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Ministry of the Economy
General Administration of Statistics and Censuses
Census: 4th Population Census, 5th Household Census
Enumerator Manual
San Salvador, El Salvador, C.A.

[pg.1 ]

Ministry of the Economy
Minister Jose Arturo Zablah Kuri

General Administration of Statistics and Censuses
Vice Minister Jorge Alberto Diaz

General Administrator and Coordinator of National Census Committee
Luz Elena Renderos de Hernandez

General Subdirector and Project Director for National Censuses: 4th Population Census, 5th Household Census
Jorge Enrique Iraheta

[Next page]

Republic of El Salvador, C.A.
Ministry of the Economy
General Administration of Statistics and Censuses

The 4th National Population Census and 5th National Household Census
Enumerator Manual

Prof. Salvador Miranda Garcia

San Salvador

[pg. 4]
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. General concepts

2.1 Concepts of population and household censuses
2.2 The importance of censuses

3. The enumerator

3.1 The enumerator's obligations
3.2 Sector of enumeration
3.3 Sector of enumeration route
3.4 Other census officials
3.5 The Interview

4. The census ballot

4.1 Geographic location
4.2 Information about the household
4.2.1 Type of household or dwelling
4.2.2 Enumeration of collective dwellings
4.2.3 Characteristics of the household
4.3 Family composition of household residents
4.3.1 Household residents
4.3.2 Creating the list and other information
4.3.3 Use of additional ballots
4.4 Mortality and migration
4.4.1 Mortality
4.4.2 Migration
4.5 Information about household residents
4.5.1 List of residents
4.5.2 For all persons
4.5.3 For persons age 5 or older
4.5.4 For persons age 10 or older
4.5.5 Exclusively for females age 12 or older

5. Creating a report

5.1 Reviewing the ballot
5.2 Summary of enumeration sector
5.3 Listing of households enumerated
5.4 Enumerator report

Appendix
[Next page]

1. Introduction
The General Administration of Statistics and Censuses has created this basic manual to illustrate to census workers for the 5th National Population Census and the 4th National Household Census about the activities that they must carry out, in the following hierarchical order: regional supervisor, department delegate, municipal delegate, zone head, urban sector head, rural sector head, and enumerator.

This manual is a tool designed to orient urban and rural enumerators in the efficient advance/progress of the activities before, during and after the census; also, it contains general concepts as they apply to the census, obligations of the enumerator, the procedure for the location and routes in enumeration sectors, directions for interviewing, and instructions for filling out the census ballot and registration forms, control and the summary.

The fundamental law of the National Statistical Service establishes that the General Administration of Statistics and Census designs and holds these events every ten years, in order to record population and household characteristics at a given time.

This great work of national interest depends on the support of the United Nations through the United Nations Population Fund (UNPF).

It is evident that the success of this activity requires the effective collaboration of the entire population and positive and efficient participation of each one of the enumerators.
[ Next page - pg.2 ]

2. General concepts
2.1 Concepts of population and household censuses

Population census
A population census is group of actions made up of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and releasing numeric summaries about the principal characteristics of people residing in the country at a determined time.

Household census
A household census is a group of actions made up of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, and releasing numeric summaries about the household characteristics existing in the country at a specific time.

The importance of censuses
National population and household census are of great importance to the country, because they allow knowledge of:

  • The total population by sex and age distributed at the level of: department, municipality, and urban and rural areas.
  • How many have jobs and how many are unemployed
  • Level of literacy and education
  • How many live outside the country
[pg. 3]
  • The total number of households in the country, by department, municipality, and by urban and rural areas.
  • The principal material the dwelling is made of
  • Household utilities: water, electricity and sewer system, etc.
  • Forms of waste elimination
  • Other characteristics of people and households

All this information is the foundation so the government, private companies, service institutions and individuals can plan their activities such as:

  • Industry creation
  • Adaptation of the commercialization of goods and services
  • Construction of bridges, highways, electricity generation plants (electric generator, electricity power plant), hospitals, clinics, schools, etc.

The 5th Population Census and 4th Household Census will be carried out at the national level, in both the urban and rural areas; where urban area is understood as the head of each township where the main civil, religious and military authorities are located; and rural area is the rest of the municipality that includes rural villages and farms.

The information will be collected from all people including recently born children newborns, the elderly, sick and disabled, etc., who live in the country and from all the households nationally. This information will be collected during five days in the urban areas and over ten days in the rural areas, using a period or reference point as the foundation.

According to mandated law and international recommendations, censuses must be gathered as with a frequency of every ten years and with a preference for years ending in zero.
[pg. 4]

3. The enumerator
The enumerator is the census official who the General Administration of Statistics and Censuses trusts with the important job of soliciting and obtaining the information of all households and people who live in them, located in urban and rural areas, and recording them in the respective enumeration ballots.

3.1 Obligations of the enumerator

  • Punctually attend the training course and pass it.
  • Study the enumeration manual and follow its instructions.
[pg. 5]
  • Follow all directions assigned by the immediate [boss/supervisor] and especially those that relate with receiving and returning work materials, which while in the enumerator's possession will be his/her responsibility, including the following:
- Enumerator manual
- Census ballots
- Labels/stickers for households surveyed
- Map of enumeration sector
- [Legal notice]
- Enumerator emblem
- Enumeration summary
- Register of households enumerated in the enumeration sector
- Other documents and materials for progress towards these functions
  • Visit and enumerate all the households and occupants in their assigned enumeration sector, in the established time.
  • Attend the meeting where the enumeration sector is assigned, at the time and place indicated; also, punctually be present and complete duties for the days of the enumeration
  • Check in daily with the Sector Heads to inform them of the progress of the enumeration, route, and to turn in ballots that have been filled out, so that they can review and keep track of the enumerator's work.

3.2 Enumeration sector
The enumerator will carry out their work in the assigned enumeration sector, which could be located in the urban or rural area of a municipality.

[pg. 6]

An urban enumeration sector is made up of approximately 75 households that could be situated in part of a block, in an entire block or in more than one block.

A rural enumeration sector is made up of around 100 households that can be agglomerated or dispersed within one canton (or small backstreet/alley), one canton or more than one canton.

[Parts of pg. 6 to pg. 7 are omitted in this translation]

[pg.8 ]

b) In each household that is visited, the enumerator will ask to speak with the head of the family, and in their absence with a person age 18 or older who belongs to the family group living in this household; once they have spoken with one of these people, the enumerator will politely explain the reason for their visit in order to obtain a census interview.

c) They will read aloud each question on the ballot slowly, as they are written and in the established order; they should not ask questions unrelated with the purpose of the census.

d) Do not intimidate the informants, or discuss issues unrelated to the census.

[Pages 9 to 11 omitted in this translation]
[pg. 11]

4.2 Household informationHousehold: All places defined by walls and roofs where one or more people live regularly, that is where they sleep, cook and protect themselves from the elements. Also people can enter and leave the mentioned without passing through another house, having direct access from the street, passage, path or passing through common areas such as patios, hallways, corridors or stairs.

[pg. 12]

4.2.1 Type of householdType of household will be understood by the way in which each house is made. For the purpose of the census, they will be divided into two large groups: private and collective households

A) Single family [private] households
Single family households are places designed to be used as dwellings for one person or a group of people who live as a family. This household could be: house, apartment, room within a house, room in an inn, shack, an improvised house, a place not designed for human dwelling, other (mobile home, tent, refuge, etc.)

House:
This is a household with direct access to the street, alley or sidewalk, made with long-lasting materials and usually located in a structure commonly designed for the lodging of one family group. It can be found connected or separated with other household units and it has its own toilet, bathroom and kitchen. This household will be recorded as occupied or unoccupied at the time of the enumeration.
[pg. 13]
Apartment:
This is a household unit made of long-lasting materials that is part of a building of one or more floors, and that contains two or more dwellings. It has access to the street through a corridor, hallway, or stair. It offers an individual washroom, toilet and kitchen. It will be counted even if it is unoccupied.

Room in a house:
This is a dwelling that is part of a structure that is made with long-lasting materials, and that can have two or three dwelling areas; the bathroom, washroom and kitchen are shared between all the households in the building. Generally found in independent households that have been remodeled to allow for lodging for two or three different family groups. There may be street access through corridors, hallways or places considered common areas by occupants.

Room in a boarding house:
This is a dwelling that is part of a structure which has at minimum four living units. It is made with long-lasting materials and has a shared bathroom, washroom and kitchen for all dwellings in the inn/hotel. In general this would be a single room with street access through a yard, hallway or corridor.
[pg. 14]
Shack:
This is a dwelling made with bamboo, palm or nopal leaves, grass or other vegetation. Generally found in rural areas, in order to be enumerated it must be occupied at the time of the census, and as such unoccupied shacks or huts will not be enumerated.

Improvised dwelling:
Any dwelling made with waste materials: pieces of wood, old aluminum sheets, cardboard, etc., which doesn't meet building standards. To be enumerated it must be occupied at the time of the census. They are principally located in poorer communities of urban areas, and sometimes in rural areas. If abandoned, it will not be counted.

Places not designed for human habitation:
This is a building built with long-term materials that has not been renovated, adapted or transformed to be used as a dwelling, but at the time of the census is being used as such. This type of dwelling can occupy some or all of stables, workshops, offices, factories, warehouse, garage, etc.

Other (mobile homes, tents, refuge, etc.):
Includes any structure used for dwelling/shelter not considered in the previous categories, such as: mobile homes, tents, shelter, boxcar, boat, etc.

Homeless:
This option can be marked for one person or group of people lacking a dwelling and who occupy that area to sleep: doorways, church atriums, beneath bridges, parks, public dormitories, etc.
[pg. 15]

B) Collective housing
This is a place or building where a group of people without family ties resides and share the space for reasons of lodging: health, education, military, religion, old age, orphan status, etc. This includes hotels, boarding houses, guest houses, hospitals, homes for the elderly, internment schools, hospices, jails, etc.

Hotel:
This is any building commonly known as hotel which lodges people passing through; however, there are some people who live permanently in the hotel, who will be enumerated as residents, excepting those employees who have been assigned an apartment to live with their family, which will be considered an "apartment" in single family households, but if the place where they live is completely separated from the main building it will be enumerated as a "house". Both situations will be registered on separate ballots from the collective housing.

Hospital or clinic:
In this case the hospitals and clinics that have patients who have more than six months of hospitalization and the hospital or clinic has become their place of residence. If there are administrative personnel who live in the hospital center, alone or with their family in a unit within or outside of the hospital center, that will be considered a single family household.
[pg. 16]
Boarding house:
Dwellings will be classified as boarding houses if they have more than 5 boarders who are generally students, and if they are run by the owner of the dwelling, who provides food, cleaning services, and in some cases laundry services. If there are fewer than 5 boarders, [the dwelling] will be classified as a "house" or "apartment", as appropriate.

Home or institution for the elderly:
Homes are places where the elderly of one gender or another live permanently. The administrative personnel, who live in a separate unit, whether alone or with their family, will be enumerated as a single family household.

Guest house:
This is a building commonly known as a guest house which lodges people who generally are passing through; however, there are some people who live permanently in this place who will be enumerated. If the owner and other employees live in the house, alone or with their family, they will be enumerated as residents of a single family household.

Prison:
This is the place where there are prisoners and, for the purpose of the census, only those sentenced to a period six months or longer will be enumerated; this also includes service personnel who are lodged collectively there. Each one of these groups will be enumerated on separate ballots, but within the same collective housing.
[pg. 17]
Barracks:
This is any place occupied by people belonging to the armed forces and other groups responsible for public safety. For census purposes, only those who live regularly in this place will be enumerated.

Convent or monastery:
This is the premises where groups of people who are united for religious reasons, academic or spiritual study, and without any family ties regularly reside. Usually these places are run by nuns, priests or brothers of another order.

Other:
This category includes all the collective housing that is not outlined in the previous housing types, such as: homes for children and adolescents, orphanages, brothels, physical or mental rehabilitation centers, etc.

[Page 18 is omitted from this translation]

[pg. 19]
4.2.3 Household characteristics
These characteristics refer exclusively to single family [private] households.

The first two questions of this part of the ballot will be answered by the enumerator using simple observation, before introducing themselves to the occupants of the household; however, if there are any doubts, they can consult with the informant in the household.
1. WallsWhat material are most of the walls of this household made of?
Only the exterior walls of the household will be considered and, when these have a covering, care will be taken to note the base material that they are actually made of.

Concrete or mixed:
A concrete wall is made with gravel, sand and cement in a steel frame and a mixed wall is made with white brick or concrete blocks, sand, and cement, held up by concrete columns and beams.

Bahareque:
This is a wall made of a base of dirt mixed with dried grass or pieces of clay tiles, supported with a frame made mostly of walnut poles or a similar material.

Adobe:
Adobe has a form similar to a brick but with larger dimensions than this. It is made with a base of dirt mixed with dried grass, which flatten into molds and then dried in the sun. The adobe blocks are stuck together with mud.
[pg. 20]
Wood:
Generally made with planks and held up by small or large beams.

Metal sheets:
These sheets can be smooth or with grooves commonly supported by a wooden frame.

Straw, palm leaf or other vegetation:
This kind of material is used for building huts and shacks, usually located in rural areas.

Waste materials:
This type of material is found in poor housing and refers to pieces of wood, metal sheets, plastics, etc.

Other:
Materials not included in the previous categories will be noted, such as: asbestos sheets, canvas, etc.

[pg. 21]

2. RoofWhat material is most of the roof on this household made out of? If the roof is covered with another type of material, the base material will be noted.

Concrete slabs:
Constructed with gravel, sand, cement and iron; a metal sheet covered with concrete falls into this category, as well as apartment roofs in buildings with two or more floors.

Asbestos sheets:
These sheets can be smooth, grooved or with other decorative forms.

Tile:
Tile is commonly made with fired tiles and sometimes cement.

Metal sheets:
Generally the sheet is grooved, and sometimes covered with clay tiles.

Straw, palm leaf or other vegetation:
This kind of material is used for building huts and shacks, usually located in rural areas.

Waste materials:
This type of material is found in poor housing.

Other:
Wood, canvas, etc.

[pg. 22]

3. Occupation of the householdWhat is the occupation status of the household?

a) Occupied household:

With people present:
This option will be marked when at the time of the household visit at least one person with the ability to provide information about the occupants of the house and the interview will be proceeded with.

Without people:
This is a household which during the time of enumeration is occupied, but at the moment of the census visit no one capable of providing information is home. Nevertheless, the enumerator will ask neighbors at what point they think that it will be possible to encounter the occupants and they will make at least two more visits.

[Translation omits the rest of page 22]

[pg. 23]

b) Unoccupied household:

For rent or for sale: At the time that the enumerator makes their visit to the household, they will check that a sign confirms either of the two conditions of rent or sale; and if there is none they will ask in the neighborhood.

Of occasional use:
This refers to a household that has furniture and that the owner occupies eventually, principally for recreational purposes, as with houses located on beaches or country houses.

Under repair or construction:
This is a household that is under repair, either to be occupied by the owner or to be rented or sold. Households under construction will be included if they have at the least a completed roof and walls.

Other reasons:
Household that are unoccupied and are not included in the previous options.

[pg. 24]

4. FloorWhat material is most of the floor of this household made from?

Cement slabs:
Made with gravel, sand and cement.

Cement blocks:
This type of block is made with cement, sand and other aggregates that produce a smooth surface.

Clay bricks:
This brick is made with clay or mud, combined with dirt and fire.

Wood:
This option will be considered if wood is the principal material of the floor.

Earth:
This is when the floor of the household is made of dirt that has been flattened and pressed; this category will also include floors made with a mixture of dirt and concrete.

Other:
These are materials that the floor is made with that are not included in the previous categories, including marble, rock, waste materials, etc.

[pg. 25]

5. Toilets and latrinesWhat kind of toilet or latrine does this household have?

a. Flushing toilet:
It is the flushing that eliminates the waste expelling it to the public sewer system or septic tank.
For private use: This is the toilet that only occupants of one household use.
For common use: This is a toilet used by the occupants of two or more households.
b. Latrine: A toilet in which the waste accumulates in a pit.
For private use: If it is used only by the occupants of one household.
For common use: If it used by the occupants of two or more households.
c. Other type:
This option will be marked for cases that another way of eliminating waste is used, different from those mentioned previously.

d. No toilet or latrine:
When a household lacks a toilet, latrine or other means of disposing of human waste.

[pg. 26]

6) Elimination of sewageDoes the household provide drainage connected to:

Sewer system
The household has piping that collects the sewage and expels it to a public main or sewer system.

Septic tank
The household has pipes that collect sewage and expel it to a concrete box where solids and liquids are separated, and later the water is piped into another box for the purification process.

On the ground outside of the dwelling
The household has piping that collects sewage and expels it on the household's land or neighboring land.

Stream, river or lake
The household has pipes that collect the sewage and expel it directly to a stream, river or lake close to the household.

No piping
The household has no piping and no drainage of any kind.

[pg. 27]

7. Water supplyWhere does the water in use come from?

a. From the water system via plumbing from the community:
This option will be marked when the occupants of the household obtain water through a water stream connected to an ANDA (National Administration of Aqueducts and Sewers) water main or a plumbing system administrated by a private company.

b. From a well:
The water is removed directly from a well, either with buckets, a manual or electric pump, or another mechanized way.

Public:
It is public if it is community property or from an organization that has it for community use.

Private:
It is private if it is the property of a person or organization that uses it for their own water supply. This can be connected to a pump that removes the water from the well to a plumbing system that distributes it in the household.

c. From a river:
This option will be marked if the water supply for drinking and cooking is obtained in this way.

d. From a spring:
The water for drinking and cooking is obtained from a natural spring or fountain, riverhead, etc.

e. Other:
The forms of water supply not included in the previous categories will be noted, such as: rain water, traveling vendors, etc.

[pg. 28]

8. Water installations:Does the household have installations for the service of water?

Inside of the dwelling:
This is a household that has at least one stream of water inside of the household structure; this could be installed in the kitchen, the bathroom, or any other place in the dwelling.

Outside of the dwelling, but within the property:
The stream or streams of water can be found in the patio or courtyard of the household, within the limits of the property, such as those in boarding houses [mesones].

Public faucet:
The occupants of a household get their water from a public faucet located off the property, which is available for the rest of the households in the community.

No water installations:
This is a household that lacks water streams and their water supply is provided via different means.

9. Fuel for cookingWhat is the main type of fuel used for cooking?

If in the household more than one form of cooking fuel is used, the most used will be noted.
[pg. 29]
Electricity
Propane gas
Kerosene (gas)
Wood
Charcoal
Other:
This is the case when none of the previous fuels are used and, as such, what is used should be explained.
None:
This refers specifically to when a household does not cook and for that reason does not use fuel to cook.

10. Type of lightingWhat type of lighting is used in this household?

Electricity:
The supply of electric energy could come from a public main or from private electric generators.

Kerosene (gas):
This fuel is used for different lamps (both common and Coleman), including oil lamps.

Other:
Types of lighting not included in the previous categories will be noted, such as: flame or candle, carbon, propane gas, alcohol, etc.

[pg. 30]

11a. Total number of roomsHow many rooms does the household have, excluding the bathroom, corridor, kitchen or garage?

A room is a space in the household that is enclosed by walls made with any type of material.

The following should be counted as rooms: the living room, dining room, bedrooms, study and other rooms used by the occupants of the household. Despite this statement, rooms that should not be included in the count, besides the bathroom, corridor, kitchen and garage, are those rooms occupied exclusively for commercial, industrial, artisan and professional purposes (storage, workshop, office, etc.).

In the case of the garage, this will be considered a room if it is only used as a dwelling space by the occupants of the house or by people who pay rent for the same thing.

11b. BedroomsOf the total number of rooms, how many are used as bedrooms?

The rooms in the household that will be counted as bedrooms are all those that are used exclusively as bedrooms, as well as partially used, such that in the case of a family that lives in one room in an inn, this will be considered the bedroom, where the number of rooms coincides with the number of bedrooms.

11c. Cooking roomsIs there a room just for cooking?

This will be answered affirmatively when the space where the stove is installed is completely closed in by walls and is used exclusively for preparing food.

[pg. 31]

12. Tenure of the dwellingWhat is the form of tenure of the dwelling?

Owned by resident(s):
The head of the family or some family occupant of the household is the owner.

Owned by resident(s) paying installments:
The head of the family or some family occupant of the household is paying in installments to become the owner of the dwelling.

Rented:
The head of the family or some family occupant of the household pays some value in exchange for renting.

Other type of tenure:
This is another status of ownership not included in the previous categories, for example: when the dwelling is occupied without any payment to the owner.

13. Appliances in the householdWhich of the follow appliances and/or vehicles are there in the household?

In this question all questions should be answered, whether the answer is negative or positive.

[pg. 32]

14. Garbage disposalHow is the garbage disposed of?

Municipal service:
This option will be marked when the occupants of the household place the garbage in front of their house or in a municipal drop off point so that garbage collectors managed by the city or township of the area can move it to an incinerator or other destination for its elimination.

Private service:
When the residents of the community pay a person or business to remove garbage from their houses and transport it to places outside of the community.

Incineration:
The occupants of the household burn the garbage.

Buried:
The occupants of the household bury the garbage.

Thrown anywhere:
The occupants of the household, either personally or via other people, throw the garbage in waste land, the street, rivers, streams, their own property, etc. This category includes those who throw garbage in unauthorized places, even though later municipal sanitation trucks will pick it up.

If one household uses more than one method of those mentioned to dispose of their trash, the informant will be asked which method they use the most.

[pg. 33]

15. Crafts and industry in the houseIs there anyone who lives here who is involved in any craft or home-based industry in the house?

If in the household enumerated someone makes sweets, furniture, cigars, flower arrangements, tortillas, pupusas, hats, hammocks, baskets, clay items, bags, fireworks, ceramics, etc. to be sold to the public, this option will be marked affirmatively.

4.3 Composition of the family or families that live in the household
4.3.1 Residents of the household
Who usually resides in this household?

In this box all the names of those who usually reside in this household will be marked and their information will be registered, whether they are female, male, infants, elderly, adolescents, etc. The people may all be related to each other, only some related to each other, or not related at all to each other. Next, the rules are presented that should be used to decide who

[pg. 34]

should be enumerated in the household visited, that is, which person will be considered as a resident of the household:

a) Those who list this household as their only place to sleep and where they generally eat their meals.
Those mentioned in the previous paragraph could be temporarily absent for the following reasoning: business trip, tourism, vacations or fulfilling their work obligations, as well as including people who are hospitalized for fewer than six months and whoever is in prison without having been sentenced. Those hospitalized for six months or more and those who are jailed and have been sentenced will be enumerated in the corresponding collective housing.

b) People who are married or have partners who occupy the household with their family, even though they spend the majority of the time in another place as a boarder, will be enumerated in the household of their family unit; consequently this person will not be enumerated where they are boarding.

c) Single people who occupy the household as a boarder, even though they have their family group in another place which they visit periodically, will be enumerated where they live as a boarder; consequently these people will not be enumerated in the household of their family members.
[pg. 35]
d) The boy or girl who was born before midnight of the beginning of the census will be enumerated; but those that were born after the mentioned day and time will not be enumerated.

e) The people who died after midnight the day that the census begins will be enumerated; but those who died before the mentioned day and time will not be enumerated.

f) The domestic employee (male or female) who sleeps the majority of the time in the household.

g) The people who during the census are living in the household and don't have another place of residence.

Notes:

  • People who are absent from the household lending their services as soldiers in the armed forces will be enumerated in the military barracks.
  • Beggars, regular alcoholics, street "urchins" and others who don't have a fixed place of residence and who sleep in doorways, parks, streets, under bridges, etc., should be interviewed on the second to last day of the census in the place where they usually sleep, as the enumeration of these people should be done at night. This group makes up the homeless population.

[Pages 35 through 38 omitted from this translation]

[pg. 39]
4.4 Mortality and migration
4.4.1 MortalityHave any of the members of this household died last year or in the present year?

People who died in the period between January 1st of the last year and just before the date of the census, including children and elderly people, will be registered.

[This translation omits the following paragraph, continuing to 4.4.2 of the same page]

4.4.2 MigrationIs there any member of the household who resides in another country?

This will be answered affirmatively if the person listed the household as their residence upon leaving the country and if they emigrated one month or more before with the intention of living permanently in another country.

[This translation omits the following paragraph, continuing with two below on this same page]

2. How many people live in another country?

If the previous question was answered affirmatively the number of people living in another country will be asked, disaggregating the answer by gender.

[pg. 41]

3. AgeWhat is your age?

Age will be recorded in the box and in years exactly as told by the informant, without suggesting or calculating ages.

[This translation omits section 4, continuing with 5 on the same page]

5. Marital statusWhat is your marital status?

Marital status is understood as the situation of each person with regard to the laws or family customs for marriage or common law marriage that exist in the country. For the identification of marital status the following definitions should be taken into account:
[pg. 42]
  • Children younger than 12: This includes all people, children and youth, who are younger than age 12.
  • Consensual union: This is a person who is not legally married to the person he/she cohabitates with in a stable manner.
  • Married: This is a person who is legally married to their spouse.
  • Widow/widower: This is a person who, after their marriage with their partner, whether through legal or common-law marriage, is not married and does not live with a spouse.
  • Separated: This is a person who is separated from their spouse of legal or common marriage and doesn't live with another partner.
  • Divorced: This is a person who, having legally dissolved their marriage, has not married again nor do they live with a partner.
  • Single: This is a person who has never been married nor lived with a partner.

6. Information about the mother of the familyIs the mother of the family alive?

The existence of the mother of the family should be investigated, no matter where she lives, whether she lives in the household enumerated or in another place within or outside the country.

[pg. 43]

7. Physical conditionsDoes anyone suffer from one of the following conditions?

This question should be responded to affirmatively when the impediment is total in the case of blindness, deafness and muteness, and when the loss of limbs is partial or total. If a person has more than one condition, all can be marked without limiting to one answer.

8. BirthplaceWhere were you born?

"Here" will be filled in for those people who were born in the township or town where the interview takes place. For those who were born in another part of the country, the geographic location of their birth will be detailed exactly: the complete name of the township or town, municipality and department. For those who were born in another country, care should be taken to clearly record the complete name of the country of origin and at the same time write the year of arrival to El Salvador.

9a. Length of residenceHow long have you lived here?

This will be marked as "Always" when asked of a person who never has moved from the township or town [canton] where the interview is taking place.
[pg. 44]
The "Year of arrival" will be recorded when the person moved from a town or township [canton], department or country to the place of the interview; consequently the change of residence within the town or township [canton] should not be recorded.

9b. Previous place of residenceWhere did you live previously?

The previous place of residence will only be asked when "Year of arrival" has been answered, taking care to record the complete names of the township or town [canton], municipality, department or the country where they lived.

4.5.3 For persons age 5 or olderThis part just refers to people five years of age and up, as a result the interview ends with question 9b for persons younger than 5, skipping the questions 10 through 13 to the following page.

10. LiteracyDo you know how to read?

"Yes" is marked when the person knows how to read and write at least a paragraph. If they only know how to write their name and a few numbers, the option "No" will be marked.

11. School attendanceDo you attend or did you attend a formal school center?

This question refers to the attendance of a school center belonging to the regular system. Participation in courses of cosmetology, haircut or dressmaking, computation, workplace trainings, literacy, etc., will not be considered as attendance.
[pg. 45]
Currently attends school:
"Currently attends school" should be marked for people who are studying during the year even though they are on vacation, waiting for final exams, or between semesters in the case of university students.

Does not currently attend but attended school previously.
This is for two situations, one where the person studied a short or long major/course of study and finished it, and the other when without finishing any major/course of study, the person attended at least one primary, secondary or upper level year.

Never attended school:
This corresponds to people who never attended school.

Unknown:
This refers, in particular, to older people who for reasons related to age do not remember if they attended or not.

For those who responded "Never attended" or "Unknown", the questions 12a, 12b, and 12c should be skipped, to question 13.

12a. Level of schoolingWhat is the highest level of formal education attained?

In this question the different levels of schooling offered through the formal education system are presented, where each person must be located by level according to the information given, taking into account that they have at least passed one year within the said level according to the following list:

Preschool: Preschool, kindergarten, and nursery school.

Primary or basic: First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth grade, the last three corresponding to the first, second and third courses of the "basic plan" of the previous system.

Vocational course after sixth grade [carrera corta]: In this case these short degrees that were done only [after] having passed sixth grade will be counted, such as: bookkeeper, office technician, industrial basic plan and other vocational studies.

Middle education [secondary school]: This level includes all people who study or have studied in an current diversified two year bachelor's degree (high school diploma) and in the old two year bachelor's degree (high school diploma) in sciences and letters; also, accountants, primary teachers, commercial secretaries, expert agronomists, nurses and other courses of studies that require passing the basic plan.

Higher education (not university): In this level people are grouped together who studied or are studying in institutions that require or required a bachelor's degree (or teacher) [i.e. high school diploma], such as: technological institutes, national agronomy school, San Jose de la MontaƱa seminary, military school, teacher training school, school of social work, others.
[pg. 47]
Technical university: This refers to the majors that are offered by the universities such as: teaching, nursing, technicians in diverse areas.

University: These are those that studied or are studying in one of the universities for the purpose of an academic title, such as: doctor, engineer, economist, odontologist, etc.

Unknown: These are those people who have made some course of study, but by not being present, or for reasons of age were not able to report their level.

12b. Years passedWhat is the last year passed at this level?

In this question nursery school will be recorded as "00" (zero zero) and year passed will be recorded starting with first grade of the regular teaching system.
For upper level education both in and outside of the university, in which courses of study follow cycles and each year includes two cycles, the year exact year will be written down carefully. To facilitate the answer, the year passed will be noted in numbers.

[pg. 48]

12c. What type of major or course of study corresponds to the year passed?

The type of study or major completed in the year passed should be clearly specified, whether this is at the basic level (from first to ninth grade) or if it corresponds to a short degree, middle education degree or a superior degree, it should specify what it corresponds to, for example: industrial degree mechanic option, teacher's license in letters, teacher's license in physical education, etc.

13. Vocational trainingDo you attend or have you attended a vocational, technical or commercial training center outside of the formal education system?

Vocational training is understood as those degrees studied outside the formal education system that generally are awarded by academies or training centers, which is why the Ministry of Education does not recognize any academic title and only certificates such as the following are given out: style and beauty, carpentry, mechanic, cosmetology, drawing, painting, etc.

4.5.4 Persons age 10 or olderThese questions numbered 14 to 21 will be asked to those who are age 10 or older, males and females. If the person is younger than 10, the interview will end, canceling the corresponding page.

[pg. 49]

Principal activity:The week prior to the beginning of the census, were you:

- Working for pay in money or in kind?
This category refers to the people who in the previous week up to the day of the census worked one or more hours for pay in money or in-kind compensation acting as employer, worker on their own count, employee or worker, etc.

- Working for another person without compensation?
This refers to those who work for another person without receiving any type of compensation or in kind such as apprentices of mechanics, carpentry, family workers, etc.

- Employed, or did you have a business, a company, a farm, but you didn't work (due to sickness, strikes, vacation, bad weather, etc.)?
This applies to people who have jobs or are occupied but, during the week referred to, did not work due to sickness, strikes, vacation, bad weather or other circumstances.

[The rest of pg. 49 is omitted in this translation]

[pg. 50]

- Looking for work and had you worked previously?
These are unoccupied people who are looking for work but have experience, as they have worked previously.

- Looking for work for the first time (never had a job before)?
This refers to recently graduated people of any university major, non-university course of study, or any vocational specialty and they are looking for work for the first time, even if they are young people who out of economic necessity have to work and have never worked before.

- Not looking for work because you thought there wasn't any? These are persons who had worked before, but for different reasons are without work and are not looking for work because they think that there are no vacant positions and sometimes they may be waiting for the seasons of agricultural harvest.
[pg. 51]
Only a housewife: This refers to women who are dedicated exclusively to daily chores of the household.

- Just studying?
This is all people whose only responsibility is to study, whether in school, high school, higher education centers, university, academy, etc.

- Retired, pensioned or rentier?
  • Retired: This is a person who, having completed the time of work service required and having reached the official age, retired, receiving a monthly or biweekly compensation.
  • Pensioned: This is a person who for reasons of sickness, accidents, age or another cause has retired from work, receiving a monthly salary.
  • Rentier: This is a person who lives off the interest of the money put away in savings accounts, installments or personal loans, from renting houses or lands.
[pg. 52]
- Imprisoned?
These are people who are in jail whether or not they have received a sentence.

- Permanently disabled?
This is about people who as a result of suffering from some physical or mental impediment are completely unable to work, which is why they are not working, such as: the blind, amputees of either upper or lower limbs, the insane, etc.

- Other?
In this group list all people who did not fit into the previous categories.
If they responded to one of the options 4 through 12, continue to question 15.

15. Other activityDuring the week prior to the beginning of the census, did you do any of the following activities for which you reported pay or in-kind compensation?

This question tries to capture information from those people who are declared dependents due to lack of a stable activity, but performed some work for which they received income in the week referred to.

Within these activities are the following: ironing, sewing, washing, making tortillas to sell, making candies, making bread, selling lottery numbers, selling flowers, selling food or clothes, doing domestic work of other people, create handicrafts to sell, do construction or plumbing, wall building, taking care of cars, and other similar occupations.

If they responded to one of the options of 1 to 5 continue through to question 16, but if they answer 6 (no activity), skip to question 21, skipping questions 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.

16. Place of work
Where do you work or did you work?

In the space of this question the name of the place where the person works or worked or where they worked on their own account, for example: a shoe factory, shirt factory, shoe repair shop, tailor's shop, in the street, accounting services business, brick factory, coffee plantations, elementary and secondary schools and institutions, etc.
[pg. 54]
In those cases when the person works in a business or institution, the official name of these should be taken, for example: Chambita Shoe Factory, Mercy Women's Clothing Factory, General Administration of Statistics and Census, Morena Academy of Computation, etc.

17. Economic activityWhat do you do or produce or what company do you work for, or did you work for most recently?

This question should clearly record the activity that the company, institution or establishment is dedicated to in the place where the informant performs their work or the work that they do themselves in the week referred to, for example: make shoes, repair shoes, make dresses, sell lottery tickets, accounting, teach classes, make bricks, plant sugar cane, prevent, control and cure population illnesses, produce statistical information, notary services, etc.

18. Principal occupationWhat is the occupation, job or duty that you perform or performed in your work?

In this question, the name of the occupation or duty should be recorded, performed by the person in the week previous to the first day of the census or the last time that they worked. If the person has more than one job, only the main job should be recorded, considering as such whichever the said person declares as the most important, whether due to prestige awarded, by income received or by the amount of time dedicated.

[Pages 55 and part of 56 omitted from this translation]

[Continue with 19 on pg. 56]

19. Situation at workIt is desired to know which position was worked in the principal job taking place in the week prior to the census. It is desired to know if the person was an employee or worker in the public or private sector, boss, or any of the categories that appear in the box.

[pg. 57]

In this job, you were:

Employee or worker in the public sector:
This is the person who works or worked in an institution in the public sector, whether with the central government, with an autonomous entity, or with a municipal city hall.

Employee or worker in the private sector:
This is the person who worked for a business, establishment, company or institution of the private sector. As such, this will include the people who work in international organizations, such as the UN, IDA (International Development Association), OAS (Organization of American States), etc. This should take into account that even though a person occupies the position of director, manager or president, if they are not owner of the company, they are still an employee, which is valid in both sectors (public and private).

Boss or employer:
The boss, entrepreneur or owner is the person who operates their own business or company or who works in a profession or capacity on their own account and who has one or more employees or paid or salaried workers.

Family worker without pay:
Uncompensated family workers are those who help with the family business without receiving pay, for at least 15 hours per week.
[pg. 58]
Independent workers (self-employed):
An independent worker is a person who is self-employed and doesn't have employees or workers to supervise but can receive help from a family member without paying them. Care should be taken not to confuse the self-employed worker with the owner or employer.

Domestic worker:
This is a man or woman who works in a permanent form for a household, doing household chores, such as: washing, ironing, cooking, cleaning, gardening, etc., for which he/she receives pay.

Worker in a producer cooperative:
This is a partner who works in one or more producer cooperatives for which they receive retribution according to their investment in the cooperative. If it is only a worker compensated by the cooperative, it should be clarified as "1" or "2" or rather as either employee or worker of the public or private sector.

[pg. 59]

20. HoursHow many hours did you work overall in the last week?

The total hours worked will include extra hours. If the person interviewed has more than one job, the hours occupied will be added up in each one of them. Similarly, for those people who were not paid for the number of hours worked, they will still be recorded. If the person interviewed had a job but didn't work in the week referred to, the number of hours that are normally worked during the week will be recorded. If one person works eight hours daily in a public institution and two hours teaching classes from Monday to Friday in a school or university, that is actually 10 hours daily, making a total of 50 hours per week.

21. Remittances from abroadDid you receive any familial remittances from abroad in money or in kind in the last 12 months?

This question should be asked of all people age 10 or older, without regard to sex, with occupied or unoccupied persons, or dependents.

[pg. 60]
Females age 12 or older
This series of questions will be made exclusively to women age 12 or older. Girls under this age and all men of any age will skip questions 22 to 28, making a diagonal in each square.
22. Live birthsHave you had any live births?

Live birth is understood as those boys and girls who at birth show some sign of life: breathing, crying, muscular movements or palpitations unless they died immediately. This question should be asked to all females age 12 or older. If the answer is "No", the interview ends, making a diagonal in each one of the questions 23 to 28.

23. Total number of live birthsHow many live births have you had?

In this box the exact number of sons and daughters born alive should be recorded, including all deceased and all currently alive, whether they are residents of the household or not. If the mother has natural children, legitimate or illegitimate, all should be included with no exceptions, but adopted children should not be taken into account.

[pg. 61]

24. Children who live with their mothersHow many of your children currently live with you?

The number of children who at that time live in the same house as the mother should be recorded. In some cases that could coincide with the number of children born as live births.

25. Children who don't live with the motherHow many of your children currently don't live with you?

The exact number of children who currently are alive and do not live with the mother at the moment of the census should be recorded.

26. Deceased childrenOf the children born alive, how many died?

The answer to this question should be less than or equal to the number declared in question 23, in other words the number of deceased children can be equal to or less than the total number of children born alive.

[pg. 62]

27. Date of birth of the last childWhat was the date of birth of your last child?

The day, month and year of when the last child born alive was born should be recorded in numeric form whether that child is still alive or is deceased. For example, if they were born on the 5th of March, 1945, this is recorded: "5" "3" "45"
With regards to the year, this will be recorded with only the last two digits.

28. Survivorship of the last childIs your last child alive?

This question refers to the last child born alive and there are two alternative answers, which are "Yes" and "No".

[The rest of pg. 62 to the end of the document is omitted in this translation]