Republic of Turkey
State Institute of Statistics
General Population Census
III - Instructions pertaining to the 1990 census notebook and questionnaire
The enumerators shall fill out the questionnaire, in printed letters, doing so legibly in pencil, completely and accurately, as instructed below.
1. Instructions pertaining to the census notebook
Three types of 1990 General Population Census notebooks have been prepared. These consist of 11, 25, and 41 questionnaires, respectively. The number of household questionnaires that the notebooks contain is indicated on the census notebook cover.
On the cover of each notebook, there are questions pertaining to the census region, the sequential number, and the administrative division (village, quarter, and neighborhood). Without fail, these questions must be filled out by the enumerators before the census. Furthermore, after the census has been completed, the section indicating the number of people that had been administered the census as well as the "Enumerator and control officer declaration" section, onto which the enumerator and control officer are to sign their names and surnames, must be filled out. On the back cover of the census notebook, there is an "Age according to years of birth table". When the need arises, it must be used by the enumerators.
2. Instructions regarding the 1990 general census questionnaire
As explained earlier, the enumerators are to fill out the questionnaire in printed letters, doing so legibly, completely and accurately, as instructed below.
The questionnaire consists of 4 sections:
Section II: Nature of the location
Section III: Questions pertaining to the household (1-7)
Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics (8-34)
Section III: Questions pertaining to the household (1-7)This section is only to be filled out for places exhibiting the characteristics of a household and not for military garrisons, military posts, hotels, hospitals, etc., for which this section is to be crossed out with an "X".
In administering the census to people located in such places, it is to be written up in such a way that each line in Section IV is devoted to a single person, and by continuing on to the next page without leaving any spaces in between, making use of as many questionnaires as needed.
A special enumerator will be assigned to places such as these for which the notation not to be visited is written on the "Census region building table" (Reference C). The notation "Special census" is to be written onto the census notebooks filled out in places displayed below that are to be designated by the special enumerators as being subject to a special census.
These places are the following:
- Military, gendarme, and police barracks, jails and associated establishments, military bases (including foreign bases), and living quarters located in military zones into which entry is forbidden to civilian public servants.
- All public and private (military and civilian) hospitals, sanatoria, maternity hospitals, health clinics, dispensaries, and similar establishments.
- All public and private (military and civilian) boarding schools and student dormitories (those people present in non-boarding schools on census day, are to be written up by the enumerators assigned to the census regions that they [i.e., these schools] belong to.)
- Prisons and penitentiaries
- Places where people are on duty on census day,
- Places not to be included in a census region:
- Roadside bus stops or terminals, and vehicles traveling on the roadways,
- Train and train stations,
- Means of sea and air transportation and ports,
- Places (factories and large workplaces where census day work was permitted) deemed by special census officers of the census committees as being appropriate for having a census conducted.
- Embassies, charges d'affaires, attaches, consulates
Numbers in the "Census region building table" (Reference C) for the places cited in the above paragraphs must be notated with the words "Not to be visited" beside them. In the event that the entry "Not to be visited" is not observed next to such places in the "Census region building table" (Reference C), a request to have the necessary correction made is to be submitted to the census or control officer committee.
However, people such as a school principal, chief physician, caretaker, night watchman living permanently in a school, hospital and similar institutions, are to be considered as independent households and are each to be written upon separate pages.
Furthermore, for people in places that do not constitute households, this section is not to be filled out and is to be crossed out with an "X". The census for people in these sorts of places is to be written up in Section IV. As an aggregate population, with one line devoted per person and going on to a next page if necessary, without leaving any gaps between them.
For places that constitute households, fill out Section IV with one line per household member and write "Household head" on the first line.
Question 1: Name and surname of the household head
(Write the name and surname regardless of whether the household head is at home or not)
Regardless of whether the household head is at home or not, write the household head's name and surname in "___".
The definition and explanation of household are provided below:
Household: That collectivity composed of one or several people, whether bound by kinship or not, living in the same house or in a portion of the same house, sharing in the provision of service or in the management of the household, who do not separate their income and expenses among themselves.
- People lacking a kinship bond among themselves, but who live together on a continuous basis for various reasons and make no distinction among themselves in terms of their expenses and earnings, are considered to be households. However:
- Even if they are bound by family ties, those living in separate houses are not to be considered as belonging to the same household.
- Those living in the same house and bound by familial ties, but whose food consumption derives from distinct earners, and who treat their respective income and expenses separately among themselves, are not to be considered as belonging to the same household.
- Those living in the same house, who are not bound by any family ties, whose food consumption derives from separate earners, and who distinguish among themselves in terms of their income and expenses, are not to be regarded as belonging to the same household.
- People who, although not members of the household being administered the census, are present in that place on census day are also to be recorded in the same questionnaire as the one for this household. However, the fact that they are guests must be indicated in the question on "Degree of kinship to the household head".
Household head: The household head is that individual in the household who is generally responsible when it comes to the household's income and expenses and who actually manages the household.
Write in numeric form into the "____" area the number of those [persons] at home at the time of the census who are not members of the household. Take note that, even if they are a relative, those not belonging to the household are a guest.
Guest: People present at home at the moment of the census, who, whether a relative or not of the household head's, do not belong to the household.
These people are not, however, to be written into the individual characteristics portion of Section IV.
If the place that the household lives in is a tent, a [tree] hollow, a shack, a cave, etc., put the "X" into the "No" box.
Share- and time-share property owners are not to be considered as a dwelling owner.
Question 7: Besides this house (dwelling) that you are living in as a household, whether it be yours or not, is there another house (dwelling) that you own?
Just as another house (dwelling) may be the individual or joint property of the household head or his wife, it may also belong to one or several other members of this household. Based on the answer obtained to this question, if this house (dwelling) belongs to the household head or one of its members, place an "X" into the 3 "Has" box, and if not into the 4 "None" box. Place an "X" into the 4 "None" box for answers to this question such as tent, a [tree] hollow, a shack, cave, etc. Houses (dwellings) owned beyond Turkey's borders are not to be covered by this question.
If a dwelling is under the ownership of more than one person apart from those who are household members, each and every person will be deemed as having no dwelling.
Consider houses (dwellings) under construction (including cooperative houses) are as non-existent and place an "X" into the 4 "None" box.
Do not consider as a house (dwelling) those places that, although built as a house (dwelling), are currently being used as a workplace and place an "X" into the 4 "None" box.
For places that were built as a workplace but are currently being used as a house (dwelling), designate these as a house (dwelling) and enter an "X" into the 3 "Has" box.
If a house (dwelling) is being simultaneously used as a house (dwelling) and as a workplace, designate it as a house (dwelling) and place an "X" into the 3 "Has" box.
Share- and time-share property owners are not to be considered as dwelling owners.
After writing down all of the characteristics of the household head, whether he/she is at home or not, (except for household members not at home) also write down all the characteristics of all the household members who are present at home, beginning from the oldest and proceeding in order of age, from oldest to youngest. After the household members, write using printed letters into the pertinent section and in order of their ages the names surnames and all the characteristics of those who, while being present at home, are not household members (guests). Answer questions with a box by placing an "X" into it.
Question 8: Your name and surname?
Ensure that the household head's name and surname that are supposed to be written on the first line, are the same as the name and surname in Question 1. As explained above, enter the other household members in order of their ages. After writing the other characteristics of the person whose name and surname is being entered up to Question 34, write [the information] for the second and other persons one after another.
Write in the completed age of the person with whom the census is being conducted in numeric form. For babies who had not yet completed one year of age (12 months), write "0".
For a child age 6 who entered its seventh year, even though the seventh year will be completed in 15 days, write the age as "6".
Among our people there is a general tendency to state their ages in round numbers that end in a "5" or a "0". 21 or 22 year-old people may state their age as "20". Additionally, 36 or 37 year-olds, may state their age as "35". If such round numbers are provided in response to the age question, ask some additional questions that may be useful in eliciting the true age, as long as this does not give rise to argument.
In the event that someone being administered the census states his/her birth-date, write the age as of October 21 by looking at the table displaying age according to birth dates that is on the back cover of the notebook.
Write the kinship relationship to the household head of the members of the household for which the census is being conducted. In obtaining answers about the degree of kinship, pay attention to the following guidelines
- Among those belonging to the same household who are at home at the time of the census, clearly denote the degree of kinship to the household head of those related to him/her by kinship.
- For example: After writing "H.H.H." for the household head him/herself, for the others, write spouse, son, daughter, mother, father, daughter in-law, grandchild, maternal uncle, and so on, according to the relationship
- For people belonging to the same household, who have no kinship tie to the household head, write "None".
- For people not belonging to the household who are also being administered the census together with the household (whether a relative or not of the household head), write "Guest".
- For people such as a son, daughter, daughter in-law visiting their father on census day, but who belong to a separate household, write "Guest" regardless of the kinship relationship to the household head.
- For places where people are located at the time of the census that do not constitute a household (a military post, a jail, a hospital, a train, a boat, a bus, a terminal, a hostel, a school, a dormitory, etc.), enter "X" for this question.
Birth place (12-13)
For those born in Turkey, write the current name of the province that their birthplace is presently linked to; for those born in a foreign country, write the current name of the country where they were born. The person being administered the census may answer the question about birthplace by giving the name of the district or village he/she was born in. In such a case, ask about the province that this district or village belongs to, and write the name of that province in the space provided for an answer.
For example: For a person born in Ermenek district, do not write "Ermenek" or "Konya", which was the province it was formerly linked to, but instead "Karaman", the province that this district is linked to today. For someone born in Frankfurt, write "West Germany" as the birth place.
Question 13: Is your birthplace currently a provincial center, a district center, a sub-district, or a village?
If today, the birthplace of the person being administered the census is a provincial center, place an "X" into the 1 "Provincial center" box, if it is a district center into the 2 "District center" box, and if it is a sub-district or village, into the 3 "Sub-district, village" box.
Do not ask this question of those whose birthplace was abroad.
For districts located within the boundaries of the 8 metropolitan areas, place the "X" into the provincial center box.
For people who are citizens of the Turkish Republic, an "X" is to be entered into the 01 "T.C." box. For a non-Turkish citizen, write the country of that person's nationality into the "____" section. For people with more than one nationality, if one of them is the Turkish Republic, mark the T. C. box for that person's nationality. If, apart from Turkish nationality, the person has more than one nationality, write the one that is preferred. For those who are not nationals of any country, write "None".
Permanent residency (15-16)
According to the Turkish Civil Code, a person's residence is the place where they live and intend to settle. A person may not have more than one residence at the same time.
Question 15: What are the names of the province and of the district to which the place you live in on a continuous basis is linked?
Here, write the permanent residence of the person being administered the census at the time of the census. In determining the permanent residence, pay attention to the following points:
- Just as permanent residence and birthplace may be the same, they may also be different. Carefully establish the person's birthplace as well as the place being resided in.
- For those in Turkey, write the names of both the province and the district to which the place they are living in continuously is linked; for those [person] whose permanent residence is abroad, write only the name of the country where the place they are living in is located.
- The permanent residences for reserve officers, rank and file soldiers and students are the places where their households are located. However, if they declare the places where they themselves are located as their permanent residences, their permanent residence is the pace that they declare it to be.
- The permanent residence of government employees is the place that they have been assigned.
If the permanent residence of the person being administered the census is a provincial center, place an "X" into the 1 "Provincial center" box, if it is a district center into the 2 "District center" box, and if it is a sub-district or village, into the 3 "Sub-district, village" box.
Note that this question is not to be asked of those whose permanent residence is abroad.
For reserve officers, rank and file soldiers and students, the place where they live on a continuous basis is the provincial center, district center, sub-district or village where their household is located.
For districts located within the boundaries of the 8 metropolitan centers, place an "X" into the provincial center box.
(Persons age 5 or older)
Question 17: What is the name of the province and district where you were living on a continuous basis on the day of the 1985 General Population Census?
Write the permanent residence of the person being administered the census on the day of the 1985 General Population Census.
- Just as permanent residence and birthplace may be the same, they may also be different. Carefully establish the person's birthplace as well as the place resided in.
- For those in Turkey, write the names of both the province and the district to which the place they were living in continuously belonged; for those whose permanent residence was abroad, write only the name of the country where the place they were living was located.
- For reserve officers, rank and file soldiers and students, their permanent residences were the places where their households were located. However, if they declare the places where they themselves were located as their permanent residences, their permanent residence is the pace that they declare it to have been
- The permanent residence of government employees is the place that they had been assigned.
If the permanent residence of the person being administered the census on the day of the 1985 General Population Census was a provincial center, place an "X" into the 1 "Provincial center" box, if it was a district center into the 2 "District center" box, and if it was a sub-district or village, into the 3 "Sub-district, village" box.
Note that this question is not to be asked of those whose permanent residence on the day of the 1985 General Population Census was abroad.
The permanent residences of reserve officers or those doing their military service, as well as for students at the time of the 1985 General Population Census, is the place where their households were located.
For districts located within metropolitan center boundaries, place an "X" into the provincial center box.
If the person being administered the census knows how to read and write, place an "X" into the 4 "Y" box and if the person does not know how to read and write, place it into the 5 "N" box.
In ascertaining the literacy status of the person being administered the census, pay attention to the points below:
- Those able to read and write using the Turkish alphabet are to be considered as literate.
- Those able to read using the Turkish alphabet, but unable to write are not to be considered as literate.
- Those able to read and write using the old Turkish alphabet are not to be considered as literate.
- If foreign nationals are able to read and write in their own languages, they are considered to be literate.
(Primary, middle, secondary, commercial secondary school, medical faculty, teachers training college, etc.)
Write down the educational level and branch of the person being administered the census in a way that clearly specifies them. In determining the person's educational level and branch, pay attention to the following points:
- For those who had not graduated from any educational institution, write "None".
- Write "Elementary" for those who had completed a five-year elementary school. Do not consider those who had completed a three-year elementary school to be elementary school graduates.
- Consider those who had participated in literacy courses and who obtained an elementary school diploma as elementary school graduates, and write "Elementary".
- For junior high school graduates, write "Junior high".
- For high school graduates, write "High school".
- For those who had completed a vocational school, write the educational level and name. As for example: "Commercial junior high school", "Commercial high school", "Vocational junior high school", "Religious junior high school", "Religious high school", "Girls vocational high school", "Industrial vocational high school", "Health vocational high school".
- For university, faculty and college graduates, write the department (branch) that they graduated from. As for example: "Law faculty", "Construction faculty", "Chemistry faculty", "Political science faculty", "Economic and commercial sciences faculty", "Open education faculty", "Teachers college", "Vocational college".
If the marital status of the person being administered the census is never-married, place an "X" into the 1 "Never married" box, if married into the 2 "Married" box, if divorced, into the 3 "Divorced" box, and if the spouse had died, into the 4 "Spouse died" box.
Those either married through a religious wedding (a wedding ceremony conducted by an imam) or who declare themselves to be married, are to be regarded as "Married".
Live birth: Showing a sign of life by taking in at least one breath at the moment of birth. Ask Questions 23, 24, 25, and 26 to women who had experienced a live birth [according to] Question 22.
Question 24: Within the last two years (from October 1988 to the present), have you had any live births, either still alive or dead?
[After] determining whether the person being administered the census did or did not work during the 7 days prior to census day even if for only one hour in order to earn money or goods, and if the person did not work, determining whether or not that person continued to maintain attachment with the job, then based on the person's circumstance, place an "X" into the 3 "Worked" box if the person worked; into the 4 "Did not work, but continuing to maintain attachment with the job" box if the person did not work but is continuing to maintain attachment with the job; and into the 5 "Did not work" box, if the person did not work.
In deriving the answer to this question, pay attention to the following points:
- Just as jobs compensated in the form of a salary or wage come under the heading of work for money or goods, so also do self-employed work, engaging in agriculture on one's own land, and working without pay on family enterprises.
- While a person may not have worked during the last week for reasons such as vacation, illness, travel, a work dispute, as well as due to seasonal exigencies, people temporarily not working for these types of reasons are still continuing to be attached with the job.
In the space for the reply, write in specific and clear terms the job done during the last week by the person being administered the census in return for money or goods with the purpose of acquiring an income. A person may have more than one job, all of which possibly provided an income. Regardless of the amount of income that this person derived from his/her jobs, write as the job held, the job to which the most time is devoted.
Pay attention to the following points in specifying the job a person worked in or continued to hold to during the last week:
- Rather than stating the job someone does in general terms, it should be stated using terms that fully specify the job, trade or service being done. Especially terms for jobs that end in "-ist", "-er" that convey a general meaning and may denote more than one job, do not use these terms on their own, and write in such a way that indicates the special nature of the job. Examples are provided below of correct and incorrect ways of denoting the job being done.
Shoe repair person
Heating system installer
Heater (radiator) manufacturer
Heater repair person
Auto assembly worker
- Generally, when asking about the job done by people working for a salary or wage in a public or private establishment, the answer given is "Public employee/white collar worker". For answers provided in this form, ask for the type of job the person does as a public employee/white collar worker and write the answer in a precise manner.
Public employee / white collar worker
Typing, cashier, records clerk
Police official, watchman, driver, servant, etc.
- For members of the armed forces; for the job done by officers, whether combat or non-combat, write only "Officer", for non-commissioned officers, write "Non-commissioned officer" and for privates, write "Private".
- If in addition to taking care of or helping with work in their own houses, housewives had done another job within the last week in return for money or goods in order to derive an income, then regardless of the period worked at that job, write the job she held. For any job that women did during the last week to earn an income such as tailoring, embroidery, basket weaving, ceramics, doing laundry, carpet weaving, working as a maid, farming, raising vegetables, write the job held as "Tailor", "Seamstress", "Embroiderer", "Maid", "Child caretaker", "Farmer", "Livestock raiser", "Vegetable grower".
- Particularly in rural areas, if the answer provided for the work done during the last week is "Housewife", ask if this woman worked in the fields, in the vineyards, in the vegetable garden, in animal husbandry, etc. If the person in question worked at such jobs, then regardless of the time worked, write the job she did as farmer, viticulturist, vegetable grower, livestock farmer.
Question 29: Identify the place, establishment or workplace that you worked in or continued to hold, during the last week.
Write the name of the place that the person being administered the census works or if it has no name, write the type of place it is.
As for example: Turkey Coal Enterprises, Etibank Murgul Copper Enterprise, Justice Ministry, Ersel furniture, farm field, vineyard, forest, etc.
Furthermore, for those doing their job as an itinerant, write "Itinerant"; and for those doing it at home, write "At home". For officers, non-commissioned officers and privates as well as other white collar workers, laborers, and low-level/low-skilled employees working in the military, write "Military" as the place they work.
Write the nature of work being done in the workplace of the person being administered the census, clearly and unambiguously. In this question, please do not repeat the name of the person's workplace or the job that the person performs in that workplace.
As for example: Field agriculture, viticulture, beekeeping, livestock fattening, vegetable growing, textile weaving, ginning and textile finishing, macaroni production, drug production, wholesale trade, retail trade, passenger road transport, intra-city cargo transport, road construction, building construction, health services, educational services, public service, barbering, tailoring.
For the activity being pursued by the place that officers, non-commissioned officers and privates and other white collar workers, laborers and low-level/low skill employees working in the military, instead of "Military services", write "Military" as its [most] concise equivalent.
In getting this question answered, pay attention to the following definitions.
- Employee: Those working in someone else's business in return for money and goods, with the purpose of securing an income (government employee/white collar worker, laborer, low-level/low skilled employee, qualified worker [journeyman], manager, etc.) on a wage, salary or casual wage basis.
- Employer: A person employing one or more wage or casual workers in his/her own workplace. (Each and every one of the partners in a workplace who hire any employees or casual workers is an employer.)
- Self-employed: People working either alone or together with unpaid family members (without employing any paid employees) who seek to earn an income in the form of money or goods by working in their own business (in their field, vineyard, garden, store, office, manufacturing workshop, repair shop, etc.). Partners in a workplace, not hiring paid employees in their endeavors are not to be considered as working for someone else. These partners are to be regarded as being "self-employed".
- Unpaid family worker: Those working with the purpose of helping out in work engaged in by the household without receiving any payment, are unpaid family workers.
If the reason that the person being administered the census did not work at a job during the last week in return for money or goods, or why he/she did not maintain a connection to the job, is being retired, place an "X" into the 3 "Retired" box; if it is being a student, [place it into] the 4 "Student" box; if it is being a housewife, into the 5 "Housewife" box; if it is being a rentier, into the 6 "Rentier" box; if it is for another reason, into the 7 "Other" box; and if it is being unemployed, into the 8 "Unemployed" box. If more than one of the situations specified in the question apply to a person's circumstance (such as "Retired - student; student - housewife; retired - housewife; housewife - unemployed; student - unemployed), accept the circumstance that is initially specified [as the first one] in the question.
Ask Question 33 of those people to whom you asked Question 32.
Main profession: A professional skill acquired as the outcome of a period of study or specialization that is based on knowledge, observational and practical experience. For a person to have a profession, it is not absolutely necessary that the profession be practiced as an occupation. However, the person must have the skill for practicing it when required. Regardless of whether the person did or did not work, or did or did not maintain a connection with a job during the last week, ask the main profession question for everyone age 12 or older.
If the person being administered the census lacks a profession, place an "X" into the 00 "None" box. For those with a profession, clearly write the profession into the "____" section.
As for example: teacher, doctor, farmer, viticulturist, lathe operator, economist, nurse, mechanical engineer.
In designating the professions, pay attention to the following points:
- To be equipped to practice certain professions, it is necessary to have completed a specific course of study or specialization. As for example: medical doctor, pharmacist, architect, mathematics teacher, class teacher, attorney.
- In the case of some other professions, however, just as the acquisition of knowledge to engage in them may be accomplished through completing an educational institution and a branch of specialization, it may also be the outcome of knowledge, observational and practical experience. As for example an: auto repairman, carpenter, electric installer, lathe operator.
- Even if those with professions had worked in a job outside their professions during the week preceding census day, the one that should be referenced is not that occupation, but instead the one that had been acquired as the outcome of education or specialization. As for example: The main profession of a medical doctor who engaged in trade is "Medical doctor", the main profession of an attorney acting as mayor of a municipality is "Attorney".
- Households involved in agriculture are to be regarded as farm operators. Accordingly, agriculture as the main profession of the head of the household or any of its members should be specified according to the agricultural activity worked in such as "Livestock operator (large- or small-head), vegetable grower, fruit grower, flower grower, beekeeper, poultry operator, etc." The main profession of other people in the household engaged in agriculture is to be denoted as: working in animal husbandry, working in fruit culture, working in field agriculture, working in flower growing, or working in poultry husbandry.
- If the household head is a farm operator, then as long they have not declared a different profession, the professions of the other members of the household are to be designated according to the agricultural activity that the household head is engaged in.
- The professions should not be written in general terms, but instead, explicitly. They should be designated not as cobbler but as shoe-maker, shoe repairman, shoe seller, shoe shiner.
- Instead of using terms such as manual laborer, worker, master (artisan), journeyman, artist, engineer, broker, building contractor which are applied to designate many occupations, they should instead be designated as in the form of journeyman barber, farm laborer, road construction worker, mechanical engineer, technical illustrator, construction engineer, real estate broker, etc.
- The professions of combat officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military should be designated as officer or non-commissioned officer, without regard to their rank. Professions of reserve officers and rank and file soldiers should be designated as being whatever occupation/profession they had taken up prior to entering the military. Professions of non-combat class officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military are to be designated according to the professions they had taken up based on education or knowledge, observational and practical experience (such as doctor, health officer, chemist, mechanical engineer, electronics technician, etc.).
- The professions of civil servants working in the military are to be designated according to their acquired professions.