[El Salvador 2007]
National Statistics and Census Bureau [DIGESTYC]
Sixth Population and Fifth Housing Census
National Statistics and Census Bureau
Sixth Population and Fifth Dwelling Census
Methodology and Training Unit
San Salvador, October 2006
1.2 Importance of the censuses
2. The enumerator
2.2 What are the obligations of an enumerator?
2.3 What an enumerator should not do
2.4 What documents and materials does he/she use?
2.5 Duties before the census
2.6 Duties the day the census begins
3. Enumeration area
3.2 Rural enumeration section
3.3 Enumeration section route
4. The interview
4.2 During the interview
4.2 Ending the interview
5. Instructions for filling out the census form
I. Geographic localization
II. Dwelling information
III. Household characteristics
IV. Characteristics of persons who make up the household
V. Mortality and emigration
VI. Information on persons in the household
2. For persons age 5 or older
3. For persons age 10 or older
4. For females age 12 or older
[Page VII and page 1 not translated]
The rest of the municipality, made up of small towns and settlements [cantones y caseríos], is a rural area.
[The rest of page 2 through page 5 was not translated]
Urban enumeration section [segmento de empadronamiento urbano]: An urban enumeration section is composed of approximately 150 dwellings that may be situated in a block, part of a block or more than one block.
Rural enumeration section [segmento de empadronamiento rural]: A rural enumeration section is composed of approximately 120 dwellings that may be gathered or dispersed in part of a canton [cantón].
[Pages 8-13 were not translated]
II. Dwelling information
A dwelling is any space defined by walls and ceilings in which one or more persons permanently reside, i.e., it is where persons live, prepare food and find protection from the elements. They can go in and out of the space without going through another dwelling, and have direct access from the street or through public courtyards, hallways or stairways.
a) Private dwelling [vivienda particular]
This is an enclosure intended to be used as the living space [habitación] of one person or a group of persons who make up one or various households. The dwelling may be an independent house [casa independiente], an apartment, a room in a house, a room in a tenement, a hut, an improvised dwelling, a premise not intended for human habitation, or other (mobile dwelling, tent, etc.)
This dwelling has direct access to the street, is constructed of durable materials, and is generally located in a structure. It may be separate from or joined to other dwellings and has its own sanitary service, bathroom and kitchen. Enumerate the dwelling regardless of whether or not it is occupied or unoccupied at the time of the census.
This is a dwelling constructed of durable materials. It makes up part of a building of one or more floors that contains two or more dwellings. It has access to the street through a hallway or stairwell. Enumerate it even if it is unoccupied.
Room in a house:
This is a dwelling that is part of a structure built of durable materials and that may have two or more bedrooms [recintos habitacionales], and common sanitary service, bathroom and kitchen for all dwellings in the structure. Access to the street may be through hallways or spaces considered as public spaces by its occupants.
Room in a tenement [pieza en mesón]:
This is a dwelling that forms part of a structure containing at least four habitation units [unidades habitacionales]. It is built of durable materials and the sanitary services, bathrooms and kitchen are used in common by all dwellings in the tenement. It is generally a single room having access to the street from a courtyard or hallway.
Hut or shack [rancho o choza]:
This is a building constructed of bamboo, palm, leaf, grass or other vegetable matter. It is generally found in rural areas. Do not include those used only occasionally or situated by the beach in this category.
This is any building made of discarded material such as pieces of wood, old laminate, cardboard, etc., and that does not meet constructions standards. It must be occupied to be enumerated. It is located mainly in marginal communities in urban areas and sometimes in rural areas. Those that are abandoned are not included in the census.
Premise not intended for human habitation:
This is a premise constructed of durable materials that was not adapted or converted to be used as a dwelling, but which is used as such at the time the census takes place. This type of dwelling may partially or totally occupy stables, workshops, offices, warehouses, etc.
Include any premise used as a dwelling not included in the previous categories, such as mobile dwellings, tents, railcars, caves, boats, etc.
Mark this option when you come across a person or group of persons who have no housing and who live in doorways/entryways; church vestibules; under bridges; in parks; in homeless shelters [dormitories públicos]; etc. Remember to go to section VI, "Information about persons in the household" if you choose this option.
b) Institutional dwelling
This is a premise or building where a group of persons without family ties lives and shares for reasons of accommodation, age, orphan status, etc. The following are included in this category: homes for children or orphanages, retirement homes, jails, guest houses or boarding houses, boarding schools, etc.
This is a premise or building where a group of persons without family ties lives and shares for reasons of accommodation or status as orphans.
This is the place in which elderly adults are permanently lodged. Enumerate it as an individual dwelling for the administrative personnel who live permanently in a special premise, either alone or with their families.
This is a premise in which imprisoned people are found. For the purposes of the census, only enumerate those who are imprisoned for more than six months.
Guest house or student boarding house [pupilaje]:
This is any dwelling that has more than five boarders, who are generally students, and that is run by the owner of the dwelling, who provides food, cleaning and in some cases even laundry service.
This is a place for the re-education and social reintegration of minors younger than 18 whose right to freedom has been suspended by a conviction under the Minor Offenders Law.
Convent or boarding school:
This is a premise where groups of person who come together for reasons of religion or academic study, and who have no family ties, reside permanently. These premises are commonly run by monks, priests or brothers of a congregation.
This is any premise occupied by persons belong to the armed forces. For the census, only enumerate persons who reside permanently in these premises.
Other: This category includes all institutional housing not included in the previous categories, such as homes for children, homes for adolescents, brothels, shelters, etc.
Remember that only the following information is collected when enumerating institutional dwellings:
Question 2: What material are most of the walls made of?
"Concrete" is when [the wall] is constructed of gravel, sand and cement in a steel frame. The "Mixed-type" wall is constructed with white clay or concrete bricks, or sand and cement blocks, and is supported by concrete columns and beams.
Wattle and daub:
This is a wall constructed of dirt mixed with grass or pieces of mud tile, supported in a framework made mainly of palm sticks [varas de castilla] or the like.
Adobe has the shape of a brick but with larger dimensions. It is made from a base of dirt mixed with grass, which is shaped in molds and then dried in the sun. The adobe bricks are stuck together with mud.
These are generally constructed with planks and supported by a framework of dimensional lumber.
The sheets can be smooth or corrugated and are generally supported by a wood frame.
Straw, palm or other vegetable matter:
This type of material is used for building huts, which are mostly located in rural areas.
This type of material is found in marginal dwellings and refers to pieces of wood, sheets of laminate, plastics, etc.
Include material not included in previous categories, such as asbestos laminate, canvas, etc.
Made of gravel, sand, cement and iron. The ceiling falls into this category, as well as the roofs of apartments constructed in buildings of two or more floors.
Asbestos laminate (Duralita) [a brand of asbestos-cement shingles]:
The sheets may be flat, corrugated or have another shape.
These are corrugated sheets made with New Technology laminate and free of asbestos. It belongs to the new generation of construction materials.
Tile is commonly made of fired clay, and sometimes with cement.
Generally the sheet is corrugated and sometimes it is covered with clay/earthenware tiles.
Grass, palm or other vegetable matter:
These are materials that are used to construct roofs for houses in rural areas.
These are materials used in marginal dwellings.
This is for all roofs not included in previous questions, such as wood, canvas, etc.
Check this option when the head of household, or a person age 15 or older who is able to provide answers about the occupants, is present. Proceed to the interview.
With people absent (P.A.):
This is a dwelling that is occupied during the enumeration period but in which no informant is present at the time of the visit. Consult with the neighbors about when it might be possible to find the occupants (you may have to do this in the evening.) After a second visit proceed to fill out the "Announcement of a previous visit", in which you note the day and time at which you will return. If you are unable to enumerate this dwelling mark the appropriate option and fill out the Citation announcement form
This refers to a dwelling which has furniture and whose owner occupies it occasionally, usually for recreational reason, as is the case with "houses" located on the beach and country houses.
At the time of your visit you note a sign which indicates that the house is for rent. If no one is there, ask in the neighborhood.
At the time of your visit to the dwelling you note a sign indicating that the house is for sale, or someone indicates that this is the case. If there is no one to ask, check with the neighbors.
Under repair or construction:
Enumerate dwellings that are under repair, so that they may be inhabited by the owners or rented or sold. Include dwellings under construction if at least the walls and roof are done.
This is a dwelling that is vacant and which is not included in the previous options.
These are small plates made with a base of clay fired at high temperatures. They can be divided into various types of ceramic flooring for various uses based on their quality.
Made with gravel, sand and cement.
This type of brick is made with cement, sand and other aggregates which provide a smooth surface.
Bricks are made with mud or clay combined with dirt and subjected to firing.
Consider it wood if wood is the base material of the floor.
This is when the floor of the dwelling is made of dirt that has been leveled and pressed. Also include floors made of a mix of dirt and cement in this category.
These are materials that are used to make floors and which are not included in previous categories, such as marble, stone, discarded materials, etc.
II. Household characteristics
Consider the garage as a room if it is used solely for habitation by persons in the household or persons who pay rent for it.
This is when the head of household or a member of the household is the owner of the dwelling.
Own dwelling paid in installments to a public institution:
This is when the head of household or a member of the household is paying for the dwelling in installments as the owner of the dwelling. This might be to FONAVIPO, the Social Fund for Dwelling, etc.
Own dwelling paid in installments to a private institution:
This is when the head of household or a member of the household is paying for the dwelling in installments to a private institution such as a bank, a cooperative, etc.
Own dwelling paid in installments to NGOs:
This is when the head of the household or a member of the household is paying for the dwelling in installments to an NGO such as FUNDASAL, etc.
This is when the head of household or a member of the household pays some value as rent.
Occupied for free:
This is when the dwelling is occupied without any payment to the owner, and no service has been provided in exchange.
This includes those not included in previous categories.
This is when the waste is sent to the public sewer system.
Toilet connected to a septic tank:
This is when the waste is sent to a septic tank.
This is a sanitary installation in which the waste accumulates in a pit.
This is a basin or special seat (separate for fecal matter and urine) and possessing two receiving chambers which are used on an alternating basis.
Does not have:
This category refers to a household that lacks sanitary service. In this case go to question 7.
This is when it is used only by persons in the household.
Shared with other households
This is when it is used by the members of two or more households.
This refers especially to water from showers, sinks and/or washtubs.
This is if the dwelling has pipes that collect the waste water, which is then sent to the public sewage system.
This is when the dwelling has pipes that collect the waste water and send it to a box (concrete, brick masonry or stone) where they are separated into liquids and solids. The liquid then goes to another box where it is purified.
This is a system of collection and absorption/diffusion of waste water, which consists of boring a hole at ground level.
Gully/stream, river or lake:
This is if the dwelling has pipes which collect the waste water and direct it into a gully/stream, river or lake.
The street or outside:
This is if the dwelling has pipes that collect the waste water and direct it to the street or outside.
In this category write all other forms of elimination of waste water not mentioned previously.
This is if the dwelling has at least one faucet inside the living structure which is connected to the ANDA [Administración Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados] network or a system of plumbing administered by a private enterprise or the municipality.
Pipes outside the dwelling but on the property:
This is a dwelling that has at least one faucet within the property limits but outside the living structure and which is connected to the ANDA network or a system of plumbing administered by a private enterprise or a municipality.
This is a dwelling that accesses running water from the ANDA network, or a piping system administered by a private enterprise, through a neighbor. It may be either through pipes or a hose.
Basin or public tap:
This is a dwelling that accesses running water from the ANDA network, or from a system of pipes administered by a private enterprise that is owned by the community or an organization that makes it available.
This is when the water is taken directly from a well, either with buckets, a manual or electric pump, or by other mechanical means. The well is owned communally or by an organization that makes it freely available.
This is when the water is taken directly from a well, either with buckets, a manual or electric pump, or by other mechanical means. The well is owned by a person or organization that uses it for its own supply.
Truck, cart or tanker:
This is if drinking and cooking water is obtained from a water distributor via truck, cart or tanker.
Spring, river or stream:
This is drinking and cooking water that is obtained from a spring, natural source, etc.
Drinking and cooking water is obtained by this means. It can accumulate in the winter.
Include in this category those methods of obtaining water that are not included in previous categories.
The answer does not depend the time of day during which the person receives water. Choose one of the following options:
More than four hours
The answer depends on how many days the person receives water:
Every three days
Once per week
From time to time
This is when none of the materials mentioned above is used.
Do/does not cook:
This refers specifically to cases where no cooking is done in the dwelling, and therefore no fuel is used.
The supply of electric energy may come from the public network or a private plant.
This fuel is used in oil lamps and lamps (regular and Coleman-type).
This is when the type of lighting used in the dwelling corresponds to this category.
This is an apparatus that captures energy from solar radiation. It is used to generate electricity.
This refers to a household that does not have any other source of energy and uses this means for lighting at night.
Write down the type of lighting not included in the previous categories, such as carbide, propane gas, alcohol, etc.
Check this option when the occupants of the household leave their garbage in front of their house for the town's collection units to take to incinerators or places intended for its disposal.
This is when the households in the community pay a person or private company to remove the trash from the dwelling.
This is when members of the household burn the trash.
Put in dumpsters/bins: This is when household members put the trash in dumpsters/bins.
Thrown into the street, ravine or empty lot: This is when household members, either personally or through other persons, throw the trash in the places mentioned.
Thrown into a river, lake or the sea: This is when household members, either personally or through other persons, throw the trash in the places mentioned.
Other: Write down other forms of trash disposal not included in the previous categories.
[There is a reproduction of question set 13 from the questionnaire]
[There is a reproduction of question sets 15 and 16 from the questionnaire.]
IV. Characteristics of household members
This chapter will allow you to find out how many people are in the household, their family relationship and their gender.
Question 1: How many permanent residents make up this household?
Record the answer to this question in the box pertaining to the number of persons as determined by the informant. Then write in the next column (column 2) the names of all persons who are permanent residents of the household, their family relationship and their gender. Don't forget children, seniors, newborns and other members of the household who might be absent due to vacation, work, business or illness, as well as domestic employees who sleep in the dwelling. The persons may all be related, some may be related, or none of them may be related.
Rules to follow during the enumeration:
In institutional dwellings list the resident persons without specifying any family relationship.
Draw up the list of permanent residents as follows:
Write the rest of the people according to their relationship with the head of household in the following order:
[There is a reproduction of the "Characteristics of household residents" page from the questionnaire.]
B) Copy the "Geographic localization" information exactly from the first form.
C) Cross out the "Dwelling information" section with a large X.
D) Cross out the "Household characteristics" section in the same way.
E) In part IV, "Characteristics of persons who make up the household", continue to write peoples' names and number them sequentially. For example, the second form [will list names] 9 to 16; the third, if it exists, [will list] names 17 to 24, and so forth.
Total the number of males and females on each form in the "Total number of persons who make up the household" box.
V. Mortality and emigration
If the person being interviewed answers in the affirmative, ask and then write down how many persons died and how old they were when they died. Remember to write "00" (zero) for children younger than 1 year and "98" for those who died at age 98 or older. Also, indicate if it was a male or a female by circling one ("1") or two ("2") as appropriate.
If the person was a female between the ages of 12 and 49, circle the number corresponding to the cause of death: pregnancy; birth; within 40 days of giving birth; or other.
If the person who died was a male go to question 2 in this section.
If the person being interviewed does not remember, help him/her remember by referring to events such as the war years, after the earthquakes, etc.
VI. Information about persons in the household
Begin this section by writing the number and full name of the person to be enumerated. Start with the head of household, who is number 01, and continue in the order by relationship as indicated in Chapter IV ("Characteristics of persons who make up the household").
[Questions 1-9 are for all persons]
When you use additional forms be careful not to indicate head of household again.
Do not ever change the age by relating it to the date of birth.
B) For those who were born while the mother was living somewhere else in the country, write the complete name of the capital or canton, municipality and department.
C) For persons who were born while the mother was living in another country write very clearly the complete name of the country of origin and year of arrival in El Salvador.
B) Ask, "Where did you used to live?" if the respondent was living in another capital or canton. Remember to write the complete names of the capital or canton, municipality and department.
C) If the person lived in another country, write the name of the country.
This question refers to attendance at a school belonging to the regular system.
Do not include attendance at classes in cosmetology, tailoring and dressmaking, computing, work-place training, adult education, etc.
This is for persons who are studying during the [school] year even though they may be on vacation, waiting for final exams or between semesters (in the case of university students).
Is not attending but attended:
This is for two situations. The first is one in which the person studied for either a short course of studies leading to a degree or long course of studies leading to a degree and finished it. The other is for a situation in which the person attended at least one grade of primary, secondary or higher education but did not complete a degree.
This is for people who never attended school. Skip to number 12 for people who choose this option.
Write the level number that corresponds to the information provided, taking into account whether or not they have passed at least one year within the level stated and according to the following categories:
Pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and pre-primary
Primary or basic:
This category includes first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth grades. Seventh, eighth and ninth grades correspond to the last three grades of first, second and third years of the Basic Plan under the previous system.
[If you marked any of the previous categories, go to question 11d]
Secondary education [educación media]:
This level includes persons who are studying or have completed studies for the current diversified high school diploma [bachilleratos diversificados], and those who studied under the old system for a high school diploma in arts and sciences. It also includes accountants, primary school teachers, business secretaries, agricultural technicians, nurses and other studies which require or required passing the Basic Plan.
Short course of studies after the sixth grade leading to a degree:
This is for the short course of studies which was completed simply by passing sixth grade, such as bookkeeper, office technician, industrial Basic Plan or other vocational studies.
Non-university higher education:
This level is made up of people who studied or are studying in institutions which required or require a high-school diploma (or teacher's degree), such as technological institutes, National Agronomy School, (ENA) San Jose of the Mountain Seminary, Superior Normal School, School of Social Work and others.
University-level technical studies:
This refers to degrees which are granted by universities, such as teaching professions; nursing; and technicians in a variety of areas.
These are people who study or have studied to complete degree requirements in one of the universities, or who have an academic title such as doctor, engineer, economist, dentist, etc.
This refers to advanced studies leading to a specialization. It has as a prerequisite the completion of university studies leading to a bachelor's degree or a degree in engineering, architecture, etc. This person is studying or has studied to earn a Master's degree (Master of Science).
This refers to higher-level studies leading to a specialization. It has as a prerequisite having finished a master's degree.
"Marital status" is understood to mean each person's status with respect to the laws or customs related to matrimony or cohabitation in this country.
Take the following definitions into account to help you identify marital status:
This is a person who has not married the person with whom he/she lives in a stable relationship. This is also called cohabitating.
This is a person who was legally married before a lawyer or competent municipal authority (mayor) and lives with his/her spouse.
This is a person who has not re-married and is not cohabitating after the death of his/her spouse.
This is a person who lives separately from his/her spouse or partner and who is not living in matrimony with another person.
This is a person who has legally dissolved his/her marriage ties and has not remarried and is not cohabitating.
This is a person who has never married and has not cohabitated with another person.
The following fall within this category: selling items like lottery tickets, flowers, food or clothes; doing housework for other people; making crafts for sale; ironing; sewing; laundry; making tortillas, sweets or bread for sale; performing bricklaying or plumbing jobs; washing cars; or other similar activities.
If the person chooses one of the options 1-6, go on to Question 20. If the person answers "No activity" (category 7), go to the next question.
This refers to persons who only do housework.
Is a full-time student:
This is all the people whose only responsibility is to study.
Is retired, has a pension, or is living off investment income
B. "Has a pension" is a person who, for reasons of illness, accident, age or other reasons is retired from his/her work and is receiving a monthly payment.
C. "Living off investment income" is a person who lives off the interest from money in savings accounts; CDs [dinero puesto a plazo] or personal loans; or rent from apartments or land.
These are persons who are in prison, regardless of whether they have been sentenced yet or not.
This is for people who are completely unable to work due to a physical or mental disability, and this is the reason they are not working.
Record in this group all persons who are not placed in previous categories. This is for persons who have employment but did not work in the week previous to the census because of illness, strike, vacations, bad weather or other circumstances.
Indicate clearly if the establishment:
Plants rice, corn, beans or sorghum
Makes filled tortillas [pupusas]
Correct way to write
Corn farming for sale
Growing coffee for sale
Raises and finishes cattle for meat production
Produces filled tortillas [pupusas] for export
Produces and bottles milk products
Produces leather shoes for export
Food products factory
Electricity generation and distribution
Wholesale grain sales
Retail sale of home furnishings
Women's retail clothing sales
Retail fruit for sale in a market
Agency which exports agricultural products
Transportation of stone by truck for construction
Private security and investigation agency
Write the job as clearly as possible so that there are no difficulties interpreting what the job is. Write in the following order: if it's a professional position, write the profession, the most important task, what he/she does it with and the product.
Below are some examples:
Incorrect way to write
Correct way to write
Building civil engineer
Highway civil engineer
Chemical engineer who makes cleaning products
Private security guard
Primary school teacher in a school
High school teacher in a school
Sewing machine operator in a factory
Operator of a Singer or multipoint sewing machine
Operator of an industrial sewing machine
Sales personnel supervisor
Administrative manager of the company
Quality control in clothes manufacturing
The information desired is the position the person had in the principal job he/she performed in the week prior to the census. Was the person an employee or worker in the public or private sector, a boss or [employed in] any of the following categories:
This is a person who works or worked in a public sector institution, be it the central government, an autonomous agency or a mayor's office.
Employee or worker in the private sector:
This is a person who worked in a company, establishment, business or institution in the private sector. Also include persons who work for international organizations such as the United Nations, USAID [US Agency for International Development], the Organization of American States, etc.
Unpaid family worker:
This is a person who helps in the family business.
Unpaid non-family worker:
This is a person who helps in the business, on the farm, in the shop, etc., without receiving pay.
Independent worker (self-employed):
This is someone who is self-employed and does not have any employees or workers in his/her service. He/she may receive help from a family member if the family member is unpaid. Be careful not to confuse the self-employed worker with a boss or employer.
This is a man or woman who is permanently employed in a dwelling doing housework such as washing, ironing, cooking, cleaning, child care, running errands, gardening, etc. He/she receives pay for his/her work.
If the person interviewed has a job but did not work during the reference week, write the number of hours that he/she normally works during the week. If a person works eight hours per day in a public institution and two hours teaching class Monday through Friday in a high school or university, meaning he/she works ten hours per day, then the total per week is 50 hours.
B. For those whose place of employment is located somewhere else in the country, write the exact geographic location in detail. Include the name of the municipal capital or canton, the municipality and the department.
C. For those who work outside of El Salvador, make sure you note very clearly the complete name of the country they work in.
Ask the question [question 25] to all females age 12 or older. If the answer is "No", end the interview and cross out questions 26 through 30 with a diagonal line. Otherwise, continue.
Include all children without exception, regardless of whether the mother had them out of wedlock, whether they were legitimate or illegitimate. Do not include adopted children.
Name of the institutional dwelling ____________
Respondent's full name ______________________
Date turned in:
Day/_/_/ Month/_/_/ Year/_/_/
[There is no page 64]
1. The enumerator fills out this form so that institutional dwellings within his/her jurisdiction can be recorded. If the number of persons in the dwelling is fewer than 50 you should enumerate them yourself. If there are between 51 and 100 persons ask your zone supervisor for help. If there are more than 101 persons, report it so that it can be enumerated by special enumerators.
2. Write the complete name and code of the department, municipality, zone and section.
3. Make sure to write the complete name of the establishment -- institutional dwelling -- the address and the respondent's full name.
4. The last step is to sign and date the form, and give the full name of the enumerator and zone supervisor.
[Pages 67-74 not translated. They contain: A form for notification of a previous visit to the household and instructions for filling out the form; an "unable to carry out an interview" form and the law regulating the census; a route form and instructions for filling it out; a summary form and instructions for filling it out.]