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[Thailand]
Enumeration Instruction
Population and Housing Census, 1970

National Statistical Office
Office of the Prime Minister

Chapter 3 Definition

3.1 The listing
The listing is the act of counting the specified units and recording in the listing form (PHC-1). In population and housing census, a household is specified as a unit of counting.

3.2 The enumeration
Enumeration is the process in which the officer interviews members of the household in order to obtain detailed information about the persons living in the particular household, household characteristics and living conditions of the persons in that particular household. Then, the information obtained will be recorded in the enumeration form (PHC-2).

3.3 Date of the Census
The date of the census is a specified date chosen as the time period for counting the population and households in which the population of the census area are living. The 1970 Population and Housing Census has designated April 1, 1970 as the date of the census.

3.4 Time of the Census
The time of the census is the time given to indicate the focal point of the facts that occur on "the date of the census". In the 1970 Population and Housing Census, the time is 0.00 am of April 1, 1970.

3.5 Enumeration Period
The enumeration period runs from April 2, 1970 to April 29, 1970 (excluding the Thai New Year holidays on April 13, 14, and 15). The total time is 25 days.

3.6 Municipality AreaA municipal area is all specific localities appointed by the Royal Decree to be the municipality.

3.7 Non-municipality area
A non-municipality area is all the areas outside the municipality area, or the area called village. For some villages, a part of the village or the whole village can be a sanitation district.

3.8 Census Area
Census area is a specified area where the enumerators do listing and enumeration. The area can be divided into two categories:

3.8.1 Municipal Area: Each census area has approximately 200 - 300 households.
3.8.2 Non-municipal Area (village): In general cases, a village is considered as one census area. In the case of a large village, there may be more than one census areas within the same village.
3.9 Grouped building: Block
The grouped building refers to the sub-section of the census area located within the municipality area. This sub-section is designed to ease the counted record and the enumeration.

3.10 House
A house is a building or construction used for living. This includes boats and houseboats.

3.11 HouseholdA household is one person or many persons living in the same house, and these persons together seek for, consume, and utilize all facilities for living, regardless of whether they are relatives or not.

There are two types of households: private households and collective households.
3.11.1 Private household refers to a household that lives in a house. Private households can be divided into two categories:
a) Individual household refers to a household that has one person who may be the owner, tenure, resident, or house guard. S/he is not a member of any other household that may live in the same house.
b) Multiple-individual household refers to a household that has 2 persons or more living together in the same house, and they seek for and utilize all facilities for living together, regardless of whether they are relatives or not.
3.12.2 Collective household refers to a household that consists of several people living together because of certain rules or regulations indicating that these people must live together, or need to stay together for their own benefit. These people may or may not eat together.
There are two types of collective households.
1. Institution household
These include:
a. Monks, novices, nuns, and adherents who live in a monastery or temple.
b. Patients who stay in a hospital for more than three months, physicians and nurses who do not live in separated houses.
c. Boarding pupils and teachers who stay in the boarding school.
d. People who receive assistance in a foster home or shelter, and the care-takers who do not live at a separate place.
e. Prisoners in a prison or jail.
f. Soldiers or policemen who stay in the camp or barracks, including cadet and police cadet.
2. Other collective household
These include:
a. People who regularly rent a room in a hotel.
b. People who rent a room in a dormitory.
c. Six or more laborers who live together in a factory that is their working place, and the owner of the factory provides food for them to eat together.
For the households of directors, managers and staff of the collective households: if they stay in the separate houses, their households are considered private households. Examples are households of the staffs who work in prisons or temples, households of hospital directors, households of hotel managers, households of the janitors in the student dormitory, etc.

3.12 Living Place of a HouseholdA living place is a place in which a household usually lives. It can have one of the following characteristics.

a. A single house that includes kitchen, garage, maid's house (if any) that is connected to the main house
b. Several houses located within the same area, that are used as a living place for the same household
c. Row house, row rooms, or row building
d. Suites
e. Rooms in a house
f. Boats or cars (movable)
g. Other types of living place such as caves, cars, boats that are not movable
3.13 Single house
A single house is a house that is built separately and not attached to another house. A Thai-style house that is composes of separate houses joined together by a platform and is used as a living place for people in the same household is considered a single house. A boathouse that is used as a living place is also considered a single house.

3.14 Row house, row rooms, or row building
These refer to houses that have the floor above the ground or rooms that have the floor attached to the ground. The row houses have two rooms or more attached to one another, and the common wall can be one or more than one side. The building may have single story or multiple stories, and the row houses also include row boathouses.

3.15 Suites
A suite is a group of rooms that are a part of a building, and it is used as a living place for a household. A suite includes kitchen, bathroom, and its own entrance to that living place.

3.16 Rooms within a house
This refers to a room or more than one room within a house that a household uses as a living place. This household may or may not share the kitchen, bathroom, and the entrance to the living place with another household that lives within the same house.

3.17 Movable boats, rafts or cars
A boat refers to a boat that is used as a living place for a household.
A raft refers to a raft that floats along the river and has a living place on it. This raft does not include the boathouses that stay near the river bank.
A car refers to a car or a trailer that is used as a living place for a household.

3.18 Living places that are used for commercial purposeThese refer to the living places of households and the surrounding area that are used not only for living but also for trading, selling, exchanging merchandises and/or products, and providing services. Examples are newspapers stores, convenient stores, bike shop, tailor shop, barber, restaurant, mechanic garage, etc.

3.19. Head of the Household
The head of the household is the person who the members of the household accept as having the highest responsibility in running and taking care of the welfare of the household.

3.19.1 For private households with more than one person, the head of the household generally is the:
a. Husband, for the households that have husband and wife
b. Son/daughter, for the households in which the parents are old and assign the son/daughter with taking care of the welfare of the household members
c. Elder brother/sister, for the households in which siblings live together
d. Senior person, for the household in which friends live together
e. Elder relatives, for the household in which relatives live together
3.19.2 For collective households, the head of the household is the following.
a. Head monk (abbot) in a temple
b. Student head in a boarding school
c. Student head in a university dormitory
d. A customer who stays regularly in a general dormitory
e. A prisoner in a prison or jail
f. Superintendent in the nursing student dormitories
g. A customer who stay regularly in a hotel
h. A soldier or policeman in a barrack
i. Head of workers in a factory

In a case in which there are other people who regularly live in the collective household and who are counted as members of the household, such as guardian teacher in boarding schools, dormitory managers, prison superintendents, low-ranked soldiers and policeman, factory managers etc, these people are regarded as heads of the households.
3.20 Relationship between members and the household head for private householdsThe member(s) of the household must have one of the following relationships with the household head.

a. Wife or husband
b. Son/daughter, step-son/step-daughter, or adopted son/daughter
c. Son-in-law or daughter-in-law
d. Grandchildren
e. Father or mother
f. Other relatives such as father-in-law, mother-in-law, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece, great grandchildren, etc.
g. Dweller
h. Servant/maid, gardener, or driver.

3.21 Structure of private households (with more than one member)When the head of the household and the relationship with the head of the households are specified, the structure of the private households can be categorized as follows.

Structure 1: A household that is composed of husband and wife
Structure 2: A household that is composed of husband, wife, and children who are not married, or who were married but are now widowed or single, and there are no grandchildren.
Structure 3: A household that is composed of husband, wife, and married children who do not have children (and children that are described in Structure 2, if any)
Structure 4: A household that is composed of husband, wife, married children, and grandchildren (and children that are described in Structure 2 or 3, if any)
Structure 5: A household that has a different structure from all of the above

3.22 CitizenshipCitizenship is a legal status showing that a person is a citizen of a country. Citizenship is given to each individual since birth, and could be changed under the conditions of the laws of his/her own country or the country of which s/he wants to become a citizen.

The guidelines used to consider whether a person has Thai citizenship are:

a. Any person whose father and mother are Thai, regardless of whether s/he was born inside or outside the country.
b. Any person whose mother is Thai, if the citizenship of the father is unknown.
c. Any person who is born in the Kingdom of Thailand.
d. Foreign women who are legally married to Thai men.
e. Foreigners who have already changed their citizenship to Thai.
f. Thai women who change their citizenship to that of their foreign husbands will obtain the Thai citizenship back when they get divorced and wish to have Thai citizenship.

For other people who do not have Thai citizenship, their citizenships are the ones that they used last on April 1, 1970.

3.23 DisabilityDisability means the physical defects of the individual's body that make that person unable to perform regular activities. Disability can be one of following characteristics.

a. "Handicapped" refers to the person who has disabled arms and/or legs, and can neither move normally nor assist themselves.
b. "Mute" refers to the person who is unable to speak, and is usually deaf.
c. "Deaf" refers to the person who has complete loss of hearing.
d. "Blind" refers to the person who has complete loss of sight.
e. "Others" refer to persons who have the disability other than the ones mentioned above. This includes persons who are mentally disabled, or who lose both legs or both arms due to accidents.

3.24 EducationEducation levels can be categorized as follows.

3.24.1 Formal education, which is divided into:
a) Nursery (or pre-school)

b) Primary education: P1 - P4 and P5 - P7 (M1 - M3 of the old system).
[P = Prathom means primary levels]
[M = Mathayom means secondary level]
c) Secondary education:
Lower secondary education: MS1 - MS3 (M4 - M6 of the old system)
Upper secondary education: MS4 - MS5 (M7 - M8 of the old system)
[MS = Mathayomsuksa also means secondary level]
3.19.2 Vocational Education
Before 1961, vocational education was divided into:
a) Lower vocation: accepts those who complete P4; the curriculum is 3 years.
b) Upper vocation: accepts those who complete M3; the curriculum is 3 years.
c) Higher vocation: accepts those who complete M6; the curriculum is 3 years.
After 1961, vocational education was divided into:
a) Lower secondary vocational education: accepts those who complete P7; the curriculum is 3 years. (MS1-MS3)
b) Upper secondary vocational education: accepts those who complete MS3; the curriculum is 3 years. (MS4-MS5)
In addition, there are vocational education levels for occupational certificate.
a) Vocational diploma: continues education from MS3 for 3 more years.
b) Higher vocational diploma: continues education from MS3 for 5 more years.
c) Vocational teacher training diploma: accepts those who complete vocational diploma or upper secondary vocational education; the curriculum is 2 years.
d) Secondary teacher training diploma: accepts those who complete higher vocational diploma; the curriculum is 1 year.
e) Higher certificate in technique teacher training: accepts those who complete higher vocational diploma; the curriculum is 2 years
f) Short-training course in vocational education (less than one-year curriculum): examples are Polytechnic school, technician school.
3.24.3 Tertiary Education means education in university, college, cadet school, police cadet school, or other higher institutions at the same level of the university.
3.24.4 Other Education: examples are teaching, nursing, arts, physical education, including other schools that are a part of other government agencies such as chemistry lab, train engineering, etc.

3.25 Marital StatusMarital status refers to the relationship between a man and a woman as husband and wife. Marital status can be classified as follows.

a) Single: those who are 11 years or older and have never been married.
b) Married: those who live together as husband and wife, regardless of whether they have been legally married (having marital registration), or not.
c) Widowed: those whose husband/wife died and have not been remarried.
d) Divorced: husband and wife who have been legally divorced.
e) Separated: those who do not live with their husband/wife, but have not been legally divorced.

3.26 Children ever bornChildren ever born are children who were alive at birth, even though they may have lived for a short moment. Children who do not breathe at birth are not classified as children ever born.
Children ever born include:

a. Children who were born alive and still live
b. Children who were born alive but have already died, even though they were alive for a short moment

Children ever born exclude:

a. Children who do not breathe at birth; that is, they were dead before delivery
b. Aborted children
c. Step son/daughter or adopted son/daughter

3.27 OccupationOccupation means a regular job that the person is working on, e.g. dentist, journalist, rural school teacher, rice farmers, merchants, etc.

Those whose income is from loan interests, deposit interests, bonds, dividends, rent, pension, and who do not have another job are considered as having no occupation.

3.28 Main OccupationMain occupation refers to a job on which the person spends most of the time within a specified period of time. For example, the main occupation within the last 7 days before the date of census refers to a job on which the person spends most of his/her time in the last 7 days before the date of census (that is, between March 25-31, 1970).

"Most of the time" means the time that is spent on a particular job more than on any other job, if the person works on more than one job.

Or the person may work on one job but works only for 2 days. That job is considered the main occupation.

Or the person may not work at all because they are sick or they are on leave during the 7-day period, but he/she has a regular job such as government employee or employee of a private company. That person is considered as having an occupation and his/her regular job is the main occupation.

3.29 Last year main occupation Last year main occupation refers to a job on which the person spent most of his/her time from April 1969 to March 1970.

3.30 Enterprise type of the working place means:

3.30.1 The enterprise type of the place at which one is working such as a tire factory, Department of Foreign Trade, Housing office, Tourism Authority of Thailand, gunny bag weaving factory, State Railway of Thailand, movie theatre, etc.

3.30.2 The type of job on which the person is working such as durian farming, umbrella making, rice farming, transportation service, etc.

3.31 Employment statusEmployment status refers to the status that the person is occupying in a working place or in a business. Employment status can be divided into the following categories.

3.31.1 Employers refer to those who run their business and hire other people to work as employees.
Employers in this sense do not include those who hire someone to cook, clean, do laundry, and baby-sit, etc.
Example 1: Mr. Som owns a restaurant and hires Miss Samorn as a chef of the restaurant. Mr. Som is regarded as an employer.
Example 2: Mr. Chart owns a coffee shop and hires Mrs. Chusri to cook for Mr. Chart's household. Mr. Chart is not considered as an employer.
3.31.2 Employees mean those who work for the others and receive wages or get paid on monthly, daily, or product-piece basis, or service fees from employers. Wages can be in the form of money or other materials.
Employees can be divided into 2 categories.
a. "Government employees" refers to government officials and workers, state enterprise's workers, employees of government agencies, international organizations, municipality, and local organizations
b. "Private employees" refers to those who work for private companies or private businesses. Those who work in households such as doing laundry, baby sitting, cooking are also considered private employees.
3.31.3 Private business owner without employee means those who are self-employed and do business for profit. They may work alone or work with others for dividends, but they do not hire others to be employees in their business. They may have relatives or trainees working with them, but the relatives or trainees do not receive any wage or allowance.
Example 1: Mrs. Me has a hair salon and a tailor shop at home, where she works alone. Mrs. Me is regarded as a private business owner without employees.
Example 2: Mrs. Me has a hair salon and a tailor shop at home. Mrs. Me has Miss Sri as a partner, and their share the profits. Both Mrs. Me and Miss Sri are considered as private business owners without employees.
Example 3: Mrs. Me has a hair salon and a tailor shop at home, and she has Miss Som who is her daughter as her assistant. Mrs. Me does not pay any wage to Miss Som. Mrs. Me is regarded as private business owner without employees, and Miss Som is a worker in the household business without receiving any wage.
Example 4: Mr. Daeng, his wife, and their 3 children together plough and plant rice in their own rice farm. They ask for help from their neighbors to help in harvesting. Mr. Daeng is regarded as a private business owner without employees, and his wife and children are workers in the household business without receiving any wage.
3.31.4 Household business assistants without wages refer to those who work in the household activities without receiving wages in the agricultural activities or in business. Their household members may own and run the business, and the household business assistants may work for any time period.
Example 1: Mr. Korn helps his father in the garage owned by his father, and Mr. Korn does not get paid nor receives any dividends.
Example 2: Mr. Chom lives in Mr. Chob (his brother)'s house, and he helps Mr. Chob in farming without getting paid.
Both Mr. Korn and Mr. Chom are regarded as household business assistants without wages. If anyone is paid or receives allowance, they will be regarded as private employees.

3.32 Time of census and the enumeration

3.32.1 People who are qualified to be enumerated need to be considered according to the time of census as follows.
a. People who are born before or at the time of the census. That is, they must be born before or at 0:00am on April 1, 1970.
b. People who die at or after the time of the census. That is, they are dead at or after 0:00am on April 1, 1970.
3.32.2 People who are not qualified for the enumeration include:
a. Those who died before the time of the census. That is, they died before 0:00am on April 1, 1970.
b. Those who were born after the time of the census. That is, they are born after 0:00am on April 1, 1970 although they may be present on the date of the enumeration.
3.32.3 Marital status and the time of the census: the marital status of the person is considered from their marital status at 0:00am on April 1, 1970.
3.33 The period of time reference
For the information about the number of children ever born, occupation, and enterprise type of the working place, the time of census cannot be used as a criterion in the enumeration. So, the period of time reference is needed.

3.33.1 For the number of children ever born,
a. The total number of children ever born is counted from the total number of children even born from the woman until 0:00am on April 1, 1970.
b. The number of ever born children who are alive is considered from the living of those children at 0:00am on April 1, 1970.

3.33.2 For occupation,
a. Occupation in the last 7 days before the enumeration date is recorded from the [person's] occupation from March 27 to April 31, 1970.
b. Occupation, enterprise, type of the working place, and the employment status of the last year occupation are considered from the fact between April 1969 and March 1970.
Chapter 5 Instruction in recording listing and enumeration forms

5.4 Recording in the enumeration form (PHC 2)
PHC-2 form is the form that the enumerators use to record details on members of households and on location of the households.

5.4.1 Part 1
Location of household

a. Road, lane, canal
Record the location of the house by recording the name of the road, lane, or canal in column 3. If the households are on the same road, lane, or canal, record the name of the road, lane, or canal only one time.

b. House number

c. Name of place (if any)

d. Village number
If the area is outside a municipal area, record the village number and the enumeration district number. If it is inside a municipal area, an enumeration district number and a block number will be given.

e. Enumeration district number

f. Block number
Record a block number if the enumeration district is in a municipal area.
g. Municipal area, sanitary district, or outside municipal area or sanitary district
If the enumerated house is in a municipal area or a sanitary district, circle numbers 1 or 2 that corresponds to the answer.
If the house is outside a municipal area and a sanitary district, circle number 3.
If the house is in a sanitary district, record the name of the sanitary district as well.

h. Household number
Record the household number that corresponds to the number of the household as appeared in PHC-1 form.

i. Type of household
For private households, circle number 1.
For collective households, select one of the following categories:
2 Temple
3 Prison, jail
4 Welfare lodging
5 Hospital
6 Boarding school
7 Military or police barracks
For other types of collective households such as hotel, dormitory, and other, select the category that matches the type of that household.

5.4.2 Part 2

From column 1 to column 10, ask everyone.

Column 1: Name and surname
Record rank (if any), title (e.g., Mr., Mrs., Miss, etc.), given name, and family name of every person in the household in the following order:
Head of household
Wife or husband
Unmarried children, ranked from the older to the younger
Married children, their spouses, and grandchildren
Father, mother, siblings, nieces, nephews
Other relatives
Residents
Maids

A child without a given name, record a nick name or "unnamed boy" or "unnamed girl."

Column 2: Relationship with the head of householdFor the head of household, record "Head". For other household members, record the relationship with the head of household (see details in chapter 3 number 3.20).

For the head of a collective household, record only "head" but do not record the relationship with the head of household. Instead, record their status in the collective households such as monk, nun, prisoner, student, worker, etc.

Column 3: SexRecord sex in this column.

Column 4: Month and year of birthRecord the month and year of birth in details.

If the interviewee knows the lunar month and zodiac year, record according to what is told and do not convert to solar month or the B.E. year.

If the interviewee knows only the year of birth, record the year as told.

If the interviewee knows neither the month nor year of birth, write "X".

Column 5: AgeRecord the full age by referring to the table HPC-9A [Tabulation for age and B.E. year of birth] and HPC-9B [Tabulation for age and zodiac calendar].

1. If the interviewee answers the solar month and the B.E. year, use the following guidelines:
If the person was born during April and December, look up the age in the HPC-9A table and record accordingly. For example, if the person was born in July 2497 B.E. [1936 A.D.], record age "33".

If the person was born before April, i.e. during January and March, look up the age in the HPC-9A table and always add 1 to that age. For example, if the person was born in January 2485 B.E. [1942 A.D.], record age "28".

For children born between January and March 1970, record "0".
2. If the interviewee answers the month and year of birth in the lunar month and zodiac year such as ‘born in the 4th month of a rooster year', ask the approximate age of that person. If the person's age is about 20, look up the age in the HPC-9B table, and if the corresponding age is 25, record "25" regardless of whether that person was born before or after the 5th month.
3. If the interviewee does not know the month but knows the B.E. year 2490 B.E. [1947 A.D.], record age "22" according to the PHC-9A table.
4. If the interviewee does not know the month but knows the zodiac year, ask for the approximate age of that person and look up in the PHC-9B table. For example, if the person was born in a tiger year and his age is about 30 years, and the corresponding age in the 30s range for a tiger year is 31, record age "31".
5. If the interviewee knows neither the month nor the year of both, record the age according to what is told.
6. If the interviewee does not know the age at all, write "X".
7. For children younger than 1 year old, record "0".


Column 6: Residence statusResidence status can be divided into 3 categories:

1. The person regularly lives in the house.
2. The person normally lives in the house on a regular basis, but he or she has been temporarily away for no more than 3 months.
3. The person temporarily lives in the house for less than 3 months, and he or she does not live somewhere else.

Record the residence status according to one of the following categories:
Permanent resident
Temporarily away
Temporary resident
For a child who was born before April 1, 1970, and has not been brought home, record "permanent resident" as well.

For persons who live in the house temporarily, regardless of whether or not they have another house somewhere else, if they live in the house for more than 3 months, they are considered as permanent resident.


Column 7: ReligionRecord the religion held by that person, e.g. Buddhist, Islam, Christian, or Hindu. If the religion is none of the above, record the name of the religion.

If the person does not have any religion, record "no religion". For children who cannot give the answer, consider their religions according to their fathers' religions.

If the person is not at the house and the interviewee cannot give the answer, write "X".

Column 8: Citizenship (See details in chapter 3 number 3.22)
Ask: "what is the legal citizenship of that person?"

If the person answers Thai citizenship, record "Thai".

If the person answers another citizenship, record according to the country of their citizenship.


Column 9: Place of BirthAsk: "In what province was the person born?" Then, record the name of the province.

If the person was born outside Thailand, record the name of the country in which the person was born.

For a child who was not born in the place that was the mother's regular living place, consider the mother's regular living place as the child's place of birth. For example, if the boy A was born at Siriraj hospital in Thonburi province, but the mother's house is in Bangkok, consider Bangkok as the boy's place of birth.

Column 10: Physical disabilityAsk: "Is anyone in the household disabled?" (See the definition of disability in chapter 3 number 3.23.) Record accordingly.

If the person has more than one physical disability such as blind and deaf or lost legs and deaf, record all characteristics of the person's disability.

If the answer is no physical disability, record "No".

[From column 11 to column 16, record only persons who are 5 years or older. For children who are 4 years old or younger, write a dash.]

Columns 11 through 13: Migration in the last 5 years

Column 11: Length of stayAsk: "For how long has the person been living in this village or this municipal area?"
Record the number of years that the person has lived in that village or municipal area.

If that person has lived there less than 1 year, record "0".

If the number of years is less than 5 years, consider that person as "moved" and continue asking questions in columns 12 and 13.

If the number of years is 5 years or more, consider that person as "not moved" and write a dash in columns 12 and 13.

For children younger than 5 years old, write a dash.

For columns 12 and 13: ask persons who record the number of years in residence as less than 5 years (record 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 in column 11)

Column 12: Place of previous residenceAsk: "Before moving to this village or municipal area, in which province or country did that person live?" Record the last province in which the person lived before moving into this province.

If the person has moved within the same province, record the name of that province.

If the person has moved from abroad, record the name of the last country in which the person has lived.

For children aged 5 years or younger and for people who record the number of years more than 5 years in column 11, write a dash.

Column 13: Whether the person has moved from village or municipal areaAsk: "Has the person moved from a village or a municipal area?"

If the answer is s/he moved from a municipal area, record "municipality".

If the answer is s/he moved from a village, record "village".

For children aged 5 years or younger and for people who record the number of years more than 5 years in column 11, write a dash in this column.

Column 14: LiteracyAsk: "Is the person able to read and write?"

If the answer is "able to read and write", record "Yes".

If the answer is "unable to read and write", record "No".

The ability to read and write in this context refers to the ability to read and write in any language.

If the person can read only but cannot write, consider that person as "unable to read and write" and record "No".

For the persons who are not at the house and the interviewee does not know the answer, write "X".

For children aged younger than 5 years, write a dash.

Columns 15 to 16: Education (See details in chapter 3 number 3.24)

Column 15: School attendance and grade [Ask of persons aged 5-29 years only].

Ask "On January 1, 1970, did the person study in any school?"

If the answer is "study", ask which class the person attended and record in this column. Examples are: M.S.1 [year 1 of secondary level], P.4 [year 4 of primary level], year 2 of Mechanic College, or year 1 of Chulalongkorn University, etc.

If the person studied in vocational education without any general education program such as hair dressing, dress making, radio fixing courses, etc., record "No".

If the person did not study, record "No".

If the answer is "study" but the interviewee does not know the class or level, record "study, unknown class."

For persons younger than 5 or older than 29, write a dash.

Column 16: Highest education level completedThe highest education level/grade means the last level or grade that the person passed the final examination of that level before January 1, 1970.

Ask the level of education at which the person completed, and record the education level as follows.

a. Formal education
Record the level of education such as:
1. Education in the old system, e.g. P4, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, M8, etc.
2. Education in the current system, e.g. P5, P6, P7, MS1, MS2, MS3, MS4, MS5, etc.
b. Vocational education
Record the level of vocational education that the person completed or the certificates of vocation including the highest level of formal education that the person completed. Examples are: year 1 lower vocation (P4), year 2 higher vocation (M6), year 2 upper vocation (M3), MS2 vocational education (P7), MS6 vocational education (MS3), etc.
c. Tertiary
Record the level that the person completed or the diploma including the university names. Examples are: Year 1 Chulalongkorn University, Year 2 Thammasat University, Year 3 Cadet School, B.S., Certificate of education, etc.
d. If the person studied religion such as Third grade religion, Second grade religion, Buddhism Theology 5, etc., record the religious degree and the formal education level.
e. If the person finished vocational education programs that did not teach formal subjects, such as dressmaker curriculum, mechanic curriculum, etc., do not record the vocation education in this column, but record the formal education level.
f. If the person never studied at any level, record "Never".
g. For children younger than 5 years old, write a dash.

[Examples of highest grades completed are omitted here.]

[From column 17 to column 24, ask only persons age 11 years or older.]

Column 17: Marital statusThis marital status is considered from the status at the time of census.
Ask whether the person is never married, married, widowed, divorced, or separated, and record accordingly.

For Buddhist monks and novices, record "monk".

For Buddhist nun, record "nun" but also ask whether she has ever been married before. If yes, record "nun-ever married". If not, record "nun-never married".

For the couples that do not live together: if their legal status is married but they cannot live together due to some reasons such as working in a different province, record "married".

Column 18: Total number of children ever born alive (See detail in chapter 3 number 3.26) [Ask only ever married women.]

For single persons and women aged less than 11 years, write a dash.

Ask: "How many children ever born alive does the woman have?"

Record the total number of children ever born alive in column 18.

If the woman is married but has no children, record "None".

Column 19: Number of children ever born alive who are still livingAsk: "From the number of children even born alive, how many of them are still living as of 0:00 am of April 1, 1970?"
Record the number of children ever born alive who are still living as of 0:00 am of April 1, 1970 in this column.

In the case where there are some number of children ever born alive in column 18, but none of them is still living, record "none" in column 19.

If record "none" in column 18, do not ask this question and write a dash in this column.

Ever-married women refer to women whose marital status in column 17 is married, widowed, divorced, or separated.

For the nuns whose marital status is "nun-ever married", ask for the number of children ever born alive as well.

Column 20: Main occupation in the last 7 days before the date of census (see details in chapter 3 numbers 3.27 and 3.28)Ask: "What was the person's main occupation during March 25 - 31, 1970?" Record the occupation that the person spent most of his/her time in the last 7 days before the census date.

If, in the last 7 days before the census date, the person did not work because of sickness or on annual leave, ask what his/her regular occupation was, and record that occupation in this column.

If the person answers "did not work", record "did not work".

In recording the main occupation, record the most specific occupation. Examples are "construction workers" and not "workers", or "cosmetic seller" and not "seller".

Column 21: Reasons for not working in the last 7 days before the census dateIf the person answers "did not work" in column 20, ask: "Why did the person not work during March 25-31, 1970?" and record the reason in this column.

The reasons are categorized as follows:

a. looking for a job
b. waiting for agriculture season (record the head of household only)
c. doing household works (work by themselves or supervise the others)
d. being a student (even during the school breaks)
e. unable to work due to sickness, old age, or disability
f. other (specify), e.g. being a monk, millionaire, having earnings from loans, rent, dividends without the need to work, etc.

If the reason for not working is because of temporary absence due to sickness or for vacation during March 25-31, 1970, but the person still has a regular job, do not record in this column. The interviewer needs to go back to column 20, and record the person's regular job as the main occupation.

Column 22: Main occupation last year (see details in chapter 3 number 3.39)Ask: "What did the person mainly work on last year?" and record the occupation that the person spent most of his/her time on during April 1969 - March 1970.

If the answer is "did not work", record "did not work" and terminate the interview. Record a dash in columns 23 and 24.

The main occupation last year may or may not be the same as the main occupation during the last 7 days before the census date.

If working in Column 22, answer in columns 23 and 24.

Column 23: Industry (Type of enterprise of the working place)(See details in chapter 3 number 3.30)
Ask: "What type of enterprise or industry was the person's working place?" Record the type of enterprise of the working place in detail as much as possible.
Examples are: sugar factory, Provincial Electricity Authority, salon, bus station, construction company, etc.

If the person is self-employed, record the type of industry/business that person works. Examples are: fruit plantation, food vendor, rice farming, fishing, weaving textiles, etc.

If the person owns a company, store, or factory, record do not record the name of the company, store, or the factory, but record the type of business. For example, for "Thai Namthip factory" record "soft drink factory", or for "Archanay Insurance Company" record "insurance company", etc.

Examples of main occupations and type of industries
Mr. A works as an accountant in a bag-weaving factory. Mr. A's occupation is "accountant", and the industry of his working place is "bag-weaving factory".
Mr. B works as a ticket collector in a movie theatre. Mr. B's occupation is "ticket collector", and the industry of his working place is "movie theatre".
Mr. C works on a vegetable farm. Mr. C's occupation is "vegetable farmer", and the industry type is "vegetable farming".
Mr. D drives a truck to deliver merchandise. Mr. D's occupation is a "truck driver", and the industry type is "truck driving".

Column 24: Work Status (see details in chapter 3 number 3.31)Ask: "What was the person's work status?" Record the work status from one of the following categories:

Employer
Business owner without employee
Government employee
Private employee
Unpaid family worker

[Examples of main occupations and types of the enterprises are omitted.]

Part 3
For persons who temporarily lived in this household for less than 3 months and have regular living places elsewhere, record in the part 3.

Column 1: Record name and last name

Column 2: Record sex

Column 3: Record age

Columns 4 through 7: Record the regular living place by indicating the names of province, district, and sub-district.

If the person comes from a non-municipal area, record the village name.

If the person comes from a village within a sanitary district, record the village number and the name of the sanitary district.

If the person comes from a municipal area, record the name of the municipal area.
Part 4: Questions on housing (Ask private households only)

Number 25: Characteristics of living place of the householdSelect from one of the following characteristics that matches the characteristics of the living place of the household:

Single house (or detached house)
Row house/building
Apartment
Rooms (within a house)
Boat, floating house, or car that is mobile

If the characteristics of the living place are none of the above, specify the characteristics of that place.

If the characteristics of the living place are "boat, floating house, or car" or "other", terminate the interview.

Number 26: Whether this house is used for commercial purpose (See details in chapter 3, number 3.18)Consider whether the living place of the household is used for commercial purpose. Select either 1 "Yes" or 2 "No".

Number 27: Type of construction materialsThe type of construction materials can be categorized as follows.

a. Permanent materials: these include hard wood (such as teak), concrete, and brick.

b. Non-permanent materials: these include local materials such as palm leaves and bamboos, and used materials that should not be used such as used zinc, rotten wood, etc.

The type of construction materials is considered from the materials of the main house that is used for living. For example, the main house is made of wood and the roof is made of tiles, but the kitchen has thatched roof, consider the construction materials to be permanent materials.

Select the type of construction materials from the following types.

Building (concrete or cement)
Combination of wooden and cement house
Wooden house made of permanent materials
House made of local materials
House made of used materials

Number 28: Tenure of living place of the household (excluding land)Ask: "What is the possession status of the person in this household?"
Select one of the following answers: owner, hire purchaser, renter, or the person lives without paying rent because it is a part of salary/wages or because the owner allows him/her to live in the house for free.

The possession of the living place of the household means the fact that one of the member of the household lives in that living place and he/she is the owner, hire purchaser, or renter of the house. Also, he/she may live without paying rent because it is a part of the wage/salary of one member of the household, or the owner allows them to live in the house for free because they are relatives or friends.
Hire-purchasing means purchasing of a living quarter by installment according to a written agreement. When the payment is completed, then the buyer is considered the owner of that living place.
Staying without paying rent because it is part of the wage refers to the living places such as worker housing in the factory, government-officer housing, railway officer housing, soldier and policeman housing, or security-guard housing, etc.
Staying free of charge means the household members are allowed to live in the house without giving anything in return, because they may be relatives or friends.

The living place of household in this case refers to the house only, and it excludes land.

Number 29: Rent of the living place If the person rents the living place, ask: "How much is the rent per month?" and record the amount of rent in the space.

Number 30: Land ownership If the person's answer in number 28 is "owner" or "hire purchaser", ask: "Whether a household member is the owner, hire purchaser, renter, or he/she lives without paying rent?"

If the answer is "renter of the land", ask whether the land is rented from the Treasure Department or others such as private sector or the Crown Property, etc.

Land owner is the person who has the legal ownership of that land.
Hire-purchasing the land means purchasing of the land by installment. When the payment is completed, the buyer is considered as the owner of the land.
Renting the land means constructing a house on other person's land, and paying the monthly or yearly rent to the owner of the land. This can be divided into two groups:
a. Renting the land from the Treasure Department
b. Renting the land from the other sources: this can be private sector, the Crown Property, the government, the state enterprise, or municipal government, etc.
Not paying rent for the land means the land owner allows a person to build a house on his land free of charge. This question asks only about land, and it does not include the construction or building.
Land owned by the Treasure Department refers to the land owned by the government, which includes both the public assets and the ordinary public properties.

Public assets refer to the land that is already in use and is possessed by the government. This land is used for government buildings and housing for government officers, soldiers and police. It excludes the land owned by temples, the Royal family, or the Crown property.

Ordinary public properties refer to the land that is taken away from people who owe tax, or it is donated to the government. This land is in the government's possession, and it has not been used. The government may rent it to private sector to build living places.

The assets or the land of the country such as roads, rivers, canals, forests, or deserted land that are under the responsibility of the Department of Lands are considered as public assets, and not the property of the Treasure Department.

Number 31: Owner of the living placeIf the interviewee answers "rent" or "stay without paying rent" or select either numbers 3, 4, or 5 in column 28, ask: "who is the owner of this place?" and select one of the following answers.

[] 1 If the owner is the Treasure Department
[] 2 If the owner is state enterprise, municipality or other government units
[] 3 If the owner is a private party

The owner in this context refers to the owner of the living place that the interviewee rents or lives. The owner of the living place may be the owner of the house only or the owner of the land as well.

The construction owned by the Treasure Department refers to any building or living places that are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Finance or the Revenue Department, and people may rent this place or stay without paying rent such as the house of government employees.

Number 32: Period of construction of living placeAsk: How long has this living place been built?"

The answer can be divided into the following categories:

Less than 1 year
1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5-9 years
10-14 years
15-19 years
20 years or more

Select only one of the above answers. If the interviewee cannot remember or does not know, select number 9.

Number 33: Number of rooms used for sleepingAsk "How many bedrooms and rooms used as bedrooms are there in this house?" Record the number of bedrooms and the number of rooms using as bedrooms separately. If there is none, record "0".

A room means an area inside a house that is bounded by walls, partitions, shelves, or closets for at least three sides, and it is separated from the other room or other area in that house.
In the case of a one-story Thai house that is lifted from the ground and has a space under the house, if there is no wall or no partition in the space under the house, that space is not considered as a room.

A bedroom means the room that is used particularly for sleeping. Although no one sleeps in the room during the enumeration period, that room is still considered a bedroom.

Other room used for sleeping refers to any room that is not a bedroom, but it is used by household members for sleeping as well. These rooms include parlor, living room, kitchen, dining room, or storage; if they are used for sleeping, then they are considered as rooms used for sleeping.

In the case where there are more than one household within a single house, count the bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping from each household separately.

In the case where one household lives in many single houses, count the bedrooms and other rooms used for sleeping from all of the houses.

Number 34: Toilet facilitiesAsk "What type of toilet is normally used in this household? Select the corresponding answer from the following categories:

Flush toilet
Shared with other households
Used by this household only
Latrine
Shared with other households
Used by this household only
Pit

If the toilet is another type or there is no toilet, select number 6.
If the household lives in more than one house and there are more than one type of toilet, select the type of toilet from the toilet in the house in which the head of household lives.

Number 35: Fuel used for cookingAsk "What cooking fuel is used in the living place of this household?" Select one of the following answers:

Charcoal
Wood
Gas
If the fuel used is not in the above list, specify the type of fuel such as electricity, kerosene, etc.

Number 36: Type of lightingAsk: "What type of light is used in this household?", and select one of the corresponding choices:

Electricity
Pressure lamp
Other oil lamp
If it is another type of light, specify that type.

Number 37: Water supply Ask "Where is the main source of water supply?" Select one of the following sources:

Piped water within the house
Piped water outside the house
Public well
Private well
Rain
River, canal, waterfall
If the water comes from other sources, specify the source.

Number 38: ApplianceAsk: "Do members of the household normally own the following appliances?"

These appliances are:
Radio (electric or battery)
Bicycle
Motorcycle
Sewing machine
Electric fan
Television
Car
Motor boat
Refrigerator
Water pump for agriculture use
Tractor
Select 1 for "have", and 2 for "does not have".
Appliances in possession refer to the appliances or tools that are for used within the household, and they are still in a good condition or even in the process of repair. The household members may or may not own these appliances.

For the shops that sell or repair radio, TV, refrigerator, etc., these appliances are not considered as appliances in possession, except they are for used within the households.

The appliances and tools that are used for work such as rented vehicles, refrigerator in the drinking shop, or soda-fountain are not considered as appliances for personal use. If they are also for personal use within the household, they are counted as appliances in possession.

For the government vehicles of a high-rank officer, if such vehicle is used only by one person, it is counted as the appliance in procession.

Number 39: Number of livestock (on April 1, 1970)Ask: "How many of the following livestock does the household own?"

Cows
Buffaloes
Pigs
Record the number of the livestock that the household owns in the blank. If the household does not own any livestock, record "0".