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[Thailand]
Instruction for Field Operation
The 1990 Population and Housing Census

National Statistical Office
Office of the Prime Minister

[Preface and table of contents are not included]

Chapter 3: Definition
Section on Population

1. Population and Housing Census
The population and housing census is the process of compiling data related to population and housing for statistical benefit. The process is done through asking questions for information from all units in the given area in a specific time period.

2. The listing
The listing is the act of counting and recording all types of households, including all the buildings and construction structures within a block/village. The counted data are recorded in the listing form (PHC1).

3. The enumeration
The enumeration is the process in which the officer interviews the head of the household in order to get detailed information on the persons living in the household, housing characteristics, and living conditions of the persons in that particular household. Such information is recorded on the enumeration form (PHC2 and PHC2S)

4. Date of the Census
The date of the census is a specified date chosen as the time period for counting the population and households in which the population of the census area are living.
The 1990 Population and Housing Census has designated 1st April 1990 as the date of the census.

5. Time of the Census
The time of the census is a time given to indicate the focal point of all the facts that occur at the date of the census. This particular time is used to decide whether those facts are enumerated or not.
The time of the 1990 Population and Housing Census is at 0.00 am of 1st April 1990.

6. Enumerated period
This is a given time interval in which the enumerating personnel are working on counting and enumerating information.

7. Municipality Area
In the 1990 Population and Housing Census, the municipality area consisted of:

7.1 Municipal Area
A municipal area is a specific locality at which a royal decree is issued, according to the Municipality Act of 1953, to assign that particular area as a municipality. In that particular act, there is a designation of the area and boundary of that sub-district municipality.

7.2 Bangkok Metropolis
Bangkok Metropolis is the locality that has been assigned according to the Administrative Regulation Act of Bangkok Metropolis of 1985, and the act also specified the area and the boundary of Bangkok Metropolis.

7.3 Pattaya City
Pattaya City is the locality that has been assigned according to the Administrative Regulation Act of Pattaya City of 1978, and the act also specified the area and the boundary of Pattaya City.

8. Sanitation district
A Sanitation district is the locality at which the Ministry of Interior has announced to be a Sanitation district according to the Sanitation Act of 1952.

9. Non-municipal Area
A non-municipal area is all of the area outside the municipal area that is also known as a village. For some villages, some of the area or all of the area in the village can be considered as a sanitation district.

10. Census Area
A census area is a given area at which the enumerators are working for the listing and the enumeration. A census area can be separated in two groups.

10.1. Municipality area: one census area is composed of 200-300 households.

10.2. Non-municipal area: one census area is composed of 250-350 households. This area can be a part of the village (for large villages), one village or many villages (for small villages).

A large-size village is a village that consists of more than 350 households. For this type of village, there has to be more than one census area.

A medium-size village is a village that consists of 250-350 households. One village is considered as one census area.

A small-size village is a village that consists of less than 250 households. Many small villages together are considered as one census area under the requirement that one census area consists of no more than 5 small villages and there are 250-350 households in total.

11. Grouped building: Block
A grouped building refers to a sub-section of the census area which is located within the municipality. This sub-section is allocated to ease the counted record and the enumeration.

12. House
A house refers to a building or any constructed structure including boat, houseboat, or truck in which a person can live.

13. Living quarter
A living quarter is a place that a household uses as residence. It can be a part of a house or many houses in the same area. This also includes the area under the bridge where households regularly live.

14. Household
A household refers to one person or many persons who live in the same house or the same constructed structure. They consume, and utilize all facilities together for their benefit, regardless of whether they are related or not.
One construction structure or one house may compose of one or more than one households. Alternatively, one household may compose of members who live in more than one house or in several rooms of a single house, but they need to stay in the same area or in rooms close to each other.

14.1. Types of Households
There are two types of household: private households and collective households.

14.1.1 Private households
This refers to a household that consists of one person or several people who live in the same house or in the same construction structure. They seek for, consume and utilize all facilities together for their benefit, regardless of whether they are related or not. For the household in which the members are not related, there must be no more than 5 members in the household.

Example of the Private Household
1. Mr. A lives in a house.
2. Mr. B rents a room of one family to live independently.
3. A house in which a father, a mother, a son or daughter and a servant live together.
4. A house in which there is one eldest brother/sister and three younger brothers/sisters. The eldest brother/sister takes care of, supports, and provides education for his/her brothers/sisters.
5. Mr. Dang and four of his friends who are not related rent the house to live together and share all the living expenses.
6. One household composed of a husband, a wife, 2 sons/daughters and 4 employees, and all of them live in the same house. The wife cooks 3 meals each day for the employees, and the employees have their meals separately from the employer. In this case, it is considered as one private household.
7. Three houses are located in the same area (having or not having a fence). The mother and father live in the first house while the other two houses are built for the two daughters to live with their families (one family per house). Everyone who lives in those three houses has their meals together with the parents in the first house, and it is not necessary that all of them share or contribute to the food expenses. In this case, it is considered as one private household.

14.1.2 Collective Households
This refers to a household that consists of several people living together because of certain rules or regulations indicating that those people must live together or need to stay together for their own benefits.
There are two types of the collective households.

a) An institution is a household composed of several people living together under certain rules and regulations indicating that they must be living together. The examples are:

1) Monks, novices, nuns, followers and adherents who live together in a monastery or temple;
2) Patients who stay in a hospital for more than three months (except in the case of mental hospitals where the patients are considered as a member of the institution right after they are admitted);
3) Boarding pupils who live in a boarding school and teachers who live in the boarding school, medical school dormitory and nursing school dormitory;
4) People who receive assistance in a foster home or shelter and the care-takers at that institution who do not live at a separate place;
5) Prisoners in a prison or jail;
6) Soldiers or policemen who stay in a camp or barracks, including cadets and police cadets.

b) Other collective households are households in which people live together in the same place for their own benefits. Examples include:

1. People who rent a room either regularly or temporarily for more than 3 months in a hotel or a guesthouse.

2. People who rent a room in a hostel (dormitory-like) and do not live separately as a household. The hostel does not include a student dormitory in a school, college or university.
A hostel refers to both a registered or non-registered hostel that has a sign indicating that it is a hostel where people can rent a room.
For the cases in which a husband, a wife, and children (or no children), or either a husband or a wife with children, rent a room in a hotel, a guesthouse, or a hostel regularly or temporarily for more than 3 months, these households are considered as 'private households'.
Example 1: In a hotel, three rooms are rented regularly by three individuals (one in each room), and a husband and a wife rent a room temporary for more than 3 months. The rest of the renters stay in the hotel for less than 3 months. In this situation, the unit in which the husband and wife live is considered as one private household, and the other three rooms in which three persons live regularly together are considered as one collective household in the hotel category. For persons who stay in the hotel less than 3 months, they are not considered as members of the hotel.
Example 2: In a house with 7 rooms, 4 rooms are rented by 8 individuals (2 persons for each room), 2 rooms are rented by 2 individuals (one person for each room), and a husband, a wife, and child rent another room. These units do not have their meals together, and the owner of the house posts a sign that this house is a hostel. The unit in which a husband, a wide, and child live together is considered as a private household. The other six rooms are considered as one collective household in the hostel category.

3. 6 or more laborers (excluding the household of the owner) who stay permanently in their work place, factory, or any place the owner arranges for them to live and who do not live separately as households are considered as other collective households.
For the laborers who live in their work place or any other place that the owner arranges for them to live separately as an individual households (it may be a separate room or a separate house) apart from other laborers, and there may be relatives or other persons who are the labors living with them, these cases are classified as private households.
Example 1: In one house, there are six rooms. In each room, there are two or three waitresses living together. In this particular house, the owner of the restaurant rents the rooms in order to provide a boarding facility for the waitresses. All laborers have their meals that are provided by the owner of the restaurant. In this case, all of the waitresses together are counted as a collective household in the laborer category.
Example 2: In a shoe factory, there is a two-story row house. In the three-story row house, there are ten rooms on each floor, and there is either one or two of single laborers living in each room. Among these rooms, there is one room in which the laborer has his/her parents stay with him/her. Moreover, at that factory, there are three houses in which the foremen stay. Among these three houses, there is one house that the foreman had brought his wife and son to live with him. In this particular case, the room in which the laborer and his family live and the house in which the foreman and his family live are considered as two private households. The other 19 rooms in the row house and other 3 houses where other foremen live are counted as a collective household in the laborer type.
Example 3: There is one saw mill in which there are 10 single laborers. The owner provides each of the laborers a separate room to stay. In this case, all of 10 laborers are considered as a collective household in the laborer type.
Example 4: Mr. A is Mrs. B's husband, and both of them are the laborers in the saw mill. The owner arranges a separate room for them to stay together. In this case, Mr. A and Mrs. B are considered as members of collective households in the laborer type.
Example 5: Similar to example 4, Mr. A and Mrs. B had brought his brother who is not a laborer of the saw mill to live with them. This case is considered as a private household.

4. Other special (collective) households are households in which 6 persons or more who are not related (or at most three related persons) live together. Everyone in the household shares all expenses that they agree upon.
The word "relatives" in this context refers to husband and wife, son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, grandchild, father, mother, brother, sister, grandfather and grandmother from both sides, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, great-grandfather and great-grandmother from both sides, of oneself and of his/her spouse. Relatives also include cousins and the in-laws of themselves and of the above relatives.
Example 1: In a house where there are 6 people living together and all of them are not related at all but they share all the expenses as agreed, this case is counted as one other type of special household.

Example 2: Similar to Example 1, out of 6 people living together three of them are siblings and everyone in the house shares all the expenses as agreed. This is counted as one other type of special household (given that there are no more than 3 persons who are related).
Exception:
In the case of a household in which there are 6 persons or more, and among all of them no more than 3 persons are related, and someone among the related three persons bears all or a part of the expenses, this case is considered as a private household.
Example: There is the house in which 7 people live together. Among them, 3 persons are siblings, and the other 4 persons are friends. The eldest brother bears all of the expenses for his younger siblings. This household is considered as a private household.
A household in which 6 persons or more live together, and among them there are at least 4 persons who are related, is considered as a private household, regardless of the contribution to expenses in the household.
Example: A household in which 10 persons live together and four of them are sibling is considered as one private household, even if everyone shares the expenses that they agree upon.

Caution:
For the households of directors or managers, or the households of the officers or staff who work in prisons, confinement places, foster homes, hotels, hospitals, or dormitories either at school or university, if they live separately with their families, their households are private households. However, if they do not live separately as families, then the characteristics of the housing will be used to determine whether it is a private household or a collective household.

In the case of soldiers and policemen who stay at a barracks, camp, precinct or police station, if they live separately as families, count them as private households. If they do not stay separately by himself or with his family, it is considered an institution household.
For the private households that located in the temple area such as the houses built in the property of the temple, they are counted as private households, and not as institution households (temple or monastery category).

Examples to help determine different types of households in the same or within the given boundary

Example 1:
In a weaving factory, there are 2 three-story row buildings, one building for male laborers and other building for female laborers. All laborers share the rooms, and there are 10 persons for each room. Furthermore, there is a two-story row house for married laborers to live with the families (not all member of the families are laborers of the factory). Each family lives in a separate room in the row house, and there are 10 rooms in total. In addition, the factory owner and his family live in another separate house.

The followings determine the types of households.
For the two-story row house in which married laborers and their families live, these households are counted as 10 private households.

For the 2 three-story row buildings in which the male and female laborers live in the separate building, all of the laborers together are considered as one collective household in the 'more than 6 laborers' category.

For the house in which the factory owner and his family live, count it as one private household.

Example 2:
In one hospital, three buildings are used as the patient wards, and another six buildings are used as dormitories for medical students and nursing students. In each dormitory, two students share one room. There are two hostels for doctors and nurses who work at the hospital, and each of them stay in a separate room. There is also one row-house with five rooms for the cleaners (janitors). Among these five rooms, the first three rooms are occupied by the janitors who are married and their families; each family lives in a separate room (not all members of the families are the cleaners of the hospital). The two other rooms in the row house are occupied by the single janitors, and 5 persons share the first room and other 6 persons share the second rooms. All single janitors have their meals that are arranged by the hospital. In addition, there are three houses for married doctors and their families.

The followings determine the types of households.

1) Three buildings used as the patient wards are counted as one collective household -- institution (hospital category).

2) Six buildings used as dormitories for medical students and nursing students are counted as one collective household -- institution (boarding school category).

3) For two buildings used as hostels for doctors and nurses, count the rooms in which the doctors and nurse reside separately as private households (one household for each room).

4) Three rooms in the row house where the janitors and their families stay are counted as private households (one household for each room).

5) Two rooms in the row house where single janitors live are counted as one special collective household (laborers category).

6) Three houses in which the doctors and their families live are counted as private households (one household for each house).
Example 3:
A 'Pornor' school is an Islamic private school where there are both day-school students and boarding-school students. Those who live at a Pornor school may stay in separate houses or live together with their family including father, mother and son/daughter.

The followings determine the types of households.

a) All of those who stay (overnight) at a Pornor school in separate houses but do not live with their families are counted as one special collective household (other category).

b) All of those stay at a Pornor school as family in each house is counted as one private household for each family.
15. Agricultural households, fishery households, and households with their own industry

15.1 Agricultural households
These are private households or groups of individuals who satisfy the following conditions.

a) In the past year (April 1, 1989-March 31, 1990), they had a farming area (to cultivate and to keep livestock) of at least 1 Rai [1600 square meters]. This area must be within the boundary of the province (excluding fishing or aquaculture); or

b) In the past year (April 1, 1989-March 31, 1990), their earnings from selling agricultural products or animal products (e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, swine, poultry, silkworm, bee, lacker) from their own land were 6000 baht or more; or
c) On April 1, 1990, they owned 5 or more of cattle, or 5 or more of swine, or 100 or more poultry.
15.2 Fishery households
These are households or groups of individuals whose member(s) did fishing themselves for at least 30 days or who had commercial aquaculture in the last year (April 1, 1989 -- March 31, 1990).

Fishery means economic activities involving catching, trapping, blocking, killing or picking any live aquatic animals using any fishing tools or any other methods with the purpose of consumption, selling or processing. It does not include fishing or catching for game, competition sport or for recreation
Fisheries can be divided into two categories.

a) Sea fishery: this includes fishing in the ocean and brackish water.
b) Fresh water fishery: this includes fishing in fresh water area such as river, canal, reservoir, stream, pond and fish trapping pond, etc
Aquaculture means economic activities in nursing aquatic animals from the nursery stage until the animals reach the required size. This includes breeding ornamental fish in order to sell, but it excludes the shops that only sell the fish and do not nurse their own fish.
Aquaculture can be divided into two categories.

a) Coastal aquaculture: this includes raising aquatic animals in brine or brackish water.
b) Inland aquaculture: this includes raising aquatic animals in fresh water.

Aquatic animals include fish, turtles, hawk turtles, shrimp, prawn, crabs, frogs, crocodiles, eggs of these animals, clams, shells, sea leech, and other animals that live in the water.

15.3 Households with their own industry
Household industry means the production of products to sell, and the production has all of the following characteristics.

The production occurs within the residential area.
Members of the household contribute in the production process.
There are no more than 10 laborers (excluding household members), and they need to be paid on a daily basis or product basis.
It is not registered as a corporation.
The production process is traditional and involves using labor skills more than machines.

Household industry includes the following operations.

Sub-contract of production that is considered as household industry.
The production for which someone provides. These include weaving with looms, production from vegetable fibers, production from woods, handcrafts, production of furniture made from wood and bamboo, making wares from clay, making jewelry and accessories, making umbrellas, etc.

[Omits examples to consider household industry]

16. Head of the household
16.1 The head of private household
This means a person who the members of the household accept and respect. He/she has the most responsibility in managing, economically supporting and taking care of all household members' welfare. The head of the household is not necessary the owner of the house or the parent of the household members. He/she may be the person whom the members of the household respect and agree upon that that particular person should be considered as the head of household. He/she can be:

a) The husband or the wife of the household that consists of husband and wife.
b) A son/daughter or the son-in-law/daughter-in-law of the households where the parents are old or disable and appoint their son/daughter to take care of the household members' welfare.
c) An elder brother/sister of the household in which brothers/sisters live together.
d) A senior person for the household in which friends live together.
16.2 Head of the collective household (special household/institution)
This is a person among the individuals who live together. Unless there is a particular person who is already the head of these individuals living together, the following person might also be considered as the head of the collective household.

a) The abbot in the collective household that is a temple or monastery.
b) The head of the laborers in the collective household (laborer type) such as factory.
c) A prisoner in the prison or jail.
d) A patient in the foster home or hospital.
e) The Head of students in the boarding school or dormitory for students.
f) A soldier or policeman in the barrack or precinct.
g) A superintendent in the nursing students' dormitory.
h) A resident who lives in a hotel or hostel for over 3 months.
17. Relationship with household head
This represents the relationship between each member of the household and the household head.

17.1 A private household
This consists of the head of household and the members of the household. The members of the household must have one of the following relationships:

a) Wife or husband
b) Son/daughter, step-son/step-daughter
c) Son/daughter-in-law
d) Grandchild
e) Father, mother, father-in-law, mother-in-law, grandfather and grandmother of both sides
f) Other relatives such as brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, great-grandchild
g) Dweller (non-relative)
h) Maid, gardener, driver, employee, etc.
17.2 Collective household (special household, institution)
In general, the members of collective household are not related to the household head. In the enumeration form, record the status of the members such as monk, prisoner, soldier, nurse, students, elderly, etc.

18. Age
This means the full age, counted on the last birthday (before 1 April 1990).

19. Marital status
Marital status means the relationship between a man and a woman as husband and wife. This can be classified as follows.

a) Single refers to the status of those who are never married.
b) Married refers to the status of those who live with their partners as husband and wife, regardless of whether they have been legally married (having marital registration) or not. During the interview, they may not live together with their husband/wife but they still maintain such a husband and wife relationship. For example, the husband is away for work in the province or abroad, they still maintain their marital status.
c) Widowed refers to the status of those whose husband/wife died and has not been remarried.
d) Divorced refers to the status of husband and wife who are legally divorced.
e) Separated refers to the status of those who do not live with their husband/wife but who have not been legally divorced. Separated status includes those who are not legally married but live separately from their spouse.
f) Ever-married refers to the status of those who have been married but have unknown marital status at present.
g) Buddhist priest or monk refers to a priest or monk in the Buddhist religion only.
20. Disability
A disabled person is a person who has a malformed body that can be caused by the loss of some parts of body such as arms or legs, and/or whose organ or body is different from a normal person, such as those who are blind, deaf, etc. Disabled persons also include those who are mentally retarded. The types of disability can be grouped as follows.

a. Disabled in such a way that there is no loss of any part of the body, but some parts do not function properly. Examples are:
1. Blind: complete loss of sight
2. Deaf: complete loss of hearing
3. Mute/dumb: unable to speak
4. Paralysis: unable to move their body parts or to use them normally
b. Disabled in such a way that some parts of the body are missing. Examples are lost arms, lost legs, lost hands, etc.
c. Mentally disabled. This includes:
1. Psychologically disabled refers to those who have the following symptoms: craziness, hallucination, separated from society, etc.
2. Intellectually disabled refers to those who have significantly lower-than average intellectual ability such as Down syndrome
21. Literacy
This means the literacy ability of a person who is 5 years or older. A person is literate if he/she can read or write an easy and simple sentence in any language. If a person can only read but cannot write, he/she is considered illiterate.

22. Migration
Migration means the movement of a person from their last living place (such as one village or one municipal area) to the village or municipal area where he/she is presently living, and the move occurred less than 5 years before the census date.
The following cases are not considered as migration.

a) Change the municipal area or village due to the expansion of the municipality area or the division of one village into two or more villages, and that particular person still lives at the same place.
b) Persons who moved their housing within Bangkok Metropolis and Pattaya City.
23. Children born
A child born refers to a child who lives at birth even though the child has lived for a few moments after birth. An infant who did not breathe at birth is classified as death before delivery. Aborted or foster children are not counted as children ever born. The number of children ever born is counted from:

a. Children ever-born who live in the household. These are children who were born alive and still live in that particular household on the census date.
b. Children ever-born who live elsewhere. These are children who were born alive and still live, but on the census date live elsewhere outside that particular household.
c. Children ever-born who already died. These are children who were born alive but had died before the census date.
24. Contraception
Contraception means any action that is done to prevent pregnancy. Contraception methods include:

a. Oral pills: to be taken every month
b. IUD [Intra-Uterine Device]: a small object that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy
c. Injection: to be injected every three months to prevent pregnancy
d. Female sterilization: a permanent contraception method by operation for females
e. Male sterilization: a permanent contraception method by operation for males
f. Condom
g. Norplant: silicone rods implanted under the skin of female's upper arm. One set consists of six rods and it can prevent pregnancy for 5 years
h. Others
25. Work
Work means any activity that has the following characteristics.

An activity in which the person receives remuneration in the form of money or other things in return such as food, clothes, or other item, etc. The wage or salary can be paid monthly, weekly, daily, or per the job given.

An activity where the person expects to receive profits or dividends. Examples are merchandise, industrial factory, etc.

An activity for a business by member(s) of the household, in which the operator does not receive any wage or profit in return. In such case, the status of the member who owns the business is an employer or a private-enterprise owner.

Those who earn their living from bank interest, bond, company dividend, pension, rent, and do not have any main occupation are considered as 'not working'.

Those who earn their living from loan interest or renting any property in the form of a business are considered as 'working'.

26. Occupation
Occupation means the type or kind of work in which the person engages in such as statistician, journalist, secondary-school teacher, farmer, dentist, etc.

27. Main occupation
Main occupation is the occupation in which the person spends most of his time in a given period of time.

27.1 Main occupation 7 days prior to the census date (March 25-31, 1990) means the work in which a person spent most of his time during 25 March to 31 March 2000.

27.2 Main occupation last year (April 1, 1989-March 31, 1990) means the work in which a person spent most of his time during 1 April 1989 to 31 March 1990.

In the case of having more than one occupation, the guidelines to consider which occupation should be considered the main occupation are:

a) The occupation in which the person spends more time than other occupation.
b) The occupation in which the person receives more income if the person spends equal amount of time on two or more occupations.
c) Ask the interviewee to select the main occupation, in the case that the time spent and income received are equal.
28. Description of the enterprise or the type of the working place of the enterprise (Industry)
This means the type or the kind of the enterprise at which a person is working. Examples are the Interior commercial Department, National Statistical Office, Budget Department, Telephone Authority of Thailand, District Office, construction company, soft drink factory, weaving factory, retail shop, garage, hair dressing shop, restaurant etc.
Alternatively, it refers to the description of the work at which a person engages such as rice farming, fruit growing, house painting, house building, transportation, personal services, etc.

29. Work status
Work status means the status or position of a person who works in a working place or a business. There are four types of work status.

29.1 Employer
Employer is a person who has his/her own business for profits or dividends, and employs other person(s) to work for him as employee(s). Employer in this case does not include a person who hires other person to work for him in the household which is not a business. This includes hiring a person to cook, clean the household, do laundry, or be a driver, etc. in the household.

Example 1: Mr. Sombat owns a restaurant and hires Miss Samorn to be the chef in that restaurant. In this case, Mr. Sombat's status is an employer.
Example 2: Mr. Somchai is the owner of an ice factory. He hires other people to work as a clerk and other workers. In this case, Mr.Somchai's status is an employer.
Example 3: Mr. Suchat operates a coffee shop and hires Miss Somsri to work as a cook for his family. In this case, Mr. Suchat is not regarded as an employer, but his work status is an own-account worker.
29.2 Own account worker
An own account worker is the person who conducts a business by himself, or may have other persons to work in that business for any profit or dividends, but he does not hire any employees for pay. However, there may be member(s) in his family or trainee(s) who help him in his work without receiving any wage or any income in return.

Example 1: Miss Pitsamai operates a beauty salon and also works as a dressmaker at her house; she works by herself. Miss.Pisamai is regarded as an own account worker.
Example 2: Mr. Boonmee has an electric accessories shop, and Mr. Nirut is his business partner. Both of them agree to divide the profits. The work status of both Mr. Boonmee and Mr Nirut is own account worker.
Example 3: Mr. Koon works on handcrafts such as weaving baskets at his house, and he has his son, Mr. Pon, help him without paying any wage. In this case, Mr. Koon is an own account worker.
Example 4: Mr. Dang, his wife, and their three children work on their paddy field by plowing, sowing, and planting by themselves, and have some help from their neighbors in harvesting. Mr. Dang's work status is an own account worker.
29.3 Employee
Employees are those who work for wages or salaries per month, per day, or per job. Alternatively, they may receive service fees in return for the work or the services that they provide. The wage or service fee may be in the form of money or other things. Employees can be divided into 3 types.

a) Government employees
This refers to the civil servants, municipality officers, officers of the Provincial Administration Organization, personnel of the International Organization, and permanent or temporary employees of the government.

Example 1: Mr. Panya is a civil servant, working at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Panya is regarded as a government employee.
Example 2: Miss Pim is a permanent employee of the International Organization as a Public Relation Officer. Miss Pim is regarded as a government employee.
Example 3: Mr. Chan is a temporary employee of the National Statistical Office as statistical officer. Mr. Chan is regarded as a government employee.
b) Government-enterprise Employees
This refers to those who work for government enterprises.

Example 1: Miss Ratchanee works as a banker at Krung Thai Bank. Miss Ratchanee is regarded as a government-enterprise employee.
Example 2: Mr. Chamnan is a mechanic at the Train Authority of Thailand. Mr. Chamnan is regarded as a government-enterprise employee.
c) Private employee
Private employees are those who work for a person or private business, including those who are hired for household chores such as laundry, baby sitting, cook and house cleaning.

Example 1: Miss Dang is a maid in Mr. Somboon's house, and she does all house chores such as washing and ironing clothes, cooking and cleaning the house. Miss Dang is regarded as a private employee.
Example 2: Mr. Waraporn owns a beauty salon and hires Miss Jarunee to work as a hairdresser and also hires Miss Somporn as a dressmaker. Miss Jarunee and Miss. Somporn are regarded as private employees.
Example 3: Mr. Dumrong is a manager of Bangkok Bank Ltd. Mr Dumrong is regarded as a private employee.
29.4 Unpaid family worker
An unpaid family worker is a person who works without receiving any wage or salary in the farm or in any business of the household member.

Example 1: Mr. Nikorn lives in the same household as his father, and helps his father in the construction company that his father owns. Mr. Nikorn is an unpaid family worker.
Example 2: Mr. Somkiet lives in Mr. Somsak's house, and Mr. Somsak is his brother. Mr. Somkiet helps Mr.Somsak work on the farm without receiving any wage. Mr. Somkiet is an unpaid family worker.
From example 1 and 2, if Mr. Nikorn and Mr. Somkiet receive any wages, they are counted as private employees.
Example 3: Mr. Somchai rents a paddy field and has Mr. Chatchai, who is his nephew and stays with him in the same house, help in the field without receiving any wage. In this case, Mr. Chatchai is regarded as unpaid family worker.
Housing Section
1. Type of living quarter
This means the descriptive characteristics of the place in which a given household lives. Living quarters can be classified into the following types.

1.1 Single house (Detached house) is a house that is separately built and contains kitchen, garage, and maid's living quarters if there are any. It is the house in which all persons in the same household live together. Alternatively, a single house refers to several houses located in the same area within the same boundary, and is the place in which several people of the same household live together.

A Thai-style house that composes of separate houses joined together by a platform and is used as a living place for people in the same household is also considered a detached house. In the case that each house in the Thai style house is a place where each separate household lives, the Thai house is still considered as a single house as well.

For a floating house that is built in the water, if it has the same characteristics as a single house, then it is also considered a single house.

1.2 Town house is a building of two or more units attached to one another, and the common wall can be on one or more than one side. The building may have single story or multiple stories. The building itself is located away from the edge of the road, and there is an empty space that can be used for parking or other purposes.

1.3 Suite is a group of rooms that are a part of a building. It is used by a household to live. A suite must consist of kitchen, toilet, and its own entrance. Examples of suites are apartments, flats, condominiums, etc.

1.4 Row building or row house is a room or a house that is used by a household to live, and that particular building or house is built in a such a way that two or more than two units are attached in a row. There may be one or more than one common wall separating each unit, and the building may be single story or multiple stories. Row houses or row building also include the row floating houses for workers of the Royal Irrigation Department.

1.5 Room (inside a house) refers to one or more than one rooms that are used by a household to live inside one particular house. There are more than one households living in that house. Each household may have their own kitchen, toilet, entrance walkway in their room(s), or all of the above. Alternatively, the households living in separate rooms within the same house may share a common kitchen, toilet and the entrance walkway.

If there is a main household within a single house and this household occupies the main portion of a house and other households occupy a small fraction of the house, the living place of the main household is considered as a single house and the living place for other households is considered as rooms within the single house, regardless of whether which household is the owner or the renter.

1.6 Office room is a room or several rooms within a building or office or a storage in which a particular household lives. Examples are a living quarter of a security guard in the office, or a timber warehouse in which the laborers are living.

1.7 Boat, floating house, or automobile refer to mobile constructive structures in which a household can live.

1.8 Other private living quarters refer to other living place in which a household can live but cannot be classified into the above types of living quarters. Examples are a cave, a space underneath the bridge, and a temporary shelter the laborer constructs in order to live temporarily.

1. Living quarters used for business or commercial purpose
These refer to the living quarters that are used not only for living but also for business or commercial purposes. Examples are a hair salon, tailor-shop, bike shop, restaurant, garage, etc.
2. Descriptive characteristic of the living place
Refers to the characteristics of the living place, which is categorized by the materials used in the construction.
3. Building
This is any construction that is made of concrete, concrete block, flat concrete, brick whitewash with concrete, or brick without whitewash.

3.1 A combination of cement and wooden house
This refers to a building of which the lower level is constructed by using brick whitewash or concrete, while the upper level is made of wood. Alternatively, the building may be constructed with brick and wood in equal proportion, or it is a house of which the lower level is made of concrete while the wall of the upper level is made of concrete sheet.

3.2 House made of permanent construction materials
This is a house of which most of construction materials are permanent materials.
Permanent construction materials are hardwood such as teak wood, snake head wood, red wood, etc., and other materials such as concrete, block concrete, reinforced flat concrete, galvanized iron, and fire proofing brick.

The words "most of construction materials" should be also considered from 5 important components of the building including post, floor, superstructure, wall and roof. If more than half of these components are made of permanent materials, the building is considered as constructed using permanent material.

Example: A house in which the post, floor and superstructure are made of hard wood but the wall is made of bamboo and the roof is made of palm leaves, is considered as mostly made of permanent material.

3.3 House made of local, non-permanent materials
This is a house of which most or all of construction materials are not permanent.
Non-permanent material is defined as the material that can be found locally such as flax, banana leaf, bamboo, etc.
Example: A house in which the post and the superstructure are made of hardwood, while the wall and floor are made of bamboo and the roof is made of palm leaves, is considered as constructed using local non-permanent materials.

3.4 House made of used materials
This is a house that is made of materials that have already been used and are in poor condition. Examples of these materials are wood pieces, used galvanized iron, etc.

Note:
In the case of a living place of the household that composes of several single houses, the descriptive characteristic of the living place is considered based on the house in which the head of the household lives. Also, in the case of a single house in which many households live, the descriptive characteristic of the living place is considered the same for all households.

4. Tenure of living quarter (excluding land)
This refers to the possession of the house in which the people who live in that particular household are owner, hire purchaser, renter, or free renter because it is the part of wage or the owner allows him to stay free of charge.

4.1 Owner
This means that members of a household have the legal right to live in that place. In the case where the buyer of the house has not paid the whole amount of money to the seller but used the ownership of the house as a mortgage with a bank and paid the bank by installment, the buyer is considered as the owner of that particular place.

4.2 Hire-purchasing
This means purchasing of a living quarter by installment according to a written agreement. When the payment is completed, then the buyer is considered the owner of the living quarter.

4.3 Rent
This means the person in the household living in that place is not the owner or hire purchaser, but pays the owner a rental fee.

4.4 Staying without paying rent (rent free)

a) Staying without paying rent because the rental fee is part of the wage, particularly in the cases of government-officer housing, security-guard housing, factory housing, teacher housing, railway officer housing, soldier and policeman housing, or the private house in which the government or private companies rent it for the government officers or staffs to live, etc.
b) Staying free of charge means that a person is allowed to live in a house or room without paying any money.
5. Advance payment
This means the amount of money that the leaser pays for the right to use the building for a period of time such as 10, 15, or 20 years. This money does not include the rent that the renter has to pay monthly.

6. Ownership of land
This means the possession of the land in which the people who live there own, hire purchase, rent, or free rent the land property.

6.1 Land owner
This is the person in the household who has the legal right in land property.

a) In the case where the buyer of the house has not paid the whole amount of money to the seller but used the ownership of the land as a mortgage with a bank and paid the bank by installment, the buyer is considered as the owner of that land.
b) In the case where the person uses the land as mortgage at the bank or as collateral, but still has his name as the owner of the land in the legal document, this person is considered as the land owner.
c) In the case where a person built a house on a private land with or without permission from the land owner, if the person has been living on that land for more than 10 years without paying any land rent, this person is considered as the owner of the land. However, if he has lived there for less than 10 years, consider him as a person not paying land rent
d) In the case where a person shares the legal right in a land heritage that has not been divided, consider him as the owner of land.
6.2 Hire-purchasing the land
Hire-purchasing means purchasing the land by installment according to a written agreement. When the payment is completed, the buyer is considered the owner of the land.

6.3 Renting the land
This means constructing a house or any other construction structure on the land owned by the other, and paying the rent to the owner of the land.

6.4 Rent free
Rent free refers to the situation where the owner of the land allows a person to build a house or any other construction structure on his land free of charge. This includes living on the land of other, living in the reserved forest, or living in other public area etc.

7. Land Owner (in the case of renting the land or rent free)

7.1 The Treasure Department (Ministry of Finance)
The Treasure Department is the caretaker of all the land owned by the government. The land under the responsibility of the Treasure Department includes:

a. The land that is used for government buildings and housing for government officers, soldiers and police.
b. The land that is taken away from private sector or is donated to the government. This land is rented to private parties to build houses.
7.2 Religious organizations
This refers to Buddhist temples, mosques, churches, or Buddhist organizations that own land.

7.3 Other government organizations or government enterprises
This refers to other government organizations besides the Treasure Department that own land. Examples are the Department of Highways, Department of Local Administration, State Railway of Thailand, etc.

7.4 Private sector
This refers to other private parties that own land. The land that is the Crown Property is also considered as the land owned by private sector.

8. Room
A room means an area inside a house that is bounded by walls, partitions, shelves, or closets for at least three sides, and it is separated from the other room or other area in that house. The height of the partitions, shelves, or closets that are used as walls should be at least 1.6 meters approximately.

8.1 Bedroom means the room that is used particularly for sleeping. Although no one sleeps in the room during the enumeration period, that room is still considered as a bedroom.

8.2 Other room used for sleeping refers to any room that is not a bedroom such as parlor, living room, kitchen, dining room, or storage, but it is used by household members for sleeping.

In the case where there are more than one household within a single house, count the bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping from each household separately. In the case where one household lives in many single houses, count the bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping from all of the houses.

9. Appliances in possession
Appliances in possession refer to the appliances or tools that are for used within the household, and they can be in good condition or even in the process of repair. The household members may or may not own these appliances. All the appliances that are for sale or are being repaired in the shop are not considered as appliances in possession.

All appliances and tools used for work include rented vehicles, refrigerator in the drinking shop, or soda-fountain. If they are also for personal use, they are counted as appliances in possession. For the government vehicles of a high-rank officer, if such vehicle is used only by one person, it is counted as the appliance in procession.

Automobile refers to a private car, rented car, or pick-up truck. This excludes a truck, freight car, coach or bus.
Motor boat refers to a small boat that has a motor in the middle or at the end of the boat. It does not include large ships that are used as cargo carriers.
Water pump refers to a water pump that is used for agricultural or manufacturing purposes.

Plough machine refers to a tractor (either 4 wheels or 2 wheels) that is used for agricultural purposes such as plough, harrow, and cultivator. This includes the machines used to row and drill planters, sow with seeds, and harvest.
Locally assemble truck refers to the truck in which the primary power source is assembled by users, and this primary power source can be removed to assemble with other machines such as water pumps or plough machines.

10. Kitchen
This defines a place that is used for cooking. It can be a room used specifically as a kitchen. Alternatively, it can be an area of a room in the house, a part of the house, or a house separated from the house used for living.

11. Rules for counting individuals in the census
Individuals in the census are counted based on the place where they usually or regularly live. This place is categorized according to the type of households.

11.1. Usual living place of a person in a private household.
The place where the person lives regularly is considered as the usual living place. In the case that a person regularly lives in many different places, use the following criteria.

a) Consider the place at which a person spends the most time as a usual or a regular living place.
b) If the time at which a person stays at the different living places is the same, consider the place at which a person is staying on the census date as the usual or regular living place.
Example:
1). Mr. A has a house in Bangkok and a house in Nakorn Pathom, but Mr. A stays at the house in Bangkok more than at the house in Nakorn Pathom. In this case, the house in Bangkok is considered as Mr.A's usual or regular living place. However, if Mr. A spends the same amount of time at the house in Bangkok and at the house in Nakorn Pathom, and he stays at the house in Nakorn Pathom on the census date, the house at Nakorn Pathom is considered as his usual or regular living place.
2). Miss B is a school teacher, and she lives in a teacher house in the school during weekdays and returns to her own house only during the weekend. In this case, Miss B's usual or regular living place is the teacher house in the school.

11.2. Usual living place of a person in a collective household.
A temple, barrack, prison, mental hospital, shelter are considered as the usual or regular living places of monks and nuns, on duty soldiers, prisoners, patients in the mental hospital, and those who receive assistance, respectively.

11.3. Living in a usual place
A person who lives in a usual or regular place can be classified as follows.

1. Permanent stay. People who permanently stay in a usual place include:

a) People who permanently stay at the house on the census date.
b) An infant who was born before the census date, or was born at the time of census and has not been brought back home.
c) People who stay temporarily at the house on the census date and do not have any permanent house elsewhere.
d) People who move into the house after the date of census and intend to stay permanently at that house. They have never been enumerated at any other place before.
e) Servant, laborer, construction worker who have left their usual places for more than 3 months but have stayed at the present place for less than 3 months.

2. Temporarily leaving
People who leave temporarily include:

a) Those staying permanently at that house but are absent on the census date. They have lived somewhere else temporarily for less than 3 months before the census.
b) Those absent for drilling, maneuvering, sailing ship, went to the forest, hunting, sea fishing, sale persons, etc. They have not been enumerated at other places before although they have been absent for more than 3 months.

3. Temporarily living abroad
Persons temporarily living abroad are persons who went abroad for certain purposes such as for education, training, monitoring or working abroad for a certain period of time, and do not intend to stay abroad permanently. Examples include persons working in the Middle East countries without any intention of staying permanently abroad even though they are away for over 3 months.

Chapter 5: Recording the Enumeration Form
There are two types of enumeration form:

1. PHC 2S (Basic enumeration form): used to record basic population questions on individual basis.
2. PHC 2 (Detailed enumeration form): used to record detailed population questions on individual basis and questions on housing on household basis.

The operation of the enumeration:

1. Bangkok
Private households: use PHC-2S form to ask population questions, but if the household is the sample household, use PHC-2 form to ask both population and housing questions.
Collective households: use PHC-2 form to ask population questions but not housing questions.
2. Municipality area
Private households: use PHC-2 form to ask both population and housing questions.
Collective households: use PHC-2 form to ask population questions but not housing questions.
3. Non-municipality area
There are two steps in enumeration process.
Step1
a. Private households: use PHC-2s form to ask population questions.
b. Collective households: use PHC-2 form to ask population questions but not housing questions.
Step2
The enumerator selects samples from private households. For the household that is selected as a sample household, attach PHC-2S form to PHC-2 form, and continue asking in PHC-2 form and questions on housing section.
Part 1: Location of Household
a) House number, road, lane, waterway, housing vicinity (name of the place, if any) Record the location of the household including house number, name of the road, lane, waterway, housing vicinity. If that place has a name, record the name as well. For example, 301 Sirimitr Shop, Bamrunmuang Road, Soi [lane] Ratchasi, or 44 Bangluang canal, etc.

b) Municipality and Sanitation districtIf the house is in a municipal area, record Code 1 in column 8 and the name of the municipality.
If the house is outside a municipal area but inside a sanitation district, record Code 2 in column 8 and the name of the sanitation district.
If this house is outside a municipal area and outside a sanitation district, record Code 4 in column 8.

c) Enumeration districtRecord the number of the enumeration district by using a 3-digit number in columns 10-12.

d) Block no./village no., name of village
Record the block number or village number by using a 2-digit number in columns 13-14. If it is a village, record the name of the village as well.

e) Series number of living quarter
Record the series number of living quarter by using a 4-digit number in columns 15-18; this number should be the same as those recorded in PHC1 form.
If there is more than one series number of household in PHC1 form, record the first series number of the household in columns 15-18, using a 4-digit number.

f) Type of living quarterConsider the type of living quarter from the characteristics of the living place (see the explanations on types of living quarter from the housing section (No.1) in the chapter on definition). Record the code for the type of living quarter in columns 19-20.

Private household: record codes 01-11 in columns 19-20 by using only one code.
Collective household: record codes 12-19 in columns 19-20 by using only one code.

g) Characteristics of living quarter [only for households that record code 01-08 in f]
Record the code for the characteristics of living quarter in column 21 (See explanation from the housing section (3) in the chapter on definition).
Note: If there are several living quarters for one household, consider the type and characteristics of living quarter (for f and g) from the place where the head of household lives.

h) Type of household If the household is a private household, record Code 1 in column 22.
If the household is a collective household, record Code 2 in column 22.

i) Series number of household
Record the series number of the household by using a 4-digit number in columns 23-26. This number should correspond to column 10 in PHC1 form.
Collective household: record the serial number of the household using a 4-digit number in columns 23-26 that matches column 12 of PHC1 form.

j) Number of household members (Record after finishing the enumeration)Record the total number of household members, the total number of males, and the total number of females. Record the total numbers of household members in columns 27-30 using a 4-digit number. For example, there are 15 members in a household, and there are 8 males and 7 females, record as follow:

Total-15 - persons [0015 in columns 27-30]
Male- 8- persons
Female- 7 - persons

The number in j) should be recorded after the enumeration of PHC2 form is done. This number is counted from the number of household members that is recorded in part 2 of PHC2 form. Then, check to make sure that they are the same as columns 18, 19, and 20 of PHC1 form. If the numbers are not the same, they should be corrected as follows:

1. Correct the numbers in columns 18, 19, and 20 in PHC1 form so that the numbers in those columns are the same as the numbers in j).
2. When the number of household members in column 18 of PHC1 form is already corrected, the numbers in columns 14, 15, 16, and 17 of PHC1 form should also be corrected such that the number of household members in column 18 must be equal to the numbers of columns 14, 15, 16, and 17 added together.

k) Language used in conversation among household members Spoken language means the language in which the persons in the household use for regular conversations. This language may or may not be different from the language that the household members speak to other persons. If the basic language is the same, count only the basic language as the spoken language. For example, the Northern dialect (excluding the hill tribe language), southern dialect (excluding the Malay and Yavee languages), Northeastern dialect (excluding Suai dialect and Khemer language) are counted as Thai language. The Hakka, Mandarin, Cantonese are counted as Chinese language.

The question that should be asked is: "What is the language in which people in this household regularly speak?":
[] 1 If they speak the Thai language only [in column 31]
[] 2 If they speak the Thai language and another language [in column 31]
[] 3 If they speak another language without speaking Thai [in column 31]
If record Code 1, skip to Part 2, questions on demography.
If record Code 2 or Code 3, specify that other language.

[Omit an example on page 78.]

Part 2: Question on Population (Columns 1-11)
For columns 1-6, ask and record details of everyone.

Column S1: Number in order Record the number of every member of the household by using a 4-digit number in the space that already has numbers 1-0 printed. For the person number 10, add 1 in front of 0. If any household has more than 10 family members, add the front number on the additional page(s) in PHC-2C, e.g. 11, 12, ..., 20, 21, 22, ..., 30, etc. (Circle the number of the interviewee. If there is more than one interview, circle only one number).

Columns S2 and S3 are asked and recorded simultaneously from all household members. Then, from column 4 onwards ask each household member individually.

Column S2: First name and family name

Record the first names and family names, including all prefix or rank (if any) such as Mr., Mrs., Miss, Pol. Capt. Arrange all the members of household as follows:

Head of household
Wife or husband
Unmarried children: record unmarried children of the head of household first, in the order of age from old to young. Then, record step-children and adopted children, in order of age from old to young
Married children and their spouses, including the grandchildren from each family

If there are many families in the same household, record the children of the household head first, follow by step-children and adopted children, in order of age from old to young.

Father, mother, father/mother-in-law
Other relatives
Non-relatives and servants

For the infant who still does not have a given name, record the nick name or record "male infant without name" or "female infant without name".

Column S3: Relationship with the head of household Record "head" on the first line for the head of the household. For other members of the household, ask: "...... (name) ........ what is your relationship with the head of the household?"
Record codes for the relationship with the head of household as follows:

[] Wife or husband
[] Unmarried children: record "children" in the order of age from old to young. Step-children: record "step-children". Adopted children: record "adopted children".
[] Married children (including step-children and adopted children): record "children", "step-children", or "adopted children" in the order of age from old to young.
[] Spouses of children: record "Son-in-law" or "daughter-in-law"
[] Grandchildren
[] Spouses of grandchildren
[] Father, mother, father/mother-in-law
[] Siblings, uncle, aunt, etc. for other relatives
[] Non-relatives and servants

Collective households: Record "head" for the head of household on the first line. For other household members of the household, record the relationship with the head of household according to the characteristics or the status of the member at that time. Examples are Buddhist monk, novice, monk's follower, prisoner, assistance receiver, patient, student, soldier, policeman, visitor, etc.

Column S4: Sex[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

Column S5: Month and year of birthAsk: "...... (name) ...... , in what month and year were you born?"
Record the month of birth and year of birth in the columns of month and year, respectively.

1. If the answer is in the lunar month and the zodiac year such as the 12th month of the rabbit year, record "12" in the month column and "rabbit" in the year column.
2. If the answer is in the solar year such as September of the year 2496 B.E. [1953 A.D.], record "September" in the month column and "2496" in the year column.
3. If the person does not know the month of birth, record "X" in the month column, and if she/he does not know the year of birth, record "X" in the year column.

Note: if the person cannot remember the month or year of birth, ask for the copy of the house registration to look for this information.

Column S6: AgeAsk: "........ (name).......... how old are you?"
Record the full age as of the last birthday before the 1st April 1990, by using a 2-digit number.

1. If the age is less than 1 year, record "00".
2. If the age is 98 years and over, record "98".
3. If the answer is in the lunar month and zodiac year, ask for the approximate age. Then, look up the age from the comparison table provided by comparing the age and the year of birth. For example, the person born on the 12th month in the year of great snake and the age is approximately 30 years or older. In the comparison table, the age of a person age 30+ born in the year of the great snake is 37. Then, record "37".
4. If answer is the solar month and year, check the comparable table and record the corresponding age.
5. If the person does not know the month and year of birth, ask the respondent to estimate his age and record the age according to the answer, such as approximately 22 year record "22".
6. If age is unknown, record "99" and continue asking all columns.

Column S7: The highest level of education Ask persons age 5 years or older (or persons born before 1 April 1985).
The highest level of education means the level or grade at which a person passes the last final exam. The question is: "........ (name).............., considering up to 1 January 1990, what is the highest level of education you completed?"

Instructions on recording the highest level of education in which a person attains
1. For a person who studies in general education program or a person who studies in pre-primary level, primary levels, and secondary levels, record the last level at which the person passed the exams such as kindergarten grade 1, primary school grade 1, primary school grade 4, primary school grade 5, secondary school grade 4, secondary school grade 7, etc.
For those who answer secondary school grades 1-6, if they completed those levels before 1971, specify the word "old system" at the end. For example, secondary level grade 6 (old system).

2. For those who studied/graduated from vocational colleges, teacher training colleges, or universities, and completed is the highest level required for that particular degree, which means that they graduated and received the certificates or degree diplomas, record the name or abbreviation of the certificates or degrees in which they obtained. Examples are Bachelor in political science, advanced drama arts, advanced education certificate, vocational education certificate, advanced vocational education certificate, technological education certificate, B.Sc, B.Ed, etc.

3. For those who attend vocational colleges, teacher training colleges, or universities, but did not complete the highest level required for that particular degree, record the class or year they completed and the current levels in which they are studying.

Instructions on recording the class or year of education attainment
3.1 If a person is studying in a system in which he/she must pass the final exam of a particular level in order to be able to study at a higher level, record the level or year at which the person last passed the final exam. For example, year 1 of advance vocational education, year 2 of Bachelor's degree, Chulalongkorn University, etc.

Example 1: Mr. Kitti started his undergraduate studies at Chulalongkorn University in 1957 but was expelled from the university in 1959 because he did not pass a course in year 2. His highest education level of Mr. Kitti is year 1 of Bachelor's degree, Chulalongkorn University.
Example 2: Mr. Narong studied at Patumwan Mechanical College on the academic year of 1959. He passed all subjects of year 2 and was about to study in year 3. However, there was some unavoidable event that made him unable to continue his study. In this case, the highest education level of Mr. Narong is year 2 of higher vocational education.
3.2 If the educational system is a credit system, count the number of years in which the person attended or passed the coursework.

Example 1: Mr. Sukit entered at Chetupon Commercial College in the academic year of 1997. He was studying in year 3 of the Vocational Education Program on 1 January 1990. Record the highest education level of Mr. Sukit as year 2 of Vocational Education Program.
Example 2: Miss Somboon studied Sakon Nakon Commercial School in the academic year of 1998, and she was studying in year 1 of Vocational Education Program on 1 January 1990. The highest education level in which Miss Somboon attained is secondary school grade 3.
3.3 If the educational program has two programs (the regular program and the special program; or the normal hour and part time) and the part-time or the special program requires longer period of study, record the highest educational level according to the regulation mentioned above, and specify whether the program is the special or extra-hour program and record the number of the years of the curriculums as well.

Example: Miss Pornthip is studying in a part-time program of the Higher Vocational Education at a college in which the curriculum requires two years for completion if it is a regular program (normal hour), but it requires 3 years for completion if it is the part-time program. If Miss Pornthip is studying in year 3, record the educational level of Miss Pornthip as year 2 of Higher Vocational Education (Part-time program, 3-years curriculum).
3.4 For studies in the Bachelor's degree level, there are several curriculums for students with different previous education levels. For example, a 4-year curriculum is for students who finished high schools (secondary school 6), and a 2-year curriculum for those who had diploma or finished a higher vocational education program, etc.

To record the class or year of education attained, in the case of a 4-year curriculum, record according to the instruction mentioned above, but in the case of a 2-year curriculum, record according the above instruction and also specify the number of years required for that particular curriculum, for example, year 1 of Bachelor's Degree (2-year curriculum) or equivalently year 3 of Bachelor's Degree (4-year curriculum).

Use caution recording the class or year of education attained if it is not the highest class or year required to complete a particular educational level.

The class or year recorded must be lower than the number of years required for completion of that educational level. For example, in the Vocational Education Program, which is a 3-year curriculum, the highest class or year at which a person can attain is year 2 of Vocational Education Program. If a person completed year 3 of Vocational Education Program, it must be recorded as certificate of Vocational Education (Cert. Voc. Ed). In the case of a Bachelor's Degree which is a 4-year curriculum, the highest class or year at which a person can attain is year 3 of Bachelor's Degree, even though that person may have spent more than 3 years of study. If record year 4 of Bachelor's Degree, it means that the person has already graduated or already obtained that degree. In the latter case, record the name or the abbreviation of the degree.

4. For those who obtained their education from abroad, if the education system is basic compare the level of education with the Thai system of primary education (Pathom Suksa) or secondary education (Mathayom Suksa). If the system is not comparable, then specify the number of years of the studies in the basic education system. For those who graduated in a vocational education, teacher training and university levels, record the name of the certificate, diploma, or degree received, and write the equivalence of the Thai educational level in parenthesis.

5. For those who receive more than one certificate, diploma or degree at the same level but different fields, record only one degree. However, if a person receives many degrees of different levels, record only the degree of the highest level.

6. For those who study religion, record the religious degree and also record the highest educations level attained that is not a religions degree in parenthesis. For example:

Third grade religion (Primary school, grade 4)
Second grade religion (Bachelor's Degree)
Buddhism Theology 4 (Vocational Education)
Buddhism Theology 9 (Secondary school, grade 3)
7. For those who finished the continuing educational program (for adults), record the education level at which they passed the exam such as level 3, or record the equivalent level in the basic education system. For example, level 4 is equivalent to secondary school grade 3, then record secondary school 3, etc.

8. For those who finished short vocational education programs that have less than one year of curriculum but received diplomas or certificates, record the field of that vocational program and also record the highest level attained in the basic education system. Example:

Dressmaker curriculum, Polytechnic College (Secondary school, grade 3)
Mechanic curriculum, Polytechnic College (Primary school, grade 4)
Beauty curriculum, Anna School (Primary school, grade 4)
9. For those who have never been educated or never completed any years/levels, including informal education such as studying from the monk or studying foreign languages in language institutes, record "Never".

10. If the person does not know, record "X".

Column S8-S11: ask persons age 13 years or older (or who were born before 1 April 1977)
Column S8: Marital Status (on 1 April 1990) Ask: "Is ............ (name) .......... single, married, widowed, divorced, or separated?" Record the corresponding code in the box.

[] 1 Single
[] 2 Married
[] 3 Widowed
[] 4 Divorced
[] 5 Separate
[] 6 Ever married, but does not know marital status
[] 7 Buddhism monk
[] 9 Unknown

If the person is a Buddhist nun, ask: "Were you ever married?" If she never married, record Code 1, but if she has been married, record Code 6.
If a couple does not live together but still are husband and wife, record code 2.

Column S9: Main occupation last year (1 April 1989 - 31 March 1990)Ask: "During last year, what kind of work did ___(name)___ spend most of his/her time on?

Record the description of occupation, job description and position clearly. Examples are farmer, painter, engraver, furniture craftsman, laborer in rice mill, house maid, etc. (Do not record occupations such as government officer or merchant because they are not specific.)
Craftsman: Record what he/she made specifically such as making furniture, building houses, etc.
Teacher: Record the subject that he/she taught such as geography, math, arts, etc. If he/she taught more than one subject, record the subject on which he/she spent most of his/her time. If he/she is responsible for a particular, record the specific class he/she is responsible for such as grade1 in secondary school, grade 2 in primary school, etc.
Engineer or technician: Record the specific category of engineer or technician that he/she was such as civil engineer, electrical engineer, chemical engineer, mechanic technician, etc.
Clerk: Record the duty and description of the job such as typing, delivering documents, measuring, delivering products, etc.
Nurse: Record the type of nurse such as health care nurse, registered nurse, clinical nurse, home nurse, etc.
Driver: Record the type of automobile a person drove such as truck driver, pick-up driver, bus driver, rented-car driver, tricycle driver, etc.
Farmer: Record the type of crops grown in the plantation/farm such as coconut, fruits, palm trees, rubber, vegetables, flowers, cassava, corn, sugar cane, tobacco, etc.
Employee: Record the type of work that a person was employed to do such as carrying things, dish washing, laundry, digging soil, etc.
If there is more than one occupation, record only one main occupation last year by considering the following criteria:

1. The occupation at which the person spent most of his time during the last year period.
2. The occupation from which a person earned more income, if a person spent equal amount of time on many occupations.

If a person does not know the occupation or position but knows that he/she was working last year, record "working but not knowing occupation".

If a person did not work at all did not have any occupation last year, such as pensioner, lender, etc., record "not working" and omit Columns S10 and S11.

Column S10: Type of work or enterprise category of the work place (industry) [Ask only persons who recorded occupations in column S9.]

Ask: "............... (name) ................" what enterprise or business are you working on, or what are you producing?
Guidelines for recording the type of work or enterprise category of the work place:

1. Specify the type of enterprise of the work place or the business place at which the person was working. Record specific type of business such as medical clinic for ear, nose, and throat; general X-ray company; radio and television repair shop, etc.

2. If it is the company or the department store that involves merchandise, record specifically whether the business is retail or wholesale, or both. Examples are retail radio company, wholesale and retail Thai merchandise shop, wholesale and retail dishware shop, coffee and beverage shop, retail pharmacy, retail gold and jewelry shop, etc.

3. If the work place belongs to the government or government enterprise, record the type of work or the name of the office at which the person was working. Examples are Interior Trading Department, Telephone Authority of Thailand, Hospital, Primary school, Thai merchandise retail shop of the Industrial Support Department etc. For the government's offices in the provinces, record the name, division or office such as District Educational Division District Revenue Office, etc.

4. If one work place involves more than one business or activity:
4.1 If each business has a separate office, record the type of business at which a person was working. For example, in a beer factory the wholesale office is located separately from the factory. If a person worked in the wholesale office, record "wholesale office of a beer factory."
4.2 If the activities are in the same office, but they are separated into divisions or sections, record the type of business is the most important in that work place and the division at which the respondent is working. For example, if a person is working in the fabric-dyeing division of a fabric-weaving factory, record a fabric-weaving factory, fabric-dyeing division. If a person is working in the mechanic shop of an automobile retail company, record automobile retail company, mechanic shop division, etc.

Example: Mr. A works in the fabric-printing division of a fabric-weaving factory and Mr. B is working in the fabric-dyeing division of the same factory. Record the type of business of Mr. A's work place as "fabric-weaving factory, fabric-printing division", and "fabric-weaving factory, fabric-dyeing division".
4.3 If all activities are in the same office and have not been divided into separated divisions, and the persons who work at the office engage in more than one activity, record the most important activity of that business. For example, in a shoe-producing shop that produces, sells, and repairs shoes, a person who sells shoes is the same person who makes and repairs shoes as well. In this case, record the type of business of a working place as "shoe-producing shop" because producing of shoes is more important than selling or repairing shoes.
4.4 In the case where a store has both retail and wholesale merchandise, ask whether the type of the largest amount merchandise is wholesale or retail and record that type. For example, a store sells can-products from abroad and has more wholesale than retail. Record the type of work place as "can-products wholesale shop". If the amount of wholesale and retail are the same, record the type of work place as "can-products wholesale and retail shop".

5. If the respondent operates the business at his/her own house, such as dressmaker shop, lawyer office, radio repair shop, laundry shop, consider the house where a person live as the business office. Record the job description or the type of business according to the type of activity. For example, Mr. B opened a radio repair shop at his own house, record "radio repair". Or Miss A opened a laundry shop at her own house, record "laundry service", etc.

6. If a person does not have any specific office or a permanent office/work place for his business, record the type of business in which a person is engaged. For example, Mr. A is a house painter, record "house painting". Mr. B is a rice farmer, record "rice farming".

7. For a taxi, motor-tricycle or bus driver, regardless of the vehicle ownership, the criteria for recording must be:

a) If it is a taxi or motor-tricycle, record "passenger transport"
b) If it is a bus, record "bus service".
8. For a person who drives a shipping truck, regardless of the vehicle ownership, record "Shipping merchandise". In the case that a person drives a shipping truck of a can goods wholesale shop, record "can goods wholesale shop".

9. The employee who works in a private house, such as housemaid, record the job description or the type of business at the working place as "private service". For example, Miss E does laundry at Mrs. A's house, record "employee in private household".

10. For laborers, record the job description or the type of business at the work place in which a person worked last year.

The job description or the type of business of the work place at which a person worked last year must correspond to the main occupation at which a person had engaged in previous year.

Prohibition in recording the job description or the type of business at the working place
Do not record the name of company, the name of department store, or the name of the shop without recording the type of business of the work place. Examples are Disco, Taew Aiew Hong shop, Chareonphan Shop, etc.

Column S11: Work Status [Ask only persons who answer occupations in column 9 and type of work or enterprise category of the work place in column 10.]
Ask: "......... (name)..........What is your work status?"

[] 1 Employer
[] 2 Own account worker
[] 3 Government officer
[] 4 Government employee
[] 5 Government enterprise employee
[] 6 Private employee
[] 7 Unpaid family worker
[] 9 Do not know

The code of the work status must correspond to the main occupation at which a person worked done during last year.

For those who work as laborer, in carrying things such as rice sacks, or carrying goods (with or without trolley) or other kind of works that require labor, and do not have permanent employers, consider the work status of these people as "private employee" and record code 6.
[Example on pages 89-90 is omitted.]

Columns 12-18: [Ask everyone]

Column 12: The serial number of mother (For private households only)Ask: "Does the mother of ........ (name) ...... live in this household as well?"
If the mother lives in this household, record the serial number in the last 2 digits of the first column that corresponds to that person.
If the mother lives somewhere else, dies, lost, or the person does not know who his/her mother is, record "95" for that person.
Mother means the woman who gives birth to a child, excluding step-child or adopted child.

Column 13: Religion Ask ".......... (name).......... what is your religion?"
[] 1 Buddhism
[] 2 Islam
[] 3 Christianity
[] 4 Hindu
[] 5 Confucianism
[] 6 Others
[] 7No religion
[] 9 Does not know

If the father and mother have different religions and the child cannot answer the question, consider the child's religion the same as either the father's religion or the mother's religion.

Column 14: Place of birthAsk: ".......... (name)............. Where were you born?"
Record "the name of the province of birth". If born outside Thailand, record "the name of the country of birth", e.g. United States, United Kingdom, etc.

For persons who were not born in the mother's usual living place, consider the province in which the mother's usual living place is as the province of birth. For example, the boy A was born in Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, but the usual living place of A's mother is in Nakorn Pathom province. Consider Nakorn Pathom province as A's province of birth.

Columns 15-18: Migration

Column 15: Duration of Present ResidenceAsk: "............ (name) ............. how many years you have been living continuously in this village or in this municipality.?"
Record the "number of years" for which a person has lived continuously in the village or municipality until 1 April, 1990.

If the respondent has lived there for less than 1 year, record "0".
If the respondent cannot tell the number years for which he/she has lived in the village or municipality, ask whether he/she has lived there for more than 5 years or less than 5 years.
[] If it is less than 5 years, record "less than 5 years".
[] If it is more than 5 years, record "more than 5 years".

Columns 16-18: [Ask only persons who record 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or "less than 5 years" in column 15.]

Column 16: The last usual living place before moving to the current usual living place
Ask: "Could you tell me the name of the last province in which you lived before moving to this place?"

1. If the respondent moved from other province, record "the name of province". If he/she does not know the name of the province, record "does not know the province".
2. If the respondent moved within the same province, record "the name of district" that can be the same or different from the district in which he/she currently lives. If he/she does not know the name of the district, record "does not know the district".
3. If the respondent moved from other country, record "the name of the country". If he/she does not know the name of the country, record "does not know the country".
4. For children aged 0-4 who have lived in this village or municipality since birth, record "not moved" and skip to column 27.

Column 17: Only for persons who migrate within ThailandAsk: "Did ...... (name) ..... move from the village or municipality?"

If moving from the village, record Code 1.
If moving from the municipality, record Code 2.

Column 18: Reason for migration Ask: "Why did ....... (name) ....... move to this place?"
Record the reason of migration into this village or municipality. Examples:

Education
Following husband or wife
Following head of the household
Looking for a job
Returning home
School vacation
Marriage
Others
Etc.

[An example of the instruction for columns 12-18 is omitted.]

Column 19: Current level of education [Ask only persons aged 5-30 years]
Ask: "Is ____ (name) ___ currently studying?" Count up to 1 January 1990.
Currently studying means studying in the regular education system, vocational education (both in a regular period or part time), and university level (both in closed-system and open-system universities). For persons who take short courses, such as hair dressing, tailoring, car driving, radio repairing) in vocational education in which there are no regular subjects taught, consider them as not currently studying.

1. If a person is currently studying, record the level of schooling.
Instruction for recording the level of schooling:
1.1 A person who is studying a regular education system or who is studying at the level before primary school, in primary school, junior secondary and senior secondary school (high school), record the grade at which a person is studying such as kindergarten grade 2, primary school grade 3, secondary school grade 2, secondary school grade 4, etc.
If a person is studying in a continuing education program, record the grade that he/she is currently attending such as grade 2, grade 4, etc.
1.2 For persons who are studying in vocational education or university, count the number of years that he/she has been studying, record the number of years, level of education, and the name of institution at which he/she is studying. Examples:

Year 1 - Vocational Education - Patumwan Mechanical College
Year 2 - Higher Vocational Education - Chiang Mai Commercial School
Year 1 - General Vocational Education - Samut Prakarn Technological School
Year 2 - Bachelor's Degree - Chiang Mai University
Year 1 - Bachelor's Degree - Rajabhat University at Suan Dusit
Year 3 - Bachelor's Degree - Sukhothai Thammatiraj Open University
Year 4 - Bachelor's Degree - Thammasat University
Year 2 - Middle-level Drama Arts - College of Drama Arts
1.3 For persons who are studying in special or part-time curricula in professional or vocational education, record the number of years required to complete that particular curriculum in addition to recording the level of education according to 1.2. For example:

a) For a Higher Vocational Education that requires 2 years for completion in the regular program but requires 3 years for completion in the part-time program, record: Year 3 of higher vocational education (3-year curriculum), Patumwan Mechanical College.
b) For a Bachelor's Degree that usually requires 4 years for completion but requires only 2 years for persons who have already obtained a diploma, record year 3 of Bachelor's Degree (2-year curriculum), Rajapat University at Suan Sunanta.
1.4 For persons who spend time on studying more than the required number of years to complete the curriculum, record the number of year of the curriculum as the year at which the person is studying. For example, for a person who has been studying at Ramkamhang University for 6 years but has not graduated, record year 4 of Bachelor's Degree, Ramkamhang University.

a) If the respondent is not studying, record "No".
b) In the case that the respondent is studying, but he/she does not know the grade of schooling or the year in college/university but knows only the level of education, record the level of education that is known and the name of institution.
c) In the case that the respondent is studying, but he/she does not know the grade of schooling or the year in college/university or the level of education, record "studying-not knowing level"

Column 20: Literacy [Ask only persons aged 5 years or older]
Ask: "............ (name) ........... are you able to read and write in any language?"

a) If the respondent cannot read and write, record "0".
b) If the respondent can read and write in one language, record the language code that he/she can read and write.
c) If the respondent can read and write in more than one language, record the code of the language in which he/she can read and write most.
d) If the respondent knows other languages or the respondent can read and write but does not know the language in which he/she can read and write most, record "5".
e) If the respondent does not know whether he/she can read and write, record "9".

Columns 21-23: Number of ever born children (as of 12:00 a.m. of 1 April 1990), excluding step-children and adopted children of the woman [Ask only ever married women who record codes 2-6 in Column 8]

Column 21: Number of ever born children in this householdAsk "......... (name) ........... how many children were ever born in this household?"
Record the number of ever born children that live in this household on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.
If there is no ever born child in this household, record "00" on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.

Column 22: Number of ever born children who live elsewhereAsk: "........ (name) ....... how many of your ever born children who live elsewhere?"
Record the number of ever born children who live elsewhere on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.
If there is no ever born child who lives elsewhere, record "00" on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.

Column 23: Number of ever born children who diedAsk: "........ (name) ....... how many of your ever born children who died?"
Record the number of ever born children who died elsewhere on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.
If there is no ever born child who died, record "00" on the line that corresponds to that particular woman.
For ever married women who never have children, record "00" on the same line of that particular woman in column 21, 22, and 23.

Column 24: Contraception [Ask only women who record code 2 in column 8 and who is 50 years old or younger]
Ask: "Currently, are you or your husband use any contraception method?"

[] 0 No
[] 1 Oral pills
[] 2 IUD
[] 3 Injection
[] 4 Female sterilization
[] 5 Male sterilization
[] 6 Condom
[] 7 Norplant
[] 8 Others or does not know how to use contraception
[] 9 Does not know whether using contraception or not

Columns 25-26: [Ask persons who aged 13 years or older or who were born before 1 April 1990]

Column 25: Occupation during the last 7 days (25-31 March 1990)Ask: "Between 25-31 March, 2000 ...... (name) ...... what occupation did you spend most of your time on?"

Record the specific occupation, job description, or position that a person did during the 7 days before the census date. Examples are commercial rice farming, cassava planting, coconut growing, electrical-appliance sale person, chief of the finance department, painter, molder, furniture carpenter, laborer, maid, soil digger, etc. (Do not record the occupation such as government officer, businessman because they are not specific.)

For craftsman, teacher, engineer, mechanic, medical doctor, nurse, driver, agricultural worker, employee, record their specific occupations in the same way as the record of last year occupation (see the instruction for recording last year occupation from the PHC2 form, part 2, column 9.)

If in the past week before the census date, a person had more than one occupation, record only one occupation by considering the following criteria:

1. The occupation in which a person spent most of his time in the past 7 days before the census date.
2. The occupation in which a person earned higher wage or income than other occupations, if he/she spent equal amount of time for both occupations.

If the respondent has a permanent (or regular) occupation, such as a primary-school teacher in a government school or a typist in an automobile sell company, and:

1. During the past 7 days (25-31 March 1990) he/she did not work because he/she was sick or took a leave of absence, the occupation of that person during the last 7 days before the census date was his/her permanent work.
2. During the past 7 days (25-31 March 2000), he/she did not work on his permanent job because he/she took a leave of absence or school was closed for vacation, and he was engaged in other work, the occupation in the last 7 days before the census date was another work that he was doing during the last 7 days.
Example: Mr. A is a primary-school teacher in a government school during 25-31 March, 1990, and the school was closed for vacation. During that time, Mr. A had made bamboo baskets for sale at his house. Therefore, Mr. A's occupation during the last 7 days before the census date was a bamboo-basket maker.

A permanent job in this context means the occupation in which a person did not work in the past 7 days before the census date but still received wage, salary or anything in return on a regular basis, and that person still maintain his position during that 7 days period before the date of the census even though he may not receive wage, salary or anything in return during the time he did not work.

If the enumerator does not knowing the occupation but knows that the person was working, record "working but not knowing occupation."

If record the occupation a person did during the week before the census date or record "working but not knowing the occupation" in column 25, skip to column 27.

For persons who do not have permanent occupation such as laborer, if in the last 7 days (25-31 March 1990) he/she did not work, record "not working".

For those who are not working such as the pensioner, lenders, etc., consider them as not working and record "not working".

If record "Not working" in column 25, continue to the next column.

Column 26: Reason for not working [Only for those who record "Not working" in the column 25]
Ask: "why ...... (name) ...... did you not work during the 25-31 March, 2000?"
Record the reason for not working. Examples:

Looking for a job
Waiting for planting season
Studying
Working on house chore, housewife
Too young to work
Elderly
Ill, disabled, unable to work
Pensioner
Priest, monk
Others
Etc.

Column 27: Disability [Ask everyone]

Ask: "Is ....... (name) ....... disabled?"

[] 0 Not disabled
[] 1 Blind (both eyes)
[] 2 Deaf (both ears)
[] 3 Mute
[] 4 Lost arms or legs
[] 5 Intellectually disabled
[] 6 Mentally handicapped
[] 7 Paralyzed
[] 8 Other (specify)
[] 9 Do not know

Column 28: Notes
Record additional statement in the case where there is not enough space in the columns; or the enumerator wants to explain the answer recorded in each column; or there are additional comments. Specify which column and which household member that this note corresponds to.

Part 3: Questions on Housing (only for private households)
These questions on housing ask about the living quarters of all private households in municipality areas (excluding Bangkok) and sample private households outside municipality and in Bangkok.
Enumeration of questions on housing
The enumeration of the questions on housing has to be done on the household basis, not the person basis. In the case where there are many households within the same housing in which the main household lives in the major area of the house and the other households live in the rooms within the same place, consider the following instruction for enumeration:

If the main household is the sample household, the enumeration on housing should be considered from the description of the living place and all facilities of the main household only;
If the household is living in a room within the same living place is the sample household, the enumeration should be considered from the description of the living place and all facilities of that particular household only;
If a single household lives in more than one houses within the same area and is selected to be the sample household, the enumeration on housing should be considered from the description of the living place in which the head of household is living.
Instruction for recording the form

H1. Type of living quarter of this household (consider from the house)

[] 01 Single house
[] 02 Town house
[] 03 Suite, apartment
[] 04 Flat
[] 05 Condominium
[] 06 Others
[] 07 Row house
[] 08 Row building
[] 09 Room (within a house)
[] 10 Office room
[] 11 Boat, floating house, or automobile
[] 12 Other living quarters

To record the answers for questions on housing in H2 to H16, if the answer is "do not know", record "9" in all applicable digits.

H2. The use of the living quarter for business purpose

[] 1 If it is used for business purpose
[] 2 If it is not used for business purpose

H3. The ownership of the living quarter of this household (excluding land ownership)Ask: "What is the property ownership status of the household member?"

[] 1 Owner
[] 2 Hire-purchasing
[] 3 Rent
Rent free because:
[] 4 Part of salaries
[] 5 In-kind benefits

H4. Rent [Only for households that record code 3, which is "rent" in H3]
Ask: "How much rent do you pay each month?"

Record the monetary amount of rent per month in _ _ _ _ _ using a 5-digit number.

H5. Advance payment (only for households that record code 3, which is "rent" in H3)Ask: "Do you pay any advance payment?"

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

H6. The owner of the living quarter [only for households that record codes 3, 4, or 5, in H3, which is "rent" or "rent free"]
Ask: "Who is the owner of the living quarter?"

[] 1 Government property
[] 2 Religion organization
[] 3 Government, government enterprise
[] 4 Private sector
[] 5 Others

H7. The ownership of land [Only for households who record code 1 or 2, which is "owner" or "rent-purchasing" in H3]
Ask: "Does a member of this household own, hire-purchase, rent, or rent-free this land?"

[] 1 Own
[] 2 Hire purchase
[] 3 Rent
[] 4 Rent free
[] 5 Others

H8. Land owner [Only for households that record codes 3, 4, or 5, in H3, which is "rent" or "rent free" in H7]
Ask: "Who is the owner of the land?"

[] 1 Government property
[] 2 Religion organization
[] 3 Government, government enterprise
[] 4 Private sector
[] 5 Others

H9. Number of rooms used for sleepingAsk: "How many rooms in this house are bedrooms and rooms used for sleeping?"

Record the number of bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping by the household in the space that corresponds to the type of the room.
If there are many households within the same house, count only bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping of that particular household only.
If a household lives in many houses, count the total number of bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping in all houses.
If there is no bedroom, record "0".
Each household must have at least one room used for sleeping. If there is no partition for rooms within the house, record "1" in the space corresponding to other room used for sleeping (see the definition of room from number 8 of the housing section in the definition chapter).
If there are 8 bedrooms or more, record "8" in the space corresponding to bedroom.

H10. Drinking waterAsk: "Where is the drinking water mostly from?"
If the drinking water comes from many sources, consider the source from which the household uses water for drinking the most as the only answer.

[] 1 Piped water inside the house
[] 2 Piped water outside the house
[] 3 Public well
[] 4 Private well
[] 5 Rain water
[] 6 River, canal, stream, waterfall
[] 7 Bottled water
[] 8 Others
Piped water inside the house means the water that is already linked to the water pipe inside the house.
Piped water outside the house means the water that has to be brought to the water pipe inside the house by connecting from other house or from the public water supply outside the house.
Bottled water means the drinking water that has passed the antiseptically process either by the disinfection or other method of water purification.

H11. Water for useAsk: "Where is the water for use mostly from?"
If the water for use is from one source, record the code of the water source in the first space and "0" in the second space.

If the water for use is from many sources, record the code of the major source in the first space, and the code of the minor source in the second space.

If the major water source is others, record "7" in the first space and "0" in the second space.

Major use - Minor use
Piped water inside the house - 1-1
Piped water outside the house - 2-2
Public well - 3-3
Private well - 4-4
Rain water - 5-5
River, canal, stream, waterfall - 6-6
Others - 7-7

Example: If the household uses the water mostly from the piped water inside the house and uses rain water as the second most, then record "15".

H12. Light useAsk: "What kind of light is used in this household?"

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Pressure lamp
[] 3 Oil lamp
[] 4 Others

H13. ToiletAsk: "What type of toilet facility is normally used in this household?"

Record the following codes:
Flush

[] 1 Exclusively used within the household
[] 2 Shared with other households

Molded bucket latrine

[] 3 Exclusively used within the household
[] 4 Shared with other households

Flush and molded bucket latrine

[] 5 Exclusively used within the household
[] 6 Shared with other households

[] 7 Pit or others
[] 8 No toilet

H14. Place used for cookingAsk: "Which place does the household normally use for cooking?" Record the following codes:
Kitchen

[] 1 Exclusively used within the household
[] 2 Shared with other households

[] 3 Terrace, porch
[] 4 Others
[] 5 Not cooking

If recording "5", skip to question H16.

H15. Fuel for good preparationAsk: "In this household, what is the major type of fuel used for food preparation?"

If using one type of fuel, record the code of fuel in the first space and "0" in the second space.

If using more than one type of fuel, record the code of the major fuel use in the first space, and the code of the minor fuel use in the second space.

If the fuel used the most is other, record code "6" in the first space, and code "0" in the second space.

Major use - Minor use
Coal - 1-1
Wood - 2-2
Gas - 3-3
Electricity - 4-4
Kerosene - 5-5
Other - 6-6

Example: if the household uses coal the most and electricity as a secondary fuel, record 14.

H16. Household appliance on 1 April 1990Ask: "On 1 April 1990, does the member of this household have any of these appliances?"

If they have, record the "number" in the space. If they do not have, record "0".
If they have 7 or more of particular appliances, record "7".
If they do not know the specific number of appliances that they have, record "8".

Example of how to record in H16:

Radio - Record 2 means the household has 2 radios.
Color television - Record 1 means the household has 1 color television.
Black and white TV - Record 1 means the household has 1 black and white TV.
Video player - Record 0 means the household has no video player.
Electric iron - Record 1 means the household has 1 electric iron.
Electric rice cooker - Record 1 means the household has 1 electric rice cooker.
Electric fan - Record 2 means the household has 2 electric fans.
Sewing machine - Record 0 means the household has no sewing machine.
Vacuum cleaner - Record 0 means the household has no vacuum cleaner.
Refrigerator - Record 1 means the household has 1 refrigerator.
Washing machine - Record 0 means the household has no washing machine.
Air conditioner - Record 0 means the household has no air conditioner.
Telephone - Record 1 means the household has 1 telephone.
Bicycle - Record 0 means the household has no bicycle.
Motorcycle - Record 0 means the household has no motorcycle.
Car - Record 1 means the household has 1 car.
Motor boat - Record 0 means the household has no motor boat.
Water pump - Record 0 means the household has no water pump.
Plough machine - Record 0 means the household has no plough machine.
Local farm truck - Record 0 means the household has no local farm truck.

With regard to the number of telephones, if the telephone is connected to the main telephone within the household, do not count this connected telephone. However, if the telephone is connected from other household, count that connected telephone as well.