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Enumerator Instructions
Population Census: 1970
Togo

[Pages 1-6 from the original document are excluded here.]

[p. 7]

Very important recommendations:

- Do not forget houses
- Do not take into account any numbers that have already been written on buildings (if not written by you). You must assign numbers to houses yourself and follow the order in which they appear.
- Make sure that you have not assigned two numbers to the same house or the same concession (see the case where there are two entries by two different roads)
- You must scrupulously respect the boundaries indicated to you, so that you do not encroach upon other enumerators' terrain. Once you have finished the list of concessions, you may start the enumeration. Equipped with questionnaires, you will visit concessions or houses one by one, following the order indicated in your notebook.

What do you do when you arrive in a concession or a house?

If a house is surrounded by a wall or a fence, there will usually be other buildings or structures around. These buildings or structures are occupied by people that you must enumerate or interview.

In chalk, you will write a number on the structures and then ask who lives inside, in order to enumerate the household correctly. You will encounter different cases; we will analyze some of the most common cases:

1. All the structures are occupied by members of the same family
a) If all the family members live together, especially if they take their meals together, they make up a household. This household will be enumerated on the same household form and will be registered under the same "household" and "concession" reference.
[p. 8]
b) If the members of this family live in separate groups (meaning in separate distinct households), enumerate one of the family's households after the other. For example: two brothers live in the same concession, but each lives in his own separate household. This means that each brother lives with his own wives, children, maids and visitors. Each brother will be enumerated within his household (and given a different household number), but in the same folder.
2. Several different families live together in a household, each occupying one or several buildings in the concession. Enumerate each family living in a separate household under a different household order number, but under the same concession number.

This means that in every concession, there will be as many numbers as there are distinct households.

All family members living in the same household will be recorded in the same concession folder, under the same household number. Servants and maids of the household will be recorded under the same household number. Visitors who spent the previous night in the household will also be enumerated in the household. In summary, in a concession folder, the following may be recorded under the same household number:

- All members of the same household who live in the concession
- All maids who live in the household
- All visitors who spent the night preceding the enumerator's visit in the household

[Pages 9-14 from the original document are excluded here.]

[p. 15]

Once this page is completed, the enumerator will start the real collection of all household members' individual information (see page 1 and 2).

- The second part of this collective questionnaire (pages 2 and 3) contains a large table designed to collect information about the household members' individual characteristics.

(Pages 2 and 3 can be found in appendices 2 and 3 respectively).

Before explaining how to fill out the table, it is important to define the term "household". We define "household" as a group of people living together under the authority of a head of household and sharing one kitchen, stocked by the head of the household (the one and only authority). Simply put: the household includes the father, the mother(s) and their children. However, frequently in our country, the term household has fairly broad range of distinctions. Sometimes the conditions of the "household" (common lifestyle, common kitchen, under the common authority of the same head of the household) extend beyond the father, mother(s) and children and can include parents-in-law, maids and visitors. A household can include several people. A person who lives alone, feeds himself and uses his budget as he desires, constitutes a household by himself. Similar cases might include people who are single, divorced or widowed or even someone who is married.

To fill out the table, let's revisit our enumerator while he is in the concession. Each household is assigned a number, which is written on the front page of the "household form" number_____. This is the order number in which the household was enumerated within its concession. This number can also be found in your structure notebook. The concession number is written on the second line, across from "concession number ..." The order number is also recorded in your "structure notebook" for the same concession. If one questionnaire is enough to enumerate all household members, you will indicate "none" for "following number ..." However, if you need several questionnaires to enumerate the same household, indicate "1, 2, 3, etc." for "following number ...", according to the case. Thus, it could look like this:

[p. 16]

[A list from the original document is excluded here.]

Column 1 of the questionnaire is reserved for order numbers: the members of the household with the highest standing. Each line is reserved for recording information related to one person of the household; it can occur that because there are a large number of household members, one questionnaire is not enough; in this case, the enumerator will use a second questionnaire to complete the list of household members (respecting the rules above). Order numbers recorded on the first questionnaire go from 1-20 and an additional questionnaire would list numbers 21-40 and so on. The last order number should correspond to the total number of people enumerated in the household.

Column 2 collects the first and last names of the household members. The enumerator will start by asking the head of the household to present all household members and others living with him. First record all people who belong to the full household, followed by others. Follow this order:

1) Head of the household: record his first and last names in column 2 (as you will do for all the others).
2) All unmarried children of the head of the household (whose mother does not live in the concession. Start with the youngest).
3) The spouse, living with the head of the household. Indicate her rank: 1, 2, etc.
4) Unmarried children of the first spouse, starting with the youngest; naturally, you will then record the other spouses (if there are any) as well as their unmarried children (starting with the youngest).
[p. 17]
5) Married children, followed by their spouses (whether male or female), and their children (starting with the youngest)
6) Parents and grandparents of the head of the household
7) Brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, cousins, nephews, followed by their spouses and children (if they have any). Always start with the youngest.
8) Other people, such as friends, retirees, maids and other children (starting with the youngest)
9) Visitors and children who accompany them

The following will not be recorded as household members:

People who have been absent for a period longer than six (6) months
People who are seriously ill and have been in treatment for more than six months
Middle or high school level boarding school students: for example, scholarship recipients who are currently outside the territory
Children working as apprentices or servants, who are being housed by their employer

All the above cases will be enumerated separately and should not be counted. If they do get counted, it means that these people will be counted twice.

However, people who are currently, temporarily present should be counted within the household as visitors:

People who are seriously ill and have been in treatment less than six months
Visiting for several days
Visiting for at least the night before the enumerator's visit
[p.18]
- People who came for a few days to help complete a task

You will record first and last names in the following manner:

Example:
Abdou-Raouf Idrissou
Kokou Simon Lawson

And in the order indicated above.

For column 3, relationship tie, you must indicate:

"CM" for the head of the household
"Fe" 1, 2, n ... for the 1st, 2nd and nth wife, specifying the order number of the husband. Or indicate the first wife of the head of the household (the head of the household is already indicated as 01 in the list of household members). The first wife of the "CM" will be recorded as: "Fe". 1-01
"Fi" (for daughter), "Fs" (for son) followed by the order numbers of the mother and father. "Fi" 02-01 refers to the daughter of the "CM" (listed as 01) and the "CM"'s first wife (listed as 02).
Uncles, aunts, cousins, servants, visitors, etc... will follow the order number of their parent , boss or host.

Example: "v-02" is the visitor of the first wife of the "CM" (listed as 02).

Column 4 refers to marital status. Indicate "Ma" for married, followed by the number of wives (for a man) and the number of marriages (for a woman). The following examples refer to a man married to 5 wives and a woman who is in her second marriage:

- For a man, this would be" "Ma5" and would read "married to 5 wives"
- For a woman, this would be: "Ma2" and would read, "married for the second time" or "second marriage"
[p. 19]

For people who are single, indicate "Celib" (meaning never been married); or "Ve" (meaning widowed - someone who is single after having lost his spouse).

Column 5 concerns the place of residence: in the designated column, you will indicate whether the person being enumerated is a present or absent resident or a visitor. A present resident (RP) is someone who lives in and has never left his village. An absent resident (RA) is someone who, having not spent the previous night at home, is still absent at the time of the enumerator's visit. A visitor (V) is someone who is still present in the household that he is visiting during the enumerator's visit (and who spent at least the night preceding the enumerator's visit in the household. You will indicate:

RP: for present resident
RA: for absent resident
V: for visitor

Column 6 is a check box. The enumerator will indicate whether or not he saw the person that he enumerated. He will check "seen" if he actually saw the person and he will check "not seen" for the others. This means that you can enumerate a person who is indicated as a present resident in column 5 but who is indicated as "not seen" in column 6. This can occur if, at the time of the enumerator's visit, a housewife is at the market making purchases or if a visitor accompanies a member of the household down to the river.

Column 7 very simply indicates the sex of the person. All you have to do is indicate "M" for someone of the male sex and "F" for someone of the female sex. If you are unsure of the sex of a child, ask for clarification.

Column 8 (a and b) is by far the most important and most difficult. It concerns age. Ask if the person has an ID card or a birth certificate or another document that you could consult to identify the age of the person being enumerated. Often, the person you are talking to (the person being enumerated) will not have an ID card and will not know his age; you are required to determine this person's age with his help. You can use the historical calendar which lists dates and prominent historical events in the country, region or village. Religious and agricultural calendars may also be necessary to help you determine the age of the person being enumerated. Refer to the model calendar in appendix 6. We have already mentioned that the age of an individual is important; if the goal is to evaluate the youth and health of a population, it is necessary to know the exact age of the people who make up that population. This means that once you have made the list of household members, you should meticulously and methodically verify the information in column 8 in order to avoid errors like these:

Two children from the same mother who are less than 9 months apart in age
A mother who is not at least 13 years older than her first child
A 10-year-old mother who has a 4 year old son
A mother who is younger than her son, etc.
[p. 20]

Once the age of the enumerated person is determined, all you have to do is write it down in column 8a or b.

It is equally important to indicate the age of newborn babies in months (because babies younger than one year make up a special generation that is the subject of a special study).

Example:

For a newborn aged 5 months and 13 days, you should indicate "5 months" as his age
For a newborn aged 5 months and 17 days, you should indicate "5 months" as his age

Determining the age of newborns is much easier with the use of religious or agricultural calendars. Example: a mother can tell you that her child was born two days after Christmas. You can then deduce the child's age. Another mother might tell you that her child was born seven days after the opening of the new classroom in the village.

[p. 21]

Sometimes to determine the age of a newborn, you can also use the historical calendar. All calendars should be completed by each enumerator with facts related to the regions and villages where he is working. For all other people, you should indicate their age in "years". If a person declares that he is 30 years and 7 months old, you will write 31 years; if a person declares that he is 30 years and 2 months old, you will write 30 years. You should indicate the age in full years. Similarly, for children younger than a year old, you should indicate the age in full months.

Column 9: Here, you will indicate the person's place of birth. Column 9 is divided into several sections, which will be completed as follows:

If the enumerated person was born in the village where he currently being enumerated, the response in column 9a is noted in the form of a cross. If the enumerated person was born in another village in the same region, you will put a cross in column 9b; but if the person was born in another region other than the one where he is currently being enumerated, you will put a cross in column 9c; finally, if the person was born in another country, you will put a cross in column 9d. Only one column (of columns 9a, b, c, or d) can be checked with a cross. The other three columns will be marked with a dash.

Column 10: This column refers to the ethnicity or the nationality of the person being enumerated. You will indicate the ethnicity for people who are Togolese and the nationality for those who are foreign. For foreigners in Togo, you will indicate the name of the country where they are citizens (Upper Volta, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, France, Holland, Belgium, etc.). For all Togolese, you will indicate the ethnic group or the race to which they belong. You will ask the person what was the origin or race of his father. Once the response is obtained, you will write on the designated line: Mina, Kabye, Ewe, Kotokoli, Losso, etc. Appendix 9 of this document shows a list of Togolese ethnicities; this appendix is not a complete list.

Column 11: This refers to the religion of the enumerated person.

Indicate "Cath" for Catholic
"Prot" for Protestant
"Musul" for Muslim
"Anim" for Animist
"Aut" for other religions and
"ND" for undeclared

You cannot list more than one religion for one person

Column 12: The goal of this column is to understand the enumerated person's level of education, with as much precision possible. To do this, you must choose the corresponding level of education from among the options listed in the table and write down the corresponding number:

1 - Kindergarten
2 - Primary school
3 - First cycle of secondary school
4 - Second cycle of secondary school
5 - Professional and technical school
6 - Higher education (university)

In column 12b, you will again indicate the level of education for the same person, by writing down the corresponding number from this list of categories:

1 - Cannot read or write
2 - Went to school, but did not obtain a "CEPE" (Certificate of primary elementary studies)
3 - "CEPE" level
4 - "BEPC" (Certificate of first-cycle studies), "BE", "BI", "CAP" (Certificate of professional ability) levels
5 - Probationary level
6 - Completed "BAC" (Baccalaureate)
7 - Higher education level
8 - Undeclared

[p. 22]

Column 13 deals with professional training. Simply indicate with a "yes" or "no" whether or not the enumerated person has received professional training. Professional training is what a person receives if he attends a professional, technical or vocational school or works as an apprentice in an artisan's workshop.

Example:
Lome Technical College
Lome Professional School
School of topography, design and typing studies
Modern stenography / typing courses
Extracurricular typing courses

Column 14 (a, b and c): For this question, it is equally important that the enumerator collect as precise a response as possible. This question concerns all people who already have a job and people who are looking for a job.

Column 14a: This is where all enumerated people who are working or looking for work will indicate their profession. This question will help classify the population in Togo according to its different activities. When asking someone his profession, he might respond, for example: tiller, farmer, planter, farmhand, laborer, storekeeper, etc. These responses are vague. You must try to clarify them as much as possible. The more information collected, the more precise and interesting it will be.

The current enumeration is being mainly carried out in the bush and a large part of the enumerated population will be declaring that they work off the land. It's up to you to ask well-directed questions that clarify the exact trade or profession. If a man (or woman) declares that he is a farmer, ask if he is the one who decide which crop goes in which field. If he does make this decision, then give him the title of "farm owner". To be even more precise, ask this farm owner if he works exclusively with the help of his family, friends and neighbors or if he employers laborers (who he pays in cash or in kind).

If he works exclusively with his family, we give him the title of "familial farm owner", which is written as: example "Fam."

If he employs workers other than his family (one or more laborers), we give him the title of "employer farmer", which is written as: example. "Patr." However, a person who works off the land, but who is not a farm owner (meaning he is not the one who decides what to plant) might be:

[p. 23]

A family aide ("aide-fam.") - if he is a member of the farm owner's household
A laborer ("man.") - if he is not a member of the farm owner's household and is an outsider to the household.

If there are small children in the household who do not attend school, you must ask if they work in the fields with their parents. If they do, you will classify them as "family aides" ("aides fam."). If they do not work in the fields or elsewhere, you will classify them as "sp" ("sans profession"). You will also assign the code "sp" to old people who no longer work at all. A women who works exclusively as a housewife (taking care of the children, cooking and household tasks) will be recorded as "housewife" ("ménage").

A livestock breeder (steer, sheep, etc.) can be listed as either breeder-owner ("Elev. Patr.") if he employs one or more salaried workers to take care of his flock; or he can be listed as a familial breeder ("Elev. Fam") if he does only employs members of his own household. In this latter case, the household members who take care of the flock will all be listed as family aides ("Aides fam."). We enumerate fishermen in the same fashion:

Fisherman-owner - "pech. Part."
Familial fisherman - "pech. Fam."
Family aide - "aide-fam."
Laborer - "man."

For professions other than farming, try to obtain as much detail as possible to grasp a good understanding of the exact nature of the profession exercised. For example, you might indicate:

Salesperson in a department store
Salesperson in a boutique
Taxi driver (or private chauffeur or public transportation driver)
Carrier - owner
Retailer - food (fabric or hardware)

If people have several professions, indicate the principal profession (the most important), which takes up the most of the person's time.

[p. 24]

The enumerator should make sure not to confuse the trade or profession with the occupation. Here are some examples to help you avoid making such errors: a teacher might be a district head or a hospital director during the census. You must indicate that the person's profession is "teacher" and not district head or hospital director (which would actually be his temporary occupational positions). You should also always be recording the trade and profession of the person you are enumeration.

Column 14b: The purpose of this question is to identify the worker's status within the company. Six different positions have been defined and the worker can only occupy one of these positions at one time. We will now define each of these positions so that the enumerator can assign workers to the most appropriate category. The company signifies the social and economic environment in which the person works (public, private, semi-public sectors, etc.)

1) Employer: this refers to a person who employs the service of other workers (besides himself), who he pays. The employer may or may not be the owner of the company.
Example: the director of a private company; the owner of a restaurant, etc.
2) A person who works for his own account: this refers to a person who started his own business or works independently.

3) Salaried worker: this refers to a person who sells his work and who is paid according to determined criteria (daily, weekly, monthly or in another form).

4) Unpaid family worker: this refers to someone who helps a family relative with their company or business or anyone else who is not paid for their work. Sometimes the person receives room and board for his work or there might be another sort of understanding, but the worker is not paid.

5) Member of a producer's cooperative: this refers to a person who belongs to a cooperative association that produces some sort of product (coffee, cocoa, cassava root, etc.)

6) Other or not indicated: this refers to any other situation that could not be previously categorized and that was not indicated above.

[p. 25]

Column 14c reports on the activity genre of the company. Below, we will define a few different activity genres of companies. Once the profession of the enumerated person has been established, as well as his status within the company, the enumerator should then determine the activity genre of the company (and indicate the corresponding number from this list below):

1) Farming, forestry, fishing
2) Mining industries (example: CTMB, SOTOMA, SIMCO, etc...)
3) Manufacturing industries (food, drink, textiles, etc...)
4) Construction
5) Electricity, gas, water, sanitation services
6) Commerce, banks and insurance
7) Transportation, communications
8) Service and administration
9) Other

This number will be written down in column 13c. For those who do not work, write "none" in columns 13b and c.

Column 15 asks whether or not the enumerated person has repatriated from another African country. If yes, the enumerator should indicate the name of the country in column 15a. In column 15b, the enumerator should indicate the duration of the person's residence in this country. In column 15c, the enumerator should indicate the date that the person returned to Togo.

Column 16 asks whether or not the person is blind or deaf. If the person is only blind or only deaf, write only A or only S in column 16. If the person is both blind and deaf, write A+S in the column. If the person is neither blind nor deaf, do not write anything in the column.

[The Appendix from the original document, which includes lists of historical events as reference for year of birth, is not shown here.]