Republic of Turkey
State Institute of Statistics
General Population Census
III - Instructions pertaining to the 1985 census notebook and questionnaire
1. Instruction pertaining to the census notebook
Three types of 1990 General Population Census notebooks have been prepared. These consist of 11, 25, and 41 questionnaires, respectively. The number of household questionnaires that the notebooks contain is indicated on the census notebook cover.
On the cover of each notebook, there are questions pertaining to the census region, the sequential number, and the administrative division (village, quarter, and neighborhood). Without fail, these questions must be filled out by the enumerators before the census. Furthermore, after the census has been completed, the section indicating the number of people that have been administered the census as well as the "Enumerator and control officer declaration" section, onto which the enumerator and control officer are to sign their names and surnames, must be filled out. On the back cover of the census notebook, there is an "Age according to the years of birth table". When the need arises, it must be used by the enumerators.
2. Explanation regarding the 1985 general census questionnaire
As explained earlier, the enumerators are to fill out the questionnaire in printed letters, doing so legibly, completely and accurately, as instructed below.
The questionnaire consists of 4 sections:
Section II: Nature of the location
Section III: Questions pertaining to the household (1-10)
Section IV: Questions regarding individual characteristics (11-42)
For this section, write the address of the location where the census is being conducted (major thoroughfare, street, housing division name or number, the outer door or flat number) making use of the "Census region building" table (Reference C).
Section 2: Nature of the locationFor the nature of the location where the census is being conducted, answer by putting an "X" into whichever box in this section is applicable. Absolutely refrain from marking more than one box. Definitions of some of the terms encountered in this section are explained below:
- House: Structures, in which there are two flats (dwellings) at most, regardless of how many floors they consist of.
- Apartment building: Structures in which there are three or more flats (dwellings), regardless of how many floors they consist of.
- Squatter structure: A structure built without a license on a lot located on another person's or on public property (even if they have obtained a title grant document).
- Places such as a tent, a [tree] hollow, a shack, a cave: Places external to a house, apartment, squatter structure where people in certain regions live.
Section 3: Questions pertaining to the household (1-10)Fill out this section only for places exhibiting the characteristics of a household. Do not fill it out for military garrisons, military posts, hotels, hospitals, etc., and cross it out with an "X". In administering the census to people located in such places, it is to be done in such a way that 9 people are written up on every page of Section I, and by continuing on to the next page without leaving any gap in between, making use of as many questionnaires as needed.
A special enumerator will be assigned to places such as these for which the notation "Not to be visited" has been written on the "Census region building tables" (Reference C). The notation "Special census" is to be written onto the census notebooks filled out in places displayed below that are to be designated by the special enumerators as being subject to a special census. These places are the following:
- Military, gendarme and police barracks, jails and associated establishments, as well as living quarters in military bases (including foreign bases) located in military zones into which entry is not permitted to civilian public servants.
- All public and private (military and civilian) hospitals, sanatoria, maternity hospitals, health clinics, dispensaries, and similar establishments.
- All public and private (military and civilian) boarding schools and student dormitories (those people present in non-boarding schools on census day, are to be written up by the enumerators assigned to the census regions to which [these schools] belong).
- Prisons and penitentiaries (military and civil).
- Places where people are on duty on census day.
- Places not to be included in a census region:
- Roadside bus stops or terminals, and vehicles traveling on the roadways,
- Train and train stations,
- Means of sea and air transportation and ports,
- Places (factories and large workplaces where census day work was permitted) deemed by special census officers of the census committees as appropriate for having a census conducted.
- Embassies, charges d'affaires, attaches, consulates.
Numbers in the "Census region building table" (Reference C) for the places cited in the above paragraphs must be notated with the words "Not to be visited" beside them. If the entry "Not to be visited" is not observed next to such places in the "Census region building table" (Reference C), a request to have the necessary correction made is to be submitted to the census or control officer committee.
However, people such as a school principal, chief physician, caretaker, [or] night watchman living permanently in a school, hospital and other similar institutions, are to be considered as independent households and are each to be written up on separate pages.
At the same time, for people in places that do not constitute households, this section is not to be filled out and is to be crossed out with an "X". The census for people in these sorts of places is to be written up in Section IV as an aggregate population, with 9 people to be written on every page, and then going on to subsequent pages as necessary without leaving any gaps between them.
For places that constitute households, fill out Section IV with one line per household member and write "Household head" on the first line.
Question 1: Name and surname of the household head
Regardless of whether the household head is at home or not, write the household head's name and surname in "_______".
The definition and explanation of household are provided below:
Household: That collectivity composed of one or several people, whether bound by kinship or not, living in the same house or in a portion of the same house, sharing in the provision of service or in the management of the household, who do not separate their income and expenses among themselves.
- People not bound by kinship but who live together on a continuous basis for various reasons, and do not make any distinction among themselves in terms of their expenses and earnings, are considered to be households. At the same time:
- Even if they are bound by family ties, those living in separate houses are not to be considered as belonging to the same household.
- Those living in the same house and bound by familial ties, but whose food consumption derives from distinct earners, and who treat their respective income and expenses separately among themselves, are not to be considered as belonging to the same household.
- Those living in the same house, who are not bound by any family ties, whose food consumption derives from separate earners, and who distinguish among themselves in terms of their income and expenses, are not to be considered as belonging to the same household
- People, who although not members of the household being administered the census, are present in that place on census day, are also to be recorded in the same questionnaire as the one for this household. However, the fact that they are guests, must be indicated in the question on "Degree of kinship to the household head".
- Those living in the same house who lack any kinship ties among themselves, who consume food based on the earnings of distinct earners, and who distinguish among themselves in terms of their income and expenses, are not to be regarded as belonging to the same household.
Household head: The household head is that person among members of the household who is responsible when it comes to the household's income and expenses and who manages the household.
Question 4: Currently, how many guests are present in this dwelling?
Guest: People present at home at the moment of the census, who, whether a relative or not of the household head's, do not belong to the household.
If the household pays rent for the place it lives in, put an "X" into the 1 "Pays" box, if it does not pay, into the 2 "Does not pay" box. If the household pays rent for the place it lives in, write in numbers into the "___" space [provided] the actual rental amount that will be paid or has been paid during October 1985. If the rent is being paid in the form of goods or a service, write the monthly value of the goods or service; if the rent is paid on an annual basis, divide the amount by 12 months and write the monthly value. Do not reflect in the rent, general expenses such as those for fuel, the caretaker, and heating maintenance man fees. In case, these expenses are paid for together with the rent, write the net rent amount after asking about and subtracting these expenses. Accept as a case of rental payment, those places lived in interest-free, rent-free or based on the provision of a service, and write as the rental, the rent for equivalent houses in the same locale.
If there is a room or rooms in the section utilized by the household that is being used as a workplace, these must be subtracted from the number of rooms. If there is only a single room that is being used both as a residence and as a workplace, it is to be deemed a room and added to to the number of rooms.
Room: Places enclosed on four sides and on the top, with a minimal floor area of 4 square meters and a minimum height from floor to ceiling of 2.5 meters, or that is big enough to accommodate the bed of a grown-up person (age 15 or older), (like a bedroom, dining room, sitting room, living room). A hallway, entryway, balcony, bathroom, kitchen or toilet is not to be considered as constituting a room.
Question 9: What type of equipment does the household use for heating?
In the event that the "Other" box is checked for this question, write what the other is in the "___" space.
Whether or not the household head is at home, be absolutely sure to begin by first writing his/her name and surname on the first line of Section IV, together with all of his/her characteristics (from question 11 to question 42). Take care that the household head's name and surname entered in this section is identical to the one written in in the first line of Section III.
After writing down all of the characteristics of the household head, whether he/she is at home or not, also write down all the characteristics of the other household members at home, beginning from the oldest and proceeding in order of age, from oldest to youngest. After the household members, write onto the dotted line in printed letters, in order of their ages, the names surnames and all the characteristics of those, who, while being present at home, are not household members. Answer questions with a box, by placing an "X" into it.
Question 11: Your name and surname?
Ensure that the household head's name and surname, which are supposed to be written on the first line, are the same as the name and surname in Question 1. As explained above, enter the other household members in order of their ages. After writing the other characteristics of the person whose name and surname is being entered up to Question 42, write [the information] for the second and other persons one after another.
Write in the completed age of the person with whom the census is being conducted in numeric form. For babies who had not yet completed one year of age (12 months), write "0".
For a child who has completed the age of six and has entered its seventh year, even though the seventh year will have been completed after 15 days, write the age as six.
Among our people there is a general tendency to state their ages in round numbers that end in a "5" or a "0". 21 or 22 year-old people may state their age as "20". Additionally, 36 or 37 year-olds, may state their age as "35". If such round numbers are provided in response to the age question, ask some additional questions that may be useful in eliciting the true age, as long as this does not give rise to argument.
In the event that someone being administered the census states his/her birth date, write the age as of October 20 by looking at the table displaying age according to birth dates that is on the back cover of the notebook.
The person being administered the census may answer the question about birthplace by giving the name of the district or village he/she was born in. In such a case, ask about the province that this district or village belong to, and write the name of that province in the space provided for an answer.
For a person born in Elbistan, rather than "Elbistan" as the birthplace, write "Kahramanmaras".
For someone born in Frankfurt, write "West Germany" as the birth place.
Write down the kinship relationship to the household head of the members of the household for which the census is being conducted. In obtaining answers about the degree of kinship, pay attention to the following guidelines
- Among those belonging to the same household who are at home at the time of the census, clearly denote the kinship relationship to the household head of those related to him/her by kinship. For example: After writing "H.H.H." for the household head him/herself, for the others, write spouse, son, daughter, mother, father, daughter-in-law, grandchild, maternal uncle, and so on, according to the relationship.
- For people belonging to the same household, who have no kinship tie to the household head, write "None".
- For people not belonging to the household who are also being administered the census together with the household (whether a relative or not of the household head), write "Guest".
- For people such as a son, daughter, daughter-in-law visiting their father on census day, but who belong to a separate household write "Guest" regardless of the kinship relationship to the household head.
- For places where people are located at the time of the census that do not constitute a household (a military post, a jail, a hospital, a train, a boat, a bus, a terminal, a hostel, a school, a dormitory, etc.) enter "X" for this question.
For citizens of the Turkish Republic, an "X" is to be placed in the 01 "T.C. - Turkish citizen" box. For a non-Turkish citizen, write the country of that person's nationality into the "___" space. For people with more than one nationality, if one of them is the Turkish Republic, mark the T.C. box for that person's nationality. If besides Turkish nationality, more than one nationality is held, write the nationality that is preferred. For those who are not nationals of any country, write "None".
Language spoken (17-18)
Question 17: The language you speak at home and within the family?
- If there is a second language other than the language spoken at home and within the family that the person being administered the census knows well enough to be able to express him/herself to the desired degree, [write] that language's name
- If the person knows several languages, write only the name of the one known the best into the "___" space.
and the names of other denominations; for Muslims, Jews and members of other religions, just write the name of the religion.
If the person being administered the census is a Muslim, place an "X" into the 01 "Islam" box. For those declaring their religion to be Christian, write the name of the denomination, and for those from other religions, write the name of the religion that they belong to into the "___" space. For example, [write] denomination names such as "Catholic", "Protestant" for Christians, whereas [write] "Jewish" for Jews, "Buddhist" for Buddhists for other religions. For those declaring that they have no religion, write "No religion" into the "___" space.
The purpose is to determine the type of handicap that the person being administered the census has.
Handicapped: Those impaired in terms of discerning reality with the eye, or clearly comprehending it, and handicapped in terms of physical malfunctions, as well as from a mental or emotional standpoint. Clearly write out whatever type of handicap it is, such as being blind in one eye, blind in both eyes, lame in one foot, crippled, deaf in one ear, deaf in both ears, mentally or emotionally impaired. For those with more than one handicap, write the one that is most advanced. Some definitions having to do with handicaps are elucidated below.
 Deaf: A person referred to as deaf is someone, who despite all corrective measures taken has experienced a [hearing] loss of more than 90 db (decibels) in both ears; in other words, a person unable to make use of his/her hearing for living a normal life or in their work.
 Orthopedically handicapped: A person, who despite all corrective measures taken, cannot adequately use their skeleton, nervous system, muscles and joints in order to live a normal life and in their work is referred to as orthopedically handicapped.
 Handicapped in terms of mental characteristics: A person, who for various reasons has undergone a continuous slow-down, interruption, and retardation of their mental, psycho-motor, social, maturity, and development functions, resulting in a one-quarter or higher [level of] enduring loss of capacity and functioning, is referred to as mentally handicapped or mentally retarded.
Question 23: What is the name of the province where the place you live in on a continuous basis is linked to?
Here, write the permanent residence of the person being administered the census.
In determining the permanent residence, pay attention to the following points:
- Just as permanent residence and birthplace may be the same, they may also be different. Carefully establish the person's birthplace as well as the place being resided in.
- For those in Turkey, write the province name of the place that they live in continuously; for those whose permanent residence is abroad, write the name of the country where the place that they live in continuously is located.
- The permanent residences for reserve officers, rank and file soldiers, and students, are the places where their households are located. However, if they declare their permanent residences to be the places where they themselves are located, their permanent residence is the pace that they declare it to be.
- The permanent residence of public employees/white collar workers is the place that they have been assigned.
If the permanent residence of the person being administered the census is a provincial center, place an "X" in the 1 "Provincial center" box, if it is a district center into the 2 "District center" box, and if it is a sub-district or village, into the 3 "Sub-district, village" box.
Note that this question is not to be asked of those whose permanent residence is abroad.
For reserve officers, rank and file soldiers and students, the place where they live on a continuous basis is the provincial center, district center, sub-district or village where their household is located.
[Persons age 5 or older]
Question 25: What is the name of the province where you lived on a continuous basis at the time of the 1980 General Population Census?
For those whose permanent residence at the time of the 1980 General Population Census was Turkey, write the name of the province that the place they were continuously living in was linked to, and for those abroad, the name of the country where the place they were living in continuously was located.
If the permanent residence of the person being administered the Census, at the time of the 1980 General Population Census, was a provincial center, place an "X" into the 1 "Provincial center" box, if it was a district center into the 2 "District center" box, and if it was a sub-district or village, into the 3 "Sub-district, village" box.
Be careful not to ask this question of those whose permanent residence at the time of the 1980 General Population Census was abroad.
The permanent residences for reserve officers, rank and file soldiers and students at the time of the 1980 General Population Census, are the places where their households were located.
If the person being administered the census knows how to read and write, place an "X" into the 4 "Y" box and if the person does not know how to read and write, place it into the 5 "N" box.
In ascertaining the literacy status of the person being administered the census, pay attention to the points below:
- Those able to read and write using the Turkish alphabet are to be considered literate.
- Those able to read using the Turkish alphabet, but unable to write are not to be considered literate.
- Those able to read and write using the old Turkish alphabet are not to be considered literate.
- If foreign nationals are able to read and write in their own languages, they are to be considered literate.
(Primary, middle, secondary, commercial secondary school, medical faculty, teachers training college, etc.)
Write down the educational level and branch of the person being administered the census in a way that clearly specifies them. In determining the person's educational level and branch, pay attention to the following points:
- For those who had not graduated from any educational institution, write "None".
- Write "Elementary" for those who had completed a five-year elementary school. Attention! Do not consider those completing a three-year elementary school as an elementary school graduate.
- Consider those who had participated in literacy courses and who obtained an elementary school diploma as elementary school graduates, and write "Elementary".
- For middle school graduates, write "Middle".
- For secondary school graduates, write "Secondary school".
- For those who had completed a vocational school, write the educational level and name. As for example: "Commercial secondary school, vocational secondary school".
- For university faculty, and college graduates, write the name of the school that they graduated from. As for example: "Law faculty", "Construction faculty", "Chemistry faculty", "Teachers' college".
Those either married through a religious wedding (wedding ceremony conducted by an imam) or who declare themselves to be married, are to be regarded as "Married".
Live birth: Showing a sign of life by taking in at least one breath at the moment of birth.
Write in numeric form into the space for the answer, the number of live children (girl, boy) that the woman being administered the census gave birth to since last autumn (October 20, 1984) to the present, whether they be alive or dead.
If there was more than one live birth during the last year (including twins and triplets), write the number the same way. If the woman to whom the census is administrated had no live births during the last year, enter "0" for this question.
If more than one had died during the last year (including twins and triplets), write the number the same way. If the woman to whom the census is administrated had no child who had died before reaching one year of age during the last year, enter "0" for this question.
In determining the answer to this question, pay attention to the following points:
- Just as jobs compensated in the form of a salary or wage come under the heading of work for money or goods, so too does self-employed work, engaging in agriculture on one's own land, and working without pay on family enterprises.
- While a person may not have worked during the last week for reasons such as vacation, illness, travel, work disputes, as well as due to seasonal exigencies, people temporarily not working for these types of reasons, may be continuing to be involved with the job.
In the space for the reply, write in specific and clear terms the job done during the last week by the person being administered the census in return for money or goods with the purpose of acquiring income. A person may have more than one job, all of which possibly provided an income. Regardless of the amount of income that this person derived from his/her jobs, write as the job held the job to which the most time was devoted. Pay attention to the following points in specifying the job a person worked in [and to which he] did or did not sever the connection during the last week:
- Rather than stating the job someone does in general terms, it should be stated using terms that fully specify the job, trade or service being done. It is especially true for jobs that end in "-ist", "-er" that convey a general meaning and may denote more than one job. Do not use these terms alone, and enter them in such a way that indicates the special nature of the job. Examples are provided below of correct and incorrect ways of denoting the job being done.
Shoe repair person
Heating system installer
Heater (radiator) manufacturer
Heater repair person
Auto assembly worker
- Generally, when asking about the job done by people working for a salary or wage in a public or private establishment, the answer given is "Public employee/white collar worker". For answers provided in this form, ask for the type of job the person does as a public employee/white collar worker and write the answer in a precise manner.
Public employee/white collar worker
Typing, cashier, records clerk
Police official, watchman,
Driver, servant, etc.
- For members of the armed forces; for the job done by officers, whether combat or non-combat, write only "Officer"; for non-commissioned officers, write "Non-commissioned officer"; and for privates, write "Private".
- If in addition to taking care of or helping with work in their own houses, housewives did another job within the last week in return for money or goods in order to derive an income, then regardless of the period worked at that job, write the job she held. For any job that women did during the last week to earn an income such as tailoring, embroidery, basket weaving, ceramics, doing laundry, carpet weaving, working as a maid, farming, raising vegetables, write the job held as "Tailor", "Embroiderer", "Ceramics maker", "Carpet weaver", "Laundry washer", "Maid", "Child caretaker", "Farmer", "Livestock raiser", "Vegetable grower".
- Particularly in rural areas, if the answer provided for the work done during the last week is "Housewife", ask if this woman had worked in the fields, in a vineyard, in a vegetable garden, in animal husbandry, etc. If the person in question had worked at such jobs, then regardless of the time worked, write the job she did as "Farmer", "Viticulturist", "Vegetable grower", "Livestock farmer".
Question 36: Identify the place, establishment or workplace that you worked in or did not sever your connection to, within the last week.
Write the name of the place that the person being administered the census works or, if it has no name, write the type of place it is.
As for example: Turkey Coal Enterprises, Etibank Murgul Copper Enterprise, Justice Ministry, Ersel furniture, farm field, vineyard, forest, etc.
Furthermore, for those doing their job as an itinerant, write "Itinerant" and for those doing it at home, write "At home". For officers, non-commissioned officers and privates as well as for other white collar workers, laborers, and low-level / low-skilled employees working in the military, write "Military" as the place [where] they work.
Write the nature of work being done in the workplace of the person being administered the census, clearly and unambiguously. In this question, please do not repeat the name of the person's workplace or the job that the person performs in that workplace.
As for example: Field agriculture, viticulture, beekeeping, livestock fattening, vegetable growing, textile weaving, ginning and textile finishing, macaroni production, drug production, wholesale trade, retail trade, passenger road transport, intra-city cargo transport, road construction, building construction, health services, educational services, public service, barbering, tailoring.
For the activity being pursued by the place that officers, non-commissioned officers and privates and other white collar workers, laborers, and low-level/low skill employees working in the military, instead of "Military services", write "Military" as its [more] concise equivalent.
In getting this question answered, pay attention to the following definitions.
- Employee: Those working in someone else's business in return for money and goods, with the purpose of securing an income (public employee/white collar worker, laborer, low-level/low skilled employee, qualified worker [journeyman], manager, etc.) on a wage, salary or casual wage basis.
- Employer: A person employing one or more wage or casual workers in his/her own workplace. (Each and every one of the partners in a workplace who hire any employees or casual workers is an employer.)
- Self-employed: People working either alone or together with unpaid family members (without employing any paid employees) who seek to earn an income in the form of money or goods by working in their own business (in their field, vineyard, garden, store, office, manufacturing workshop, repair shop, etc.). Partners in a workplace [who do] not hire paid employees in their endeavors are not to be considered as working for someone else. These partners are also to be considered as being "Self-employed".
- Unpaid family worker: Those working with the purpose of helping out in the work engaged in by the household, without receiving any payment, are unpaid family workers.
If the reason that the person being administered the census did not work at a job during the last week in return for money or goods, or why he/she did not maintain a connection to the job, is being retired, place an "X" in the 3 "Retired" box; if it is being a student, [place it into] the 4 "Student" box; if it is being a housewife, into the 5 "Housewife" box; if it is being a rentier [income recipient], into the 6 "Rentier" box; if it is for another reason, into the 7 "Other" box; and if it is being unemployed, into the 8 "Unemployed" box. If more than one of the situations specified in the question apply to a person's circumstance (such as "Retired - student; student - housewife; retired - housewife; housewife - unemployed; student - unemployed), accept the circumstance that is the initially specified [as the first one] in the question.
If the person being administered the census answers yes, place an "X" in the 1 "Y" box, and if no, into the 2 "N" box.
If the person being administered the census answers less than 1 month, place an "X" into the 3 "Less than 1 month" box; if 1-6 months, into the 4 "1-6 months" box; if 6-12 months into the 5 "6-12 months" box; if more than 12 months, into the 6 "More than 12 months" box. No matter how the person being administered the census is looking for work (through an official institution or by their own means), consider the person as looking for work.
Main profession: A professional skill acquired that is the outcome of a period of study or specialization, based on knowledge, observational and practical experience.
For a person to have a profession, it is not absolutely necessary that the profession be practiced. However, the person must have the skill for practicing doing it, when required.
Regardless of whether the person did or did not work, or did or did not maintain a connection with a job during the last week, ask the main profession question of everyone age 12 or older.
If the person being administered the census lacks a profession, place an "X" into the 00 "None" box. For those with a profession, clearly write the profession into the "___" section. As for example: teacher, doctor, farmer, viticulturist, lathe operator, economist, nurse, mechanical engineer.
In designating the professions, pay attention to the following points:
- To be equipped to practice certain professions, it is necessary to have completed a specific course of study or specialization. As for example: medical doctor, pharmacist, architect, mathematics teacher, class teacher, attorney.
- In the case of some other professions, however, just as the acquisition of knowledge to engage in them may be accomplished through completing an educational institution and a branch of specialization, it may also be the outcome of knowledge, observational and practical experience. As for example an: auto repairman, carpenter, electric installer, lathe operator.
- Even if those with professions had worked in a job outside their professions during the week preceding census day, the one that should be referenced is not that profession, but instead the ones that were acquired as the outcome of education or specialization. As for example: the main profession of a medical doctor who engaged in trade is "Medical doctor"; the main profession of an attorney acting as mayor of a municipality is "Attorney".
- Households involved in agriculture are to be regarded as farm operators. Accordingly, agriculture as the main profession of the head of the household or any of its members should be specified according to the agricultural activity worked in, such as: livestock operator (large- or small-head), vegetable grower, fruit grower, flower grower, beekeeper, poultry operator, etc.
- The main profession of other people in the household engaged in agriculture is to be denoted as: working in animal husbandry, working in fruit culture, working in field agriculture, working in flower growing, or working in poultry husbandry.
- If the household head is a farm operator, then (as long as they did not declare another profession) the professions of other members of this household are to be designated according to the agricultural activity that they engage in, without reference to that of the household head's.
- The professions should not be written in general terms, but instead, explicitly. They should be designated not as cobbler but as shoe-maker, shoe repairman, shoe seller, shoe shiner.
- Instead of using terms such as manual laborer, worker, master (artisan), journeyman, artist, engineer, broker, building contractor, that are applied to designate many professions, they should instead be designated as in the form of journeyman barber, farm laborer, road construction worker, mechanical engineer, technical illustrator, construction engineer, real estate broker, etc.
- The professions of combat officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military should be designated as officer or non-commissioned officer, without regard to their rank. Professions of reserve officers and rank and file soldiers should be designated as being whatever occupation/profession they had taken up prior to entering the military. Professions of non-combat class officers and non-commissioned officers working in the military are to be designated according to the professions they had taken up based on education or knowledge, observational and practical experience (such as doctor, health officer, chemist, mechanical engineer, electronics technician, etc.). The professions of civil servants working in the military are to be designated according to their acquired professions.