done in order to be able to approximate the month. For example, by asking about the season that the child was born, the approximate month of birth guessed in this way, is to be entered into the pertinent section.

Questions 35-43, are to be asked of all males and females age 12 or older

Question 35. During the last week, did you work in a job?
(Those having worked even if only for one hour during the last week for money or goods are to be considered as having "Worked". For those who had not been working during the last week due to vacation, illness, travel or other such reasons, or were unable to work at their job due to seasonal exigencies, the "Did not work but has a job attachment" option is to be marked.)

This question is being asked to find out whether or not the person being administered the census had worked at any job in order to earn an income in cash (money) or in-kind (goods) during the last week. Question 35 seeks to characterize the household members' working or non-working situations based on the three-group categorization displayed below:

a. Working
b. Did not work, but has a job attachment
c. Not working

a. Working: The "Working" option in question 35 is to be marked for those people who had worked even if only for one hour during the last week, in return for an income in the form of cash (money) or in-kind (goods), as a wage/salary earner, as a casual laborer, as a paid salaried domestic (home) worker, as a self-employed person, as an employer, or as unpaid family labor.

The "Working" option in question 35 is to be marked for those household members who, even though it may not be in the form of a regular job, is contributing to the household's work endeavors as an unpaid family worker, is engaging in activities such as carpet weaving, sewing of clothes for purposes of sale, and for those engaging in jobs such as house cleaning and child care in return for payment.

Furthermore, the "Working" option in question 35 is to be marked for those working without pay to acquire job or professional skills (For example: those people who are apprentices, trainees, students and unpaid family workers).

b. Did not work, but has a job attachment: The option "Did not work, but has a job attachment" is to be marked in question 35 for those people with a job, who are not at work for a variety of reasons but who are nevertheless continuing to maintain their connection (relationship) to the job.

It is possible that the household member may not have been able to be at work last week due to illness, injury, having been on vacation or on holiday, for family or personal reasons, due to bad weather conditions, due to the fact that the owner's operations were temporarily slowed down or halted for technical or economic reasons, due to workplace disputes, or because there was no work to be done in agricultural operations. For people in these sorts of situations, an "X" is to be marked at the "Did not work, but has a job attachment" option.

c. Not working: The option "Did not work" should be marked in question 35 for those not having worked in any way and not having maintained a connection to any job during the last week.

For those seasonal, casual, and temporary workers not at work and retaining no connection to any job within the last week, an "X" is to be placed at the "Did not work" option in Question 35.

In the rural sector, some people give out the land they own to a tenant or sharecropper, with the tenant or sharecropper being the ones working the land, while they themselves only contribute to the expenses incurred and share in the product produced at harvest time. Since such people do not contribute in any way to production and consequently, because the income they acquire is not dependent on any activity, an "X" should be placed in the "Did not work" box in question 35 for these people.

Question 36. What was the job you either worked at (that you did) or did not sever your connection to, during the last week?

(Names of occupations such as farmer, mechanical engineer, bank manager, typist, history teacher, fruit seller, shoe repair person, carpet machine operator, mason, are to be written, for example . General names such as shopkeeper, public employee, laborer, liberal professional/self-employed are not to be written.)

This question is to be asked of people for whom the "Worked" or "Did not work but continuing to be involved with the job" options were marked in question 35.

This question is to be asked of those who during the last week, either worked or did not sever their connection to the job they were doing in their workplace.

A person may have worked in more than one job within the last week. In such situations, the job in which most of the time was spent during the last week is to be considered to be the main job. If the time spent in the jobs that were doing is equal, the main job shall be considered to be the job in which the most money was earned and questions are to be asked in reference to that job.

A person's job title and the job done in his/her work place may differ from one another. In this question, the person's duties and responsibilities in the job at the workplace, i.e., the job done, whatever it is, is what must be written. For example, if a person working at the State Institute of Statistics has the job title of "Statistician" but the job done is computer programming, "Computer programmer" is what must be written down. For example, if despite a person's occupation being "Teacher" his duty in the school is "Principal", "School principal" is what is to be written down.

In this question, the job done should be written clearly and explicitly.

For example, the term "Shoemaker" written down as the job the person does is neither precise nor accurate. This term needs to be elaborated further as to whether or not the job being done is, production, repair, sales, or working as a shoe shiner.

In order to be able to fill out this question precisely and accurately, the following detailed examples are provided:

[An example showing correct and incorrect ways of entering the job done in the original document is omitted here]

The job being done is to be entered precisely and accurately, just as is in the examples provided above.

Question 37. Indicate the name of the place, establishment, or workplace where you worked or did not sever your connection to.

(They are to be written precisely as for example, a farm field, a municipality, the police department, the Ministry of Justice, a courthouse, a grocery store, a green grocers shop, a barber shop, a building under construction, a house, a primary school, a secondary school, a university.)

The name of the place, establishment or workplace the person being administered the census works in, is to be written precisely, with space left between the words. For example, even if the workplace does not have a clear title, such as the Turkey Coal Enterprise, Ltd., the type of place that it is, is to be written explicitly and precisely.

If the person is not working in or not associated with a clearly evident or definite workplace, even if the work location is a house or a street, it should be written down. If the number of the places where the person works exceeds 1, the workplace where the most time is spent is the one to be written down.

Just as people may be working at a definite work place, they may also be working without being associated with such a workplace. This place may be the street or market; for those taking orders and working at home it is a "House", for those engaged in agriculture, fruit growing, viticulture, the work place is a "Field, garden/orchard, etc.", and for construction workers, it may be the construction site. If there is a company that a construction worker is connected to, that company's name is to be explicitly written down.

Question 38. What is the nature of the business/activity pursued by the place, establishment, or workplace that you were working in or with which you did not sever your connection?

(Activities are to be written out explicitly as for example, public service, retail trade, banking, refrigerator manufacture, construction work, field agriculture, livestock fattening, poultry farming.)

This question is intended to indicate the nature of the economic activity of the place where the household member works and which was specified in question 37. Here, the name of the workplace or the job done by the person is not to be written. In a nutshell, whatever the work done or service provided by the workplace cited in question 37 may be, it is to be recorded in the appropriate space.

It should be written in a clear and explicit way, as for example, banking, insurance, health services, public service, municipal services, educational services, barbering, tailoring, retail trade in foodstuffs, road passenger transportation, intra-city cargo transport, building construction, road construction, field agriculture, vegetable raising, fruit growing, animal husbandry, bee-keeping, etc.

One point that must be heeded is that, even if the job done by the person differs from the main activity of the workplace, the workplace's activity indicated in question 37 is the one that must be written down. For example, in recording the economic activity for a doctor working for the health unit of the Highway General Directorate, it must be filled out in reference to the Highway General Directorate's activity, namely as "Public service", rather than in reference to the doctor's medical activities as "Health services".

The place, establishment, or workplace that is being worked in or with which involvement had not been severed, is to be written explicitly and unambiguously, as done in the examples below:

[An example in the original document has been omitted here]

Question 39. What was your employment status in the job that you were working at or did not sever your connection to, during the last week?

Keeping the definitions below in mind, an "X" is to be placed into the appropriate box.

1. [Employee] on a wage, salaried, or a casual basis: People working in return for a wage or salary for an employer in someone else's business, in order to earn an income in-kind (goods) or in cash (money). For example, a director, a low-level/low-skilled service employee, a laborer, a shoemaker, a barber and journeymen and other workers working on a weekly or monthly basis.

Casual laborers (seasonal, incidental, temporary): Those dependent on an employer, not working on a regular or steady basis, and who, depending on the nature of the job, work seasonally or temporarily or whenever they manage to find work. For example, those engaged in construction labor, hoeing or collecting crops in the field, etc.

2. Employer: A person employing at least one wage or casual worker in his/her own workplace. In a workplace, there may be more than one partner with the status of employer. In such a situation, each partner is to be regarded as being an employer.

3. Self-employed: Fitting this definition are those seeking to generate an income in-kind (goods) or in cash (money) by working in their own business, field, vineyard, garden, store, office, manufacturing facility, repair facility, etc., doing so either alone or together with unpaid family members (without employing any wage or casual laborers). In a workplace, it is possible for several partners to be working together without employing any paid people. Partners in this situation are also to be deemed as working on their own account.

4. Unpaid family laborer: A member of the household contributing labor without getting paid, with the purpose of assisting in an economic activity being run by one or several household members.

For those providing an answer to question 39., skip to question 43.

Question 40. Are you looking for work?

This question is only to be asked of those who said "Did not work" in question 35.

If the person being administered the census is looking for a job, an "X" is to be placed into the "YES" box, otherwise it should be placed into the "No" box. For those answering "No", skip to question 42.

Just as a person may be seeking to find a wage, salary or irregular [casual] job, an employer or self-employed person may also be endeavoring to set up his/her own business. An "X" is also to be marked in the "Yes" box for these people.

Question 41. When is the last time that you sought to find work?

This question is meant to reveal the last time that the person initiated a job search.

In looking for a job, a person may have actually done one of the following:

The person may have personally gone on the job market or applied in person to the employer, with the hopes of finding work, without involving any acquaintances.

The person informed his acquaintances, friends, family friends that he/she was in the process of looking for a job and requested that they assist in this matter.

The person registered at the Employment Exchange Agency.

The person either submitted advertisements to a newspaper or newspapers indicating that he/she was looking for work or applied to newspaper job-opening ads.

In order to find a job, the person applied to several people, or to a broker or intermediaries procuring workers. For example, like the "Envoys" (el├ži) operating in the South and Southeastern Anatolian region (An envoy: a person who acts as an intermediary [or broker] between worker and employer.)

The person, either on his/her own behalf or in the name of a partnership, was involved in an initiative to obtain credit, a location, or equipment with the purpose of setting up a business.

An "X" is to be placed into the box corresponding to whichever of these initiatives was the most recently undertaken by the person.

If the person did not undertake any initiative to look for work, an "X" should be placed in the "Have done nothing" box.

Question 42. What is your reason for not working or not looking for work?

To be asked of those who answered "No" to question 40, as well as those who stated "Have done nothing" for Question 41. An "X" is to be placed in the box for whichever of the options below is most appropriate to the person's situation.

1. Found a job -- a job/business was set up and is waiting for it to get started: This option is to be marked if, despite not having worked during the past week, the person had secured a workplace or had entered into a written or verbal contract with an employer and is not working because he/she is still awaiting the finalization of incomplete documents, or was in the process of securing credit, a location or various types of equipment for the purpose of establishing a business in his/her name (or one in the form of a partnership), or was on the verge of satisfying these types of requirements and had reached the stage of being on the verge of commencing a job.

This option is also to be marked for those waiting for a job for which they had taken and passed the State Employee exam, and who for this reason were not pursuing in any other initiative.

In addition, for a household member completing military service and joining the household; For a member of the household, who, having worked at a job before leaving for the army was on the verge of resuming work in that workplace after returning from military service, this option is to be marked if during the last week this person was: disengaged from the job, had completed military service, and had re-joined the household.

To avoid committing any error here, the following point must be heeded. If people engaging in agriculture have been unable to conduct their work due to bad weather or for any other reason, and if they replied ""Did not work" to question 35 for this or similar reasons, they may provide the response here of "I have a job and am waiting to begin". In such a case, this would imply that the person had mistakenly responded "Did not work" to question 35, instead of "Did not work, but continuing to be involved with the job". What then needs to be done is to return to the beginning section of questions dealing with employment (to question 35) and to once again ask the questions in that section.

2. Student: A person studying in some kind of school for an education, and is neither working in any job nor looking for work, is a "Student".

3. Housewife: A person not working or searching for work due to being a housewife (being engaged at home in tasks such as cooking food, washing dishes, child care), is a "Housewife".

4. Retired: If a person has retired from a job and is neither working in any job nor looking for a job he/she is "Retired".

5. Rentier [income recipient]: A person living on unearned income sources such as rent and interest from assets owned, and who is neither working nor looking for work is a "Rentier".

6. Other: If the person is neither working nor looking for work for reasons other than those cited above, an "X" is to be placed into the box for "Other".

Question 43. What is your main profession?

(Mark the "none" box if there is none.)

For the person to have a profession, it is not absolutely necessary that he/she practice it in his/her occupation. However, the person must have the skill to practice it when required.

For those household members lacking a profession, an "X" is to be placed into the "None" box. For those with a profession, the profession is to be written clearly and accurately into the appropriate space.

Retired, housewife, student, etc., are not to be considered as a main profession.

In specifying the professions, attention is to be paid to the following points:

a. To be equipped to practice some professions, it is necessary to have completed a specific course of study or branch of specialization.

As for example: medical doctor, pharmacist, architect, mathematics teacher, classroom teacher, attorney, nurse, mechanical engineer, construction engineer, statistician, etc.

b. In the case of some other professions however, just as they may be entered into by completing an educational institution and a branch of specialization, they also may also be attained as the outcome of knowledge, observational and practical experience.

As for example: automobile repairman, carpenter, electrician, metal lathe operator, barber, etc.

c. Even if those with professions had worked in a job outside their professions during the week preceding census day, the one that should be referenced is not that occupation, but instead the one that had been entered into through education or specialization.

As for example, the main profession of a medical doctor who engaged in commerce during the last week is "Medical doctor", the main profession of an attorney acting as mayor of a municipality is "Attorney".

d. Households involved in agriculture are to be regarded as agricultural operators. Accordingly, the main profession is to be spelled out explicitly according to the activity engaged in, as in: "Farming (field agriculture)", "Animal husbandry", "Vegetable growing", "Fruit growing", "Beekeeping", "Poultry husbandry", etc.

e. Professions are not to be written in a way that conveys a general meaning, but instead in a detailed, explicit manner.

For example; Instead of "Shoemaker" the main profession should be specified as "Shoe repair person", "Shoe salesperson", "Shoe shiner".

Instead of general terms used to designate many professions such as "Manual laborer", "Worker", "Master", "Journeyman", "Engineer", "Broker", titles such as "Journeyman/assistant barber", "Farm laborer", "Mason", "Mechanical engineer", "Technical drafts-person", "Real estate broker" should be used instead.

f. The professions of combat officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military should be designated as officer or non-commissioned officer, without regard to their rank. Professions of reserve officers and rank and file soldiers should be designated as whatever occupation/profession they had taken up prior to entering the army. Professions of non-combat officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military should, be written in as "doctor, health officer, chemist, mechanical engineer, electronics technician, etc.", depending on the professions acquired through either education or knowledge, observational and practical experience.

The occupations of civil servants working in the military are to be designated according to their acquired occupations.