Population and Housing Census
National Statistical Office
Office of the Prime Minister
[Table of content is omitted.]
1.1 Population and Housing Census in Thailand
The Census is meant to interview and record number of population characteristics of population, number of living places, and living conditions in a specified time. All people and living places of all households must be recorded within a specified area of census. The collected data are comparable to a still picture of population and its residence at a moment in time. The basic data are useful for the country and agencies concerning socio-economic development planning. In addition, the data are useful for demographic analysis and drawing population inference.
Thailand has conducted 7 Population Censuses and a Housing Census. The first Population Census started in 1910, then in 1919, 1929, 1937, 1947, 1960, and 1970, respectively. The first Housing Census started in 1970; therefore, the 1980 Population and Housing Census was considered the 8th population census and the 2nd housing census. The first five censuses called Household Survey were conducted by the Ministry of Interior. The National Statistical Office has conducted the Population Census since the 6th census up until now.
The 1980 Population and Housing Census is the project for implementing data collection plan of the National Statistical Office according to the 1965 Statistics Act and to the universal standard. Every country conducts population census at least every 10 years.
The main aims or objectives are to:
1.2.2 know number and characteristics of housing, as well as, living conditions of population on the date of census.
Census Coverage refers to the scope of census, which decides types of population and housing that must be enumerated in the 1980 Population and Housing Census
b) Foreign civilians who normally reside in Thailand or Foreign civilians who temporarily reside in Thailand more than three months or more before the census date.
c) Any individuals who has normally resided in Thailand, but is away for military training, sailing, or temporarily travelling aboard.
d) Thai civil/military/diplomatic officers and their families who normally have their Offices in foreign countries.
Population not included in the census coverage
b) Foreign military and diplomatic personnel and their families who have their offices in Thailand.
c) Foreign civilians who have temporarily resided in Thailand less than 3 months prior to the census date.
d) Refugees or illegal migrants who are staying at the migration camp according to the official order.
1.3.2 Household coverage
The coverage of household is every private household in the enumeration scope.
1.4 Procedure for the 1980 Population and Housing Census
The 1980 Population and Housing Census are divided into 3 areas:
Operation is divided into 2 stages:
Step 2: After listing and enumeration in Step 1, enumerators hand over enumeration forms to head of groups in order to select 20% of sample households at the operating centre. Enumerators will enumerate the detailed data of population and housing after knowing that which households are included in the sample.
2. Foreign civilians who normally reside in Thailand or foreign civilians who temporarily resided in Thailand for more than three months or more before the Census Date.
3. Any individual who has normally resided in Thailand, but is away for military training, sailing or temporarily travelling abroad.
4. Thai civil/military/diplomatic officers and families who have their offices in foreign countries
2. Foreign military and diplomatic personnel and their families who have their offices in Thailand.
3. Foreign civilians who have temporarily resided in Thailand in less than 3 months prior to the beginning of the census.
4. Refugees or illegally migrants who are staying at the migration camp according to the official order.
In this step, every household of collective households is enumerated in detail without selecting sample, but not being asked about housing questions.
1.4.2 Other Municipal Areas
Listing and enumeration in other municipal areas are undertaken simultaneously without sampling households. Every family member in every household is enumerated including housing questions. The same applies to collective households, but housing questions are not asked.
1.4.3 Non-municipal areas: operation is divided into 2 stages:
Step 2 After listing and enumeration in Step 1, the enumerators hand over enumeration forms to head of groups in order to select 20% of sample households.
The heads of groups assign the sample households to the enumerators to further enumerate detailed data of population and housing.
In this step, every household of collective households is enumerated in detail without selecting sample, but not being asked about housing questions.
1.5 Supervisor and Field Operators
1.5.1 Provincial Field Operation Supervisors
Provincial field supervisors are appointed by Governors. Their responsibilities are to supervise and facilitate the operation of census in their provinces.
1.5.2 District Field Operation Supervisors
District field supervisors are appointed by Chiefs of Districts or Semi-districts.
Their responsibilities are to supervise and facilitate the operation of census in their districts or semi-districts.
1.5.3 Regional Statisticians
Regional statisticians are appointed from officials of the National Statistical Office. Their responsibilities are to administer training centres and assist Provincial Field Supervisors in supervising the operation of census in their statistics regions of responsibilities.
1.5.4 Provincial Statisticians
Provincial statisticians are appointed from officials of the National Statistical Office. Their responsibilities are to supervise, coordinate and administer the census operation in their provinces of responsibilities, as well as, give technical advice and suggestions on census to District Subject Mater Specialist and personnel at all levels.
1.5.5 Training Officers
Training officers are appointed from officials of the National Statistical Office.
Their responsibilities are to train District Subject Matter Specialists and give technical advice and suggestions on census.
1.5.6 District Subject Matter Specialists
District Subject Matter Specialists are appointed from senior teachers of the Provincial Administrative Organizations, schools of the districts, or schools of the provinces, or lecturers at the same level from several colleges of the provinces.
Their responsibilities are to train heads of groups and enumerators, supervise technical operation, take care of the operation according to the schedule, and give advice and suggestions to District Field Supervisors in solving problems in order that the operation runs efficiently. District subject matters operate in their districts of responsibilities.
1.5.7 District Statisticians
District statisticians are appointed from officials of the National Statistical Office. Their responsibilities are to assist district supervisors and district subject matters in supervising field operation and administration under the direct supervision of district field supervisors besides provincial statisticians.
1.5.8 Heads of Groups
Heads of Groups are senior teachers of Provincial Administrative Organizations or municipality or senior university students.
Their responsibilities are to supervise the operation of enumerators according to the specified procedures in the specified times in order to complete the task within the time frame, give instructions and solve problems occurring in the field operation of enumerators under their supervision.
Enumerators are appointed from teachers attached to Provincial Administrative Organizations of municipality who teach in the village or municipality schools. In Bangkok, they are students and municipal teachers.
1.6 Duties of Enumerators while Being Trained
Duties of enumerators while being trained are as follows:
1.6.2 Receive PHC 4 - 1, stationary and census forms from district subject matters.
[The rest of chapter 1 is omitted.]
[Chapter 2 (page 11 to page 17) discussing operation is omitted.]
3.1 Population and Housing Census:
Population and Housing Census is collecting and gathering data in relation to the population and housing census for statistical benefit. This is done through questioning/asking of information from all units in a specified area of census.
The listing is the act of counting the specified units and recording in the listing forms. In Population and Housing Census, a household is specified as a unit of counting.
The enumeration refers to interview with the head of household in order to obtain the detailed information of the persons living in the particular household, household characteristics and living conditions of the persons in that particular household. Such detailed information is recorded in the enumeration form.
This is the date given for indicating the period of counting population number and also household number at which the population of the census area are living. The 1980 Population and Housing Census has designated the 1st April, 1980 as the date of the census
This is the time given to indicate the focal point of the fact occur at "the date of the census." In the 1980 Population and Housing Census is at 0.00 hours of 1st April 1980 (or at the 24:00 hours of 31st March 1980).
This is the given time interval at which the enumerators are working on counting and enumeration.
A specific locality at which there has been the Royal Decree issued according to the 1953 Municipality Act appointed that particular area to be the municipality.
Sanitary area means a specific locality that the Ministry of Interior has announced and established according to the 1952 Sanitary Act. Under the Law of Municipality, a sanitary area may be upgraded into a municipal area by issuing a Royal Decree.
The areas outside the municipal areas; all are considered as part of a village or the whole village.
The given area at where the enumerators do listing and enumeration. The areas are divided into two categories:
3.10.1 Municipal Area:
A census area in a municipal area; there are on average 200 - 300 households.
3.10.2 Non-municipal Area:
A census area in a non-municipal area is comprised of 250 - 350 households.
In case of a large village, it may be part of a village. In case of a small village, it may cover the entire village or several villages. For example, a large village means a village that consists of more than 350 households. Thus, a census may be divided into several areas. A medium village means a village that comprises 250 - 350 households. A village is regarded as a census area.
A small village means a village that is composed of less than 250 households. Coverage of census area may include several small villages, but not greater than 6 villages, and the households in total not greater than 350.
The grouped building refers to the sub section of the census area which is located within the municipality. The sub section is allocated for the purpose of making the counted record and the enumeration easily.
Household refers to one person or many persons living in the same house. They seek for, consume, and utilize all facilities together for a living, regardless of whether they are relatives or not.
(One house may compose of one or more than one households, and members of a household may reside in more than one house or more than one room, but they must be located in the same area or next door).
There are two types of households, the private household and the collective household.
3.12.1 Private Household:
"Private household" refers to the household which consisted of individuals living together. They may be, or may not be, relatives, but voluntarily live together.
Private household is divided into two types:
1. Mr.A rents a room of one family to live independently.
2. Mr.B lives alone in a house.
b) Family household refers to a household which consists of 2 or more persons living together in the same house, or part of the house. They seek for, consume, and utilize all facilities together for a living, regardless of whether they are relatives or not.
A relative family household may have any number of members. For example:
1) A household comprises a father, a mother, a child or children and servant(s).
2) A household comprises brothers and sisters, and elder brothers/sisters who take care, support and provide education for his/her younger brothers/sisters.
A non-relative family household must not have more than five members. For example: Mr.Dang lives with 4 friends. They are not relatives, but rent a house and share for living expenses and the rent.
3.12.2 Collective Household:
A household which composed of several people living together because of having certain rules or regulations which indicated that those people must live together, or needed to stay together for their own benefit.
There are two kinds of the collective household.
2) Patients who stay in a hospital for over three-month period.
3) Boarding pupils and also teachers who are staying in the boarding school, medical student dormitory, nursing student dormitory.
4) Those who seek relieve or help assistance in the relieve institute or center and also include the care taker at such institute who is not staying at the separate housing.
5) Prisoners at the prison or jail.
6) Soldier or policeman who stay in the camp or barracks including cadet and police cadet.
b) Special household : The special household is the household at which people live together in the same place for their own benefit such as:
1) People who regularly or temporarily rent and stay in a room in a hotel for more than 3 months.
2) People rent and stay in a dormitory.
3) Laborers of at least 6 people or more who are permanently stay in their working place or factory where their working place or factory have arranged for them to live together.
4) Six or more people live together, but they are not relatives.
The households of director, managers, and staff of the collective household who stay at the separate housing in a private household e.g., jail, warder?s household, Buddha followers, owners, managers, hospital directors, and hotel managers.
3.13.1 Head of a private household
A person who the members of household accept and is regarded as having the highest responsibility in taking care of the welfare of the household members.
Generally, the one who is regarded as head of the households are as follows:
b) Son/daughter or husband/wife of the household in which there are parents who are old and the parents assign their son/daughter to take care of the household members? welfare.
d) Senior person of the household where friends live together.
3.13.2 Head of the Collective Household:
A member of the household may be assigned as the head of the household. In case that there is an assigned head of the household, for example, abbots or foremen of factories, or the following:
b) One patient in the relieve center or hospital.
c) Head of pupils, students in the boarding schools, dormitory for students.
d) Private soldiers or policeman in the barracks.
g) Superintendent in the nursing student dormitories.
h) One customer who lives for over 3 months in the hotel.
In case that there are the others who regularly live in the collective household: These people must be counted as a member of the household e.g., guardian teacher in boarding schools, dormitory managers, prison superintendents, low-ranked soldiers and policeman, factory managers etc. All these are regarded as heads of the households.
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3.14. Relationship with Household Head
The relationship between the members of the household with the household head can be classified as follows:
A Private household:
Private household comprises head of the household and member(s) of the household. The member(s) of the household must be related with the household head as follows:
b) Son/daughter, step son/step daughter, foster son/foster daughter
c) Son-in -law, daughter-in-law,
e) Father, mother, father-in-law, mother-in-law,
f) Other relatives such as brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece,
g) Dweller, and
h) Servant, gardener, and driver.
A Collective household:
Generally, there is no relationship between the members of the household and the household head, but the enumerator must indicate the individual status such as monk, novice, prisoner, solider, nurse, students, the elderly, etc.
Full age, counted at the last birthday (before 1 April 1980, for the 1980 Population and Housing Census).
3.16 Regular Living Place or Usual Resident :
The place where the individual regularly live.
For a collective household: Temples, barracks, prisons, the relieve center, monastery, prison, mental hospital.
Conditions of living can be categorized into 3 groups:
3.17.1 A permanent resident means
b) a new baby who was born before or at the time of the census, but s/he has not been brought to the house.
c) an individual temporarily resides in the house for not having any permanent house to live.
e) an individual moves in the house after the census date, intends to regularly lives in the house, and has never been enumerated.
f) servants, labors, construction labors who have left their homes for more than 3 months and have lived in the current living place less than 3 months.
3.17.2 Temporary leaving means those who normally live in the house on a regular basis, but they have been temporarily away for less than 3 months as of the census date. These include military training, wild food picking, hunting, fishing, salesman, etc. who are not enumerated even though they have been away for more than 3 months.
3.17.3 Temporary living aboard means those who temporary living aboard for studying, training, etc., and have no intention to settle aboard even though they have lived aboard for more than 3 months.
Migration means moving between villages or municipal areas within 5 years before the date of census.
Moving within the same municipal areas or villages is not regarded as migration.
Bangkok and Pattaya City are regarded as other municipal areas.
Education systems are categorized into:
3.19.1 Formal education which is divided into
b) Primary education covers P1 - P4, and P5 - P7 (M1 - M3 of the old system). Since the 1978 academic year the coverage of primary education have included P1 - P6
c) Secondary education covers:
Upper secondary education: MS4 - MS5 (M7 - M8 of the old system) or M4 - M6 (since the 1978 academic year)
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Level 2 is comparable to P4 learning for 6 months.
Level 3 is comparable to P7 learning for 1 year and 6 months.
Level 4 is comparable to MS3 learning for 1 year and 6 months.
Level 5 is comparable to MS5 learning for 2 years.
3.19.2 Vocational Education
b) Upper vocation accepts those who complete M3 learning for 3 years.
c) Higher vocation accepts those who complete M6 learning for 3 years.
- Late secondary education (MS4 - MS6) or vocational diploma.
c) Vocational teacher training is classified into
- Primary Vocational Certificate in Mechanics, 3-year curriculum, accepts those who complete MS3.
- Secondary teacher training
b) Higher Certificate in Education accepts those who complete certificate education, MS5, MS6 learning for 2 years.
c) Bachelor Degree accepts those who complete higher certificate education, or equivalent, or diploma learning for 2 years.
3.19.4 Tertiary Education means education in university, cadet school, police cadet school, or other higher institutions at the same level of the university.
3.19.5 Other Education such as nursing (indicate the level e.g., degree, diploma, nurse assistant), arts etc. Other schools attached to other government agencies e.g., chemistry lab, train engineering, post office, low-ranked soldier school, navy school, air force school, or policeman school.
The relationship of a man and a woman as husband and wife which can be classified into:
b) Married: those who live with their partners as husband and wife, whether they have been legally married (having marital registration), or not. During the interview, they may not live together with their husband/wife, but they still maintain such husband and wife relationship. For example, the husband is away for work in the province or abroad, they still maintain their marital status.
c) Widowed : those whose husband/wife died and have not been remarried.
d) Divorced : husband and wife who are legally divorced.
e) Separated : those who have not lived with their husband/wife, but have not been legally divorced.
f) Monk hood : the monk, novice and the priest in other religions.
The children who live at birth even though the children have lived at a single moment after birth.
For infants who are not breathing at birth is classified as death before delivery and are not counted as children ever born.
Number of children ever born means the children who live at the delivery, and still living, or surviving until the time of census.
Number of children ever born excludes:
c) Step son/daughter or foster son/daughter of the women.
3.22 Birth Control/Contraception:
Any practice in order to prevent pregnancy, in other words, family planning.
[Page 28 is omitted.]
Methods of Birth Control:
There are 6 methods, which are:
2. Intra-uterine device or IUD - spring-shape like made of plastic. Insert into uterus to prevent from pregnancy.
3. Injection - use every 3 months. All the said methods are temporarily control and use in female only.
4. Female sterilization is a permanent birth control method for women.
5. Male sterilization is a permanent birth control method for men.
6. Others e.g. condom use, safety period practice, tablet for use in vagina etc.
A job that can fall into any following categories:
2.23.2 A job with a return in any dividend forms e.g., trading of industrial factory.
3.23.3 Family business job without salary/wages or profits. Family members work as employers or self-employed entrepreneurs.
A regular job that one is working e.g. statistician, journalist, rural school teacher, horticulturalist, rice farmers.
Means a job that one spends most of the time within a specified period of time or refers to as.
3.25.2 Last year main occupation (April 1979 - March 1980) means a job on which one spent most of her/his time between April 1979 - March 1980)
To decide which the main occupation is, there are criteria to be considered as follows:
b) A job that one can earn more while spending the same time.
c) Let the interviewee decide which is her/ his main occupation, in case that s/he spends the same time and earns the same income on the job.
3.26 Description of the Enterprise or the Type of the Working Place of the
The type of enterprise at which one is working e.g., Department of Internal Trade, Telephone Authority of Thailand, Bureau of Government Budget, District Office, construction company, soft drink factory, gunny bag weaving factory, retail shop, garage, restaurant, etc.
Or the type of the job that one is working e.g., rice farming, painting, transport, personal service, etc.
This refers to the status of workers in a working place or business. It can be divided into 4 categories:
Example 1: Mr.Sombat owns a restaurant and hires Miss Samorn as a chef. Mr.Sombat is regarded as an employer.
Example 2: Mr.Thawatchai owns an ice factory and hires the others to work as a clerk and labor worker. Mr.Thawatchai is regarded as an employer.
3.27.2 Employees mean those who work for wages and get paid on monthly, daily, per piece of products basis, or surcharge for service from employers. Employees are divided into 3 categories:
[page 31 is omited]
Example 2: Miss Pairoh, a public relation office, is an employee of an international organization. Miss Pairoh is regarded as a government employee.
Example 1: Miss Wipaporn is the chairperson of Krungthai Bank, Saphan Kao Branch. Miss Wipaporn is regarded as an employee of a state enterprise.
Example 2: Mr.Thongdaeng is a mechanic of Glass Organization. Mr.Thongdaeng is regarded as an employee of a state enterprise.
c) Private employees mean those who are employed by private business including household employment e.g. luandry, baby sitting, cooking
Example 1: Miss Lalana is a private servant of Mr.Pairoj. Miss Lalana is working on laundry, cleaning, cooking. Miss Lalana is regarded as a private employee.
Example2: Mrs.Wipawadee owns a beauty shoop and hires Miss Duentem as a hairdresser and Miss Nawarat as a tailor. Miss Duentem and Miss Nawarat are regarded as private employees.
Example 3: Mr.Boonchu is an executive of a commercial bank. Mr.Boonchu is regarded as a private employee.
Example 1: Mrs.Boonme does hair perming or clothes tailoring at home alone. Mrs.Boonme is regarded as a private business woman without employees.
Example 2: Mr.Boonme owns electric appliances and has Mr.Niruj as a partner. They share their profits. Mr.Boonme and Mr.Niruj are regarded as private business men without employees.
Example 3: Mr.Koon produces handicraftd e.g., containers, baskets at home. He has Mr.Porn, a son, working along without getting paid. Mr.Koon is regarded as a private business man without employee.
a private business man without employee.
Example 5: Miss Pismai owns a sewing machine and all sewing equipment. She has brought the clothes to sew at home. Miss Pismai is regarded as private business women without employee.
3.27.4 Family business assistants without wages mean assistants without wages in the agricultural activities or in business. Their household members or relatives may own and run the business, or may not own, but operate the business.
Example 1: Mr.Nikorn helps his father in the garage owned by his father. Mr.Nikorn is not getting paid or any dividen.
Example 2: Mr.Chomkiat lives in Mr.Chobsak?s home helping Mr.Chobsak, his brother, without getting paid. Both Mr.Nikorn (in example 1) and Mr.Chomkiat are regarded as assistants without wages. But if Mr.Nikorn and Mr.Chobsak are paid, or receive allowance, they
are regarded as private employees.
Example 3: Mr.Somchai rents a paddy field and has Mr.Chatchai, his nephew, helping him without getting paid. Mr.Chatchai is regarded as family business assistants without wages.
Building or construction structures, boats, rafts, and cars used as a living place. There may be one or more household(s) living in a house.
3.29 Living Place of a Household:
A place at which a household is used as a living place; it can be part of a house, building, or several houses in the same area.
The descriptive characteristics of a living place where a household lives. It can be classified into the following categories:
Or several houses located in the same fence. It is a living place of family members of a household.
Thai traditional style houses consist of several houses connecting together by the corridor. It is used as a living place of a household. If each house is used as a living place of each household, it is also regarded as s single house.
Raft which is used as a single house is regarded as a single house.
3.30.2 Duplex means houses, rooms, or buildings connecting to each other. Each comprises 2 separate units and shares the wall.
3.30.3 Row house, row rooms, or row building means houses, rooms, or buildings connecting to each other for more than 3 separate units in a row. They share one side of wall, or two sides of wall. They may be one or more stories. These include row-rafts for labor workers of the Royal Irrigation Department.
3.30.4 Flat or apartment means groups of rooms which are part of a building and using as a living place of a household. These groups of rooms must have their own kitchen or bathroom and entrance.
3.30.5 Rooms in a house means a room or more that are used as a living place of a given household. In a house, there may be more than a household and either kitchen, bathroom, entrance of its own, or share with other household living in the same rooms. These include rooms in the building that share, kitchen or entrance with other rooms within the same building.
If there is a main household which is occupied major areas of the house and other households which are part of the house, the main household is regarded as a single house while the other households are regarded as rooms within the house.
If the areas of all households are equal, then all households are regarded as rooms within the house.
3.30.6 Others type of living place means a living place of a household that does not fall into any category e.g., boat using as a living place, log raft (even though there is a living place on the raft, it is not counted as a raft), car using as a living place including caves, or others e.g., under the bridge, temporary construction labor workers? houses. It may be a building etc.
3.31 Living Place Using as Business Office:
A living place of a household which is used not only as a living place, but also as a business office for commerce, industry, or services e.g., newspaper shop, hairdresser shop, tailor shop, bicycle garage, restaurant, mechanic garage, etc.
3.32 Type of Living Place
Categorized by major material used in construction. They are:
3.32.2 Semi-building means a brick house coating with cement, or concrete for ground floor, with wood for upper floor, or one part is brick/cement structure and the other part is wooden structure in the equivalent ratio. These include a house with brick/cement base and cello-crete for upper floor.
3.32.3 Wooden house means a house using wood as major material with tin roof or earthen or wooden tiles. "Major Material" in this sense considers components of a house. They are poles, floor, ceiling, wall and roof. If all these comprise more than 50% of the house, it is regarded as a wooden house.
Example: if a house has poles, floor, and ceiling made of harden wood, but has bamboo walls and grass roof. This house is regarded as a wooden house.
3.32.4 A house constructed using local temporary material: A country style house using mostly local and temporary material e.g., flax, votives grass, bamboo, stick, etc.
If a house has harden-wood poles and upper part, bamboo wall and floor with grass roof, it is regarded as a house constructing with local and temporary material.
3.32.5 A house constructing with used and decayed material e.g., used pieces of fragmented wood, used tin, etc. put together to build a house.
2. In the case that the living place of household is a single house, but accommodates more than one household: The descriptive characteristics of the living are considered the same type for all households.
3.33 The Possession of Household?s Living Place (not including the land)
The possession of the house in which the people who live in that particular household are owner, hire purchaser, rent, or staying in that particular house without
paying the rent because it is part of the wages. In other case, the owner allows her/him to stay without paying the rent.
Hire purchasing means the buying of a living place by installment according to the written agreement made. When the payment is completed, then the buyer is considered the owner of the living place.
Rent means the person in the household stays in that place without being the owner or hire purchaser and has to pay the owner for the rent.
Staying without paying rent
b) Staying free of charge means the living of a person in a house or room without paying any money.
Amount of money in which the renter buys the right in rental a building or construction structure. The rental period is specified in a given time that can be 10, 15, or 20 years. This rental fee is not included in the monthly rent.
The person in the household has the right in owning the land property.
3.35.2Hire purchasing the land means the buying of land by installment.
When the payment is completed, the buyer is considered the owner of the land.
3.35.3Renting the land means the building of a house on the land own by other(s) and pays the rented fee to the owner of the land on monthly or yearly basis.
3.36 The Government owned land:
The land owned or occupied by the government. These comprise of:
2. The land taken from privates by the government or donated to the government in which the government rents to privates to construct living places.
The temples? land and royal assets are not counted as the government owned land, but counted as private land.
Areas in the house which are partitioned by wall, shelves, or wardrobes at least 3 sides apart from other rooms, or other areas of the house. The height of shelves or wardrobes should not be approximately lower than 1.80 m.
3.37.2 Other rooms using as bedrooms mean any room that is not a bedroom such as guest room, dining room, living room, kitchen, or storeroom. If a household member is regularly sleeping in any aforesaid room, all are counted as other rooms using as bedrooms.
In the case that there are several households living together in a house, count number of bedrooms and other rooms using as bedrooms only the ones that belong to a particular household. If there is a household living in several single houses, count all bedrooms and other rooms using as bedrooms of all houses.
3.38 Appliance or Utensil in Possession:
The appliances or utensils are in use and in good condition or in the process of repair. A person may own, possess, or not have to own such utensils. All the goods which are for sale, or are being repaired in the shop or the mending shop, are not considered as utensils or appliances in possession.
All appliances, utensils, equipments, or tools which are used for performing careers such as rented vehicles, refrigerator in the drinking shop. If they are also used
for private purpose, they are counted as appliances in possession. If they are not used for private purpose at all, they are not counted as utensils or appliances in possession.
Government vehicle for a particular person of high ranking position in the government, if such vehicle is used only by one person, it is counted as the utensil in possession.
Automobile refers to a private car, rented car, pick-up truck, but not include a truck, freight car, coach or bus.
An Engine boat refers to a small boat with an engine mounted in the middle, or at the tail of the boat, but not includes large engine boats for goods transport.
A room for body washing; it may include a toilet or separate from a toilet.
A place for cooking; it can be a kitchen only, part a room in the house, any part of the house, or separate kitchen house.
Time Reference to the 1980 Population and Housing Census
1. Time of census: 0.00 hour of April 1, 1980 is used as time reference to birth and death of a person in determining whether that person is included in listing and enumeration of the 1980 Population and Housing Census, or not.
2. 7 days before the date of census
Between March 25-31, 1980 is the period of time reference to
b) Reasons for not working.
3. Last year:
Between April 1979 and March 1980 is the period of time reference to
b) Characteristics of jobs or type of the workplace (industry), and
c) Work status.
b) Highest complete grade
[Page 39-40 is omitted.]
[Chapter 4 (page 41-45) discussing guidelines for recording is omitted.]
[Chapter 4 (page 46-58) discussing the Listing Form is omitted.]
Recording PHC 2S and PHC 2 Enumeration Forms
Comparison of Census Data and Citizen Registration Data
To interview and record the detailed information of population and housing of individuals and households.
6.2 Description of the Enumeration Form:
There are 2 types of enumeration forms:
2. PHC2 is the questionnaire enquiring in detail in every question about population and housing.
6.3 Operation of the Enumeration:
The enumeration area is divided into 3 categories:
Enumerators will count using PHC 1 Form and enumerate every household using PHC 2 Form (Long Form) only Column 1 - 12 of every household.
For the collective household, every household must be counted in Step 1.
After listing and enumeration in Step 1, hand over the forms to head of the group in order to select the sample households at the operation center. When the sample households are known, bring the PHC 2 Form of the selected households to continue enumerating from Column 13 to the end of the questionnaire including the Housing Section.
In this step, enumerate the detailed information of the collective households without sampling, but do not ask the Housing Section.
b) Other municipalities:
Listing and enumeration are simultaneously done in detail in other municipalities without selecting the sample households. Enumeration uses the PHC 2 Form from the beginning to the end of everyone and every household including the housing section. Do the same for the collective household, but do not ask the Housing Section.
[Page 60 is omitted]
The enumerators list and enumerate every household of each village using the PHC 1 Form and the PHC 2S Form (Short Form) throughout the census area. Then, hand over them to head of the group in order to select sample households. For the collective households in Step 1 the enumerators do only listing using PHC 1 Form; do not do enumeration.
Heads of the groups select sample households. Then, bind the Short Form (PHC 1S) and the Long Form (PHC 2) together on the right of page 2 of the Long form and give it to the enumerators to do enumeration in detail from Column 13 onward through the end including the Housing Section.
For the collective household the enumerators will receive the Long Form (PHC 2) to enumerate in detail from the beginning through the end. Do not ask the Housing Section.
[Page 62 is omitted]
6.4 How to Record the Enumeration Form
6.4.1 The PHC 2S Enumeration Form
Section 1 Location of household
Sheet number ____ out of ____ of this household: give sheet number on the right-top of the PHC 2S indicating sheet number out of the total number of sheets of the household. A sheet of the PHC 2S can be recorded 10 household members e.g., a house uses 2 sheets of the PHC 2S.
Recording the form should be as follows:
Sheet no. 1 out of 2 of this household.
Sheet no. 2 out of 2 of this household.
Province, District, Sub-district: record provincial, district, and sub-district codes as assigned by District Subject Matter Specialist and indicate in PHC 4 - 1 in e.g., province no. 56, district no. 01, sub-district no. 05.
a) Address number, street, road, stream, the surrounding (Name of the place, if any).
Record the detailed information on location of the household. These are the address number, names of street, road, stream, and the surrounding. If the place has a name, record the name of the place e.g. Sirimitr shop Bumroongmueang raod, Soi Ratchasi, or 44 Klongbangluong, etc.
b) Census area number _ _
Record the census area number as assigned using 2 digits
c) Block number _ _
Record block number using 2 digits in municipal area only
d) Village number ____
Name of the village _____
Record the village number and name of the village in item (d), non-municipal area only.
e) This house is in a municipal area ____
Name of municipality ____
In sanitary area ____
Name of sanitary Area ____
Non-municipality/sanitary area ____
If this house is located in a municipal area, put [check] in the _ corresponding to the municipal area and record the name of the municipal area.
If this house is located in a sanitary area, but not in a municipal area, put [check] in the _ corresponding to the sanitary area and record the name of sanitary area.
If this house is neither located in a municipal area, nor a sanitary area, put [check] in the _ corresponding to non-municipal/sanitary area.
f) Household no ____
Record household number in Column 8 of the PHC 1 Form using 3 digits e.g. 001, 002, 089, 156, etc. Do not record household number if it is a collective household.
g) Types of households
Circle code 1 for private household.
h) Number of household members
Record number of total household members, males and females (Record after enumeration has been completed).
Total member(s) ____
Number recorded in Item (h) count from number of household members recorded in Section 2 of the PHC 2S Form and check against Column 15, 16, and 17 of the PHC 1 Form. If they are not corresponding, use the number recorded in the PHC 2S Form.
Section 2 Population Questioning, Interview and Recording Columns 1 - 12
Columns 1 - 7 Interview and record the detailed information of every household member.
The order numbers 1 - 10 are printed. Person no. 10, fill number 1 before number 0. If any household has members more than 10, add order numbers 1, 2, 3 as 11, 12, 13 in sheet number 2 and the following sheets of the PHC 2S Form by adding the front digit to
make them 11, 12, ..., 20 etc. (Circle order number of the interviewee. If there are many interviewees, circle one order number only).
Columns 2 and 3: interview every household member simultaneously, then interview one by one in detail from Column 4 through the end of each line.
Column 2 Given name and family name
Record rank (if any) e.g., colonel, or title e.g., Mr., Mrs., Miss, given name and family name of the person being enumerated in order as follows:
Unmarried children rank from the older to the younger; the household head?s children are recorded first, followed by step children, adopted children from the oldest to the youngest.
Married children and spouse including grandchildren, record household by household if there are many households.
Father, mother, father-in-law, mother-in-law
Residents and servants
A child without given name, record a nick name or "unnamed boy" or "unnamed girl."
Column 3 relationship with the household head
For head of the household record "Head" in Line 1, other household members record the relationship with household as follows:
- Unmarried children record "Child" from the older to the younger in order. If she/he is a step child, record, "Step child." If she/he is an adopted child, record "Adopted child."
- Married children record "Child."
- Father, mother, father-in-law, mother-in-law.
- Older brother/sister, young brother/sister, older uncle/aunt, young uncle/aunt, etc. and other relatives.
- Residents and servants.
Column 4 Month and year of birth
Question "May I have your month and year of birth?" record month and year of birth in Column Month and Year, respectively.
2. If the interviewee answers in solar calendar e.g. September 2496, Record "September" in Column Month and "2496" in Column Year.
3. If the interviewee answers month of birth in solar calendar e.g., January and year of birth in the Thai Zodiacal calendar e.g., Great snake, the interviewer should ask for the year of birth.
Unless the interviewee does not know the exact year of birth, the interviewer records "Great snake"
4. If the interviewee does not know the month and year of birth, mark "X" in Column Month and Year.
Remarks: If the interviewee does not remember month and date of birth of family members, ask for the household registration to verify.
Record full age by counting the last birthday before 1 April 1980 using 2-digit number in _ _
2. Those who are 98 years old and over record 98.
3. Those who do not know the exact age, but roughly know, record according to what being answered e.g., approximately 20, record 20.
4. Those who tell month and year of birth in the lunar and the Thai Zodiacal calendars. The interviewer must ask and record the estimated age e.g., approximately 30, record 30.
5. If the age is not known, record "X" then continue asking other Columns.
Record code in _ which corresponds to the answer of living conditions of each household member.
1. Permanent resident record code 1 for
- New babies who were born before the date of census and have not been brought home.
- Those moved in the house after the date of census and intend to live and not having been enumerated elsewhere.
- Those leaving for military training, wild material collecting, hunting, fishery, etc. who have no opportunity to be enumerated anywhere else, even though they have left for more than 3 months.
3. Temporary living aboard record code 3 for those who are living aboard for studying, training, study visit, temporary work etc. without intention to live permanently aboard.
Record code 1 or 2 in _ .
Record 2 for Female.
Column 8 The highest level of education
(Ask only persons 5 years and over, or those who were born before and in 1997 (Tiger year in the Thai Zodiacal calendar)
The highest level of education means the highest or last level of education that a person attained as of January 1, 1980)
Ask "What is your highest qualification, or highest or last level of education as of January 1, 1980?" Record the highest level of education as follows:
2. Secondary education:
Upper secondary education
MS4 - MS5 (M7 - M8 in the old system)
M4 - M6 (Since the 1978 academic year)
Record the last final exam of vocational education, followed by the highest general education program in parenthesis. For example:
Year 2 Advance vocational education (P6)
MS6 Vocational education (MS3)
Year 1 Technical vocational education (MS5) etc.
Record the year completed and name of university.
Year 2, Thammasat University
Year 3, Ramkamhaeng University
Year 1, Navy Cadet School
B.A. (Education), M.A. (Education)
d) Those who study religion
Record the religious qualification in this Column. For example:
Second level religion
Buddhism Theology 4
Buddhism Theology 9
f) Never been educated, or never finished up of any years record "Never".
Columns 9 - 12
Ask those who are 11 years old and over, or those who were born before or in the year 1968 (Monkey year)
Column 9 Marital status:
Count the marital status on the date of census.
Ask "Let me know ..............if you are single, married, widowed, divorced, separated, or Buddhist monk?"
Record the marital status according to the answer corresponding to the line of the informant.
- If they are Buddhist monks, priests, novices, record "Buddhist monk."
- If they are Buddhist nuns, ask "Have you been married?" If not, record "single." If yes, record "ever married."
- The marital status is not known, record "x."
- For separate couples, if both husband and wife still maintain their marital status, but not being able to live together for any reasons (e.g., a husband has moved to work in another province and his wife has not moved together, or a husband is going aboard, etc.), the marital status of this couple is regarded as "Married." In case that Husband is temporarily in monkhood, the marital status is "Married."
Column 10 Last year main occupation (April 1979 - March 1980)
Ask "Let me know what you have mainly worked in last year"
Record last year occupation (between April 1979 - March 1980) of the person, e.g. chief police officer, construction worker, jewelers, cosmetic seller, statistician, rice carrying laborer, etc. (DO NOT record Government Service or Trader).
In case of carpenters, be specific, whether they are furniture maker or house constructor. They must have spent most of their time in last year on the aforementioned occupation.
In case that they have more than one occupation and have spent the same time on both occupations, consider the occupation that yields more income as the main occupation.
If not working at all or not having any occupation in last year, record "Did not work."
Column 11 Type of work or type of business of the working place
(Ask only the persons whose occupations recorded in Column 10. If Column 10 is not recorded or recorded "Did not work," DO NOT ask Column 11 or terminate the interview.
Ask "What is a kind of work in your business?", or "What is your business?".
Record type of business of the working place of the person in detail as much as possible, e.g. sugar factory, soft drink factory, electric appliances, shop, construction company, etc. or in some case type of work are recorded e.g., rice farming, mat weaving, street vendor, or fishing, etc.
For government or private offices, record name of the department or organization e.g., National Statistical Office, Department of Interior Trading, Glass Organization, Battery Organization, Government Saving Bank, Bangkok Water Supply, etc.
For government agencies in other provinces, record name of the division or office, e.g. Education Division, Regional Office of Inland Revenue, Petch Buri Public Hospital, etc.
For companies, partnerships, shops or factor, DO NOT record the name, but record type of business or work. For example, "Thai Namthip factory" record "soft drink factory," "Thai Tricot" record "textile factory," "Chaichana Panich" record "grocery shop," etc.
Ask only the persons whose occupations recorded in Column 10 and type of business of the working place in Column 11.
Ask "What is your working status?"
Record the working status of the person clearly, e.g.
- Business owner without employee
- Government employee
- State enterprise employee
- Private employee
- Unpaid family worker
Language used in conversation among members of the household
Spoken language: When 12 columns have been completed, ask the language used in conversation among members of the household: "What are languages you normally speak among yourself?"
Record the language used on the top-right of the PHC 2S Form in Section 2 e.g., Thai, Malay, Yavee, Musor, etc. Only record one language that is mainly used in the household.
Spoken language means the language in which the household members use for regular conversation. The language used may differ from other spoken languages which is used by the household members speak to other persons, or it can be the same language. Again, if the basic language is the same, consider the spoken language counted for the basic language only, for example, the Northern dialect, Southern dialect, Northeastern dialect all of these dialects are counted as Thai language. The Mandarin, Cantonese, Hakka are counted as Chinese language, etc.
Section 1 Location of Household
Record the same way as in the PHC 2S Form, except Item (g)
3. Prison, Jail
4. Social Welfare Agencies
6. Boarding School
7. Military/Police Division
9. Dormitory and others
Circle a code (1 - 9) that corresponds to types of households.
Section 2 Question on Population Columns 1 - 29
Columns 1 and 2 record exactly the same way as in the PHC 2S Form.
Column 3 Relationship with head of the household
If it is a private household, record the same way as in the PHC 2S Form.
For the collective household, record head of the household as "Head," other household members record the status at the moment e.g. monk, novice, follower, prisoner, under arrest, welfare receiver, servant, student, soldier, policeman, tenant, etc.
How to record Columns 4 - 7 do the same way as in the PHC 2S Form.
Column 8 The highest level of education
Ask those who are 5 years old or over, or those who were born before or in 1974 (Tiger year in the Thai zodiacal calendar).
Ask those who are 11 years old and over, or those who were born before or in 1968 (Tiger year in the Thai zodiacal calendar).
Record the detailed information the same way as in the PHC 2S Form.
Columns 13 - 15 Ask every household member
Column 13 Order of mother
(private household only)
Ask "Let me know whether mother of [the person] lives in this household, or not."
If the answer is "Yes," record order of mother (from Column 1) in_ _ corresponding to the line of child using 2 digit numbers.
If "No," record 95 in _ _.
Ask "Let me know, [person's name], what is your religion?"
Record name of the religion held, e.g. If the religion held is Buddhism, record "Buddhism."
If the religion held is Muslim, record "Muslim." If no religion is held, record "No religion."
For children who cannot tell the religion, record the same religion as that of father.
Ask "Let me know, [person's name], where were you born?"
Record name of the province. If the person was not born in Thailand, record name of the country, e.g. USA, UK, etc.
Ask those who are 5 years old and over, or who were born before and in 1974 (Tiger year in the Thai zodiacal calendar).
(Ask those who are between 5 - 30 years old).
Ask "Are you studying as of January 1, 1980?"
- If not attending school or never attended elsewhere, record "No."
- Vocational education without general education program of private schools e.g., hair dressing school, dress making school, radio fixing school, etc., record "No."
- If the interviewee knows the person?s level of education but does not know the class, record the level of education e.g., university, vocational school, secondary school, primary school, etc.
- If the interviewee knows that the person is studying but does not know the class or level, record "studying, not knowing detail."
Ask "Let me know ...........are you able to read and write?"
- If illiterate, record 2 in corresponding to the line of the person being asked in this column.
- If the person?s literacy is not known, record "X."
Ask those who are 5 years old and over, or who were born before or in 1974 (Tiger year)
Ask "How long have you been living in this village/municipality?"
For those temporarily leaving for aboard and being there on the date of census, do not ask this column.
Record "number of years" the person has been living in the village/municipality as of the date of census. If that person has lived less than 1 year, record "0."
Ask only the persons recorded 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or "X" in Column 18.
Column 19 Name of the last living province before moving into the present residence
Ask "Could you tell me the name of the last province you had lived before moving into this place?" record "name of the province."
If moving within the same province, record "name of the district." If moving from other countries, "record name of the country."
Ask only those who migrated within Thailand.
Ask "Have you moved from the village or municipality?"
If moving from the village, record 1 in _ corresponding to the line of the person being asked in this column.
If moving from the municipality, record 2 in _ corresponding to the line of the person being asked in this column.
Column 21 Reasons for migration
Ask "why did you moved to this place?"
Record the reasons for migration to the village or municipality, e.g.
- Follow head of the household
- Follow husband/wife
- Looking for a job
- Job transfer
- Return to homeland
Ask those who are 11 years old and over, or who were born before or in 1968 (Monkey year)
Ask only ever married women
Column 22 Age at first marriage
Ask "How old are you in your first marriage?"
Record the age of ever married women at first marriage in _ corresponding to the line of the women in this column.
Columns 23 -25 Children ever born (as at 0.00 hour of April 1, 1980)
Column 23 Number of children ever born in this household
Ask ever married women "Let me know, [person's name], how many of your children ever born?"
Record the number of children ever born who are living in the household corresponding to the line of the women being asked.
If the woman has not any child ever born at all, record "00" in _ _ corresponding to the line of the woman.
Column 24 Number of children ever born who live in other places
Ask "How many of your children ever born who live in other places?"
Record number of children ever born who live in other places in _ _ corresponding to the line of the woman in this column.
If the women have no children ever born who live in _ _ other places, record "00" in corresponding to the line of the woman.
Column 25 Number of children ever born who had died
Ask "How many of your children ever born who had died?"
Record number of children ever born who had died in _ _ corresponding to the line of the woman in this column.
If the women have no children ever born who had died, record "00" in corresponding to the line of the woman in this column.
In case of married women without children, record "00" in Columns 23, 24, and 25, all three columns.
Ask only women whose marital status is "married" and not older than 50.
Ask "Let me know either you or your husband practices birth control?"
If "Yes," record 1 in _ corresponding to the line of the woman in this column.
If "No," record 2 in _ corresponding to the line of the woman in this column.
Column 27 Methods of birth control
Ask this column only if Column 26 is recorded 1.
Ask "Let me know, [person's name], what the method(s) of birth control you are practicing?"
Record code(s) in _ corresponding to the line of the women.
- IUD, record 2
- Injection, record 3
- Women sterilization, record 4
- Male sterilization, record 5
- Methods other than the 5 aforementioned, record 6.
Column 28 Occupation in last 7 days before the date of census (March 25
- 31, 1980)
Ask "What have you been doing for a living in last 7 days (March 25 - 31, 1980)?"
Record occupation of the interviewee between March 25 - 31, 1980 specifically, e.g. electric appliances sale man, teacher of P4, principal, furniture carpenter, rice carrying laborer, servant, etc.
Do not record government services, trading, or employee because it is not specific.
Those who have more than one occupation, record only one:
2. If they spent equal time in two occupations, record the occupation they earned more income.
In case that the interviewees have their permanent job e.g., a teacher of a public school or employee of a company:
2. In last 7 days (March 25 - 31, 1980) they spent more time doing jobs other than their permanent jobs e.g. handicraft in last 7 days before the date of census, their occupations in last 7 days before the date of census are "handicraft maker."
For those who have no permanent job e.g., rice carrying laborer, vender, in last 7 days they have not worked, their occupations in last 7 days before the date of census are "jobless."
Those who did not work e.g., retired officers living on pension, moneylender living on interest, are regarded as "jobless" in this Column.
If the interviewees do not know the occupation of the persons in question, but know they have worked, record "work, do not know occupation".
Again, occupation in last 7 days before the date of census of a person may be the same as, or different from, permanent occupation in last year round (Column 10).
Column 29 Reasons for not working
Ask only those recorded "Do not work" in Column 28.
Ask "Let me know why you do not work?"
Record the reasons. In case that the person is jobless or has no occupation, e.g.
- waiting for growing season
- doing household chore
- being a student
- old age, disability
- millionaire, millionaires
Section 3 Questions on Housing
(Ask only private household)
Questions on housing are concerned with living places of every private household in municipal area. For those outside municipal area and Bangkok, ask only the sample households.
Guideline for questioning and recording
2. If a household living in many houses in the same area, consider the house where head of the household lives.
3. If several households living in the same house, consider conditions of the living place of the main household, other households or conditions of living are regarded as rooms in the house.
4. In recording answer, circle one code number only. If answer is "others," specify and record the answer clearly.
5. The question that has no answer code, record statement or number in the blank on the dot line.
How to record questions on housing
H 1. Conditions of living place of household (consider the house)
Circle only one code number corresponding to the conditions of the living place, e.g.
2. Twin house/duplex
3. Row house, row building
5. Room within house
6. Boat, raft, motor house
If the living place are different from the aforementioned conditions, record the conditions of the living place in Item "Others, specify"____.
H 2. Type of living place (consider the house)
Consider the material used in construction as
Take the majority of body of the house into consideration using 5 important components of the house e.g., pole, floor, ceiling, wall, and roof (see Definition Chapter 3).
Circle only one code number corresponding to the type of living places:
2. Combination of Brick/Cement with wood
3. Using permanent materials
4. Using materials found locally
5. Constructed with decayed and used material
H 3. Living place using as business offices
Circle one code corresponding to the answer only:
2. Do not use as business office
H 4. Possession of living place of the household (excluding land)
Ask "What is the possession status of the person in this household?", then circle a code corresponding to the answer only.
2. Hire purchaser
4. Live without paying rent as it is part of salary/wages
5. Owner allows to stay without paying rent
Ask only the households circled code "3" that is "Rent" in (H 4)
Ask "Do you pay bond money in renting this living place?", then circle a code corresponding to the answer only.
2. No, I don?t
Ask only the households circled code "3" that is "Rent" in (H 4).
Ask "How much for the rent?"
Record the rent per month in the blank ____.
H 7. Owner of this living place
Ask households circled code 3, 4 or 5 in (H 4) that is "Rent" or "Live without paying rent"
Ask "Who is the owner of this living place?" Then circle a code corresponding to the answer:
3. Other (specify____)
H 8. Land ownership
Ask only households circled code 1, 2 that is "owner" or "hire purchaser" in (H 4).
Ask "Is any household member own, hire purchaser, rent, or living without paying rental fee?" Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Hire purchaser
4. Living without paying rent
Other (specify ____)
Record in the blank when the answer is other than the four aforementioned answers in "Other (specify ____)"
Ask only households circled code "3" or "4" that is "rent" or "without paying rent" in (H 8).
Ask "who is the owner of land that this household rent or living without paying rent?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Government property
Other (specify ____)
Record in the blank when the answer is other than the four aforementioned answers in "Other (specify ____)"
Ask "How many bedrooms and the rooms using as bedrooms in this house?"
Record number of bedrooms and the rooms using as bedrooms in the blank ____.
In case that there are many households in a house, count only number of bedrooms and the rooms using as bedrooms of the household being asked.
If a household living in many houses, count number of bedrooms and the room using as household of all houses.
If there is no bedroom, record "0." A household must have a bedroom at least.
If there is no partition board/wall, record the rooms using as bedrooms "1" (See the Section of Housing, in Definition Chapter)
Ask "Where does the main source of drinking water come from?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer. If it comes from several sources, consider the source that the house mostly uses only one answer:
2. External tap water (tap is outside the house, from public tap, or connecting house pipe with other houses)
3. Groundwater or public shallow well
4. Groundwater or non-public shallow well
5. Rain water
6. River, stream, creek, waterfall
Record in the blank when the answer is other than the six aforementioned answers in "Other (specify____)"
Ask "Where does the main source of using water come from?"
Record the same way as in (H 11).
In case that there are more than one main sources of using water, answer only one source that the household mostly use. For example, rain water is used, but when it is finished, water from a stream is used. In one year round, record the source which is mostly used.
Circle 5 if rain water is mostly used.
Circle 6 if water from a stream is mostly used, etc.
H 13. Bathing place of household members
Ask "Where do people in this household take a bath?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Shared with other household
4. Well, river, stream, creek, pond
Record the answer on the broken line____ corresponding to "Other" when the answer is other than the aforementioned answers.
Ask "What type of lighting is used in this household?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Air pumping lamp
3. Oil lamp
Other (specify ____)
Record the answer on the dot line ____ corresponding to "Other" when the answer is other than the aforementioned answers.
Ask "What type of toilet facility is normally used in this household?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Shared with other household
4. Shared with other household
6. Other or none
Ask "Where does this household cook?"
Circle a code corresponding to the answer:
2. Shared with other household
Record the answer on the broken line ____ corresponding to "Other" when the answer is other than the aforementioned answers.
Ask "What cooking fuel is used in this household?"
Circle Code 1 if it is mainly used, and circle Code 2 if it is supplementary used.
[An example has been omitted.]
For the households that do not use any fuel, circle "None."
H 18. Possession of utensils on the date of census
Ask "Normally, does the household possess the following items?
Circle Code 1 if the household possesses it, and circle Code 2 if the household does not possess it.
[An example has been omitted.]
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[The rest of the document has been omitted.]