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Methodological notes

Census of residents, houses, and apartments in 2011 according to Section 2 (4) of Act No. 263/2008 Coll., on the Census of houses and apartments in 2011 covered:

- Per capita (natural persons who, at the time of the census, had a permanent or habitual residence in the territory of the Slovak Republic or stayed temporarily in the territory of the Slovak Republic) except for foreigners using diplomatic privileges and immunity; foreigners staying in the Slovak Republic for less than 90 days who provided limited data (gender, date of birth, nationality) for the purpose of this census,
- For every building (both inhabited and uninhabited) intended for housing or other use, which was occupied at the time of the census, except for foreign embassies,
- For dwellings (both inhabited and uninhabited) and for all other dwellings and shelters in which at the time of the census someone lived or stayed, with the exception of dwellings in buildings of foreign embassies.

Census form A. Population data
Census form A. Population data was completed by each member of the household. For a minor citizen or a citizen who could not provide data on his/her own, the data should be provided by their legal representative, a family member or the owner of the house.

Permanent residents
Permanent residence is the place of residence of the citizen, such as municipality in which the citizen of the Slovak Republic or a foreigner is staying on the basis of official registration, i.e. registration for permanent residence (Act No. 500/2004 Coll. and Act No. 48/2002 Coll., as amended). Permanent resident population includes residents who at the decisive point of the census had permanent residence on the territory of the Slovak Republic.

Age is one of the two basic biosocial characteristics of each human individual (in addition to gender).

Age structure
It represents the division of the population according to age into one-year or multi-year groups. Usually these are five-year age groups; i.e. 0- to 4-year, 5- to 9-year, 10- to 14-year, etc.), but also others, e.g. 99 +- year, or 60 +- year, 80 +- year, etc.
The main age groups are defined according to the relation of the population to economic activity, by approximating age limits to the potential beginning and the potential ending of their economic activity.

According to the relation to economic activity we distinguish the following groups:

- Pre-reproductive age (residents 0-14) is the age at which the population is not yet economically active,
- Productive age (population aged 15-64) is the age at which the majority of the population is economically active,
- Post-productive age (65+) is the age at which the majority of the population is no longer economically active.

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Gender is a biological trait of every human individual in the male/female alternative.

Date of birth
The date of birth is an indication of the day, month, and year of birth of a resident.

Marital status
Marital status is an expression of the legal relationship of the resident. The status indicates whether the resident is single, married, divorced, or widowed. In the 2011 census, the residents stated their marital status according to the legal status valid in the Slovak Republic.

Household inhabitants
Residential household consists of persons living together in one apartment.
A census household consists of persons who share one apartment on the basis of family or other relationships within a single household. The census household is a basic unit and is not further divided.
We recognize:

- Family census households (consisting of at least two persons in a direct family relationship, in a marital relationship or in a consensual union) and within them:
- Complete family census households (consisting of married or unmarried couple, married or unmarried couple with children),
- Incomplete family census households (made up of one parent with at least one child (regardless of the child's age) taking into account joint economic ties,
- And other census households, including:
- Multi-person, non-family households (consisting of two or more persons, related or unrelated, jointly managed but not forming a family household),
- Households of individuals (consisting of one natural person living alone in the apartment, either as a lodger or living together with another census householder but living independently).

The household consists of persons living together in the same apartment and jointly covering any major expenditures of the household (expenditures for the use of the apartment, meals, maintenance of the apartment or house, heating, electricity, gas, and others). The amount of joint coverage of the household cost is irrelevant. A single household may consist of one or more census households.

Relations between household members
Data on relations between household members provide information on what kind of relationship (relatives or other) is between persons living in one dwelling (residential household). Each residential household needs to be headed by one person. The head of the household could be any adult member who, according to the agreement of its members, was habitually resident in the apartment (he/she spent most of the year there, usually spending the day or night in the apartment). Other members in the household were defined in relation to the head of the household as a spouse, partner, son, daughter, son-in-law, bride, grandson, great-grandson, father, mother, mother-in-law, father-in-law, other relatives, a stranger, or lodger.

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The highest educational achievement
The highest educational achievement is the highest completed degree of education. Students of secondary vocational schools and secondary schools should mark basic education, students of higher educational institutions should mark the relevant secondary education.

- Basic education should be marked by a 16-year-old or older person who completed high school and did not continue his/her studies. It should also be marked by a student of secondary vocational school and secondary school. Basic education should also be marked by a student of an 8-year grammar school, or an 8-year conservatory, if he/she has already completed the first four years of the relevant grammar school (conservatory).
- Apprenticeship (without graduation) should be marked by a resident who completed his/her apprenticeship at an apprentice school by an apprentice examination (and received apprenticeship certificate).
- Secondary vocational education (without graduation) should be marked by a resident who has completed education at a secondary vocational school or secondary vocational school without passing a school-leaving examination (e.g. graduates of 1-year and 2-year industrial schools, economic/business, medical, agricultural and forestry schools).
- A full secondary apprenticeship (with graduation) should be marked by a resident who has completed secondary education by completing a school-leaving examination (e.g. graduates of a 5-year vocational school or a vocational school with graduation, or graduates of a 4-year apprenticeship).
- Full secondary vocational education (with graduation) should be marked by a resident who has completed education at secondary vocational schools (e.g. industrial, agricultural, forestry, economic, social-legal, medical, pedagogical, librarian, art-industrial, conservatory) by passing graduation exam. It should also be marked by a graduate of post-secondary studies at a secondary vocational school, which was completed by graduation.
- A complete secondary general education should be marked by a graduate of a grammar school and a secondary general school, who completed his studies by graduation. It should also be marked by graduates of 11-year and 12-year high schools, high schools, seminaries, higher girls' schools and high schools for workers, i.e. secondary school with graduation.
- Higher professional education should be marked by graduates of corporate institutes, university courses, fifth, sixth or possibly higher grades of conservatoires, as well as graduates of higher professional studies (post-secondary studies), which were completed by passing the graduate exam.
- Undergraduate bachelor's education should be marked by graduates of the first (Bachelor's) degree in Higher Education (Bc.).
- Graduates of Master's degrees, engineering, doctoral degree should mark a graduate of the second degree of higher education, including rigorous continuation (Mgr., Ing., Ing. arch., JUDr., MUDr., MVDr., RNDr., RSDr., PhDr., PhMr., ThDr., akad. arch., akad. mal., akad soch., arch., PaedDr., PharmDr., ThLic, etc.).
- Higher doctoral education should be marked by a graduate of a former scientific training or current doctoral study program, a graduate of the third degree of higher education, i.e. title holders of CSc., DrSc., PhD., ArtD. (titles listed after the name).
- No school education where children up to 16 years old (born after 20 May 1995) who were still attending primary school, and residents 16 years old and older without primary education.

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Nationality means belonging to a nation or an ethnic group. It is defined by an individual decision. It is not defined by mother tongue, or the language the citizen uses, but the citizen's own decision to belong to a particular nation, national minority or an ethnic group.
The nationality of children under 15 years old is marked/registered by the nationality of their parents. If the parents are of different nationalities, the nationality of the child is marked/registered by the nationality of one of the parents.

Mother tongue
The native language is the language with which parents mostly spoke with the child in his/her childhood. If the parents spoke different languages, the language that the mother used with the child is selected. The mother tongue does not have to be identical with nationality. Only one mother tongue can be registered, according to the resident's own decision.

Religious affiliation is understood as participation in or a relationship to a certain religion (religious society). The resident should indicate the answer according to his/her own decision.
The religious belief of children under the age of 15 is marked/registered at the discretion of the parents, taking into account the child's opinion. Non-religious residents have the opportunity to indicate that they were "non-religious".

Economic activity
Economic activity is an indication of the position of the population on the labor market at the decisive point of the census. All residents except foreigners residing in the Slovak Republic for less than 90 days are obliged to fill in this information. The following options are available:

- Employed (excluding pensioners)
This group consists of 16-year-olds and older who were employed at the time of the census or were engaged in business regardless of temporary absence from work due to temporary incapacity for work or vacation and did not receive an old-age, early retirement, disability, or retirement pension. For the purposes of the census, residents were also considered to be employed in an agreement on the employment contract and the work contract. This does not include full-time students of secondary schools and universities employed on the basis of contracts for work performed outside employment (temporary work). Entrepreneurs with or without employees were also included in the group of workers. Also assisting members of households in family businesses, persons in custody or serving a term in prison, if their employment is continuous.
- Working pensioners
This group includes residents receiving old-age, early retirement, disability or early retirement pensions who were at the time of the census employed or engaged in entrepreneurial activity. A working pensioner is also a pensioner employed under a work agreement and work activity agreement.
- Persons on maternity leave
This group includes residents on maternity leave while their employment lasted. A person was not considered to be on maternity leave for the purpose of the census if they have never been employed or if their employment or similar employment relationship ended. If this person was not employed, they can choose from the options of unemployed, housewife or other (economic activity).

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- Persons on parental leave
This group included residents on parental leave if their employment lasted. A person on parental leave was not a person on parental leave if they had never been employed or his/her employment or similar employment relationship has ended. If this person did not have an employment relationship, he/she could choose from the following options: "unemployed", "homemaker" or "other".
- Unemployed
This group includes 16-year-olds and older who were unemployed at the decisive point of the census and who were actively looking for work regardless of whether or not they were on the job seekers register.
- High school students
This group includes full-time students in secondary schools (including apprentices). Secondary school students receiving a disability pension are not considered students.
- University students
This group included full-time students at universities. University students receiving disability pensions are not considered students.
- Homemakers
This group includes residents aged 16 and over who did not have their own income and were financially dependent on other member(s) of the household. A homemaker was also considered a resident who did not work at the decisive point of the census and did not actively seek work (the so-called voluntarily unemployed). As homemakers are also considered unemployed students studying distance or external learning programs and unemployed school leavers if they were not actively seeking work and were financially dependent on other members of the household.
- Pensioners
This group includes residents who received old-age, early old-age, disability or retirement pensions, and the pension was their only source of income. Children under the age of 16 and full-time students of secondary or higher education institutions receiving disability pensions were also considered to be pensioners, provided that the pension was the only source of their income.
- Beneficiaries of capital revenue
This group includes residents whose main source of income was income from own property rentals, income from capital assets (interest on securities, deposits, etc.).
- Children under 16 years (born after 20.05.1995)
This group included residents who had not reached the age of 16 at the decisive point of the census.
- Other (economic activity)
This economic activity was marked by residents who were not financially dependent on other member(s) of the household and did not belong to any of the groups listed above. Other economic activity was also selected by unemployed persons who were in custody or serving a custodial sentence if their employment relationship did not last.
- Economically active
The economically active population were considered to be residents who were working (except for pensioners), working pensioners, the unemployed, and persons on maternity leave at the time of the census in accordance with these methodological notes.

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Employment status
Employment status is information about the current or last occupational position of a resident in the work process, which corresponds to his current or last performed main job. Employment status was derived from the type of work activity and the form of remuneration for the work performed. The resident should mark one of the following options:

- Employee
For the purposes of the census, a resident with a fixed-term or indefinite period of employment, an employee in service (army and police), appointed or elected. Employees are also residents employed at the decisive point of the census on an agreement to perform work or an agreement of work activity. This group does not include full-time students of secondary schools and universities if they worked on the basis of agreements on work performed outside employment.
- Entrepreneur
An entrepreneur is a person registered in the Commercial Register, in the Trade Register and also a person doing business on the basis of special regulations (a doctor, lawyer, expert, auditor, artist, self-employed farmer, etc.).
- Entrepreneur with employees
This group includes entrepreneurs employing other persons (employees) in the course of their business.
- Entrepreneur without employees
This group consists of entrepreneurs who do not employ any employees in the course of their business (e.g. self-employed entrepreneurs).
- Member of the cooperative
This group includes members of production, agricultural or other production cooperatives if membership of one of the production cooperatives was the only type of work activity they performed.
- Assisting (unpaid) household member in a family business
Assisting (unpaid) household member in a family business is a resident who worked in a family business on a basis other than an employment relationship.
- Other
Other occupational status should be indicated if none of the above options corresponded to the resident's employment position.

Economic activity sector
The economic activity sector is derived from the name and address of the employer. The data corresponds to the main employment of the resident. They are reported by a resident who was employed at the decisive point of census or was employed in the past. An entrepreneur without employees, who has his own name as a business name, could write down the industry in which he was doing business instead of the employer's name. If the headquarters of the employer were based in the Slovak Republic, the resident should write down the name of the town (in Bratislava and in Ko?ice the name of the town part) and the district. If the employer's headquarters were registered abroad, the resident should enter the name of the state.

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Mode of transport to work and school
Data on the mode of transport to work or school give an overview of the frequency of attendance, the prevailing mode of transport and the duration of the journey to work or school. They were provided by workers, working pensioners (if their place of employment was different from their normal place of residence), primary school pupils and secondary and university students according to the school they were currently attending.
Frequency of attendance is an indication of how often residents commute to work or school. There are three options to choose from:

- Daily - should be marked by a resident who regularly travels throughout the working week or if he/she was employed or attending school.
- Other than daily - should be indicated by a resident who works at home or a student with individual study plan.
- Not attending

The prevailing mode of transport is an indication of the most commonly used mode of transport to work or school or the mode of transport of the longest part of the journey to work or school. It should be reported only by residents who indicated that they attend work or school every day.
Travel time is the approximate duration in minutes of one trip from the departure of your place of residence to your place of work or school. It should be reported only by residents who indicated that they attend work or school every day.

Census form B. Apartment data
Census form B. Apartment data should be filled in by apartment owners or apartment managers, or by tenants or lodgers. Data must be provided for every apartment.

An apartment is a living room or a set of living rooms with a bathroom and a kitchen, arranged into a functional unit with its own front door, intended for permanent living. The apartment should have an exit to a common hallway, staircase, street, courtyard, or other areas. Apartments in hostels, boarding houses, hotel-type houses, nursing homes, etc. were also considered as apartments for the purposes of the census, if they fulfilled the function of permanent accommodation on the basis of the assessment issued by the municipal/city/local authority or by an authorized real estate agent and were interchangeable with another housing unit.

Occupancy status
Occupancy of an apartment is an expression of whether the apartment is occupied or unoccupied. An occupied apartment is considered to be an apartment in which at least one user stayed for most of the year, but also an apartment whose user was temporarily absent.
For uninhabited apartments the following causes of unoccupied apartments were identified:

- Due to the change of the owner,
- Designed for recreation,
- Released for re-development,
- Unfit for housing,
- After final building approval,
- Due to inheritance or legal proceedings,
- For other reasons (these included apartments that were unoccupied at the decisive point of the census for other unspecified reasons).

Housing outside the apartment was recorded by residents of social service homes, retirement homes, orphanages, asylum homes, re-educational centers, accommodation facilities for homeless people, residents staying in mobile homes (caravans, boats, RVs, etc.), residents living in an emergency accommodation at work, and other facilities (i.e. garages, warehouses, cottages, etc.).

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Form of ownership of the apartment
The form of ownership of an apartment is an expression of the legal status on the basis of which the apartment is used for. The census form provides the following options for specifying the form of home ownership:

- Own apartments in multi-dwelling buildings are apartments in multi-dwelling buildings owned by one or more natural persons which have been occupied by the owner(s) or by one of the co-owners.
- Apartments in own family houses are dwellings in family houses which were occupied by the owner(s) or by some of the co-owners of the family house.
- Communal apartments are dwellings owned by municipalities; municipal apartments are also referred to as social dwellings (lower standard dwellings provided by the municipality to residents under certain conditions).
- Service apartments are dwellings used to accommodate employees in public and operational buildings, medical, school, and other facilities. These include apartments in which staff members were charged with guarding buildings or carrying out work to which the use of the service apartment was intended (e.g. school workers, guards, furnace operators, church staff, etc.).
- Cooperative apartments are dwellings belonging to housing cooperatives.
- Leased apartments are dwellings owned by natural or legal persons in residential and family houses used by tenants (natural or legal person(s) on the basis of a lease or a decree. This means that at least one tenant pays rent for using the apartment. Leased apartments were also considered apartments of people's housing cooperatives.
- Apartments for free use are apartments without the obligation to pay rent (e.g. living in an apartment of relatives or acquaintances).
- Other form of apartment ownership included other, unspecified forms of ownership which were not included in the census form.

Total floor area of the apartment
Total floor area of the apartment is the sum of the areas of habitable rooms, kitchen and other rooms in the apartment (hall, hall, pantry, hallway, bathroom, toilet) in meters squared (m2) without the area of balconies, loggias, and terraces.

Floor area of the apartment
The habitable area of the apartment is the floor area of the habitable rooms in the apartment represented in meters squared (m2). It is the sum of the areas of all rooms with an area of 8 meters squared (m2) and larger without kitchen floor area. If the kitchen is the only room in the apartment, it should be counted towards the total floor space. The habitable area of the apartment does not include the floor area of rooms that are used exclusively for business purposes.

Number of rooms in the apartment
The number of rooms in the apartment is an indication of the number of rooms (habitable rooms) in the apartment. A room is defined as a room with a floor area of 8 meters squared (m2) or more. The number of habitable rooms does not include rooms used for business purposes. If the kitchen is the only room of the apartment, it is considered a habitable room.

Apartment category
Apartments are classified based on selected features (type of heating, bathroom equipment, toilet, hot water) and are classified into five categories (categories I-IV and undetected category).
1st category apartments are apartments with central heating by distant, local, or floor heating, are equipped with toilet and bathroom and with a guaranteed hot water supply.
Apartments of II, III and IV categories are dwellings whose technical equipment is progressively at a lower level of quality than in category I dwellings.

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Heating type
The type of heating is an indicator that tells you how the apartment is heated. If several types of heating are used to heat the apartment, the prevailing source should be noted. The following options were selected for the type of heating:

- Remote central heating is a type of heating where the heat source is located outside of the house (a boiler room, heating plant).
- Local central heating is the type of heating in which the heat source is located in the house, in a room designed for this purpose (e.g. cellar, corridor).
- Floor heating is the type of heating in which the heat source is located within the apartment. Floor heating is used to heat only one apartment and is directly operated by the apartment user.
- A separate heating element is a type of heating designed for individual heating of individual rooms, which is operated directly by the apartment user (e.g. solid fuel stoves, fireplace stoves, heating element, glass infra-panel, convector, etc.).
- Other type of heating includes different types of heating that are not specified in the census form.
- No heating

Energy sources used for heating
The energy source used for heating is an indicator of the type of energy used to heat an apartment. If more energy sources were used to heat the apartment, please indicate the most prevalent source. The following options are available: gas, electricity, solar energy, liquid fuel (e.g. diesel, fuel oil, alcohol, etc.), solid fuel (e.g. coke, coal, wood, pellets, etc.), other, in the census form precisely unspecified source of energy used for heating apartments, or none (no source of energy).

Telephone and internet connection
Telephone and internet connection are an indication of household amenities. It was ascertained whether or not the residential household had a fixed line connection and an internet access. The fixed line connection also included a connection without a telephone set, for internet connection only.

Household amenities
Household equipment is an indication of whether or not the household has been equipped with selected durables (mobile phone, personal computer/notebook, personal car). The household was equipped with the selected durables (or some of them) even if they use only the company mobile phone, the company PC/notebook or the company car for private purposes. The number of mobile phones, personal computers/notebooks, personal cars, and their ownership/brand is not being determined.

Census form C. House data
Census form C. House data is filled by homeowners or house managers or by tenants. The data is provided for each residential building (including unoccupied buildings) marked by a number and other buildings in which someone had lived or stayed overnight at the decisive point of the census, with the exception of foreign embassies.

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The house fund includes all family houses and apartment buildings, irrespective of their occupancy, and all other dwellings that were occupied at the time of the census.

House type
The type of a house is specified by its purpose. It specifies the primary purpose for which the house is used. There are the following options to choose from:

- A family house is a building intended for living; it can have a maximum of three separate apartments, a maximum of two floors and an attic. At the 2011 census, it was distinguished whether it was:
- Detached (single-family house that neither adjoins nor forms part of a perimeter wall to a neighboring house),
- Semi-detached house (family house that has a common part of the perimeter wall with the neighboring family house),
- Terraced house (a house consisting of at least three family houses adjacent to each other by a part of the perimeter wall; house was also considered as a terraced house when the roof of one of the adjacent family houses also had a terrace above it).
- An apartment building is a residential building that has four or more apartments accessible from a common hallway or staircase. Villas that did not meet the conditions of a family house were also considered residential buildings for the purpose of the census.
- Dormitory, student home
- Religious institution
- Social services home
- Retirement home, guest house
- Accommodation without an apartment (e.g. hotel, hospital, etc., if there was no actual apartment).
- Other included another (unmarked) types of houses that were categorized and enrolled in the census forms by the homeowners, managers, or tenants of the houses (e.g. refugee camps, nature schools, etc.).

House occupancy
House occupancy indicates whether or not the house is inhabited. The house is considered inhabited if it contains at least one occupied apartment or contains a facility for collective accommodation of persons with at least one current resident. Houses could be uninhabited because of a change of ownership, or because they are intended for recreation, released for reconstruction, unfit for housing, or because they've just received final building approval, due to inheritance or court proceedings and for other reasons (this includes houses not occupied for other, unspecified reasons in the census forms).

Form of ownership
Form of ownership is an expression of the legal relationship to the ownership of the house. The houses may be owned by natural persons, the state, municipalities, or other legal entities (e.g. companies, non-profit organizations, foundations, and housing cooperatives), churches, foreign owners. They can also have multiple forms of ownership (a combination of owners). Another form of ownership includes houses with other (non-specified) forms of ownership. Homeowners, house managers, or tenants should first identify another form of ownership in the census forms and then specify it in writing.

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Construction period
The period of construction of a house is a time indicating the period in which the house was handed over for use, i.e. the period in which the occupancy permit came into force.

Number of floors in the house
The number of floors in the house indicates the number of above-ground floors. The above-ground floor is considered to be the ground floor and each other floor, including the attic (the ground floor is the 1st floor, the 1st floor is the 2nd floor, etc.). The basement is not considered an above-ground floor. Ground-floor houses are single-storied. If the house stands on a slope and has different floors on each side, the number of floors on the side of the house where the main entrance is located counts for the purpose of the census.

Water connection type
The type of water connection provides information on how the house is supplied with water. The census form offers the following options:

- In the house
- From network (water connection from the public network built for all or part of the municipality),
- Own (water supply from own source, which is built only for one house or a small group of houses).
- Outside the house
- From network (water connection from public network located outside the house),
- Own water supply which is not connected from public network and is situated outside the house).
- No connection