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Rwanda 2002
Manual of Instructions for Census Enumerators

(IIIème Recensement Général de la Population et de l'Habitat, 16-30 août 2002)
(Manuel d'instructions aux agents recenseurs, Kigali, Juin 2002)
(République du Rwanda/Ministère des Finances et de la Planification Economique/Commission Nationale du Recensement )

Chapter I: Introduction

1.1 What is a census?

The general census of population and housing is a set of operations aiming at collecting, processing, analyzing and publishing statistical data at a given point in time that is on a given night, called the census night, and concerning the number of a country's inhabitants and their socioeconomic situation. It also permits to gather data on the dwelling units of the households.

1.2 Census objectives

The general census of population and housing will be conducted for the third time in Rwanda (1978, 1991, 2002). It will inform the Government and all the institutions and public services, with great details and precision, on the number and geographical distribution of the population, as well as on its structure according to numerous characteristics, such as age, sex, religion, place of birth, marital status, level of education, economic activity, occupation, and so forth. It will provide information on the type and quality of housing, on agriculture and livestock farming (cattle rearing), as well as on the rate of population growth.

The usefulness of a census is obvious: it allows to predict all of which contributes to the satisfaction of the population needs, such as the new schooling facilities, the policies to be followed for housing construction, the extension of health services, and so forth.

The objectives of this third general census of population and housing are:

  • To improve the knowledge of the population through its demographic characteristics and its economic and social situation.
  • To help setting up an appropriate policy aiming at the welfare of the population and at a good program to fight poverty.
  • To prepare projects and programs for economic and social development.
  • To know the size of the population, as well as its spatial distribution on the national territory.
  • To provide measures relative to fertility, mortality, migration and the annual increase of the population.
  • To analyze data on the housing situation.
  • To develop projections of the size of the country's population for the coming years, and to update the data base for future surveys and studies.
  • To increase the capabilities of the country for preparing planning schemes and development programs, for carrying them out, and for analyzing statistical data.
[p.3]

It is therefore a duty for this third census to provide us with reliable data to be used as a basis for planning the development of the country as a whole, as well as its various districts and provinces.

It will be necessary that everybody participates to the work of this census in the field that will be his or her duty. In particular, everybody will be asked to fulfill all the instructions included in the present manual and to ensure that they are fulfilled.

The census will therefore be carried out and analyzed thanks to all the information provided by the population, without the least error or missing value appearing.

Lastly, it is useful to know that the answers provided during this census are confidential and under professional secrecy and is aimed at only at providing good statistics.

1.3 Legal aspects

The current census was made legal by a presidential decree No 28/01 of November 10, 2000, which modifies the presidential decree No 43/01 of December 26, 1999 instituting the organization of the third census of population and housing.

The first 14 articles set up the structures (bodies) in charge of the census and specify their modes of functioning.

Article 15 states that the population must welcome the census enumerators and provide them with answers to the questions written in the census questionnaire. Any refusal to answer or any false declaration are liable to prosecution and to penal sanctions as displayed in Article 5 of the legal decree (Décret-loi) No 18/77 from July 26, 1977 which institutes the organization of the statistical activities in Rwanda.

Article 16 specifies that any person who participates at any level to the preparation, the execution (carrying out), or the analysis of the census must comply with professional secrecy; trespassers could be prosecuted and sanctioned according to Article 4 of the same legal decree (Décret-loi).

In addition, Article 17 states in particular that: "The individual information written on the census questionnaire and dealing with the occupational life and the family life, and more generally with private facts and behaviors cannot be transmitted in any case by the services in charge of keeping them".

By reading these legal provisions mentioned above, everyone will agree that this third census is a very important activity, based on typically Rwandese laws.
[p.4]
1.4 General Organization of the census

The National Bureau of the Census (Service National de Recensement) is the executive body of the National Census Committee (Commission Nationale du Recensement). It will be represented in each local administrative unit of the country (circonscriptions) by local coordinators and their assistants; they will have the duty to supervise and check the progress of the field work for this third census. They will work in collaboration with the Provincial Census Committees (Commissions de Recensement de Province) and with the District Census Committees (Commissions de Recensement de District) in order to reach the best possible achievement of all tasks.

The following categories of personnel will be under their supervision, and will be in charge of carrying out the census in the field and will be selected according to their personal abilities:

Census enumerators, who all are in charge of enumerating the whole population of the census track (CT) (zone de dénombrement (ZD)) assigned to them.

Census team leader, who all are in charge of controlling the work of a team of five enumerators.

Census supervisor, who all are in charge of supervising the development of census operations at the level of a district, and of working in collaboration with the District Census Committee.

Census controller, who all are in charge of supervising all census operations at the level of a province, and of working in collaboration with the Provincial Census Committee.

1.5 Geographical divisions for the census

The Republic of Rwanda is divided into 12 provinces (Provinces), including the city of Kigali. Provinces are divided into 106 districts (Districts), which in turn are divided into 1545 sectors (Secteur/Imirenge). These account for about 9169 cells (Cellule/Utugalo) which cover the whole country.

The country's division into census tracks (CT) (zone de dénombrement (ZD)) will be done from these cells (Cellule/Utugali). Each census track will include about 250 households, that is a number of inhabitants of about 1250 persons.

In cities such as Kigali or Butare and in the Umutara province, the division will be done according to specific criteria, taking into account the specific type of housing, so that several census tracks could be found in a single cell, or conversely that a census track could include several cells when housing is too sparsely distributed (as in Umutara).

Chapter II - General concepts

2.1 Some general observations

The specific period for conducting the census will start on the morning of August 16, and will end on August 30, 2002. However, the final preparatory work will have started already as early as August 6, 2002, at the level of the census enumerators in their respective census tracks.

[p.5]

In order to become familiar with the tasks to be completed during the whole duration of the census, the census enumerators will participate in a training session which will be held from July 25 to August 3, 2002 at the level of each district in the country.

The date of reference for the census is the night from August 15 to August 16, 2002, that is the night preceding the first day of the census. The situation of the households and that of the persons appearing in the questionnaire must refer to that night, whatever is the day during which the questionnaire will be filled.

The basic geographical unit for the whole operation is the census track (CT) (la zone de dénombrement (ZD)), which corresponds in principle to the work load of a single census enumerator. Only in particular instances, and only on the decision of the team leader, the census enumerator might be asked to enumerate part of the population of another census enumerator, when the team leader deems it necessary.

The operational unit for the census enumerator is the household.

2.2 Peculiar remarks (Fundamental rules for the census)

The fundamental rules for this census are, among others:

1. The information asked by the census enumerator to the population will serve only to the production of statistical tables. Any transmission of individual data is forbidden by law.

2. Since the census enumerator has to ask questions to the population, indeed asking for a service, he/she must therefore be very polite, must introduce himself/herself with ultimate correctness, and must explain the aims of his/her visit and his/her task.

3. It is absolutely necessary to respect people's customs, their religion, and so forth. The census enumerator must always display his professional card (carte de service) when asked for it.

4. Nevertheless, it is necessary to ensure that the obligation to each answer is fulfilled, and to mention cases of refusal to the team leader. The team leader will refer such cases to the concerned authority.

5. Any problem for which the census enumerator does not find a solution in the present document will be submitted by him/her to the team leader. He/She will also note the case in the observations, as well as in the final report.

6. Before starting his/her work, the census enumerator shall check every morning whether his/her file is complete. He/she must have his/her census enumerator professional card (carte d'agent recenseur), the manual of instructions, the census track booklet, the pencils, the chalk, as well as a number large enough of blank questionnaires for this day.

7. The census enumerator must as often as possible, and according to the pre-established plan, meet his/her team leader to submit all problems encountered in between, and to present all filled documents in order for them to be checked, from the front page (summary table) to the last page of the questionnaire.

[p.6]

8. In a case where the census enumerator does not find any member of the household at home, he/she will continue his/her work normally that day, by visiting the other households in the neighborhood. However, it is necessary to repeat his/her visit to the absent household as many times as necessary to find someone able to answer the questionnaires. When ultimately he/she does not find anybody available during the whole course of the census, he/she will fill in the questionnaire based on information provided by neighbors on the members of the household. These informants are in general relatives or persons responsible for the cell or their assistant (adjoint/Nyumbakumi). This must be specified in the final report.

9. The questionnaires must be filled by the census enumerator, and it is strictly forbidden to have them filled by someone else.

10. Instructions provided, either verbally or in written, must be followed to the letter. When there is a doubt, it is forbidden to follow one's own interpretation. Such cases must be referred to the team leader, who will submit them to the assessment of the persons in charge of the census.

11. The handwriting must be legible. In case of a mistake, the error must be crossed out, and the correction written aside. All answers recommended to be written in abbreviated form by the instructions must be written in upper cases. If there are severe errors, one should use another form; however, one keeps the original form, while crossing out the whole front page.

12. Abbreviated forms for words should be avoided, unless prescribed by the instructions.

13. Each question should receive a written answer. A line is an answer which means "Not applicable". This should be put in prescribed cases. However, answers such as "Do not know" or "Unknown" or "Undetermined" are not accepted, and they must be avoided at any rate, while requiring a meaningful (positive) answer.

14. Furthermore, even when an answer is obvious, it must be written down. Even in case of duplication of the same answer in certain columns (such as citizenship, place of birth, and so forth), it is forbidden to use the words "id." or "idem", or to write suspension points (". . ."). It is of the utmost importance for the later data entry to repeat the answer as many times as it is necessary.

15. Each census enumerator must control the likelihood and the logic of the answers received. If he/she receives answers which are obviously wrong, the census enumerator must be insistent with the head of the household, until he/she obtains a correct answer. He/She will resolve the most difficult cases with the assistance of his/her team leader, and must mention such difficulties in his/her report.

16. In each census track, all persons must be enumerated, even persons visiting, or residents who are temporarily absent.

17. The census must be carried out during the scheduled period, and time must not be wasted pointlessly.

18. In any case, the census enumerator must not make any promises, or proposals to the population, since thoughtless words could have dangerous consequences by which the census enumerator would be the first to be affected.

19. The quality of the answers depends upon the way the questions are asked. Therefore, one must avoid wordings which are too technical. Questions must be asked in a straightforward way, in order to be understood by everybody.

[p.7]

20. Every time this is possible, one must insist to see all members of the household, since this will allow one to check the accuracy of some responses (such as age for instance).

21. When an answer is known, or obvious, one does not ask the question. One does not ask for the sex of persons one sees (except in cases of very young children when there is a doubt).

Chapter III: Basic definitions

3.1 Household

The census is conducted household by household. The household is therefore the basic unit for the whole operation. It is organized around a given person, who is the head of the household, and constitutes the milieu in which the persons who are its components (members) live.

There are two types of households:

The private household
The institutional household
3.1.1. Private household

A private household is a set of persons, related by blood or not, who acknowledge the authority of a same person called the "head of household", and who share in majority their resources or expenses. They live most of the time under the same roof or in the same compound (enclos/urugo)

A person who lives alone constitutes a household, of which he/she is the head. Therefore, a household is not necessarily identical to a nuclear family, nor to a family in a common sense, even though this is the most frequent case.

Servants who are sharing the resources and the housing unit with the head of household are counted as members of his/her household.

Who is the head of household?
In general, the head of household is the person who manages the resources of the household, who is the older person, and who rules. A woman may be the head of the household.

For this census, it will be the person who is designated as such, and whose authority on the others is unquestionable.

[p.8]

3.1.2. Institutional household

An institutional household is a group of persons who live together in special conditions, and who are most often not related by blood.

Are classified among the institutional households:

  • Military personnel, who are lodged in military barracks, a quarter, or a military camp;
  • Groups of persons who live together and have the same occupation, such as the teachers, as well as other persons present in these households on the day of the census. This is also the case of boarding schools and students quarters (university, religious seminary);
  • Service personnel living in tourist buildings (hotels, inns, and so forth), as well as their guests;
  • Physicians, nurses, and health auxiliary personnel who live in a public or private hospital, as well as the inpatients who are present on the census reference night;
  • Religious communities and their members;
  • Penitentiary establishments (prisons);
  • All other persons living in such conditions mentioned above.

In fact, there is no head for an institutional household. However, the census enumerator is obliged to write down, at first, the person with the highest grade, or, when there are several or when they all are from the same grade, the oldest person.

3.1.3. Private households living within the limits of institutional establishments mentioned above

In the establishments mentioned above (3.1.2), one might find a family who has separate quarters in which they take their meals. It will be enumerated as a private household. This is the case of persons benefiting from free lodging within the limits of an establishment. Indeed, the military personnel and security agents who live with their families in separate houses or within an establishment are considered as forming a private household.

Example: in the former military police (Gendarmerie) camp located in Kacyiru, one finds military and police personnel who live according to the specific rules of this camp. One also finds separate living quarters for officers.

3.1.4. How to identify institutional households?

During the definition of the various census tracks and their limits, the census enumerator and
his/her team leader will list all institutional households located in each census track, using the information provided by the District Census Committee.

Note:
In military camps, and in penitentiary establishments, it is preferable that their residents (military men or policemen) take charge of the census operations, after following training for this purpose.

[p.9]

3.1.5. Residence status

There are three categories for classifying the residence situation or residence status:

1. Resident, present at time of the reference night (RP)
2. Resident, absent at time of the reference night (RA)
3. Visitors (VI)
1. Resident present (RP)
A person is resident present if he/she usually lives, more than six months, in the place where
he/she is enumerated and if he/she is present on reference night, the night preceding the first day of the census.

A delay of six months is considered as a reference to determine the residence status in most of the cases, however there are a few exceptions. These are certain categories of persons who live less than six months in a given place, but who intend to stay, and who in addition will not be enumerated as absent in that place.

Examples:

A woman who just married is resident where she lives with her husband as soon as she moves in.
A civil servant, who has been sent to a new place, becomes immediately resident in this new place.
A person who just moved to a new place, alone or with his/her family, with the intention to stay in this new place for any reason, becomes resident in this new place.

The following persons will also be enumerated as resident present, even though they have not spent the reference night in their households:

Physicians on night duty
Night watchmen (sentinelles/zamu)
Persons who spent the night in a night club, or in a night of prayers.
Factory workers who work at night
Military personnel who spent the night in a camp or on duty.
2. Resident absent (RA)
A person who usually lives in the census place, but who was not present on the reference night. To indicate this category, one will write RA in the corresponding box. The person must be absent for a period shorter than six months. If the absence is longer, the person will be considered resident present in the other place where he/she is, and this is the place where he/she will be taken care of (where he/she will be enumerated). A person may be absent from her residence place for a variety of reasons, such as:

Health (hospitalized)
Business (business trip)
Family reasons (visiting a relative, participating to a wedding ceremony, and so forth)
Occupation (commercial traveler; truck driver)
Tourism (trip for vacation)
Camps (training, sojourn).
[p.10]

In the case of an absence for such reasons, and after proper enquiry on the household member concerned, the census enumerator must write down the person in the appropriate line of the questionnaire for his/her household, with the mention "RA" in the corresponding box.

3. Visitors (VI)
The persons who stayed effectively with the enumerated household during the reference night (the night preceding the first day of the census), but who are not resident because their usual residence is located elsewhere, are visitors. For them, one must write down "VI"; these persons must be visiting for less than six months.

3.1.6 Other special cases

This paragraph deals with the enumeration of homeless persons, or persons living in the street, especially in cities such as Kigali. Special arrangements were made to enumerate fully these persons. These arrangements comply with three main concerns:

Laws and regulations in force, and the tight collaboration between all persons concerned with the census activities;
The action of census supervisors, with the help of authorities at all levels;
The awareness and advertisement campaigns for the census operations made in large quantity all over the country.

All the instructions relative to the census of institutional households appear all along this manual.

1. Foreign diplomats or representatives of international organizations resident in Rwanda are not directly concerned with the census. However, their service personnel will be enumerated as everybody. Workers who go back to their home every day will be enumerated at their place, whereas those who stay overnight at their employer's place will be enumerated there.
2. Foreigners who work in Rwanda will be enumerated if their duration of stay exceeds six months (RP or RA), whereas if their duration of stay is shorter than six months, they will be enumerated as visitors (VI).
3. Rwandese diplomats posted abroad, and living abroad, will be enumerated with the help of their files at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
4. Students abroad will be enumerated in their families in Rwanda, without taking into account their duration of stay (RA).
5. Other workers abroad, such as the seasonal workers, will be enumerated in their families in Rwanda, without taking into account their date of departure (RA).
6. Foreign students who are studying in Rwandese establishments will be enumerated as the other persons living in the country.
7. Civil servants who are on official trips abroad will be enumerated as persons usually resident but not having spent the reference night in their households.

[p.11]
3.1.7. Census night
This is the night from August 15 to August 16, 2002.
[Chapter IV which included items the census enumerators would receive in their files has been omitted]
Chapter V: Limits of the census track, household numbering

[Some sections from the original form have been omitted]

[p.13]
5. 3. Numbering of dwelling unit (houses) and households

After having properly toured the limits of his/her census track, the census enumerator must start numbering the dwelling units (houses) and the households. A dwelling unit to be enumerated is a unit which is inhabited, or which has been built as a house, even though it is not currently inhabited. It is also a unit which is inhabited, even though it has not been built as a house.

A dwelling unit may encompass one or several rooms, may be located as a separate building or part of a set of houses located in a land patch/compound parcelle, urupangu. The census enumerator will use the booklet for his/her census track, and will write down:

The list of institutional households
The list of private households, which will be filled one by one following the numbering of the private households and the institutional households.

The numbers of the dwelling units will be written in sequential order of their location, in order to avoid any gap in the numbers for some of them. Each census track will receive a 3-digit number, starting with 001. This number will be preceded by the following abbreviation: 3-RGPH (third general census of population and housing), and will be written in a visible way in the front wall of the dwelling unit.

The numbering of dwelling units and households will occur (appear) in the following situations:

A . Private household

1. A house inhabited by a single household. One will write the dwelling unit number, followed by the household number:

Example: 3-RGPH 001/001 designates the first house, inhabited by a single household.

2. A house inhabited by several households: the number of the dwelling unit is the same for all these households, and it follows the number of the preceding house.

Remarks:

The (dwelling unit) numbers change from house to house. The household numbers also change according to the dwelling unit numbers which precede them.

This work will occur between August 6, and August 14, 2002, at the same time as the census for agricultural farms and livestock farms.

During the numbering of the dwelling units, of the private households, and of the institutional households, the census enumerator will have an interview with the head of household with respect to agriculture and livestock farming. It is after the filling up of this questionnaire that he/she will number the household, and that the number will be written down in the census track booklet.

Examples:

3-RGPH 002/002
3-RGPH 002/003
3-RGPH 002/004

[p.14]

[A figure to illustrate the example above is in the original instruction form]

3. Several houses (constructions) inhabited by a single household
In this case, all houses (constructions) will receive the same number. The house of the head of household will be the only one to be written with the dwelling unit number. On all others, the number "000" will be written in place of the dwelling unit number.
Example:

3-RGPH 003/005: house (accommodation) of the head of household
3-RGPH 003/000: house inhabited by his/her children
3-RGPH 003/000: second house inhabited by his/her children.

[A figure to illustrate the example above is in the original instruction form]

[p.15]

4. Several houses inhabited by several households
All these houses will receive different numbers, following the type of settlement.
Examples:

Write: 1) 3-RGPH 004/006
2) 3-RGPH 005/007
3) 3-RGPH 006/008

[A figure to illustrate the example above is in the original instruction form]

[p.16]

Remark:
Note that kitchens, bathrooms, shower rooms, storage rooms, and so forth are never numbered.

B. Institutional household

After having listed all the institutions in the census track, as well as recording the number of their inhabitants, the census enumerator will dispatch these persons in groups of 50 persons, and each group will be enumerated as if it was forming a single household.

How to number institutional households?
The dwelling unit number of an institutional household should follow that of the preceding house. The numbers for the group households will start at 701.

Examples:

1. An institutional household including 200 persons, includes therefore 4 groups of 50 persons, follows an inhabited house numbered:
3-RGPH 015 /010.
And the numbers of the institutional households (groups) will be:
3-RGPH 016/701-704.

[p.17]

2. If this census track has a second institution following another house numbered:
3-RGPH 025/030
and including 134 persons, (that is 3 groups of 50, 50, and 34 persons), the number for the institutional household (groups) will be:
3-RGPH 026 /705-707.

The numbers for the groups also vary according to the numbers preceding them. The spot reserved for the dwelling unit number will be filled by the census enumerator in charge of private households. That is to say that the census enumerator in charge of institutional households will write every time: 3-RGPH. . ./701-702. . ., according to the number of groups composing the institutional household.

C. Remarks:

1. For all public or administrative building (Bureau of the Sector, of the Cell, of the Province; a Ministry, a Church, a factory, and so forth), one will make sure in advance that no household lives there before deciding not numbering them. If there is a household in such a type of building, one will write a dwelling unit number for this household.

2. For houses which are uninhabited, one adds 500 to the current number (for the dwelling unit number), and one writes 000 (for the household number). If a house found to be uninhabited at time of the numbering is now inhabited, one subtracts 500 from the dwelling unit number, and one gives a new number by taking the number following the last house in the census track .

3. For the buildings (text says house-building) which are uninhabited, one adds 500 to the actual number, and in place of the building number one writes 700. If the building was not inhabited during the numbering and if it is now inhabited, one subtracts 500 from the building number and one gives a new number by taking the number following the last house in the census track .

4. After having enumerated a household, the census enumerator will write the letter R in front of the abbreviation 3-RGPH. . ./. . . .

Example: the dwelling unit numbered 3-RGPH 025/069 will become
R3-RGPH 025/069 after the visit of the census enumerator.

[Chapter VI: Filling the Census questionnaire on Agriculture and Livestock has been omitted]

[p.18]
Chapter VII: How to fill in the census questionnaires

[Some sections have been omitted]
7.2 Types of questionnaires

There are two types of questionnaires for this census:

1) The questionnaire for a private household:

It has six parts:

The first section is located on page one, and includes the household identification [information].
The second section allows for a summary table of the household members, according to sex, age, and the residence situation on the reference night.
The third section deals with housing and housing type, its characteristics, without forgetting the household amenities.
The fourth section describes each member of the household, with some 30 questions, which is the core of this operation.
The fifth section looks at identifying the deaths which occurred in the household during the past 12 months before the census night.
The sixth section focuses on the necessary verifications for this census: it includes all the things that must be done to facilitate the data processing.
2) The questionnaire for institutional households

It includes four different parts:

The first section deals with the identification of the institutional household.
The second section provides for a summary table of the household members, according to sex, age, residence status of its members during the reference night.
The third section describes each household member, and has only 10 questions.
The fourth section is related with the necessary verifications for the census.

7.3 How to fill in the questionnaire

7.3.1 The questionnaire for a private household
[p.22]
7.3.1.1. How to fill in the first part: Identification

The household identification is done by the census enumerator himself/herself on his/her arrival in the household to be enumerated, and this after a first interview with the head of the household, who will have given him/her information on the situation of the household at time of the reference night.

Province, District, Sector, Cell.
The census enumerator will write in upper cases the name of the Province, District, Sector, Cell where the household was located at time of the reference night. He/she will write in the appropriate boxes the codes corresponding to each Province, District, Sector, or Cell where the household was located at time of the reference night, by using the geographical codes.
[Some sections from the original form have been omitted]

The census track number (item 05 on the identification question)

The number corresponding to the census track (CT) of each census enumerator includes three digits, which are assigned during the Census training session.

The census enumerator will write down this number it its box on the questionnaire.

Example:
If the census track number is "101", one will write it down on the questionnaire sheet, in the appropriate boxes.
[p.23]

Urban/rural (town and country side) (see Identification, item 06)

If the census track is located in an urban area, one will write the number "1" in the appropriate box. If the census track is located in a rural area, one will write the number "2" in the appropriate box.
[The list of cities and towns has been omitted]

The dwelling unit number (see identification part, item 07)

Write down in the three appropriate boxes the numbers of the dwelling units, without letting them be preceded by the abbreviation 3-RGPH, whose usefulness is to distinguish the numbers for this third General Census of Population and Housing (RGPH) from other numbers which could already be written on the houses doors.
[p.24]

The household number (see identification, item 08).

Write down the number corresponding to the last three digits given to this household during the numbering of dwelling units and households.

Remark:
These numbers must be different from the three zeros (000) written on the houses (huts) of the children of the head of household during the numbering; that is to say that the only numbers to be written are those of an inhabited house.

[The text is confusing here, since the household number has been well defined above.]

Type of household (see identification, item 09)

The census enumerator does not write anything here.
The number of questionnaires used for the household
(see identification, item 10)

The number of questionnaires used in each household will be equal to the number of the last questionnaire used for the census of the household. Each questionnaire holds space for ten persons.

When the household accounts for more than ten persons, one uses an additional questionnaire (or more if needed). In this case, each questionnaire will have its own number, according to the number of questionnaires (already) filled in this household.

On item 10 of the identification part, two boxes are designed: _ / _

In the first box, one writes the number of the current questionnaire. In the second box, one writes the total number of questionnaires filled.

Examples:
1. In a household with nine members (9), only one questionnaire is filled.
On page one of the questionnaire, on item 10 of the identification section, one writes:
The last questionnaire number = 1
The total number of questionnaires used = 1 /_1_/_1_/

2. In a household with fifteen persons (15), one fills 2 questionnaires:
On the first questionnaire:
The last questionnaire number = 1
The total number of questionnaires used = 2 /_1_/_2_/

[p.25]

On the second questionnaire, on item 10 of the identification section, one will write:
The last questionnaire number = 2
The total number of questionnaires used = 2 /_2_/_2_/

3. In case of a household with thirty members (30), one writes three questionnaires:
On the first questionnaire, on item 10 of the identification section, one will write:
The last questionnaire number = 1
The total number of questionnaires used = 3 /_1_/_3_/

On the second questionnaire, on item 10 of the identification section, one will write:
The last questionnaire number = 2
The total number of questionnaires used = 3 /_2_/_3_/

On the third questionnaire, on item 10 of the identification section, one will write:
The last questionnaire number = 3
The total number of questionnaires used = 3 /_3_/_3_/

Remark:
When the census enumerator is finished with the census of a household, he/she must order the questionnaires the following way:

insert the second questionnaire inside the first;
insert the third questionnaire inside the second;
insert the fourth questionnaire inside the third, and so forth, so that the first questionnaire appears as the cover for all the others.

7.3.1.2. How to fill in the second section of the questionnaire:
the household summary table (P1)

This summary table will be filled in by the census enumerator at the end of the household census. For this, see Chapter VIII.

7.3.1.3. How to fill in the third section: Housing (H01 to H16)

In this section, one finds questions related with some progress indictors, such as housing and household amenities.

[p.26]

In general, the questions on housing will be asked to the head of household or to his/her representative.

Question H01: Type of settlement/housing

It is absolutely necessary that the census enumerator understands well the six items of question H01.

Example:

Urusisiro ( grouped urban settlement): these are grouped houses (buildings), often because of similarities in the occupation or the socioeconomic status of their inhabitants.
Umudugudu (housing development scheme): these are grouped houses following the new housing policy.
Kadasitere (housing estate/housing lot): these are modern houses, complying with the rules of the National Cadastral Service.
Akajagari (or informal sector grouped housing): these are houses located in neighborhoods with spontaneous and disorganized housing- an exclusively urban phenomenon.

The census enumerator will simply circle the number corresponding to the category chosen.

Question H02: Type of dwelling unit

Here, one will pay attention to distinguish the type of dwelling unit presented according to the following five categories:

Dwelling unit inhabited by one household;
Dwelling unit inhabited by several households;
Apartment building, with several floors, inhabited by one or several households;
Several household living on the same plot of lang (Urupangu);
Other category or possibility.

In the present case, "dwelling unit" is synonymous to "housing building". The census enumerator must pay a particular attention to the type of dwelling unit, especially in urban or urban-like areas.

Question H03: Roof materials

There should be no special difficulty in distinguishing the various materials covering the roofs of the houses.
[p.27]
Question H04: Wall materials

The census enumerator will make a special effort to identify the wall materials, especially as it refers to categories 2 and 3 (type of bricks), and in case of doubt he/she will choose the most visible material.

Question H05: Floor materials

Here is what is said with respect to question H04, especially as it refers to the prevailing material.
Note: The census enumerator is not allowed to tour the house for verifying the answers.

Question H06: Number of rooms composing the dwelling unit

The question is clear enough. One will limit oneself to rooms really inhabited, or inhabitable, while ignoring those used for other purposes (kitchen, storage room, toilets, entry, and so forth).

Question H07: Source of water

Several categories are open to choice. In case of competing categories, the census enumerator will write the category the most often used.

Kano (public tap) where the water is channeled in pipes and runs always through a tap (faucet).
Iriba (public well) where the water is drawn by a manual pump.
Isoko (natural spring) where water springs up directly from the earth.
Amazi y'imvura (rain water) where water is collected/channeled from the roof.
Ikinamba (water hole) where water lies in a marsh.
Amazi aretse (a water tank) filled by the rain.

Question H08: Type of lighting

As in H04 and H05, in case of competition between several categories, the census enumerator chooses the most advanced category.

Question H09: Energy source used for cooking

The census enumerator will choose the most often used fuel for boiling or cooking the food.
[p.28]
Question H10: Toilet facility
See H08.

Question H11: Place of garbage collection (type of garbage disposal)
See H09.

Question H12: Ownership status/renting status of the dwelling unit

The census enumerator will well distinguish between categories 4 and 5 (persons who are housed for free) thanks to subsidiary questions to be asked cleverly.

Question H13: Ownership of Radio and TV

In case of ownership of both of these items, category 3 should be checked as the answer.

Question H14: Number of telephones
See H13.

Question H15: Ownership of computers and connection to internet

The question bears no difficulty.

Question H16: Number of automobiles, motorcycles and bicycles
See H15 [The question bears no difficulty].

7.3.1.4. How to fill in the fourth part: individual characteristics of the household members

The census enumerator will continue his/her interview with the head of household as follows:

  • "Could you tell me the number and the names of the persons who spent the night of August 15 to August 16, 2002 in your household?" The enumerator will write the names cited in his booklet; he/she will distinguish between the Resident Present (RP) and the Visitors (VI)
  • "Could you tell me the names of the persons usually resident in this household who did not spend the night of August 15 to August 16, 2002 here?" The enumerator will write this information in his booklet. For the persons who are usual resident and living in the household, but who did not spent the night of August 15 to August 16, 2002 here, he/she will ask:
  • "Since when does this person no longer live here?"
  • "When will he/she come back?"
[p.29]

If the person has been absent for more than six months, he/she will be immediately withdrawn from the list of members living in the household, because he/she must not be enumerated in this household.

If the person is expected to come back within six months, he/she will be enumerated in the household as resident who had not spent the reference night in the household (RA).

If the persons went away more that six months ago, and if one does not know his/her date of return, he/she will be enumerated in the household as resident who had not spent the reference night in the household (RA).

After having listed the number of persons who will not be enumerated in the household, one will record in the booklet the names of the others (RP, RA, VI) according to the following rules:

a. Write down the names of the persons who have spent the reference night in the household, as well as the names of those who have not spent that night, in the following way:

  • Head of household (HH)
  • Never married children of the head of household who live in the household, but whose mothers live elsewhere, starting by the eldest.
  • The first wife of the HH living in the household, followed by her never married children who live in the household, starting by the eldest.
  • The next wife (wives) (second, third, and so forth) of the HH living in the household, followed by her never married children who live in the household, starting by the eldest.
  • Married children of the HH, their spouses and their children who (all) live in this household.
  • Fostered children, hosted by the HH, without (close) kinship relation.
  • Other persons living in the household, with or without kinship relation with the HH or his/her spouse.
  • Other persons without kinship relation with the HH or his/her spouse.

b. After having listed the residents, write down the other persons who have spent the reference night in the household, that is the visitors. After this, the census enumerator will fill in the questionnaire from P0 until P04, with the help of what has been written in his/her booklet for each individual.

[p.30]

Remark:
The questions from P01 to P04 are filled in at the same time.
The questions from P05 to P26 are asked to each individual, going one by one.
However, the visitors (VI) will answer only questions up to P07.

A. Questions scheduled for all household members (P0 to P14)

All the questions for this section will be asked to all the persons living in the enumerated household. One will not forget to enumerate all the young children, and all the older persons, as well as the persons who are ill.

Persons who died after August 15, 2002 will be enumerated. This concerns all the residents in the household listed on item P01 who will answer all the questions up to P14, scheduled for all household members.

Remark:

  • The persons who died between August 16, 2002 and the day of the census will be enumerated as the persons who are alive.
  • The children who were born after the reference night will not be enumerated. This is to say that only those born before the morning of August 16, 2002 will be enumerated.
  • The visitors (VI) will answer only the first seven questions (P01 to P07).
  • The head of household living in an institutional household (for instance in a jail), will also be written on the list of household members; however on item P03 one will write "IH" for Institutional Household. For all these household heads, the questions will not go beyond P03.
P0: The sequential number

Each enumerated persons will be written down according to the sequential number in column P0. The sequential numbers written on the questionnaire go from 1 to 10. If the household has more members, it will then be necessary to use several questionnaires (see 7.3.1.1: identification).

The census enumerator is asked to write down in the proper order (see 7.3.1.4) the household members, so that, on the supplementary questionnaire, he/she could change the numbers of P0 with a pencil for a proper ranking of the sequential numbers, up to the last member of the household.

[p.31]

P01: The names

In column P01, one writes the names of the persons living in the household, and who have spent the reference night, as well as persons who usually live there but who, for any reason, have not spent the reference night there. The persons usually living in the household, but who are in institutional household on census day will also be written down in P01. One will add to them the names of the visitors who spent the reference night in the household.

Remark:
For the persons who are usual resident, but who did not spent the reference night in the household, one shall try to know well whether this absence will not last for more than six months. If the persons shall be absent for more than six months, one will not write him/her among the residents (cfr. 7.3.1.4).

P02: Relationship with the household head

When the household head is present, it is himself/herself who describes the kinship relations between himself/herself and the other household members. In his/her absence, it is his/her representative who will describe to the census enumerator the kinship relations between the household head and all the household residents. In front of each household member, one will circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

It is compulsory to use the following abbreviations for this item:

CM: Head of household (can be a man, a woman, a child)
EP: Spouse of the household head
EN: Child of the household head
EA: Fostered child, without kinship relation with the household head, hosted by the household head
PM: Father/mother of the household head
FS: Brother/sister of the household head
PE: Grandchild of the household head
AP: Other kinship relation with the household head
SL: No kinship relation with the household head

P03: Residence status

RP: The person lives in the household, and has spent the reference night.
RA: The person lives in the household, but has not spent the reference night.
VI: The person has spent the reference night in the household as a visitor.
MC: The person lives in an institutional household (prison /jail for instance).

For the RP, circle number 1
For the RA, circle number 2
For the VI, circle number 3
For the MC, circle number 4

[p.32]

Remarks:
1. Household of a polygamous man:
When a man is married with several wives, and when all of them live together, this will be called a household. However, when some of the wives live in separate houses, this will make several households, which will be enumerated separately.

The census enumerator will ensure to write down only one time this man who has several wives and several households. He/she will have to enumerate him as a resident where his first wife lives (on the condition that he still lives regularly with her).

The other wives will be considered as heads of their own households. The man will be enumerated in his first household as Resident Present (RP) if he spent the reference night there, and as Resident Absent (RA) if he spent that night at the home of another wife, where he will be considered as a visitor (VI).

Therefore, in the latter case, the other wives (second, third, and so forth) will be written down as CM (Head of Household) on the questionnaire.

This is very important since, in this census, nobody can be written RP or RA more than one time.

Therefore, one must enquire about each male head of household living in the census track. In case of a polygamous man, one shall start by enquiring about his first wife and his current relations, as well as on the place where he has spent the reference night.

2. For the persons living in institutional households:
They will be written down with the other members of the institutional households on the questionnaire, but their residence status will be "MC". The other questions related to them will be asked to them in the institutions where they live.

P04: Sex

If the current person is of the male sex, circle the number "1", and if she is of the female sex, circle the number "2". It is clear that for P04, one must absolutely obtain an answer, since every person belongs to a given sex.

P05: Date of birth

This is a very important question, and every census enumerator must be able to obtain a clear answer, fair and complete.

[p.33]

One knows that every planning activity is based above all on the knowledge of the age structure of the population, and that all human activities involve the age. The more accurate the age structure is, the better will be the accomplishment of the goal to be obtained.

Example:

1) For someone who was born on April 1, 1942, one will write 01/04/1942, before going to question P07.
2) For someone who was born in August, 1953, one will write /08/1953, before going to question P07.
3) Someone who does not know his/her month of birth and who says to be born in 1958, one will write /00/1958, before going to question P07.
4) For someone who ignores totally his/her date of birth, one will write /00/0000 in P05, before going to question P06.

Remark:

1. On P05, there cannot be any empty space; when there is no data concerning the day, month or year of birth, one write zeros. This shows that the question has been asked properly, but that there was no real answer.

2. When parents do not know the month of births of their children
A child who does not yet have his/her first teeth is generally aged less than 6 months; if he/she has two bottom teeth, he/she is between 6 and 8 months. One could also find help with the vaccination cards for determining the approximate age of the child.

The census enumerator will need to be aware of some of habits taken by many people, either by laziness or by ignorance. By this it is meant to give only the year of birth, when the person is well able to also provide the day and the month. Many people are indeed like this.

The census enumerator shall insist to have a clear and complete answer. The consequences of such a situation are important, in particular with respect to the quality of the data collected during a census.

Example:
A person who says being born in 1975 could make one believe that he/she is 27 year old in 2002. However, if one considers the day and the month of his/her birth in 1975, this person could be either 26 or 27 year old on August 15, 2002, so that the answer given is not of great help, whereas it is considered of the utmost importance for the census. It is therefore important that the census enumerator be clear-sighted, so that this type of answer remains as less frequent as possible.
[p.34]
P06: Age at last birthday (see remark above)

Fill in column P06 with the number of years (only) for the persons ignorant of the day and month of birth. One will write the number of years in column P06. For this person having given the month and year of birth, or only the year of birth, do not write anything in P06.

For a person who does not know the exact birth year, but who can locate the period by referring to some historical noticeable events, the census enumerator will utilize the historical calendar found in the annex of this manual to approximate the age.

If using the historical calendar does not give anything, the census enumerator will do his/her best to obtain an estimation, for instance by enquiring about the age of the parents, of the children or by comparing the information given with those provided by the immediate family circle.

Remark:
One writes the age in integer number of years, without counting the additional months. All the boxes must be filled, starting from the right side. If the number of years is lower than 100, the first box will include a "0", and in the following boxes the number of years.

P07: Nationality (country of citizenship)

One will write here the nationality or the country of birth. If the person is Rwandese and has another nationality, write also the other nationality. One shall write only what the enumerated person declares. For a small child, write down his/her father's nationality.

Remark:
If the enumerated person is a classified as a visitor, the questions related to him/her stop on item P07.
[p.35]
P08: Place of birth

Here, every Rwandese understands the place of residence of his/her parents at time of his/her birth. In the case where his/her parents did not live together, one will write the place where his/her mother lived at time of his/her birth. One writes the district or the country in the appropriate box. If the person does not know the name of the district, one will ask him/her the name of the former commune after checking with the district list to be found in a separate document, and one will determine the district of birth of the given person.

For someone who was born in Rwanda, one will write the district of birth, and for someone who was born in a foreign country, one will write the name of the country where he/she was born.

Remark:
One shall not confuse the place of birth and the place of delivery. The place of birth is the place where the parents were living at time of the birth. The place of delivery is the place where the delivery took place, as for instance a hospital (ibitaro). If the enumerated person was born at home, the place of birth and the place of delivery are the same.

In this census, the important thing is to know the place of birth, since most of the time the place of delivery and the place of birth are identical.

P09: Duration of residence

One must fill in column P09 with the number of years spent by the person in the current place of residence, without migrating in between.

If the enumerated person has never migrated from the place where he/she was born, one will write in the (appropriate) boxes "99" and one will go to question P11.

P10: Place of previous residence

This means the district where the person has lived before coming to settle in the place where he/she is enumerated. If he/she was living abroad, write down the name of the country where he/she was living. This place is where this person has lived for more than six months, without leaving it.

One will write (the name of) the district in the space below the appropriate boxes. If the person does not know the name of the district, one will ask him/her about the names of the former Commune, and with the help of the index notebook holding the names of the new districts, located in the special document, one will determine the name of the district of birth.

[p.36]

Example:
A person living in Nyarugenge, and who says to have always lived there since his/her birth, and to have never moved away for more than six months, one will write "99" in column P09, and one will go directly to P11. One will not write anything in P10.

A person living in the Kamonyi (Gitarama) District, who says was born in the town of Kibuye (Kibuye), and has lived for eight months in the Mutura (Gisenyi), then seven months in the town of Butare (Butare), then three months in Nyarugenge (Kigali), before coming to live in the Kamonyi District where he/she has spent already a year:
- One will write in P10, in the appropriate box, the town of "Butare".
- If the person had spent (at least) 6 months in Nyarugenge before coming to Kamonyi, the place of previous residence would have been "Nyarugenge".

Remark:
It is necessary to know that nowadays the District includes what was before called a "Commune" (one or more), together with what was called before a "Sector" (now called Umurenge).

This situation may make the (poorly informed) census enumerator think that the enumerated person has migrated, whereas he/she did not (or did not meet the criteria for migration).

For these reasons, the census enumerator must start by asking the former names of the Communes and Sectors to the given person, before the changing of names (before the administrative reform). He/she must ask the proper questions in order to determine whether the sectors mentioned by the enumerated person do correspond with where he/she currently resides.

All of this is not difficult, but requires a lot of clear sightedness from the census enumerator, who must have an in-depth knowledge of the District where he/she must enumerate.

P11: Languages spoken

One will circle the numbers corresponding to the languages spoken by the enumerated person. If he/she speaks only one language, circle the number corresponding to the language.

In the case where he/she speaks several languages, circle the numbers corresponding to all the languages.

The language spoken by a child less than 2-year of age is that spoken by his/her parents, if they speak the same language; if the parents speak different languages, one will write that spoken by his/her mother.
[p.37]
P12: Religion

The census enumerator will ask the religion to each adult member living in the household. With respect to children under 12-years of age, the religion kept will be that of the parents, unless the latter decides otherwise.

If the parents belong to different religions, it is necessary to ask them about the religion of each of the children. The answers are taken without further discussion. When a person refuses to answer the question, the census enumerator will not discuss the case, and will circle the number "9".

P13: Major disability or Handicap

For item P13, the census enumerator has to ask each person the type of disability or handicap that he/she suffers from, whether the disability or handicap is visible or not. When the enumerated person mentions his/her disability or handicap, one will circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

- Total handicap (ikimara) is classified as "Other handicaps".

- When an enumerated person declares having no disability or handicap, one will circle the number "1".
One will write nothing under P14, and one will go to question P15.

Remark:
If the person has several disabilities or handicaps, write down the most severe one.

P14: Cause of disability or handicap

This question concerns all the persons who have answered (positively) to question P13, as having some sort of disability or handicap.

The census enumerator must circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

Remark:
For a person disabled or handicapped by bullets, who has been harassed because of his/her race or his/her political opinion, one will write in the appropriate boxes: genocide.
[p.38]

B. Questions for persons under age 25 years (P15)

P15: Survival of parents

This question concerns (only) persons under age 25 years; it aims at obtaining information on the survival of the parents of the children of the household.

If both parents of an enumerated person are still alive, one circles (1)
If the person has only his/her mother alive, circle (2)
If the person has only his/her father is alive, circle (3)
If the person has no longer any parent alive, circle (4)
If the person does not know anything about the survivorship of
his/her parents, circle (5)

C. Questions asked to all residents aged 6 years or more (questions from P16 to P25)

These questions aim at knowing the activities related to education and employment for persons aged 6 years or more [the French text says more than 6 years].

Children aged less than 6 years are not concerned with questions from P16 to P25.

Education (P16 to P20)

P16: School attendance

Question P16 looks for knowing whether the enumerated person has ever been to school, is currently going to school, or has never been to school.

- If the person has ever been to school, or if he/she is currently going to school, one will circle the number "1".
- If the person has never been to school, circle "2".

If P16= 2, go to question P20, and do not write anything on questions P17, P18, and P19.

P17: Level of education

1. If for question P16 the number "1" was circled, this means that the enumerated person is still studying or has attended school. On P17, on the dotted line, one will write the type of school for the last class completed or the current class, by following the abbreviations marked below the question to be asked; one will add the number corresponding to the last class completed successfully; one will take this opportunity to identify the type of school involved. This last class occurs in various types of schools.

[p.39]

PR 0-8: Primary schools
PP 1-3: Complementary schools
FP 1-7: Vocational schools
FT 1-7: Technical schools
EG 1-7: General school (e.g. secondary school)
SU 1-9: Schools for higher education, and universities

Write:

PR. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a primary school.
Example: the person has completed with success five years, and is currently in the sixth year of the primary school:
write "PR5" .

PP. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a complementary school. (Cerar, Cerai, Familiale, Menagere).
(Complementary schools for housewives, maids, and so forth)
Example: the person has completed with success the second year, and is currently in the third year in a complementary school:
write "PP2".

FP. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a vocational school.
Example: the person has completed with success the third year, and is currently in the fourth year in a vocational school:
write "FP3".

FT. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a technical school.
Example: The person has completed with success the fourth year, and is currently in the fifth year in a technical school:
write "FT4".

EG. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a general secondary school.
Example: the person has completed with success the fifth year, and is currently in the sixth year in a secondary school:
write "EG5".
[The French text says EG2 instead]

SU. . .: On the dotted line, one adds the number of years completed with success in a school for higher education or a university.

[p.40]

Example: the person has completed the first university cycle, that is to say 2 or 3 years with success: write: "SU2" or "SU3". For a person who has completed (the cycle) with success, or is in the fourth year in a school for higher education write "SU3". For a person who has completed the second year of university with success, or is in the third year write "SU2".

Remark:
If the person attended several schools of different type, one will write that in which he/she completed the secondary year.

If he/she failed the first year of primary school, one will write: "PR0".

P18: Education section

This question is designed only for persons who completed or are enrolled in:

At least four years of secondary schools in vocational, technical or general schools (FP4, FT4, EG4 and above).
School of higher education or university.

To fill in P18, write the name and the section attended, and use the help of the annex which includes the current domains (field) of studies in Rwanda in August 2002.

P19: Highest diploma received

This question aims at knowing the number of persons who have completed their studies, or those who are still enrolled (P17), those who have a diploma (P19), and the education section corresponding to these diplomas (P18).

The diploma under consideration are those which were awarded to the graduates of secondary schools or of schools of higher education.

Example:
For a person who completed with success six years of primary school:

In P16, circle the number "1".
In P17, write "PR6" and go directly to P20.

For a person who claims to be a medical doctor after 7 years of studies, including 6 years in school and one year of training:

In P16, circle the number "1"
In P17, one will write "SU7"
In P18, one will write "physician"
In P19, one circles the number "6".

[p.41]
P20: Literacy

This questions concerns mostly the persons who never went to school as well as those who could not complete primary school; to those will be added other persons who know how to read and write after learning by non-conventional means (night sessions, reading and writing training sessions, either collective or individual). In P20 one will ask politely whether he/she knows to read and write.

Circle number "1" if the person knows to read and write
Circle number "2" if the person only knows to read
Circle number "3" if the person does not know to read or write

Employment status (occupational status) (P21 to P25)

The following questions concern only the population aged 6 years and above. For persons below that age, one will write nothing on questions P24 to P30.

For persons who are employed, one will ask the type of work or the type of employment they are in, or that they were in from July 15, 2002 to August 15, 2002.

P21: Activity status

Among the persons who are at least 6 years of age, one distinguishes between two main categories:

Those who are able to work
Those who are not able to work.

Among those who are able to work there are:

Those who are currently employed: circle the number "1" (OCC).
Those who are looking for work and who have already worked [before] circle the number "2" (CHO).
Those who are looking for there first job (who have never worked): circle the number "3" (RPE).

(In "2" one includes those) persons who are look for work, after having already worked, and who were actively looking for a job over the past month.

(In "3" one includes) those who are looking for there first job, that is those who have never worked before the reference night.

[p.42]

Among those who are not able to work, one notes:
Those who can no longer work because of old age (RET)

Examples:

1. The pensioners, who are granted an old age pension by the social security agency, and who have paid for it when they were working.
2. The older men and women who do not work anymore, and who do not receive a pension, but live on allowances given by family members or by benefactors; those are also classified as retired (RET).
3. Those who do not work anymore, and who live on the fruits of their own fortune, on gifts, or on private income (REN).

Examples: Persons who do not work anymore because their private income (fortune) is enough for making a living.

Those who do household work without any salary (PF0).
Pupils and students (ETU)
Those who have another reason for not working (AUT); circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

Remarks:

1. One does not ask somebody: "What are you doing?" But one asks politely: "Do you work?" If the answer is "Yes", one obtains "OCC". If the answer is "No", one continues asking subsidiary questions, to know whether he/she has already worked, or whether he/she is currently looking for work and whether he/she is looking for a first job. One will ask whether he/she will take that job if it were offered to him/her now.

Answers given allow one to identify the jobless persons (CHO), the persons who are looking for a first job (RPE), as well as the retired persons (RET), the persons living on their own private income (REN), the housewives and persons living at home (PFO), and so forth, who will be more clearly identified.

The category of persons who are only occupied with housework, without a salary, concerns mainly the women, the girls and the men who are dealing with housework and children; most of those people live typically in towns and cities.

In the countryside, housework goes together with agricultural or livestock farming. In such cases, one will say that these persons are employed (OCC).

Likewise for women who work with their husbands, or with other relatives in various occupations (craft industry, trade, and so forth).

Pupils and students are those who attended school during the school (academic) year 2001-2002. The person who had stopped his/her studies for a short period will be considered as student (ETU) if he/she is still registered in the school he/she attended previously.

[p.43]

However, if he/she has finished his/her studies, and if he/she is already employed, one will circle "1" (OCC). If he/she is looking for the first job, one will circle "3" (RPE).

For students who have completed secondary school, and who do not know whether they will continue to higher education (university), one will circle "5" (ETU).

For students on short term contracts (temporarily employed), one will consider that they are still students, whereas those who have a job but still go to training sessions at night will be enumerated as "employed" (OCC).

The person who is jobless, or who does not study anymore will be enumerated in category 8 (AUT).

One can also include in this category: disabled/handicap persons, and other jobless youth who abandoned school.

2. A servant (boy) is employed, and one writes "1" (OCC) instead of "4" (PFO).

A woman who works on her own (sewing, and so forth) is considered self-employed, even if she works at home; one will write "1" (OCC).

A farmer and his/her aids are enumerated as "employed", and one will write "1" (OCC), even if the census occurs outside of the cultivation period.

Persons who are temporarily suspended from their job, or those who are in vacation or on leave of absence (for sickness or other reason) will be considered as "employed", and one will write "1" (OCC).

A person who has already worked, and went back to school for studying, is considered as a jobless person (CHO) when he/she comes back on the job market; he/she is not "3" (RPE).

Examples:
For a civil servant, who is on regular holiday for 25 days, one will write that he/she is employed by circling "1" (OCC) in P21.
A person who says he/she is busy with house work, but who also takes care of the fields is employed: circle "1" (OCC) in P21.
For a person who says he/she is busy with housework only, and who does not receive a salary: circle "4" (PFO) in P21.

3. If at the beginning of the third week of July, the enumerated person had a job but who lost it and does not work by the second week of August, or if he/she was jobless in the third week of July but has found a job later, this person will be enumerated as "1" (OCC).

[p.44]

Answers of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 lead to directly going to P26.

[Questions P22-P25 were asked of active persons who are currently or were previously employed]

P22: Current or last occupation

The occupation, as it is understood in this census, corresponds to the type of work done by the enumerated person. It does not refer to the rank, or to the grade, or to the function, and even not always to the qualification of the person, but only to the work really accomplished. This is why one must insist with the persons to be enquired to obtain the greatest accuracy, since occupations are numerous, and vague answers would be useless.

Therefore, one should not ask imprecise questions, such as "what is your occupation", but ask simply: "what type of job are you doing?", or "could you describe your job for me?"

Example:
There are good and bad answers. [Since the bad answers] are not acceptable, one should continue the interview to obtain enough accuracy to classify correctly the person into an occupation.

Bad answers:
Chief, Director, Coordinator, Forman, Trader, Farmer, and so forth.

Good answers:
Head of a gas station (petrol pump), Director of a tea factory, Rice farmer, Bread trader, and so forth.

P23: Employment status

If the enumerated person had a job, or has lost the job within the census week, one will write in P23 that she was self-employed and one will circle the number corresponding to the answer given.

IND: This is somebody who does not need a boss, and does not receive a salary for his/her work ; he/she could work on his/her own, or could need salaried assistants.

EMP: An employer is an entrepreneur in any branch of activity (industry) who employs and pays a salary to the persons who work for him/her for periods of more than six months.

SP: A salaried person, that is, a person who works, or used to work in a permanent job for a salary. His/her employer could be the State, or any other moral or physical person. This person may also do his/her own business aside.

[p.45]

ST: Occasional salaried person. This is a worker who is called only when needed, and who is laid off (retrenched/dismissed) when the job is done.

APP: The apprentice works for a boss with the aim of gaining a qualification, a craft, a specialization; he/she is not paid for his/her work. He may be given free lodging, free food, and may get some small gifts.

AF: A family aid is someone who helps a relative in his/her work, without getting for it a regular salary, in cash or in kind. He/she is usually given free lodging and free food, and receives occasionally small gifts.

AU: Other.

Remark:
The census enumerator will avoid, during the interview, to ask the question as: "what occupation do you have?" He/she will ask simply: "Do you usually work on your own, or do you work for someone else?"

The answers, "Yes" or "No", allow one to know the status (EMP and IND).

Questions such as "Does your work require a salary? Or does your boss pay you a salary in any way?"

The answers, "Yes or "No", allow one to distinguish between SP and AP.

Example:
A person just spent eight months in Kigali, looking for a job; before that, he/she was working in the fields with his/her parent in Runda. Circle number "6" (AF) in P23.

Let us come back on examples for P21.

For a civil servant on leave of absence, circle number "3" in P23.
For a woman who works in agriculture, circle number "1" in P23.
For someone who does housework without any salary, see P21 = "4" (PFO), and do not write any thing in P23, because he/she does not have a job, and is not looking for one.

P24: Economic activity branch

This question concerns persons of at least 6 years of age, who are employed or who have been employed, that it those who answered (positively) to questions P22 and P23.

[p.46]

For enumerated persons of at least 6 years of age, but who have given to question P21 answers other than "1" (OCC) or "2" (CHO), one will not write anything in P22, P23, P24 and P25; one will go directly to P26.

For a person, aged 6 years and above, but for whom, at question P21, one has circled "1" (OCC) or "2" (CHO), one will write in P24 the main economic activity branch in which the person worked since the third week of July, 2002, or that of his main occupation before being retrenched.

The census enumerator will write down the main activity of the company where the person works, after looking at the classification of economic activity branches. He will try to understand the relationship between the international classification of economic activity branches, and the diversity of activities practiced in Rwanda. This listing holds all the guidelines allowing good answers to P22 and P24, on the basis of what is observed in Rwanda.

Here are examples of the most frequent economic activity branches in Rwanda:

1. In agriculture and livestock farming
General agriculture
Apiculture (bee breeding)
Fishing
Livestock breeding
Hunting
Forestry
Others
2. Extraction of minerals and gems
Gold
Wolfram
Cassiterite
Colombo-tantalite (coltan)
Others
3. Factories
1. Wood industry (wood sawing and planting)
Carpeting
Bread industry
Oil and fat industry
Tea preparation
Knitting and weaving
Printing
Ceramics/chinaware
Ironworks and others
[p.47]

4. Electricity, gas and water
Production and distribution of electricity
Production of gas
Production and distribution of water
Others
5. Construction and public works
Road and bridges construction
House construction
Water pipes
Others
6. Trade, Restaurants and Hotels
Food trade and shops
Markets
Gas stations (petrol pump)
Restaurants
Bars, drinking establishment, and others
7. Transportation of persons and goods, Storage, Telecommunication
Road transportation, Car rental
Transport of goods
Storage for goods
Others (for example, taxis)
8. Banks, Insurances
Banks
Social security agency
Insurance company
Other company specialized in banking and finances
9. Community services
Administration and civil service
Education
Army forces
Shoe repairs
Repairs of electric devices
Repairs of cars, motorcycles and bicycle
Hair dresser/hair and beauty parlor
Photography
House work services
Activities and services for the disabled/handicapped
Religious institutions
Hospitals
Others

[p.48]

P25: Sector of economic activity

The sectors of economic activity are the following:

State agents and civil servants (PU)
Employees of parastatal companies (PAR)
Cooperatives and associations (COOP)
Non-governmental organizations (ONG)
Independent occupations (AP)

Remark:
Persons who have high status occupations in commercial companies, factories, or who work currently in agriculture, livestock farming, or in the industry, will all be enumerated as independent occupations (AP).

D. Questionnaire designed for persons 12 years old or more

Questionnaire for all (P26)

These questions will be asked to persons who are of age 12 years and above, of either male or female sex.
[Questions P26-P30.]

P26: Marital status

One would like to know whether the enumerated person is married or single, that is his/her marital status. This concerns (only) persons aged 12 years or more.

For the persons who have not yet reached that age, one will not write anything in P26.

In this latter column, one will circle the number corresponding to the private situation of each person.

CEL: Single, or persons of either male or female sex who have never been married; unwed mothers who have children in the household but have never contracted a marriage are also considered as single.

UL: Young women or young men who live together on common law agreement. In this case husband and wife live together illegally.

MM: Man or woman living together in a monogamous union, and who are legally married.

HP: Man with several wives.

[p.49]

MP1: First wife of a polygamous husband.

MP2: Second wife of a polygamous husband.

MP3+: Third, fourth, and so forth wife of a polygamous husband.

D/S: A person who is definitely divorced from her spouse, by law, or a person who is temporarily separated while waiting for a legal decision.

VE: Man or women who has lost his/her spouse, and has not yet remarried.

Remark:
For any married man, it is useful to know the number of wives living with him, not taking into account the legal situation of the unions.

Divorce- final: This concerns a man or a woman who has divorced from his/her spouse by complying to a legal authority.
Divorce- temporary: This concerns a man or a woman who is temporarily divorced (is separated) while waiting for a legal decision on the final situation of their divorce.

Questions asked to persons of the female sex, of at least 12 years of age (P27 to P30)

The questions going from P27 to P30 aim at knowing:

The fertility of Rwandese women, that is their number of children ever born (P27).
The number of children surviving, that is who are still living (P28).
The number of children born alive during the past 12 months, either still alive or already deceased (P29 and P30).

Remark:
1. For female children aged less than 12 years, as for all persons of the male sex, the census enumerator will not write anything in P27, P28, P29 and P30.

2. These questions will be asked to all concerned persons in all discretion and privacy.

3. In order to ensure that all questions were asked, it is necessary to fill in the appropriate boxes with zeros "00" if the interviewed person never had any child.

[p.50]

P27: Live births

For women (or single mothers) aged at least 12 years of more, one will ask the number of children ever born. Write down this number as the number of male live births in P27 (M) and the number of female live births in P27 (F).

A child born alive is a child who showed signs of life at time of birth; among those signs one finds: a regular breathing, heart beating, cries, and so forth.

If the persons had no live births at all, write "00" in the appropriate boxes.

Remark:
Children who died immediately after birth are also counted among the live births. If the enumerated person is a woman, but who is not there on census day, one will ask accurate and reliable information to the head of household, or to any authorized person.

P28: Children surviving/still living

The census enumerator will ask directly the question to a woman (or to a single mother) that is to say the number of male births she had ever had and those who are still alive and will write (the answer) in P28M. He/she will ask the same question about the number of female children, and will write it in P28F.

One will write zeros "00" in the appropriate boxes if there were no live birth to this woman.

Remark:
The number of children surviving (still alive) must be equal or smaller than the total number of children ever born.

This is why:

The number in box P27M must be equal or larger than that in box P28M.
The number in box P27F must be equal or larger than that in box P28F.

P29: Live births in past 12 months

The census enumerator must ask the woman (or the single mother) aged 12 years or more about the children born alive (over the past 12 months), that is those who are aged less than a year, or children born between August 15, 2001 and August 15, 2002.

Write down the number of male children born alive during this period in box P29M.
Write down the number of female children born alive during this period in box P29F.
Write down (0) in the appropriate boxes if there was no live birth during this period.

[p.51]

Remark:
If there are children in boxes P29M and P29F, those could be broken down into two categories:

If the child lives in the household, he/she must appear in column P01 of the questionnaire. In this case one must verify that his/her date of birth is written in column P05.
If the child does not live in the household: the child may not reside with his own parents. In this case the census enumerator must write down in the remarks why this little baby does not appear among the household members. The child might have died. in this case this must appear in column P28M or P28F, since these numbers must be smaller than those in P27M and P27F.

P30: Survivors among children born alive over the past 12 months

The census enumerator will ask the woman (or the single mother) aged at least 12 years, those still alive among the children borne to her over the past 12 months. One will write the number of boys still alive among those born over the past 12 months in column P30M.

Likewise for the number of girls will be written in column P30F. If the woman did not have any child born alive during this period, one will write zero "0" in the appropriate boxes.

The number of children surviving (P30) must be equal or smaller than that of children born alive during the past 12 months (P29)

7.3.1.5: How to fill-in section 5: deaths over the past 12 months (D0-D5)

In this section, the census enumerator will be careful and discrete for obvious reasons. He will ask the head of household or his representative, in full privacy, whether there were deaths which occurred in the household over the past 12 months.

If there was no death, the interview for this topic stops here.
If there were deaths, the census enumerator will write them down in order, and will ask their sex, day, month of death, or their age at death. For each person who died, he/she will ask: the name, the sex, the date of death (month and year) and the age at death.

Remark:
The census enumerator must comply with the instructions written on the census questionnaire.

[p.52]

The issue concerning the 12-months time period, where it begins and where it ends, will require a lot of attention.

The census enumerator will do his/her best so that months included in the 12 months period are well understood by the interviewed person.
Sometimes, it will be necessary to count them one by one. He will do with the same expertise as that used for filling questions P27 to P30.

The space made to write down the month has two boxes that the census enumerator has to fill in.

The space made to write down the year has four boxes, of which three are already filled in, and are in grey ; the census enumerator is asked to fill in only the remaining box with numbers 1 or 2 (2001 or 2002).

After filling this section, one will have finished the interview in the enumerated household, and the census enumerator will have to thank the head of household, and to say goodbye to the household members.

7.3.2 The questionnaire for institutional households

7.3.2.1 How to fill in the first section: identification

For the coding of the Province, District, Sector, Cell, town/city and country side, see what is said on paragraph 7.3.1.1.

Filling in the institutional household number

With respect to giving a number for buildings and institutional households, see the procedure described in paragraph 5.3.B.

With respect to the category of households, one will write in the appropriate box the name of the institution, then its code in the two boxes following the number "2".

Here is the list of institutional households, with their codes

01 Police
02 Institution for the elderly
03 Military camp
04 Religious institution
05 Street children
06 Boarding schools
07 Prison/jail (penitentiary institution)
08 Homeless center
09 Hotels

[p.53]

10 Institution for the disabled/handicapped
11 Hospital
12 Orphanage
13 Refugee camp
14 Youth hostel
15 Other centers

7.3.2.2 How to fill in the second section: summary table
(see chapter VIII)

Remark:
All the residents in institutional households are enumerated as resident present (RP).

How to fill in the third section: individual characteristics of the residents in institutional households

(See item 7.3.1.4 for the procedure).

Remark:
Pupils and students living and staying in their institutions and who stay over during the school holidays will be enumerated as ordinary residents in these institutions (RP). When they are found in their vacation camp centers, they will be enumerated as visitors (VI), and as resident absent (RA) in the institutions where they usually live.
In-patients staying in hospitals for more than six months will be enumerated in these hospitals as resident present (RP).

Chapter VIII: Household summary table: number of persons enumerated in the household

8.1.: Household summary table

This section will be filled in by the census enumerator after having completed the census for all the household members. To fill in this table, one will use question in column P03 (residence status), P04 (sex) and P05 (date of birth) or P06 (age).

One starts with observing the structure of the table, and then one will read carefully the way to fill in each required information.

[A table has been omitted]

[p.54]

One counts all the residents of male sex living in the household, and who have not spent the reference night. One writes down the number obtained in the box crossing the column corresponding to the category of resident absent (RA) and the row of the male sex.

Likewise, one counts all the residents of female sex living in the household, and who have not spent the reference night. One writes down the number obtained in the box crossing the column corresponding to the category of resident absent (RA) and the row of the female sex.

One adds the two preceding numbers, and one writes down the result obtained in the box located at the bottom of the column corresponding to the category of resident absent (RA) and the row total (both sexes).

(Respectively), one adds the numbers for the male sex: resident present (RP) plus resident absent (RA), and one writes the result in the box corresponding to the "Total" column and the "Male" row.

The same operation is done with the numbers for females, and the result obtained is written in the box corresponding to the "Total" column and the "Female" row.

One adds the numbers for males and females in the categories of resident present (RP), and resident absent (RA), and (one writes the results) under the label "Total".

Write down the number of persons of the male sex aged at least 17 years in the appropriate box, under the column label "Persons aged at least 17 years" and at row label "Male".

Operate similarly for persons of the female sex, and write down the corresponding number in the appropriate box of row label "Female".

Add the numbers relative to male and female sexes located in the boxes below the label "Persons aged at least 17 years", and write down the result in the box located on row bearing the label "Male", and write down their number in the box located below the column label "visitors" (VI) in front of the label « Male »

Operate the same way for female visitors, and write down this number in the box for the column with the label "visitors" (VI) and with the row label « Female ».

[p.55]

Add the numbers for male and female visitors, and write down the result in the box corresponding to the "Visitors" column and the « Total » row.

Lastly, one will add the total of all residents (RP+RA), and one will add the total of all visitors. One will verify that the result obtained is equal to the number written in section P01 (that is the total of all the household members).

Remark:
When several questionnaires have been used for enumerating the household, the summary table will be filled in on the first questionnaire.

8. 2. Total number of persons enumerated in a household (page 2)

The total number of persons enumerated in a single household is equal to the total number of residents plus the total number of visitors.

This number will be written in the appropriate box at the end of page 2, with two digits.

[Chapter IX: How to fill in the booklet of the census track has been omitted]

[p.56]
Annex 1

Historical calendar of Rwanda

[Pages 58-66 containing the Historical calendar of Rwanda were not translated into English]

[p.67]

Annex V

International standard industrial classification
Of all economic activities
(ISIC, Rev.3).
[The original form included list of Sections, Divisions and Groups: 3-digit classification of economic activities on pages 67-74].

[p.75]

Annex VI

[The original form included international standard classification of occupations on the remaining pages which were not translated into English]