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IVth Population and Housing Census
[From 16-30 August, 2012]
Census Enumerator's Manual

Introduction

The 4th Population and Housing Census in Rwanda [PHC] just like the three others that preceded it in 1978 and 1991 and 2002; was conceived in response to the need of socio-demographic indicators representing the characteristics of the entire population which derived from Census data.

To this end, a detailed knowledge of the social, demographic and economic characteristics of the population as well as precise information on the availability within various administrative units of basic social infrastructure such as water, health services, educational facilities, etc.... constitutes a basic prerequisite for the elaboration of population policy and for the efficient implementation of development programs.

The results of the 4th Population and Housing Census will be produced in various forms including statistical and analytical reports and will be made available to governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and individual researchers. It is with such a concern that the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda [NISR] will conduct and execute the fourth Population and Housing Census in August 2012.

Based on the orientations given by the NISR Census Consultants, on discussions held in the consultative meetings with various ministries and potential users and in conformity with the United Nations recommendations and principles of Population and Housing Census, NISR has proposed a field draft of the questionnaire along with this Enumeration manual for field enumerators. The validity of these instruments was checked during the Pilot Census of August 2011.

Chapter II: Key Concepts and Definitions

2.1 Population and housing census
A population and housing census is the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time, to all persons in a country or in a well-delimited part of a country. It also encompasses the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing statistical data pertaining to all living quarters and occupants in a country or in a well delimited part of a country.

2.2 A structure
It is a building used for the purposes of business or any other activity. For census purposes, a structure constitutes a building used for dwelling purposes. In rural areas, most of the structures will be found within a homestead. A structure can contain one or more dwelling units. In urban areas a structure may contain several dwelling units. For example, storied buildings, contain more than one dwelling unit.

2.3 Private household
A private household consists of one or more persons living together and sharing at least one daily meal, it consists also of one person or more persons or a group of unrelated persons living together under the authority of a household head.

2.4 Institutional households
The institutional household comprises the group of persons who are living, working, or studying under prescribed rules. They include the homeless, overnight travelers and institutional population who reside in military barracks, hostels, hospitals, prisons, hotels and lodges, etc. As mentioned earlier, separate living households within an institution constitute separate households.

2.5 Private household located inside the institutional households
If there is private household inside the institutional households, where the members of this household do not share anything with the institutions household members [such as eating, sleeping...], this kind of household will be treated as a private household. Such household would be for married senior military officers with their spouses living inside the military camp.

How to locate the institutional households?
During recognition of boundaries of enumeration areas using enumeration area map, enumerators with his team leader will make a list of all institutional households found in the EA using the list of institutional households delivered by district census commission.

N.B: During enumeration, institutional households such as military/ police camps or prisons will have to be enumerated by those who work within these institutions.

2.6 Head of household
The head of the household is a designated person or the person recognized as such by the respondent, he can be a husband or his spouse. Every household must have a head and only one head. In the case of a group of unrelated persons sharing a dwelling on an equal basis, take as head the member of the group designated as a head by the rest of members or recognized as such by the others. A lodger is considered the head of that household.

2.7 Census night
This is the midnight of 15/16 August 2012.

The Census reference night
The Census reference night is the census night of 15/16 August 2012. This means that all persons who are alive in this census night are included in the population count. Accordingly, since it would not be possible to enumerate the entire population on that single day, whatever is the day during which the census questionnaire will be completed, all will be referred to the census night of 15/16 August 2012.

Present resident [PR]
A person is a resident present, if he/she usually lives more than six months in the place where he/she is enumerated, and if he/she is present on reference night.

A delay of six months is considered as a reference to determine the residence status in most of the cases, however there are few exceptions. There may be certain categories of persons who live less than six months in a given place, but who intend to stay, and who in addition will not be enumerated as absent in that place. Below are some examples:

A woman who just married is a resident where she lives with her husband as soon as she moves in.

A civil servant, who has been sent to a new place, becomes immediately resident in this new place.

A person who just moved to a new place, alone or with his/her family, with the intention to stay in this new place for any reason, becomes resident in this new place.

The following persons will also be enumerated as resident present (RP), even though they have not spent the reference night in their households:

Nurses or physicians on night duty;

Night guard /watchman;

Persons who spent the night in a night club, or in a night of prayers;

Person traveling in a car that census night;

Factory workers/ shift-workers who work at night;

Military or police personnel who spent the night in a camp or on duty;

Someone out fishing all night fall.

Absent resident [AR]
Absent resident is a person who usually lives in the census place, but who was not present on the reference night. To indicate this category, one will write AR in the corresponding box. The person must be absent for a period equal to or shorter than six months.

If the absence is longer, the person will be considered resident present in the other place where he/she is, and this is the place where he/she will be taken care of (where he/she will be enumerated). A person may be absent from his/her residence place for a variety of reasons, such as:

Health [hospitalized]
Business [business trip]
Family reasons [visiting a relative, participating to a wedding ceremony, and so forth]
Occupation [i.e., commercial traveler, truck/car driver, etc.]
Tourism [trip for vacation]
Camps [training, sojourn].
Short term studies

Visitors [VIS]
The persons who stayed effectively with the enumerated household during the reference night, but who are not resident because their usual residence is located elsewhere, are visitors. For them, one must write down "VIS"; these persons must be visiting for less than six months.

2.8 Definitions of special categories of residents
Foreign diplomats or representatives of international organizations resident in Rwanda and their families will not be enumerated in the census. However, their service personnel will be enumerated as part of the resident population.

Rwandese diplomats
Rwandese diplomats and their families posted and living abroad will be enumerated as part of Rwanda's Resident population, based on information provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Students abroad
Students studying abroad will be enumerated as absent resident [AR] in their families in Rwanda, provided the length of absence away from the household is equal to or less than six months.

Foreign residents who stay or work in Rwanda will be enumerated as resident present or absent [PR or AR], if their duration of stay exceeds six months, whereas if their duration of stay is shorter than six months, they will be enumerated as visitors [VI].

Foreign students
Foreign students who are studying in Rwanda's establishments will be enumerated as the other persons living in the country

Other workers abroad
Other workers abroad, such as the seasonal workers, will be enumerated as absent resident [AR] in their families in Rwanda, provided their length of absence away from the household is equal to or less than six months.

Civil servants
Civil servants who are on official trips or personal vacation trips abroad will be enumerated as persons usually resident [AR] but not having spent the reference night in their households, provided the length of absence away from the household is equal to or less than 6 months.

Homeless persons
Persons living in the street and or do not have special place to sleep, especially in the city of Kigali and other parts of country are part of the population and must be counted. Special arrangements would be made to fully enumerate them on the census night using the institutional questionnaire.

Chapter V: Completing questionnaires

5.1 Introduction of enumerator
After having entered in the household he will great the present household members, by saying "My name is..., I'm enumerator of fourth General Population and Housing Census, and I would like to meet with household head". That time the household head or his/her representative will welcome you, then tell him/her that there are questions you have to address to him about the General Population and Housing Census. You will continue interviewing him by asking: Are you the household head?

The interview that we are going to have with you is going to be based on the census reference night of 15th to 16th August 2012. The enumeration of the household will commence after having met with household head or his representative.

5.2 Type of questionnaires to be completed
The questionnaires to be completed are of two types.
5.2.1 The private household questionnaire
The private questionnaire is divided into seven sections as outlined below:

The first section [L] of the questionnaire is reserved for information identifying the household and is to be completed for each household.

The second section [S] provides a summary table of household members by sex and residency status at the reference night.

The third section provides the list of members of household.

Section four [P] describes the individual characteristics of each household member over thirty-six questions that make this part the very heart of the operation.

Section five [H] deals with the habitat, type of habitat and its characteristics without forgetting the information about household equipment.

Section six [M] of Deaths during the last 12 months which describes the deaths of resident members occur in the household during the last 12 months preceding the reference night.

The last section concerns the control sheet at the first page of the questionnaire
5.2.2 The institutional household questionnaire
This questionnaire includes three different sections:

The first section [L] concerns the identification of the institutional household.

The second [S] provides a population summary table of institutional household by sex, and residency status of its members during the reference night.

The third section [P] describes the individual characteristics of each household member and includes only 12 questions.

5.3 Completing the questionnaire

5.3.1 Section L - Localization and identification of household
Identification of the household is completed by the enumerator on his arrival in each household.

L01. Province: write in capital letters the name of province in which the household belongs.
L02. District: write in capital letters the name of district in which the household belongs.
L03. Sector: write in capital letters the name of sector in which the household belongs.
L04. Cell: write in capital letters the name of cell in which the household belongs.
L05. Village: write in capital letters the name of village in which the household belongs.

Example:
For a household located in Kavumu village, Nonko cell, Nyarugunga Sector, Kicukiro district in Kigali City.

L01. Province: Kigali City
L02. District: Kicukiro
L03. Sector: Nyarugunga
L04. Cell: Nonko
L05. Village: Kavumu
L06. Enumeration area code

Code of the enumeration area has two digits and they should be completed in the boxes provided under this section. The code of enumeration area should be taken from the enumeration area map by considering only 2 last numbers.
L07: Area of Residence [Urban=1 and Rural=2]
If the EA is located in urban areas, write the code "1" in the provided box. If the EA is located in rural areas, write the code "2" in the provided box [Use the list of urban areas in annex of this manual].

L08: Structure number
Structure number is to be completed in the three provided boxes. Write the structure number of 3 digits assigned to this structure [building] household during the numbering of structures and households.

The abbreviation PHC distinguishes the 4th Population Housing Census from numbers of other surveys possibly written on the doors of houses.

L09: Household number
Write the number corresponding to the 3 digits assigned to the household during the numbering of structures and households.

L10: Type of household
Enumerator shall not record anything in the boxes for private household and institutional household questionnaires, but write clearly the names of inhabited institutional households.

L11: The serial number and number of questionnaires used per household
Complete in the provided boxes according to the number of sheets used in each household. There is a place left for twelve people on each questionnaire. When the household has more than twelve persons [12], use an additional questionnaire.

L11 of the household identification, 2 boxes are provided. In the first box, write the number of the questionnaire that was reached. In the second box, record the number of additional questionnaires used.

Examples:
[1] In a household with between 1 and 12 members, use one questionnaire.
On the first page of the questionnaire, the place of identification, at L11, writes:
The latest number of the questionnaire: 1
The number of questionnaires used: 1

[2] In a household composed of between 12 and 24 members use 2 questionnaires:
The last number of the questionnaire: 1
Number of questionnaires: 2

In the second questionnaire, at the place of identification, at L11, write:
The latest number of the questionnaire: 1
Number of questionnaires used: 2

[3] In a household between 24 and 36 members use 3 questionnaires:

In the first questionnaire, at the place of identification, at L11, write:
The latest number of the questionnaire: 1
The number of questionnaires: 3

In the second questionnaire, at the place of identification, at L11, write:
The latest number of the questionnaire: 2
The number of questionnaires used: 3

In the third questionnaire, at the place of identification, at L11, write:
The latest number of the questionnaire: 3
Number of questionnaire used: 3

Note: When the enumerator has completed a household, he/she is asked to sort out the questionnaires as follows: [i] Insert the second questionnaire in the first, in the second insert the third questionnaire, insert the fourth questionnaire in the third and so on, so that the first questionnaire appears on the cover of all others.

5.3.2 Completion of household summary table
This section is to be completed in after the enumeration and properly checking the filled census questionnaires. The household members and population size by sex will be recorded under this section.

Household summary table: Number of persons enumerated in the household
1 - For private household questionnaire
This summary table will be completed as follows:
[Table omitted]

[i] All household members will be counted as listed on P01.
[ii] For those who are present, absent or visitors during the census night will be counted according to the residence status [P06]
[iii] As for sex, the enumerator will sum up the members according to their sex referring to P03 in the questionnaire.

Note:
[1] After having completed this summary table, check if the total number of enumerated persons is equal to all household members as listed on list of members of household or on P01 of private household questionnaire.
[2] If several questionnaires are used to enumerate a private household, the household summary table will be completed on the page of the first questionnaire.

2 - For institutional household
The institutional household summary table is completed like the summary table of private household.

[Table omitted]

There are some institutional households in which we may not find visitors such as prisons, during completing this summary table will only write zero in provided boxes for visitors. This Institutional household summary table will be completed using all institutional household [residents] members as listed on P01 and on P06 [residency status] of institutional household questionnaire.

5.3.3 List of household members
This part provides the list of all household members which characterizes each household member by name, relationship to the head of the household, sex and age. The enumerator has to complete on this list all household members before completing other sections of this household questionnaire.

The enumerator will write the names of all residents members who were present or absent during the census night [15-16/08/2012] starting by the household head to other household members as explained on the list of household members in column of name and first name[P01].

If any visitors, he will write them after having written all present residents and absent residents during the census night.

Note: This list is only used for private household questionnaire.

5.4.4 Section P: Question for all members of the household
Note: Enumerator should not write anything in the dark [shaded] box.

Before completing this part of the questionnaire, you will firstly complete the first page concerning the list of all household members; this list will be a focal point during completion of the questionnaire.

Can you tell us other household members who were absent during census night? [Write in the note book their names].

Among present household members during census night, ask who are visitors? [Write in sequential order by following the instructions given in questionnaire].

For the absent residents, ask;

How much time has [the person] been absent?
When will he/she come back?

If he/she has spent or will spend six months without coming back, you remove him from the list of household members living in the household because he will not be enumerated in that household.

If he/she will come back before six months elapse, he/she is enumerated as an absent resident on the census reference night.

If he/she has not spent six months away, and no one in the household knows when he will come back, he/she is also enumerated as an absent resident.

When you have written down all the names of household members, read over the list, and ask, "Is that correct?" If not, correct the list. Then ask "was there anyone else here on the census night i.e. visitors, young children"; if so, include them.

Head of household
Spouse of the head or the first spouse of head
Children of the household head still single and living in the household starting with the eldest
Children welcomed by the HH without kinship [unrelated children].
Father and mother of household head
Brother and Sister of household head
Grandchildren all living in this household
Other people living in the household having a relationship with the head or his spouse such as the second spouse or the 3rd of HH in the household, with her unmarried children living in the household, beginning with the eldest [other relative].
Others non-relatives to the head or his spouse.

P01: Serial number and the name of the person
1 - For private household questionnaire
In P01 write the serial number and names of household member who have spent the census night in the household, starting with the head of the household, if he/she was present, or his/her representative at the time. Respondents may not be aware of exact date for the census night, in this case you should explain by referring to the midnight of 15th august, 2012.

2 - For institutional household questionnaire
Each person enumerated shall be registered in sequence order of numbers in column N0. This sequence of numbers on the questionnaire is ranging from 1 to 15. If the institutional household includes more than 15 members, it will be necessary to use additional questionnaires.

If there is an additional questionnaire, the enumerator should use the pencil to strikethrough the existing serial numbers and re-write with pencils according to the sequence from the first questionnaire. For instance, the second questionnaire, enumerator will strikethrough the number "1" on the questionnaire and re-write 16 and the same rule must be sequentially applied for the following numbers.

In P01 write the names of all institutional household members who have spent the census night in the institutional household.

Note: [1] It is important that you list at least two names of each enumerated person.

P02: Relationship: What is [the person]'s relationship to the head of household?
This question should be responded by the head who describes the relationship between him and other members of the household. In case of absence, his/her representative, should describe to the enumerator the relationship between the household head and all residents in the household.

Always the head of the household should be listed in the first line in the question1 [P01] corresponding to the code 1. Then by asking the respondent the relationship of each member of the household to the head, the enumerator encircles the code corresponding to the response.

For instance: If the response is 2 [spouse] encircle code "2" etc.

You must probe to find out whether the children you have coded as sons and daughters are the head's biological children. If they are not, establish further whether they should fall under code "4" [unrelated children] or code "9" [non-relatives]. There are several persons who are not related by blood or marriage but constitutes a household, mostly in urban areas. Encircle code ''1'' as head of the household and the remaining members; encircle code "9" as non-relative.

The relationship of the usual members of the household should be correctly identified and the appropriate code of the relationship for each member of the household should be encircled from the codes given under this question. The choices of the relationship codes listed under this question are given below:

1 - Head
2 - Spouse
3 - Son/daughter
4 - Unrelated child
5 - Father/mother
6 - Brother/sister
7 - Grandchild
8 - Other relative
9 - Non-relative

P03: Sex: Is [the person] male or female?
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
Encircle only the code corresponding to the given response.

For example, if the member is male, encircle code 1. Similarly, if the member is female encircle code 2.

Check that the sex is compatible with relationship: do not assign "male" to persons shown as wives or daughters nor "female" for persons shown as sons or husbands.

Take particular care to record the sex of very young children correctly. Often, you will not know whether a baby carried on its mother's back is a boy or a girl. In such cases, you must ask - do not guess. You should ensure that everybody's sex is recorded. Blank is strictly forbidden.

Note: If you see well the sex of the respondent no reason to ask him/her the sex unless you have confusion.

P04: Date of birth: In what month and year was [the person] born?
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
Age is one of the most important pieces of information to be sought in a census. You must try as much as possible to record the correct age of the respondent. Under no circumstances should this column be left blank. You must probe to make sure that you get even a rough estimate.

Note: Make sure always that your writing is legible and within the appropriate box.

P05: Age at last birthday: How old was [the person] at his/her last birthday?
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
Always start by asking the person's age and follow up with the question on the date of birth as a consistency check on the former question (P05). Write the person's age in completed years - that is, the person's age at his or her last birthday. For babies under one year of age, write 000.

Use three digits in completing age; e.g. "001", "002", etc.

Many people do not know their ages. If a person's age is not known, you must make the best estimate possible. There are various ways in which you can estimate a person's age. Sometimes, people have documents, such as baptismal certificates, which show the year of birth, in which case it is easy to calculate age. Most people have identity cards showing when they were born.
It is sometimes possible to estimate a person's age by relating his or her birth to some notable historical event. With these instructions a historical calendar of events [see Appendix] which lists the dates of events in the history of each district can be helpful. If the person can remember how old she/he was at the time of the event, you can work out the person's age.

Check that it is compatible with his or her relationship to others in the household. Obviously children cannot be older than their parents; a women seldom of 19 years old who is a mother of young boy of 18 years old, and so on.

Note: Note that any estimate of age, however rough, is better than 'blank' in this question. Do the best you can to report ages accurately.

If the response is 3 years to be completed in the given boxes with two digits, enumerator writes as follows: 003.

P06: Resident status: What is the resident status of [the person]?
The residence status of all members of the household and visitors should be asked "what is residence status of [the person]?" and the appropriate code should be encircled. The choices of the codes are given below:

1 - Present Resident at the time of the reference census night [PR]
2 - Absent Resident at the time of the reference census night [AR]
3 - Visitors [VIS]

Note: [1] Prison is not enumerated in household.
For usual residents [visitors are not considered]

P07: Birthplace: Where was [the person] born? [Province or district or foreign country]
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
Birthplace is the usual place of residence of mother at the time of the respondent's birth. This question is meant to establish persons who are not enumerated in their places of birth and hence have migrated. Sometimes expectant mothers move from the rural areas to urban areas for purposes of delivery since maternity services are better at the latter. This kind of movement is short lived and must not be confused with a migratory one. For example, if a woman who usually resides in Karongi district moves to Kigali [CHUK] for maternity, it will be assumed that the woman went to Kigali purposely for maternity services. Thus the district of birth of the child will be recorded as Karongi.

District boundaries have been changed over the years of administrative system and we want to relate a person's place of birth to the district as it is constituted now. For districts which have been split by the reform, probe to find the actual district of birth and write the name by which it is currently known.

Note: For someone who was born in Rwanda, write the district of birth and for someone who was born abroad, write the country where he was born.

P08: Nationality: What is [the person]'s nationality?
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
If Rwandan only, write Rwanda at the first nationality and proceed to next question [do not write anything in provided boxes or in other reserved places].

If Rwandan with a second nationality, write Rwanda at the first nationality; at the second nationality write the name of second nationality or the name of homeland [do not write anything in boxes reserved].

If the respondent declares to be foreigner, write only the name of his nationality or the name of his homeland in provided place [do not write anything at the first and second nationality or in boxes reserved].

For a young child, write father's nationality
P09: Place of previous residence: Where was [the person] residing previously?
[For private and institutional household questionnaires]
For persons who were living in Rwanda before August 2012, indicate the district name of their previous residence in P09. For districts which have been split during the restructuring, probe to find the actual district of residence in August 2012 and write the name by which it is currently known.

A person who may have been absent from home temporarily for some reason such as visiting relatives or in hospital, or who may have been overseas on a visit of less than six months, should be shown where they normally lived before August, 2012.

If the person was living in another country before August 2012, use the name pertaining to the specific country.

P10: Duration of residence: How long has [the person] been living in district?
If the person has spent less than one year in his/her current residence, write in the boxes "000" and move to next question.

If the current residence has not changed since birth, record "999" and move to next question.

If the current residence has changed and the person has spent there over one year, record in given boxes his/her real spent years and move to next question.

Check to see that the person's age is consistent with duration of residence i.e. the person's age must always be greater or equal to duration of residence.

P11: Religion: What is [the person]'s religion?
Religion is an affiliation with a group having specific religious or spiritual tenet. The code of the religion for each member of the household should be encircled by asking each member of the household. If is "Catholic", encircle code "1", if Muslim, encircle code "6" etc.

The religion of a baby who was born from Christian parents and whose age is not reached to baptism so enumerator should encircle the code of his/her parents' religion.

If the parents belong to different religions, it is necessary to ask the religion of each child. The responses are recorded without further discussion. When a person refuses to answer the question, it is not necessary to discuss but the enumerator encircle the code "7" [No religion].

The choices of the religion codes are given below:

1 - Roman Catholics: Those who believe in Catholic faith and recognize the Pope as the head of the Church.
2 - Protestants: Group of churches which broke away from the Roman Catholic Church e.g. Anglican Church, Presbyterian, Methodists and Baptists.
3 - Adventist: Seventh-day Adventist Christians distinguished chiefly for their observance to the Sabbath
4 - Muslim: Those who profess the Moslem faith arid recognize Muhammad as the prophet of God
5 - Jehovah Witnesses: Christian sect distinguished chiefly for its observance of the name of God "Jehovah"
6 - Traditional/Animist: Those who believe in natural divine powers like Lyangombe, Nyabingi, etc..
7 - Other religion: Include people with religious affiliations other than the above-mentioned, e.g. Buddhists, Bahais, Hindus etc
8 - No religion: These are people who do not believe in the existence of super natural powers neither do they follow any particular religion.

P12: Type and cause of major disability
Ask: Does [the person] have any difficulty or problem as listed below? If yes, what were the causes?

A person is called disabled if during birth or after birth his/her body part or his/her mental is damaged, lack of body part or congenital malformation and fails to do activities that other persons who have no such problems could do.

The possible disabilities and their causes are follows:

Type of disability [D]
1 - Seeing
2 - Hearing
3 - Speaking
4 - Walking/Climbing
5 - Learning/Concentrating
6 - Other

Causes [C]
1 - Congenital
2 - Disease/Illness
3 - Injury/Accident
4 - War/Mines
5 - Genocide
6 - Not known
7 - Other

[1] For private household questionnaire
By encircling, match the code number of type of disability of respondent to the respective code number of cause of disability, and then write those codes in the appropriate boxes.

Note: [1] If no disability, write 0 in D then go to P13. [2] If the person has between 1 and 5 disabilities, write 0 in the D box following the last mentioned disability before going to P13.

Example for note 2: If there are disability of seeing caused by disease/illness and disability of walking/climbing due to congenital, encircle code 1 as type of first disability and code 2 as its cause and encircle code 4 as type of second disability and 1 as cause of this last disability then write within the boxes as follows: [image omitted]

[2] For institutional household questionnaire
Enumerator is not allowed to encircle the code number of type and cause of disability, only has to write in the appropriate boxes the code number of type of disability declared by respondent to the respective code number of cause of disability.

Note: [1] If no disability, write 0 in D1 then go to P17. [2] If the person has between 1 and 5 disabilities, write 0 in the D box following the last mentioned disability before going to P17

Example for note 2: If there are disability of seeing caused by disease/illness and disability of walking/climbing due to congenital, encircle code 1 as type of first disability and code 2 as its cause and encircle code 4 as type of second disability and 1 as cause of this last disability then write within the boxes as follows: [image omitted]

P13: Health insurance
Ask: What is [the person]'s medical insurance?

Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

1 - Mitiweli: Health Insurance
2 - RAMA: Health insurance of the agents and officials of the State
3 - MMI: Health insurance of the soldiers
4 - FARG: Assistance Fund for 1994 Genocide Survivors
5 - Insurance Cies: Health insurance covered by Insurance Company
6 - Schools
7 - NGOs: the non-governmental Organizations
8 - Employers
9 - None
10 - Other

Example:
If Mitiweli, encircle code "1"
If RAMA, encircle code "2"
If FARG, encircle code "4"

P14 and P15: For residents less than 18 years old

P14: Parental survivorship and residence
Ask: Is [the person]'s natural mother alive? If yes, does [the person]'s natural mother live in this household? Is [the person]'s natural father alive? If yes, does [the person]'s natural father live in this household?

Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

If yes, encircle code "1"
If no, encircle code "2"
If doesn't know, encircle code "3"

Note that at times destitute children are brought up or adopted at a very young age by relatives. Such foster parents should not be considered as the biological parents of the respondent. Please always probe to establish the reality of the situation.

P15: Birth registration
Ask: Was [the person]'s birth registered?

Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

If yes, encircle code "1"
If no, encircle code "2"
If don't know, encircle code "3"

Note: Enumerator has to explain to respondent where the birth registration office is, such as at district office during the past years, but this moment the birth registration is done at Sector office.

P16 to P19: For residents aged 3 years or older

P16: Reading and writing [literacy]
Ask: Can [the person] read, write and understand in the following languages?

Encircle the code number accordingly to the language he/she can read, write and understand. If he/she can read, write and understand one language, encircle the code number of it.

1 - Kinyarwanda
2 - French
4 - English
8 - Other
0 - None

If he/she can read, write and understand many languages, encircle the code numbers of them. Then record the sum of the codes circled responses in provided boxes.
[Example omitted]

P17: School attendance
Ask: Has [the person] ever attended preschool, school or literacy program?

It seeks to ascertain whether the person is attending school, has attended or never attended school.

1 - Has never attended - P20
2 - Has ever attended
3 - Is currently attending school

Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

[1] For private household questionnaire
If the response is "Has never attended", encircle code "1", then go to P20.
If the response is "Has ever attended" encircle code "2", then go to next question.
If the response is "Is currently attending school", encircle code "3", and then go to next question.

[2] For institutional household questionnaire
If the response is "Has never attended", encircle code "1", then go to P29
If the response is "Has ever attended" encircle code "2", then go to next question.
If the response is "Is currently attending school", encircle code "3" and then go to next question.

P18a: Educational level attained
Ask: What is the highest level of school or literacy program [the person] attended?

[1] For private household questionnaire
Encircle the code number which matches the level accordingly to response given.
Example: if he/she is studying or has studied until year six in primary level, encircle code "1".

[2] For institutional household questionnaire
Enumerator is not allowed to encircle the code number which matches the level of schools attended accordingly to response given. One box was given; write code number of the school or literacy program level attended.

Example: if he/she is studying or has studied until year six in primary level, write code "1".

P18b: Years completed
How many years of school did [the person] complete [successfully] at that level?

[1] For private household questionnaire
Encircle the code numbers which match the years completed [successfully] accordingly to response given

Example:
If he/she is studying or has studied until year six in primary level, encircle code "5".
If he/she is studying or has studied until year one in primary level, encircle code "0".

[2] For institutional household questionnaire
Enumerator is not allowed to encircle the code number which matches the years completed accordingly to response given. Write the code number of the years completed in box provided.

Example: if he/she is studying or has studied until year six in primary level, write code number of the years completed in box provided as declared by the respondent as follows "5".

If he/she is studying or has studied until year one in primary level, encircle code "0".

P19: Highest certificate or degree obtained
Ask: What is the highest certificate/degree [the person] obtained?

The degrees concerned here are those which are awarded from secondary level or high institutions of education. Encircle the code number which corresponds to the response given by the respondent:

If none, encircle code "0"
If bachelor's degree or equivalent [A0], encircle code "6"
If masters, encircle code "7" etc.

P20 to P24: For residents aged 5 years or older

P20: Work done
Ask: Aside from his/her own housework, did [the person] work at least 1 hour during the last 7 days preceding the census night [8-14/08/2012]

Encircle the code number which matches the response given.
If yes, encircle code "1" then go to P25
If no, encircle code "2"; continue to next question P21

Note: the work mentioned here, is work which is productive.

P21: Reason of not working

Ask: Why [the person] did not work during the last 7 days [8-14/08/2012]?
Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

0 - Home worker
1 - Non-worker [never worked]
2 - Non-worker [ever worked]
3 - On leave, but has job
4 - Retired
5 - Student
6 - Other [specify]

Note: If the response is "On leave, but has job", encircle code "3" then go to P25. If the response is "0, 1 or 2", encircle code number corresponding to response given, and continue to P22. If the response is "4, 5 or 6", encircle code number corresponding to response given, and continue to P23.

P22: If had worked
Ask: Did [the person] do one of the following activities during the last 7 days [8-14/08/2012]?
Encircle the code number which matches the response given.

1 - Farming/Rearing animals/Fishing
2 - Production
3 - Services/Selling
4 - House worker at someone's house
5 - Home worker at own house
6 - None

If the response is one of the following"1, 2, 3 or 4", encircle code number corresponding to response given, and continue to P25.

P23: Available to work
Ask: Is [the person] available to work?
If yes, encircle code "1" continue to next question P24
If no, encircle code "2"; then go to P29

P24: Seeking for work
Ask: Has [the person] been seeking for work during the last 7 days (8-14/08/2011)?
If the response is No or Yes 1st Job "0 or 1", encircle code number corresponding to response given, and continue to P29
If yes new job, encircle code "2" continue to next question P25

P25 to P28: For residents who have ever worked or are currently working

P25: Main occupation [type of work]
Ask: What was [the person]'s main occupation during the last 7 days preceding the census night or during the last 12 months he/she worked?

The question concerns those who have engaged in economic activity for the last 7 days preceding the census night.

Type of work that the person performed in seven days before the census refers to occupation or the job title. Write down the current job title of the person, using two or three words.

Example: primary school teacher, private gardener, cattle farmer, domestic worker, bus driver, communication technician, principal statistician, office cleaner, etc.

Note: Do not accept only "teacher", "driver", and "technician". Use two or three words for the description, otherwise it will be difficult to know what type of work people are doing.

P26: Employment status
Ask: What is [the person]'s status in employment?
Encircle code number corresponding to response given.

1 - Employee
This category includes those who, for the last 7 days have worked on permanent basis and paid continually on a monthly, weekly, daily, or hourly basis, and were paid from government, parastatal, private employer, NGO, non-profitable organizations such as churches, etc.

This category also includes those who, for the last 7 days have worked on contract basis and paid continually on a monthly, weekly, daily, or hourly basis, and were paid from government, parastatal, private employer, NGO, non-profitable organizations such as churches, etc.

2 - Employer
This is a person who, working on his or her own economic account/enterprise or engaged independently in a profession or trade with one or few partners, and hires on a continuous basis [including the reference period] one or more persons to work for him/her as employees.

3 - Self-employed
These are own-account workers who operate their own economic enterprise or engage independently in a profession or trade. The remuneration is directly dependent upon the profits derived from the goods and services produced. They worked a productive activity for the last 7 days in their enterprise.

4 - Contributing family worker
Those members of household who worked without pay for families during the reference period.

5 - Producers' cooperative member
This person is one of the cooperative members and had worked for a cooperative in 7 days before census night.

6 - Other
All other persons not falling into any of the above categories.

If employee, encircle code "1"
If employer, encircle code "2"
If cooperative members, encircle code "5" etc.

P27: Branch of economic activity
Ask: What is the main product, service or activity of [the person]'s place of work?

This question concerns people aged at least 5 years who have a job or who have worked, that means those who responded to P23 by encircling 1 [Yes].

The enumerator writes the main activity of the establishment or industry where the person works.

Examples of activities and industries most common in Rwanda.
1 - Agriculture and livestock

General Agriculture Apiculture
Breeding Fishing hunting
Other forestry

2 - Extraction of minerals and gems

Gold
Wolfram
Cassiterite
Columbite-tantalite [coltan]
Other

3 - Mills

Woodworking [sawing and planning of wood]
Carpentry
Bakery
Oils and fats
Preparing tea
Knitting and weaving
Ceramics Printing
Forge and other

4 - Electricity, gas and water

Production, electricity production from gas
Production and distribution of water
Other

5 - Construction and public works

Construction of roads, bridges and roads
Construction of houses
Other water pipes

6 - Trade, restaurants and hotels

Trade in food, shops Markets
Petrol stations [gas stations], Restaurants
Bars and taverns and other

7 - Transporting people and goods, warehouses, telecommunications.

Road transport-lease vehicles Freight Transportation
Warehouse for goods
Other [taxis ...]

8 - Banks, insurance

Banks
Social Insurance Fund Home Insurance
Other companies in the banking operations

9 - Community service

Public Service and Administration
Education
Armed Forces
Shoemaking
Repairing electrical equipment
Repair vehicles, motorcycles and bicycles
Hairdressing salon
Photography
Housework
Activities and services for the disabled
Faiths
Other hospitals.

P28: Sector of economic activity
Ask: What is [the person]'s institutional sector of employment?

Enumerator encircles the code response as declared by respondent.

1 Public: The agents and officials of the state
2 Employees of employers of private sectors
3 Non-profit institution: Employees of the parastatal sectors, the non-governmental organizations [NGOs]
4 Household: This category includes all paid domestic workers

P29 to P32: For residents aged 12 years or older

P29: Marital status
Ask: What is [the person]'s marital status?

The marriage may be taken place either legal, religious or traditional basis or those married persons should live together as husband and spouse. The answer for this question must be accepted as given by the respondent. Enumerator encircles the code corresponding to the given response.

The relevant codes to be marked for the various marital status categories are follows:

1 - Never married: Single person male or female or not yet married, unmarried mothers with children in the household without having contracted a marriage are also considered to be single.
2 - Married: the young woman or young man living together upon mutual agreement. In this case the husband and spouse might live together either legally or illegally.
3 - Separated person: A person temporarily separated from her/his spouse pending on the decision of the law
4 - Widow/widower: Man or woman who lost his wife [her husband] and had not yet remarried
5 - Divorced: A person permanently divorced from his/her spouse before the law

P30: Number of spouses
[This question is addressed to persons [male only] who have responded to P29 as married or separated person]

Ask: How many spouses [the person] has?
Write the current number of spouses in the provided box.
Example: If he has two spouses, record them in the box as follows: [picture omitted]

P31: Rank to the spouse
[This question is addressed to person [female only] who has responded P29 as married or separate person]

Ask: What is the rank of [the person] to the spouse?
Write the current rank as spouse in the provided box.
Example: If she is the second spouse, record in box as follows [picture omitted]

P32: Age at first marriage
Ask: How was [the person] when he/she first got married or lived together with partner?

Record the number of given ages in provided boxes.
Example: If the respondent was 29 years old at his/her first marriage, record in the boxes as follows: [picture omitted]

Note: If he/she doesn't know his/her ages at his/her first marriage, record 99 in the boxes as follows: [picture omitted]

P33 to P36 for resident women aged 12 years or older

P33: Live births
Ask: How many live births [the person] has ever had?

Many women do not like answering questions about their children. There are various reasons for this, but it is your job to obtain the answers. It will require insistence, politeness and tact.

A live birth is one who shows one or more of the following signs of life immediately after birth:

Crying or similar sounds
Movement of the limbs or any other parts of the body
Any other tangible signs of life

The census is concerned only with children born alive. Do not include stillbirths, that is, children who were born dead and therefore did not show any sign[s] of life as above at the time of birth. If the woman has born any child alive:

Write the number of boys in the box provided
Write the number of girls in the box provided
If none, write 00 for each sex and proceed to the next person

P34: Children are still alive
Ask: Among those children, how many are still alive?

Write the number of boys that are still alive in the box provided
Write the number of girls that are still alive in the box provided
If none or there had been live births but all had died, write "00" in appropriate sex for each sex and proceed to the next person.

For female headed households, you should be able to verify this information from P02 [relationship] and P03 [sex].

If for example the woman has only two boys and two girls then you should write "02" in P33 male and "02" in P33 female.

P35: Live births in the last 12 months

Ask: How many live births has [the person] had during the last 12 months [from 15 August 2011 to 15 August 2012]?
If the woman has born any child alive in 12 last months,
Write the number of boys in the box provided.
Write the number of girls in the box provided.

P36: Live births in the last 12 months who are still alive.
Ask: Among those children, how many are still alive?

Ask each woman [or mother-daughter], the children she has borne alive during the last 12 months, how many are still alive?

Write the number of boys are still alive in the box provided
Write the number of girls are still alive in the box provided
If none during the last 12 months, write "0" in appropriate box for each sex and proceed to the next person,

The newborn after census night is not enumerated.

Note: [1] The number of children still alive should be equal to or less than the total live births. Therefore: [2] Make sure that none of the children she has borne alive are missed out. Ask further questions to probe the matter fully - "Are any of your children away?" "At work?" "With relatives?" etc. [3] After having completed the section of individual characteristics of all household members, [after having enumerated last household member] proceed to the section H: Housing

Section H: Housing units characteristics
5.3.5. How to complete Section H: Habitat [H01 to H35]
Questions on habitat are also asked to the household head or his representative.

H01: Type of habitat
The enumerator simply encircles the number corresponding to the chosen modality. It is absolutely necessary that the enumerator understand sufficiently the 6 modalities of the question H01. These are:

1 - Umudugudu [clustered rural settlement]: These are houses grouped under the new housing policy.
2 - Old settlement: these are houses grouped and built by any institution for under the new housing policy
3 - Dispersed/isolated habitat
4 - Planned Urban Housing [cadastre]: it directly refers to modern living requirements of the National Service of Cadastre.
5 - Spontaneous or Squatter Habitat [Akajagari]: these are houses located in informal settlements and messy, an exclusively urban phenomenon.
6 - Other type of Housing: to mean all other type of habitat not falling into any of the above categories.

Example: If dispersed/isolated housing, encircle the code number [image omitted]

H02: Type of building
For purposes of this census, a building is a housing unit, which a household uses for sleeping, eating, entertaining guests, etc.

Encircle the right response out of the five following modalities:

1 - House occupied by a household
2 - House occupied by several households
3 - Storey building occupied by one or more households
4 - Several buildings in the same compound occupied by several households [Urupangu]
5 - Other type of structure

H03: Tenure of the housing unit
Encircle the code corresponding to the response given.

1 - Owner
2 - Renter
3 - Hire purchase
4 - Free lodging
5 - Staff housing
6 - Refuge/temporary camp settlement
7 - Other

H04: Roof materials
What is the main material used for the roof?
Encircle the code corresponding to the response given.

1 - Iron sheets
2 - Local tiles
3 - Industrial tiles/sheets
4 - Asbestos
5 - Concrete
6 - Cartoons/Sheeting
7 - Grass
8 - Other material

Note: In case of a storey building, consider the roof of the last floor.

H05: Materials for walls
What is the main material used for the walls?

The enumerator has clearly to identify the materials of the walls especially in regard to modalities 2 and 3 [type of bricks] and in case of doubt, choose the material most visible.

Encircle the code number according to response given by respondent.

1 - Wood/Mud
2 - Wood/Cemented mud
3 - Sundried bricks
4 - Plastic sheeting/Cartoons
5 - Cement blocks/Concrete
6 - Stone
7 - Timber
8 - Burnt bricks
9 - Other

H06: Paving materials
What is the main material used for the floor?

Particularly as regards the predominant material, encircle the code number which matches the response given by the respondent.

1 - Earth/Sand
2 - Concrete
3 - Stone
4 - Burnt bricks
5 - Timber
6 - Other

Note: The enumerator has no right to move into the house by way of verification.

H07: Number of rooms
How many rooms do the housing units have, including bathrooms, toilets, kitchen, storerooms?
Record the number of rooms available in household in appropriate boxes.

H08: Number of bed rooms
How many of these rooms are used for sleeping?
Record the number of rooms used for sleeping in provided boxes

H09: Number of occupants
How many persons usually sleep in the housing units?
Record the number of persons usually sleeps in the household in provided boxes

H10: Main source of water
What is the main source of water supply for members of the household?

Encircle the correct code accordingly response given:

1 - Internal pipe borne water: tap inside the house
2 - Pipe borne water in the compound: tap inside the compound
3 - Public tap out of the compound
4 - Protected spring/well: water collected from protected spring
5 - Unprotected spring/well: water collected from unprotected spring
6 - Rain water: rain water collected from roof
7 - River: water collected from river
8 - Lake/stream/pond/surface water: water collected from lake/stream/pong/water body
9 - Other

Note: In the case where the household use more than one source, the enumerator must encircle of the code corresponding to the main source of water most commonly used by the household.

H11: Type of toilet facility
The enumerator encircles the appropriate code from the given choice:

1 - Flush toilet
2 - Private pit latrine
3 - Public pit latrine
4 - Bush
5 - Other

H12: Principal source of lighting
What is the main source of energy the household uses for lighting?

In case of multiple modalities, the enumerator encircles the most used according to responses given.

1 - Electricity by EWASA
2 - Hydro-electric or other private source
3 - Solar power
4 - Generator
5 - Kerosene lamp
6 - Paraffin
7 - Biogas
8 - Candle
9 - Firewood
10 - Other

H13: Main source of energy used for cooking
What is the main source of energy the household uses for cooking?

The enumerator encircles the most used for boiling or cooking.

1 - Electricity
2 - Gas
3 - Biogas
4 - Kerosene
5 - Firewood
6 - Charcoal
7 - Grass/ leaves
8 - Other

H14: Energy saving stove
The question is "Do you have an energy saving stove in this house?" This energy saving stove commonly known as Ronderezamainly made up from clay soils, grass and sand and is used to minimize high consumption of fuel wood/charcoal which leads to deforestation.

The enumerator encircles the appropriate modality out of the following accordingly to response given:

1 - Exist and used
2 - Exist and unused
3 - Do not exist

H15: Main mode of household waste disposal,
What is the main mode of household waste disposal used?

The enumerator will encircle the most mode used

1 - Compost dumping
2 - Private dust bins
3 - Public refuse dumps
4 - In the bush
5 - On the farms
6 - In a river/stream/drain/gutter
7 - Other

H16: Main mode of sewage disposal
What is the main mode of sewage disposal used by the household?

The enumerator encircles the most method used by the structure out of the following categories:

1 - Sump: Means the sewage liquid waste from the structure is drained by pipes into a main trunk sewer line. This type of sewage disposal is common in main urban centres like Kigali etc.
2 - Courtyard: An area/court opens to the sky and mostly or entirely surrounded by buildings/enclosed on all four sides.
3 - Rivulet/Trench/Channels: small stream or a type of excavation.
4 - In the street: liquid waste is drained to the street
5 - Main sewer: is a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal.
6 - Cesspool: A covered hole or pit for receiving drainage or sewage from housing structure.
7 - Bush
8 - Other

H17-H25: Household assets
How many does the household have of the following assets in functioning condition?

Record the number of each functional asset available in the household accordingly to response given in appropriate boxes.

Example: If a household has 3 radios, 2 televisions and 10 bicycles:
H17 Radio 3
H18 Television 2
H25 Bicycles 10

H26: Internet access
Encircle the code number which matches the response given.
If yes, encircle code "1"
If not, encircle code "2"
Note: If the response is "2" go to H28-34.

H27: Where do you access internet?
Encircle the code number accordingly to the location he/she can access internet.

1 - From home
2 - From office/school
4 - From cyber café
8 - Other

Record the sum of the codes circled.

If he/she can access internet in many locations, encircle the code numbers of them. Then record the sum of the codes circled responses in provided boxes.

Example: Someone who can access internet from home and from office/school.

1 - From home
2 - From school
Sum 1 + 2
Record "03"

H28-H34: How many cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, poultry/fowl and rabbits do you have in this household?
Record the number of domestic animals accordingly to response given in appropriate boxes.

Example: If in the household there are 12 big cattle and 2 rabbits:
H27 Big cattle 0012
H32 rabbits 0002

H34: Other poultry [write them and record the number in boxes]

H35: Possession of land
During the last 12 months, has any member of this household done agriculture activity or rented his land?

Encircle the code number according to response given by respondent.

1 - Yes, in his own land
2 - Yes, in land he rented
3 - No, he/she has rented it out
4 - No, he/she has not rented it
5 - No, without land

Example: If response is "yes, in land he rented", encircle code "2". If response is "no, without land", encircle code "4", etc. If you have reached at the end of this section, proceed to next section M.

Section M: Mortality
5.3.6. How to complete the Section M: Mortality
Please record all information on deaths that occurred in the household during the last 12 months and do not forget the children.

Many people do not want to talk of the dead and many others find it painful to talk about their dead persons, the enumerator has to prove prudent and careful for obvious reasons. He asks the household Head or his representative, discreetly; if there have been deaths in the household since the last 12 months. If there have been no deaths, end of the interview and go to next household.

Note: Even though a deceased person after census night is enumerated as present resident [PR] or absent resident [AR], but is not included in the deaths of last 12 months.

M1: Is there any member of the household who died during the last 12 months [15/08/2011-15/08/2012]?

M1 [Names]: If there has been death in the household during the last 12 months, encircle the code number 1 and go to next question M2.

If there has been no death in the household during the last 12 months, encircle the code number 2 and end the interview, do not write anything on M2 question.

M2: Specify the sex, age and cause of death.
Sex of the deceased: For every death which occurred since the last 12 months, write in the box the code number of sex corresponding to response provided.

Age at death: Record "000" for deceased person under one year old. Record the age for every death that occurred during this period as declared by respondent

Cause of the death: Write in appropriate box the code number of cause accordingly to the response declared by respondent in the following causes:

1 - Accident
2 - Murder
3 - Violence
4 - Suicide
5 - Injury
6 - Illness

Note: If the response is 6 [Illness] continue to next question. If the response is 1,2,3,4 or 5, ask if there have been other deaths in the household, if no death, end the interview.

Death of Woman aged 12-49.
If there has been a woman who died due to accident, murder, suicide, violence, etc., even if was pregnant, end by there and ask if there has been other death in the household if no death, if no death, end the interview.

Maternal death [Did the death occur while pregnant?]
If yes, write the code "1" in box and ask if there have been other deaths in the household, if no death, end the interview.

If no, write the code "2" in appropriate box and proceed to next question. If there is no other death occurred, end of the interview.

[Appendix omitted]