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Romania Population and Housing Census
1992
First Section
The Handbook of the Census Staff


Chapter I
General Methodological and Organizational


Principles

[First part omitted]


3. Recording method

7. Recording of information pertaining to persons enumerated on the form will be done by the enumerator at the legal residence/residence of those persons enumerated, based on the legal-age person's declaration and by checking identification documents, birth certificates and other legal documents attesting to the correctness of the recorded data.

Persons present at their legal/usual residence will be enumerated by the enumerator for the sector where this residence is situated (or the marginal house unit is situated).

Information concerning the (minor) under age children and adult persons, who are physically and mentally sick and thus unable to answer correctly, will be recorded based on the declarations of other members of the household(parents, supporting persons), or of cohabiting persons who know these persons and their circumstances well and by consulting legal documents.

For persons working shifts who are difficult to find at home, the enumerator will leave a message at the residence indicating the day and hour when the person is asked to stay home, to be enumerated on this next, scheduled visit.

Persons absent from the household during the entire period of registration, will be registered at their legal residence based on information given by other adult persons from the household; or, on the last day of the census if no adult person in the household is present, enumeration will be based on the declaration of other persons (neighbors or the agent of the of the tenants/owners); or, enumeration will be based on information derived from official local documents (the building's books). It must be emphasized that census staff, except for identity cards or birth certificates, do not have the right to consult other legal documents, unless the enumerated person agrees.

8. Romanian citizens who are abroad in diplomatic missions or consulate offices, as well as Romanian commercial representatives abroad, will be registered in advance by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, based on specific approved forms; for these persons and their households, the enumerator will receive the forms filled in by the Ministry, and will include these forms on the census sector file where the legal residences of these people are located.

Romanian citizens who were abroad for personal reasons, duty, for business or work, will be recorded in the households where they belong based on statements of other members of the household, or, in some cases, by transcription on PL forms of the answers recorded on the F form - "Special individual enumeration form."

9. The registration of dwelling and building characteristics will be completed by enumerators based on the statement of owners, principal tenants or others members of the household. The floor space of rooms and kitchens of dwellings subject to the census will be recorded by the enumerator on the basis of measurements made during the preliminary visit, according to the provisions of paragraph 104 of this handbook.

10. The census staff has the obligation to follow the legal provisions accurately, to ensure the confidentiality of data declared by the population and registered by the enumerator, and to show a respectful attitude toward the population.


4. The enumeration period and the reference point of the census

11. The population and housing census will be conducted on the entire country's territory - communes, towns and municipalities - during the period of January 7 - 14, 1992, and circumstances at the "0" hour on the night of January 6 to 7, 1992, will be considered the reference point for the census.

Registration according to the situation existing at the exact reference point of the census, presumes that all data recorded on census forms will refer to the situation existing at the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, even though the period for completing the forms was 8 days (up to January 14, 2002).

Between the reference point of the census and the day of registration, some changes may happen with respect to the number and family situation of persons in the household due to births, deaths, marriages, changes in the home/residence changes etc.

So, a baby born on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, before "0" hour, will be recorded on the census forms, while a baby born after the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, will not be recorded, even though he existed when the forms were completed.

For the case in which a person died after the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, this person will be recorded in the census form because she was alive at the reference point of the census; but if the person died before the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, she will be not registered on the census form.

Also, between the reference point f the census and the time of registration in the census forms, changes may occurin the dwelling stock, since some buildings were completed and put into commission while some buildings or dwellings were demolished.

So, if one or more dwellings were added to the housing stock after the reference point - (after the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992), these dwellings will be not considered occupied at the census reference point, even though at the time of registration of the building in the census form these dwellings were effectively occupied. On the other hand, ifthe demolition of dwellings and buildings started after the reference point (after the "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992) these units will be registered on the forms by the enumerators, as well as all persons residing in these buildings at the reference point.


5. Preliminary visit of the buildings and dwellings

12. During the period of January 3 - 5, 1992, the enumerator must visit each building and dwelling where someone is living or where someone may live, as well as all unoccupied buildings or ongoing construction in the area of the census sector assigned to him.

In this respect, the enumerator will identify in the field, the boundaries of his census sector, according to the description written in chapter I of the list, from the inside of the cover of the file "The components of the census sector".

Particular attention should be paid to buildings located on street corners, to buildings having the entrances on two different streets, inhabited buildings situated in isolated areas outside the locality (small villages, groups of houses, railroad cabins of the Romanian Railroad's supervisor, rangers' cabins, etc.), to apartment buildings, formed by multi-block houses where two or more census sectors were established, in a such way that no buildings or dwellings remain omitted from the components of that census sector's enumerator. Also, the enumerator will check that no new buildings and dwellings were put into commission (finished) which are not mentioned on the list from the interior side of the cover of the file.

The enumerator should take note, also, of buildings situated on the boundary of his census sector for which he is unsure whether they belong to his sector or to the neighboring sector and which he will report to the chief enumerator during the last day of his preliminary visit, in order to clarify the situation.

The enumerator is obliged, also, to visit all institutions and enterprises in his sector, and to verify whether anyone is living permanently or temporarily in these buildings. During this visit, the enumerator will establish with the administration of these establishments, a mutually-agreeable day and hour when the people living in these units can be registered.

Units exempted are the guarded precincts of the Ministry of Justice, the National Defense Ministry, the Ministry of the Interior and buildings occupied by foreign states, regardless of property title, situated on the boundaries of the census sector's. These units should be visited and registered by staff designated by the mentioned ministries and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.

13. During the preliminary visit, the enumerator will advise persons from households to be registered that they have to think before answering to the questions and, when necessary, to review documents in advance in order to give the most clear and correct answers.

This is of particular importance to answers regarding occupation, the work place, economic and professional position, the educational institution and graduation, previous legal residence, the year of the settlement in the locality, building construction year, building material for the external walls, etc. In this respect, the enumerator will recommend income-earning persons to be fully informed about the complete name of the company, trust, enterprise, institution, organization, of employment, about the main activity of the work place, including the section, workshop, subunit, job and office, as well as what ownership sector describes the work place, (public, private individual, private associative, co-operatiste or mixed unit).

In those cases where persons intend to leave the household for various reasons and go to other localities, being absent the whole period of the census (January 7 - 14, 2002), the enumerator will advise that, before leaving, they have to inform the other members of the households about all the personal data needed in order to be able to assure the correct registration on the census form.


Chapter II
Completing the Census Forms

14. During the population census of March 18, 2002, the following forms will be completed:


A. Forms to be completed

PL Form - Persons, dwelling, building
PL - Annex - Data regarding the registered persons of the household
PC Form - Persons from collective living units, hostel type
PH Form - Persons from collective living units hotel type

B. Compilation Forms
Form CL - Compilation data of the buildings and of the dwellings of the census sector
Form CP - Compilation data of the enumerated population of the census sector
Form CN - Compilation data of the enumerated resident population by nationality of the census sector
Form CR - Compilation data of the enumerated resident population by religious affiliation of the census sector

C. Additional Forms
Form B - General file's list of the enumerator
F Form - Individual special bulletin for registration
H form - "List of persons with disabilities from the census sector"
Form PR - The census staff card

15. The census forms have to be clearly completed, legible and clean, with no abbreviations or erasures, with capital letters, using blue or black pen. The occasional correction should be done only using red pen.

In the case of the PL form, for example, the answers have to be written on the special spaces designated, as follows:

by marking the x sign in one of the closed boxes situated on the right side, according to the corresponding alternative possible answers printed on the form: Chapter II, items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12.1, 13, 14; Chapter III, items 16, 18; Chapter IV, items 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 23 - only one x sign. At items 4, 21, 23 from Chapter IV the x sign is marked only where it is needed;
by writing numbers directly in the open boxes (for example?_ ?_ ?_): Chapter II, items 1, 4, 11, 12.2; Chapter III, items 15, 17; Chapter IV, items 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13; Chapter V (for how long ago the person came to the locality, year of birth). The numbers will fill in all spaces in the open boxes, such as: 01, 003, 005 etc, as indicated;
as a text, written on the spaces marked by lines of dots, recording the answers stated by the enumerated persons; where no answer is given, indicate this with a horizontal line;
by writing the codes, corresponding to the answers recorded on the dotted lines in the specially designated boxes: Chapter IV, items 3, 4, 10, 14, 17 (registered by the enumerator) and items 15, 16, 18 (registered by the chief enumerator); the boxes from the Chapter IV, items 20 and 22 will be filled in by the counties census commissions. The codes will be taken from lists in the census staff handbook or from the special census lists and will be registered after the field enumeration.

The forms will be completed in the presence of the enumerated persons. After the form is completed, the enumerator will read the recorded information in the presence of the enumerated persons, to verify that the registration was correctly done, is without omissions, and that the statements correspond to the registration. The form will be signed by the head of household or other adult person of this household who made the statements.


A. Registration Forms

16. On the PL form, the enumerator will record the dwellings (including the marginal housing units) and the persons occupying these units, even if these dwellings are situated in housing units or buildings not designated for habitation or are in collective living units.

The PC form is designated for the registration of collective living units- hostel type and of the persons living there. The PH form is for the registration of the collective living units-hotel type and of the persons temporarily present in these units at the census reference point.

17. For each form it is compulsory to complete the identification data (the complete address - the county, the municipality/town, the commune, the village, the number and the alphabetical order of the letter of the building, the stairs; entrances; and the apartment).

The names of the territorial administrative units will be written without abbreviations, as they are identified for the existing territory divisions by the legal documents in force at the census date. These names will be copied from the census file's label. For communes, it is necessary to indicate in all cases, the name of the village, as well; it is also necessary to indicate for the municipalities and towns, whether the component locality (village) is included in the territorial administrative division.

The alphabetical order letter of the building will be recorded only when in the same (yard) plot area there are two or more buildings.

On the cassette "The file's number", printed on the right side of the form, should be written the number from the census' file label.


1. PL Form - Persons, Dwelling, Buildings


Chapter 1 - List of Persons Registered in the Household

18. This chapter will record all persons from the household, regardless of whether or not, at "0" hour on the night of January 6 - 7, 1992, they were present in the locality, had been gone for less than 6 months (were temporarily absent) for some other locality within the country or were abroad; as well as persons who have left for a longer period (at work, studies etc.).

For each person enumerated on chapter I, in the first column record the name and first name, including the father's first name initial (for children with unknown father, the mother's first name initial); for married or widowed women, the father's initial and not the husband's. in the next column, referring to sex, mark an x in the box corresponding to the enumerated person's sex; and in the last column, register the year of birth of the enumerated person.

If there are more than 12 persons in the household the enumerator will add an extension to chapter I, using the same columns as for the other persons.

In the case of unoccupied dwellings (where no person or household is found to be occupying the dwelling), or where there are only temporarily present persons (who will be recorded in Chapter V), Chapter I will be not completed, but will be barred by an oblique line.

The succession order of the person's registration within the household in chapter I will depend upon the relative rank status compared with head of the household (see paragraphs 21 and 22).

The following groupings within the PL form will create an easier identification, by the enumerator, of all the persons comprising the dwelling, the household or the nuclear family.

19. A household is understood to be a group of two or more persons, usually living together, having some familial relationship, and managing a household economy together (sharing the food supply and consumption, as well as other living essentials).

A household can also be a group of two or more persons having no familial relationships among them, but through their statements it is understood that they are living and managing their household together.

There will be recorded on a separate PL form:

- Persons stating at the census moment, that they are living alone and are managing alone, and thus constitute one person households.
- Persons having their legal residence in a locality other than where they are enumerated, and declare that they do not have common household with the other persons living in the dwelling.

It will also be recorded in Chapter 1 those persons in one of the following situations:

a) Household members (having legal residence in the locality or who have been in the locality for more than 6 months), regardless of whether or not, at the referencepoint, they were present or temporarily absent (in a delegation, at a relative's, visiting, on leave etc.);
b) Persons living in other localities for a longer period of time - over 6 months (to work, study, or for other reasons);
c) Household members on military conscription, or pupils/students at military institutions;
d) Persons absent from the household, retained in correctional or penal institutions for re-education or retained for investigations;
e) Persons who lived abroad for various reasons: service duty (delegation, mission), work, study, vacation, excursions, visits etc.

It will also be recorded in Chapter I of the PL form, unrelated persons who usually are living together, sharing the housekeeping (old men are included, as well as other persons under the care of the household, children in the care of alternative families, boarders or homemakers employed for housekeeping care etc.

Not recorded in Chapter I: persons temporarily present at the census reference point (those visiting relatives, friends, on vacation etc.), who will be recorded on Chapter V "Persons Temporarily present in household". Also not included in Chapter I are persons who have left the household for good, regardless of whether or not they are in touch with the former household ( receiving or sending money or any kind of other support), such as: persons (sons or daughters) who left the household for another place to take a job following graduation; persons who have left because of marriage; permanent residents of an old people's home.

20. To assure correct registration of all persons in the household, before starting the recording the enumerator has to establish the following:

The number of households in the dwelling.
The number of persons in each household.
The status of each person at the census reference point (present, temporarily absent or gone for a longer period of time).

There are several particular situations which might appear during the enumeration of the persons on Chapter I, such as the following:

a) If the husband and wife are living at different addresses in the same locality (for example due to the lack of housing space), the recording of both spouses will be done on the same format the husband's address;
b) If the husband and wife have legal residences in different localities (and on the identification card of one of them, no change was recorded for the new address after their marriage, of the place of the other spouse), the enumeration of both spouses will be done on the same form at the address where they are actually living;
c) Children who are under the care of grand parents, (or other relatives) will be recorded as follows:
- In the case where the grandparents (relatives) are living in the same place with the children's parents, they will be recorded as present in the parent's household (and not in the grand parent's), similar to the case of children in weekly nursery house or kindergarten;
- In the case where the grandparents (relatives) are living in another locality, these children will be enumerated at the parents' residence as persons temporarily absent (recorded in chapter I), and at the grandparents' residence as temporarily present (and will be recorded in chapter V);
- The pupils /students who left for studies in other places, as well as persons who have left for work or other reasons, for a period longer than 6 months (but not for good), will be recorded in Chapter I as having left for a longer period; but if they are at home at the census reference point (vacationing, visiting, for health reasons, etc.), they will be enumerated also in Chapter V as persons temporarily present;
- Households members gone for a longer period of time from the locality (to work or for other reasons), will be recorded in Chapter I based on information gathered from local evidences (the building's books) or from the declaration of neighbors, or agents of the tenants/owners.

21. Persons will be recorded in chapter I according to the following order:

a) For the case of one household formed by one nuclear family, the persons of the household will be recorded starting with the head of the household, then continue with the husband/wife, followed by the unmarried children, registered in decreasing order of the age
b) If the household is formed by two or more nuclear families, the first nuclear family recorded will be the head of the household, together with the persons in the registration order mentioned above, followed then by another nuclear family in the same order (starting with husband/wife), followed by related persons who are not part of a nuclear family, the unrelated lodgers, or household employees, if they have common housekeeping arrangements with other members of the household;
c) If a household has no nuclear family, whether formed by related or unrelated persons, the first person recorded will be person recognized by the others as the head of the household, then the other persons, in order based either on the family relationship to the head of household, where appropriate, or on the basis of decreasing order of age.

A nuclear family is considered to be:

A. A husband and wife without children;
B. A husband and wife with unmarried children;
C. One of the parents with unmarried children.

Included in the composition of the nuclear family are all children living together with the parents who are not married (regardless of whether they come from a legal marriage or not, from a prior marriage of one of the partners or are adopted).Also considered part of the nuclear family are children who were married but, at the census reference point, were divorced or widowed and who returned to the parent's household, providing that they do not have children of their own on subsistence.

22. The head of the household is considered the person declared, and so recognized, by the other members of the household.

The designation of head of household is the exclusive decision of the members of the household and is not determined by the enumerator. Past censuses show that in most cases the husband is designated as household head. If the situation requires, the enumerator may offer a criteria list, intended to facilitate the establishment of the household head, such as: economic situation of the person, income, age, personal authority, possession of the dwelling ownership document or of principal tenant, etc.

Generally, it is recommended that a person who has left the household for a long period of time (to work, study or for other reasons), not be recorded as the head of the household. An exception could be a situation in which a person from the household, even though he left home for a long period of time, is the husband or a parent in the first nuclear family, is the sole income earner in the household, and members of the household request that this person be recorded as the head of the household.


Chapter II - Data on Housing Units

23. This chapter will be completed for each dwelling situated in a building containing housing units for habitation, in a building having other designation, in a building with collective living units and in a building intended for habitation, under construction but partially occupied by people.

It should be specified that: if there are many households in a dwelling, Chapter II will be completed on the PL form only for the first dwelling (that of the owner or of the main tenant - see paragraph 45); for other dwellings in the housing, unit this chapter will remain empty, and will be marked with an oblique line.

The dwelling (apartment) is a unit in a building, comprising a room or a suite of rooms for habitation, situated at the same floor or different floors, provided, generally, with accessories (kitchen, bathroom, etc.), or other independent utilities designated for the householders' use, having a separate entrance from the staircase, from the yard or from the street, which was constructed, transformed or adapted to be usable by a single household.

Some dwellings may have two entrances, one main entrance and another such as a service entrance. The dwelling represents a functionally distinct unit, being independent from other dwellings or spaces, regardless whether it is occupied by one or more households.

A dwelling will be considered any of the following:

a) Apartment - formed by one or more rooms for habitation, provided with corresponding accessories, forming one entire unit from the construction and functional point of view;
b) Dwelling situated in an individual housing unit - designated by its construction to be occupied normally by a single household;
c) Dwelling with isolated facilities - formed by one or more rooms for living, having separate entrance, but isolated facilities (in the yard, basement, attic, etc.), with no direct connection with the living rooms;
d) Dwelling with no facilities - formed by one or more rooms for living, having separate entrance, generally occupied by a single household;
e) Rooms in inhabited buildings of housing units, or in buildings having other designation - situated along corridors, used for living by various households each having separate entrance (regardless of whether or not there are any facilities). Monastery cells (occupied by a single monk or nun) will be recorded similarly.
f) Dwellings located inside institutions or commercial companies (including isolated railroad cabins along the railway, or isolated road surveyor cabins, isolated buildings of meteorological stations or in state reserve warehouse deposits, zoos, pastoral and forestry stations, isolated buildings designated to serve high voltage lines, television and radio station relay and other similar isolated units) designated to workers and their families, as well as rooms or spaces from collective housing units permanently occupied by managerial, administrative or service staff's households or by other households.

When the dwellings are identified, it is necessary to take the following situations into account:

- If an apartment was divided after construction, by dividing walls into two dwellings, completely independent, each having its own separate entrance and, eventually, its own facilities (kitchen, bathroom, etc.), each of the units will be considered as a separate dwelling;
- An apartment divided by improvised means (by glass partition, by blocking a door), will be considered a single dwelling;
- If around a hall, there are several rooms occupied by different households sharing collective facilities, the whole unit will be considered one apartment;
- A duplex system apartment (situated on two levels, having interior stairs) represents a single dwelling, regardless how many households are living there;
- Rooms isolated from the dwelling but used for living by the same household will be included in that dwelling and recorded in the same PL form.

If two dwellings are located in the same yard and are occupied by the same household, a PL form will be completed for each of them, following the provisions which refer to Chapter II and III registration.

This chapter will clearly record spaces considered marginal housing units improvised housing units which are not designated for habitation, but at the census reference point represent the main residence of one or more households, such as places in the building with another designated purpose (drying room, laundry, cellar, garret, garage etc); household facilities and service areas isolated from the building (kitchen, garage, warehouse, workshop, etc); places of improvised construction (barracks, huts, shacks, wood or metal camping huts for construction workers, etc.) and mobile housing units (railroad wagon, trailers, barges etc.).

When barracks are recorded as marginal housing units, the following particular situation should be taken into consideration:

- Living compartments formed by one or more rooms, with or without facilities, which structurally and functionally are similar to a dwelling should be considered as a single marginal house unit, regardless of the number of households occupying these compartments;
- Where a barracks is divided into large dormitories in which several households share the space by improvised means (screens, curtains etc.), each of these dormitories will be considered as a marginal house unit.

Chapter II will also be completed for dwellings located in collective housing units, permanently occupied by managerial, administrative and service staff, as well as for hostels and hotel rooms permanently occupied by married student households or other households, these units being considered classical dwellings.

For buildings intended for habitation which are under construction but partially occupied by people, Chapter II of the form will register the occupied rooms and dwellings as well the unoccupied ones, partially built. Thus, a PL form will be completed for each apartment - occupied or not - from those buildings under construction but partially occupied.

The following will be not considered dwellings:

Rooms of collective living units (inhabited rooms of hotels, boarding school dormitories, children's nurseries, student hostels or old people's homes, hospital rooms, etc.);
Spaces constructed in the household's service areas detached from the regular dwelling when occupied by members of the same family;
Guard rooms, used at the census reference point, by personnel who work on shifts and who have their residence outside the institution.

24. When there are two or more dwellings in a building, these will be registered in the PL forms according to number order given to each apartment or dwelling. When the dwellings or apartments are not numbered, they should be recorded as follows:

a) Dwellings situated in a multi-apartment house: recording will start with the first apartment situated on the left side of the entrance or staircase, starting with the first floor and continuing with the other dwellings up to the last floor, following a clockwise rotation;

b) Dwellings located in multi-apartment building with the dwellings aligned, coupled etc.: recording will start with the first dwelling of the building from the yard or plot area entrance toward the end of the yard, from left to right in the case of buildings located in front of the yard or plot area, or at the end of the yard.

Similar procedures will be applied to marginal housing units located in buildings or outside.


Q. 1 Number of households in dwelling

25. The number of the households within dwellings (question 1) will be recorded for occupied dwellings and for marginal housing units after the registration in the chapter IV of the PL form (or of the PL forms-Annex). This number has to be the same as the order number of the last household in the dwelling. In the case of unoccupied dwellings where the PL form is not completed in Chapter I, an oblique line will be inserted in this cell.


Q.2 Type of dwelling

26. To identify the type of dwelling, the definitions of paragraph 23 from the present handbook should be taken into account.

Code 1 will be marked for permanent/main dwellings , permanently occupied or unoccupied by members of one or more households.
Code 2 will be marked for seasonal/secondary buildings.

Aseasonal/secondary dwelling is a dwelling designated for a seasonal or secondary use, which architecturally could be inhabited during the entire year, whether it is occupied or not at the census reference point, by persons who already have a permanent dwelling, generally in another locality.

The following should be considered as seasonal/secondary dwellings: private property houses for vacation; a second home unoccupied or temporarily occupied; houses in vineyards with rooms etc., corresponding to the definition of a dwelling (paragraph 23).

An exception to the above mentioned provisions: occupied dwellings situated in buildings to be demolished will be recorded as marginal housing units, and an x will be marked in the box for code 3.

An x will also be written in the box for the code 3 in the case of marginal housing units (as defined in paragraph 23)

If there are two dwellings in the same plot occupied by a single household, on the PL form where the household was recorded (in Chapters I and IV), this dwelling will be considered permanent by marking an x in the box for code 1); the other dwelling will be recorded in the other PL questionnaire as a seasonal dwelling by marking an x in the box of code 2.


Q.3 Type of ownership

27. To ensure the clear classification of dwellings by type of ownership, the following specifications have to be made:

  • Enter an x in the box for code 1 - private property - in the case of personal ownership of the dwelling;
  • Enter an x in the box for code 2 - state-owned property- when the dwelling is under the administration of city hall or of ministries and other central institutions of the public sector, as well as of their subordinated agencies;
  • Enter an x in the box for code 3 - property owned by a religious institution - when the dwelling is owned by a religious institution or by its religious establishments, such as parishes, religious communities, monasteries etc.;
  • Enter an x in the box for code 4 - other type of ownership - when the dwelling is owned by co-operative organizations or voluntary organizations (writers, composers, parties, syndicates' associations etc.)

When a dwelling has mixed ownership (private and public ownership, public and religious institution, etc.), enter an x for the code of one of listed forms of ownership depending of the predominant share of habitable floor space held by one of the ownership types. Use a similar procedure to record the properties of the marginal housing units.


Q.4 Floor where the dwelling is located

26. For each dwelling located in the building, record the level of the floor where it is situated (basement, semi-basement, mezzanine, the number of the floor or in the attic/garret). Enter an x in the box of the corresponding code for dwellings located in the basement (code 30), semi-basement (40), ground (50), mezzanine (60) and attic/garret (70).

If the dwelling is located in an upper floor, record the floor number in Arabic figures (for example: 01, 05, 11) in the designated blank box .

Dwellings with living rooms located on several floors but structurally and functionally constituting a single whole unit, will be considered situated at the same level as the main entrance of the dwelling.

For dwellings having detached rooms using a separate entrance to access rooms located on other levels, the form will record the level where the dwelling is situated, the detached rooms being considered, typically, to be situated at the same level.

For marginal housing units, regardless of their location, do not report the level of the floor.

When recording the floor level of the dwelling, consider the following:

Level of the floor is the space in a building between two successive floors; it indicates free space from the floor to the ceiling elements (beams, pipes, etc.), reaching from the floor to the ceiling at least to a height of 1,80 m. above the ground. The definition of a floor level includes the basement, semi- basement, ground, mezzanine, individual floors and the attic.

The garret, partial or intermediary concrete panel floors, and the cellar are not considered levels.

The basement is the level where more than half of the height of the rooms is below the level of the ground.

The semi-basement is the level having no more than half of the floor space below the level of the ground.

Ground is the level where the lower floor is at the same level or roughly the same level with the ground; sometimes this level is situated at a specific height above the ground (about 1,50 m). Individual buildings with only one dwelling such as rural houses, usually are situated at ground level.

The mezzanine (ground floor 2) is the level inserted between the ground floor and the first floor, being different than other floors either by its lower height, by the absence of balconies, or by designation as accessory spaces for ground stores, warehouses for goods, workshops or offices.

A floor is any level having the same amount of floor space, situated between the ground floor or mezzanine and the attic or garret.

The attic is the floor level of the building, just below the roof of a house. Generally the height of the attic up to the ceiling is at least 1, 80 m in the highest portion of this room.


Q.5 Water supply installation

29. Mark an x in the box which corresponds to the stated situation: code 1 if the existing water supply in the housing unit is connected to a public network of a community-wide system, or code 2 if the system is privately supplied.

For dwellings that do not have a water supply within the dwelling, specify its location: inside the building (code 3) or outside the building (code 4).

A housing unit is considered as having its water supply from a public network, whether it has piped water installation from a local community-wide system or from an enterprise or institution, etc. Also, a water supply is considered part of a public network whether the water is supplied to the housing unit from the street drinking fountain or through a piped system.

A dwelling is is considered as having its own private supply system if the housing unit receives water through a piped system from a natural source: a pit, fountain, spring etc.

When a dwelling is located in an individual building having only one housing unit with a water supply inside the building, an x will be marked in the box for code 1 or code 2 because the building is identical to the dwelling;

When a housing unit uses two sources for its water supply, indicated only the water supply offering the higher comfort to the dwelling.


Q. 6 Hot water installation

30. A unit is considered to have hot water available when hot water is piped to the bathroom, kitchen, or other toilet group from the public community network (mark an x in the box for code 1), or when the housing unit has its own hot water supply installation (mark an x in the box for code 2).

A dwelling is considered to have hot water available from its own supply installation if the dwelling does not receive any hot water from the public network, having instead its own installation for heating water (a steam boiler, electrical boiler, etc.). Included in this category are housing units from localities where both kitchen and bathroom use only geothermal water and geothermal water is also used for heating. Housing units that only use geothermal water for home heating, without any hot water system installation for the kitchen and bathroom. are not considered as having a hot water supply.

Dwellings where the boilers are used only for hot water used by the bathtub or shower are not considered as having a hot water supply.

The following answers will be checked for consistency:

If in Q.6 - hot water supply installations, the answer recorded was code 1 (public network), then at Q.5 - water supply system - must also be marked code 1 (the dwelling has water supply system from public network);

If in Q.6 the answer recorded was code 2 (private supply installation), then Q.5 must be marked with code 1 or 2, as appropriate (public network or private/own system).

The box for code 3 (none) in Q.6 will be marked for dwellings without any hot water installation.


Q. 7 Sewage installation

31. Dwellings are considered as having installations for a sewage system when the housing unit uses a piped system for draining waste water that is connected to a public sewage disposal plant (mark an x will in the box for code 1), as well as when the dwelling has available a piped system for draining waste water to a place that acts as an absorbent pit (mark an x in the box for code 2).

The following answers will be checked for consistency:

- If in Q.6 - hot water supply installation - an x mark was recorded in the box for code 1 or 2 (from the public network or from private/own system), then Q.7 - sewage installation - an x mark has to be recorded in the box for code 1 or 2 (from a public network or from private/own system).


Q. 8 Electrical installation

32. A housing unit is considered to have electricity available if the indoor cables are connected to a public community supply or other local electricity source (generating plant, micro-power station, etc.). Other sources of electricity include a wind power-station or a local hydropower station.


Q. 9 Gas for kitchen

33. Dwellings that receive gas in the kitchen through a pipe are considered having kitchen gas (an x mark will be recorded in the box for code 1), as well as those which use liquefied gas ora gas cylinder (an x mark will be recorded in the box for code 2).

Dwellings that have a gas installation available for cooking in the kitchen but do not have this gas supply connected within the dwelling are considered as having gas for cooking (therefore, an x mark will be recorded in the box for code 1).


Q. 10 Means of heating

34. Record the primary heating source as follows:
Mark the box for code 1 when dwellings have heat provided by a central power station, power plant, etc., through hot water distribution points for central heating and domestic hot water, usually to a large number of housing units, with radiators used to transfer the heat to the spaces in the dwelling. Included in this code are the district's heating centers (local heating).

Codes 2, 3or 4 will be marked , depending on the situation, when dwellings are heated by their own domestic system, that is installations for heating built in the buildings (steam, hot water) and a system for passing the thermal energy to all rooms inside the building. Include block heating systems in these codes.

When the domestic heating system uses geothermal water, code 4 (liquid fuel) will be checked.

Codes 5, 6 or 7 will be marked to indicate the type of fuel when stoves are used for heating.

An x mark will be recorded in the box for code when the dwelling uses electrical radiators or any different type of heating (air conditioning, etc.), other than those mentioned above.

When a dwelling has several different heating systems, recorded only the primary heating source.


Q. 11 Rooms occupied

This item will be recorded for permanent living rooms, for seasonal/secondary rooms as well as for spaces situated in marginal housing units.

A living room is defined as a living space in a dwelling having at least 4 square meters of floor space (a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult), at least 2 meters high over most of the floor space, receiving daylight either directly through windows and/or outside doors, or indirectly from verandahs, through windows and/or doors from other rooms through a glass partition.

The purpose of a living room is based on the design not the original construction of the building as well as the main use given the respective room by members of the household at the census reference point.

Rooms considered to be living rooms include: bedrooms (dormitories), dining rooms, living rooms/parlors, guest rooms, studies. libraries, servants' rooms for housekeeping staff, as well as lobbies, so long as they meet the criteria concerning floor space, height and light, necessary to be considered a room for living, and are used for habitation, not only as a passageway space.

Also considered living rooms are the spaces of dwellings designated by construction to be housing units for habitation but which, at the census reference point, were used for professional purposes by the households, as well as habitable rooms offered to institutions, firms, commercial companies, tourism units, on a lease basis with a contract signed by the holder of the dwelling.

A multi-use space, such as a kitchen and living room, in a dwelling formed of multiple spaces is considered either a habitable room or a kitchen according to the intended designation, not as it is actually used.

A space designated for living, provided with a niche used for cooking is considered a habitable room.

A space used both as a bedroom as well as to prepare meals, in a single-room dwelling is considered a habitable room.

It must be emphasized that those rooms occupied by owners or tenants which are used by state institutions or co-operative units (police station, co-operative bureau etc.) are not considered habitable rooms and will not be recorded on the PL form.

At this point, the number of living rooms as well as the total living area floor space of the dwelling's rooms will be recorded.

Living area floor space is calculated based on the interior dimensions of rooms measured at ground level. Living area floor space is registered on the form using square meters as a measuring unit, without decimals, by applying rounding rules (if the first decimal is smaller than 5, it will be ignored and if 5 or more, it will be round up to the next whole one unit).

If rooms are square or rectangular, calculation and verifying living area floor space will be facilitated by using the helping table from the training material (SC form), in which the living area floor space for various size rooms is calculated and rounded based on their dimensions.

Not considered as living rooms are the accessories and facilities of the dwelling (kitchens, bathrooms, toilets, verandahs, vestibules, passageways, glass porches, parlors, "tindas", non-habitable lobbies, corridors, offices, food storage larders, lumber box-rooms, lodges, boxes, etc.) even if these are inhabited.

To identify spaces not considered as habitable rooms, taken the following into consideration:

A verandah is a space without windows, built at the ground floor of the building, along the wall from the entrance of the dwelling;

A vestibule (entry, glass porch) is a passage or hall between the outer door and the other spaces inside of the building, or from the staircase, corridor, yard or street and other rooms of the house). Usually it is a space with only indirect light and has a reduced size, with room only for a clothes rack.

A Tinda is a typical Romanian rural entrance, the first hall of a peasant's house, used as a passage between two living areas, sometimes serving either as a kitchen or a dining room; if the dwelling does not have a kitchen, the tinda will be recorded as kitchen; occasionally, a tinda is used as a bedroom.

An uninhabitable hall is a space designed to connect the vestibule at the entrance with the other rooms of the dwelling and does not meet the required dimensions of living area floor space, height and light of a regular living room.

A corridor is a long, narrow space designed as a passage connecting several living rooms or accessory facilities but could also be a space connecting with the outdoors.

An office is a space inside the dwelling, between the kitchen or the bathroom and the habitable rooms, which serves as an intermediary passage between the rooms.

The larder for food storage is an indoor or outdoor space designed to preserve food needed by the household members.

A lumber box-room is a small closed space inside the dwelling, without direct light or air, used for storage of various household things.

A Logia is a space built-up in the framework of the building, either covered or open-foofed, on an external side of the house which is sometime covered by an arch or a series of arches supported by the columns.

A covered terrace is an open platform located at the level of an apartment or situated on the house's roof.

A box is a small space, usually located in the building's basement, where housekeeping tools, food, fuel etc. are commonly kept.


Q. 12 Kitchen

36. A kitchen is a room that designed and equipped for the preparation of meals, situated inside the dwelling (enter an x in the box for code 1), or outside (entry an x in the box for code 2), having adequate cooking facilities.

Record the floor area of the kitchen/kitchenette, based on the indoor surface area measured at floor level.

Considered to be without kitchen facilities are those dwellings having a summer-only kitchen, where during the winter cooking takes place in one of the living rooms; an exception are the so called "summer-time kitchens" located outside of a dwelling, built of strong materials (bricks, beams, etc.), and used all year round for cooking meals.

For dwellings having several kitchens available, only one of them will be recorded: namely the one that is best equipped and has the largest surface.


Q. 13 Bathroom

37. The bathroom is an indoor (code 1 will be marked), or outdoor (code 2 will be marked) space used to ensure the body's hygiene, having special bathing facilities for this purpose such as: a bath tub (with or without shower) or only a shower and sink.

The following are also considered as a bathroom:

A room designated to this purpose, having water supply facility and sewer, but not yet fitted with bathing facilities (bath tub, shower and sink) and not used for other purposes.

A room within the dwelling where the traditional means characteristic of a certain area (steam bath) are used for body washing and not used for another purpose.

A room having special bathing facilities (shower, sink) even if this space is used primarily for another purpose (laundry).

Rooms having only a sink and used mainly for other purposes (bedroom, kitchen, laundry, etc.) will not be considered as a bath room.

When a dwelling has several bathrooms, only one of them will be recorded.

Consistency check: when the bathroom code entered is 1 (bathroom within the dwelling), it is necessary that to item 5 (water supply system) be marked with an x in the box for code 1 or code 2 and that item 7 (sewage facilities within the housing unit) also be marked with code 1 or 2.


Q. 14 Water closet (WC)

38. A dwelling is considered as having a flush toilet whenever it has a water tank and drains for waste water that feeds into a piped system, regardless of whether it is situated within the bathroom or in a separate room inside the dwelling (mark an X in the box for code 1) or outdoors (mark an x in the box for code 2).

Not considered a flush toilet are the so called "dry" latrines where no water is used and excrement remains, such as a cesspool. A dwelling will be also be recorded as not having a flush toilet when the housing unit has a flush toilet fixture but does not yet have a piped water facility and/or sewer connection.

For dwellings that have more then one flush toilet, record only one of them.

Consistency Checks: when this item is marked with code 1 (within the dwelling), it is necessary that item 7 (sewer installations) has an entry of code 1 or code 2 and that item 5 (water supply system)also has an entry of code 1 or code 2.


Chapter III - Data on the Building Where the Dwelling is Located

39. This chapter records the characteristics of buildings intended for human habitation, buildings intended for other designation, or collective living units where dwellings units exist, as well as those under construction but partially occupied by the population.

This chapter of the PL form will record only the first dwelling of the building; for other dwellings in the building, Q. 15 - 18 of Chapter III ib the PL form will be crossed out with an oblique line.

A building is defined as a permanent construction above the ground, architecturally and structurally forming a whole unit, being a separated space, isolated from other structures by outer walls, having its own roof and direct access to the street or access from the yard, garden etc.

The following will be considered distinct buildings:

a) Isolated buildings at some distance from other buildings, situated on the same site- plot, as well as buildings connected between them by passageways, service balconies, etc.;
b) Joined structures forming an integral part of a larger complex, situated on neighboring lots but having different construction and architectural concepts (facades and building materials for outer walls), having separate direct street access or entrance or access from the yard, garden, etc., without direct interior connections. When direct interior connections exist, then these buildings will be considered to be only one building.

Joined structures situated on the same lot, having a common construction and architectural concept (the same facades and building materials), regardless of the year the structure was completed, are considered as a single building even when no direct interior connection exists between them, as in the situation of block houses formed by independent structures.

In the case of joined structures already modified or arranged to define them separately, identification will be done by using the architectural and structural criteria, such as the fa├žade and building material of the exterior walls and whether the building has independent access directly from the street, or via the yard, garden, etc.

Chapter III will recorded:

Buildings designed for living, not yet commissioned for the population's use,but due to the degree of the completion of construction could be completely occupied entirely by the population;
Buildings where construction has been completed and the units offered to the public for occupation;
Unfinished buildings intended for living which remain under construction , but which were partially occupied by the population at the census reference point.
Entirely vacant buildings scheduled for demolition whenever demolition has not started yet, as well as other buildings that became vacant because their lodgers moved out and which are not occupied by other persons at the census reference point.
Building designated for other purposes but which contain dwellings.
Buildings designated for collective living units where dwellings exist.
Brick barracks used as living spaces by some households.

Chapter III will not record:

Buildings under construction designed for living accommodations if they are not occupied (including the structures regularly used by the builders as workers' accommodations or as on-site offices).
Buildings designated for living accommodations where demolition has already started.
Buildings having other designation or for collective living units (hostels and hotels) where no dwellings exist.
Permanent marginal living spaces in marginal housing units, such as improvised construction units, housekeeping or other structures isolated from the building housing facilities, or other premises having another designation, such as mobile housing units (see paragraph 23).


Q. 15 Total number of dwellings in the building

40. Record this number only on the form for the first dwelling of the building; on the forms for other dwellings in the building, as well as for the collective living units where there are dwellings, this item will be not recorded and an oblique bar will be used.

It has to be emphasized that permanent and seasonal /secondary units, as well as marginal housing units, will be included in the total number of dwellings in the building.

Housing buildings with multiple entrances contain several census units and Chapter III will be completed only by the enumerator who is registering apartment number 1; enumerators of other sectors created in the same building will not complete Chapter III and Q. 15 - 18 will be crossed out by an oblique line.

For living accommodation buildings under construction but partially occupied by the population, item 15 will register the total number of dwellings, occupied and unoccupied), including the total number of apartments in the building, the total number of dwellings in the building, both permanent and seasonal / secondary, as well as marginal housing units.


Q. 16 Purpose of building use

40. When recording this item the following coding will be taken into consideration:

Code 1: buildings designated for living are those exclusively or mainly used for living;
Code 2: buildings having other designation, where dwellings are found in buildings used largely for purposes other than living (for example: institutions, schools, shops, etc.);
Code 3: when the majority of the building is occupied by collective living units of the hostel type (boarding school, student hostels, workers hostels, children's homes, hospitals, asylums etc.), or of the hotel type (hotels, motels, tourist cabins, hospitals, sanatoriums, maternity houses etc.);
Code 4: when there are multiple dwelling buildings where only some apartments are occupied, as well as an individual building having a single dwelling, where only one room or part of the living spaces are occupied.

Buildings having other designation or buildings having collective living units under construction, where there dwellings are already occupied by residents or boarders, will be recorded with codes 2 or 3, depending on the situation.


Q. 17 Year of construction

42. The year of construction, when the building was put into commission, is defined as the year when the building was completely finished, with all construction and systems completed, all inside fixtures installed, and finishing tasks completed.

For buildings partially put into commission, the year of construction will be defined as the year when the first dwelling was finished, or if it is a single dwelling building, when the first room was ready for habitation.

For buildings where expansions, addition of floors, or renovations were made after the original construction was finished, the year of construction will normally be the year when the building was originally constructed. The year of construction of the latest expansion or addition will be entered whenever these additional spaces are larger than the initial building capacity, determined by the size of the new available floor space.

For buildings where reconstruction has transformed more than 50 % of the initial construction, the year of construction will be considered the year when the house was rebuilt.

When the year of construction is unknown, this will be estimated by taking into consideration the following characteristics: similarity with other buildings from the same census sector, or even other census sectors where the year of construction is known; the presence of construction materials or of a particular construction style characteristic to a certain era, etc.

For all the buildings built before 1900, record 1900 as the year of construction.


Q. 18 Material of the external walls

42. The type of construction materials used for wall construction will be recorded on the based on the statements of the owners, of the administrators or of the building's tenants (or based on the personal examination of the enumerators).

Codes used:

Code 1 - Reinforced concrete, pre-cast concrete panels or steel skeleton framed concrete: for construction executed using sliding forms, as well as for buildings having prefabricated panels with reinforced concrete. Also, buildings constructed with steel skeleton frame (concrete pillars and beams), having exterior walls built from brick masonry, stone masonry, light-weight building slabs, or substitutes will be included in this category.
Codes 2 and 3 - Brick or stone masonry or substitutes: according to the type of materials used to execute the dividing panels between the floors (or between the ground level and the garret, in the case of one floor buildings): reinforced concrete (code 2), or wood (code 3). By "exterior walls executed using brick substitutes," walls made by using perforated bricks (with hollows), ceramic and concrete blocks, light-weight building slabs, etc.; therefore these buildings will also be coded 2 or 3, depending on the kind of material used to make the panel; curved red bricks and metal reinforcement panels have to be bonded to the reinforced concrete panels and will be coded 2.
Code 4 - Wood, logs, poles: when the exterior walls of the building are made from these materials.
Code 5 - Saplings plastered with wet clay, adobe or other materials: include those buildings using saplings plastered with wet clay, adobe, other materials (Wood Pressed Panels, rolled mud bricks, wattle, twigs, reeds, etc.).
For dwellings having the outer walls built using different materials (stone, wood, bricks, adobe, etc.), only the material having the largest proportion will be recorded. When the materials are used in equal proportion, the less resistant will be recorded.


Chapter IV - Data on Persons Registered in Households

44. All persons in the household will be recorded in this chapter, regardless whether they were present in the household or absent at the census reference point - "0" hour on the night of January, 6 to 7, 1992, or whether persons had left the household temporarily or for a longer period to work, to study, or for some other reason. Persons temporarily present in the household at the census reference point will not be recorded in this chapter, but in Chapter V.

Each person recorded in Chapter I will be registered on a separate page of the form in Chapter IV, following the same order of registration as in Chapter I.

Whenever there are more than 5 persons in the household, the recording of the additional people (the 5th, the 6th, etc.) in Chapter IV will be continued on another PL form - the Annex, where the PL form identification data will be repeated (the file number, form number inside the file) and persons will be numbered further 6, 7, 8 etc. in the space on the upper side of the box: "number of persons recorded in the household ?__ ?__?."

It must be emphasized that when the dwelling is not occupied exclusively by only one household, but there are several households in the dwelling, each household will be recorded on a separate PL form. On the PL forms where the number 2 and the number 3 etc. household are recorded, Chapter II - Data on Housing Unit - will not be completed; Chapter III - Data on the Building Where the Dwelling is Located - will also not be completed.

When no members of a household can be found at home during the entire period of enumeration, being absent for work, study or other reasons, Chapter IV will be completed on the basis of the information compiled from building book, from the statement of the chairman of the tenant/owner association, or from neighbors.

When a household is occupying two dwellings situated on different buildings located on the same site, data regarding the whole household will be recorded on the PL form completed for the permanent (main) dwelling, and on the PL form completed for the second dwelling, Chapter I will be cancelled as well as Chapters IV and V.

Persons living in collective housing units (retirement homes, children's boarding houses, etc.), including persons who have settled for a longer period of time (for work, for study or for other reasons) and are living in collective housing units, will not be recorded on the PL form, but on the PC form - Persons From Collective Living Units - Hostel Type.


Household order number

(Located on the upper left side of Chapter IV on the PL form, person 1)

45. The order number of the household will be recorded by inscribing 1 for the first household of the dwelling, 2 for the second, etc. It is underscored that the first household from the dwelling is considered that which owns the dwelling or is the main tenant.


Ownership status

(Located on the upper left side of Chapter IV on the PL form, person 1).

46. Check the code box corresponding to the stated tenure status of the household recorded on the PL form, as follows: code 1 - owner; code 2 - tenant; code 3 - other situations; code 3 will be marked when the dwelling is occupied free of charge, sub-rented or for any other situation.

Last name and first name (including the father's initial letter).

47. The last and first names have to be recorded legibly and clearly, without abbreviation, including the father's initial letter (for example: Vasilescu C. Ion).
For children with an unknown father, the mother's initial will be written. It is noted that for married women or widows the father's initial letter and not the husband's will also be written.


Q. 1 Relationship to the household

The level of relationship of the members of the household to the head of the household.

48. On the page dedicated to person no.1, where the data regarding the head of the household are recorded, an x mark is already pre-typed in code box 01.

A person who has left the household for a long period of time (more than 6 months) to work, study or for other reasons (marked in Q.2 with code 4, 5 or 6, respectively), is generally not considered to be the head of the household . The person registered in Chapter IV as household head is recorded in Chapter I on the first row.

For other persons recorded in the household registered on the next pages of the PL form, the relationship to the reference head of the household will be indicated by marking x on the corresponding code for the stated situation:

husband (wife) - irrespective of their marriage being official or not;

son (daughter) - natural child, foster child, adopted child of the reference person, from the current marriage or a previous one;

son-in-law (daughter-in-law);

grandson (granddaughter) - of the reference person;

father (mother) - natural, stepfather (stepmother), or adoptive father (adoptive mother);

grandfather (grand mother);

brother (sister) - by blood or not;

brother-in-law (sister-in-law);

father-in-law (mother-in-law);

other relative, blood relationship, alliance relationship;

non-related person.

When a person lives alone and is not included in any household, recorded this person as code 01 - the head of the household, because it is considered as forming a one-person household.


Q. 2 Situation at the time of the census

49. For each person record the situation with respective to their legal residence at the census reference point ('0' hour on January 6 to 7, 1992).Each person's enumeration will be conducted, usually, at their legal or usual residence.
The legal residence represents the address registered on the identification card. A person could live for a certain period of time at a address different from the address registered on the identification card. This is the case for persons who are in other localities to study, to work or for other reasons. Generally these persons have inscribed in their identity card the residential visa for a limited duration. Usual residence in the census definition is the address, different from the legal residence, where the enumerated person is residing for at least 6 months (or intends to reside for 6 months) at the census reference point.

The enumerator will record both persons having their legal residence at the address of the enumerated household, as well as persons stating that this address is only their usual residence (even if it is not registered on the identity card).

For each person the situation at the census reference point has to be ascertained and recorded in Question 2 of Chapter IV of the PL form, indicating whether this address is the legal residence or the residence where the person was enumerated according to the above definitions.

At the census reference point, a person could be found in one of the following situations: present, temporarily absent, or gone for a long period of time:

Code 1 - Present. These are the persons who, at "0" hour on the night of January 6 to 7, 1992, were at their legal/usual residence.

The following will be considered as present at the census reference point:

Working persons who are on duty (night shift workers, such as guards, airmen, seamen, railroad personnel, road transporters).
Persons who have left for market shopping, for the mill, to hunt etc.
Persons who have left to another place (locality) but are on their way home by some means of transportation).
Children from nursery schools and weekly kindergarten.
Persons in compulsory military service or in military educational institutions.
Persons who are retained for investigations.
Soldiers.
Persons who are visiting someone living in the same locality.

Code 2 - Temporarily absent - Persons from the household who have gone to another locality within the country, who on the night of January 6 to 7, 1992, were absent for a short period of time (less than 6 months). In this situation are the persons who are gone for:

delegation (for work, duty service);
leave, vacation;
apprenticeship;
visits;
medical reasons (residents of medical facilities - in a hospital, sanatorium or maternity unit - for less than 6 months).

School children and students who, at the census reference point, had left the place where they were studying (to go to their parents' home, for vacation, an excursion, camping etc.) will be recorded temporarily absent in the place where they are studying (being recorded in the school residence, student hostels, boarding house, etc).

Codes 4, 5 and 6 - Absent, gone for an extended period of time (over 6 months) - Persons who, at the reference census point ("0" hour, January 6 to 7, 1992), were gone from the locality for an extended period of time (over 6 months). On the registration form, these persons are divided into three categories depending on the reason for their absence:

Code 4 - at work - includes persons employed at business, institutions, construction sites, or for private persons, regardless of how long they have been absent from their household, as well as persons detached for duty service for more than 6 months.
Code 5 - at school - includes students gone to study in other localities, regardless of how long they have been absent from the household.
Code 6 - other reason - includes persons gone from the locality for more than 6 months, being residents of medical facilities - hospitals, clinics, sanatoriums, old people's homes, schools for the handicapped, orphanages, hospital-hostels, school hostels, those visiting relatives, those detained in prisons, or special re-education schools.


Q. 3 Current residence

50. The actual legal residence of a person is the address written on the identification card by the population evidence authorities. A residence/floating visa will not be considered as a legal residence.

For children below 14 years of age who do not own an identity card, the residence of the child will be considered that of the parents, (or of those who are taking care of them).

For persons having the same address for legal residence as the locality of census enumeration unit, code 9000 will be marked and a horizontal line will be draw in the blank spaces.

For persons having a different legal residence in another place outside the locality of the enumeration census unit, the county name, municipality/town/ or commune registered on the identification card of the enumerated person will be recorded on the locality line and code boxes (filled with 9000 in the earlier example) will remain blank.

For persons having legal residence in Bucharest but enumerated in other localities, write Bucharest in the space indicating the county name, and in the space provided for municipality/town/commune record the district number in Bucharest where the enumerated person has legal residence.

For persons having legal residence in another locality than the one where they are enumerated, indicate whether or not these persons are coming from another household located in another locality (code 1 - yes or code 2 - no).

Persons who lived for an extended period of time must meet the following conditions: they have lived in the enumeration place for a period longer than 6 months (for working, school, etc.); they belong to a household in another locality (marked code 1) and they have legal residence in a place other than the locality where they are enumerated.

For entire households which lived in another locality for an extended period of time, their legal residence being in another locality, mark an x in the yes space (code 1).

The name of the county and of the municipality/town/commune will be written in a legible way, without abbreviations, based on the statements of the enumerated person. For an accurate registration, the enumerator will consult the person's identity card.

The locality coding (municipality/town/commune) will be done by each enumerator after field registration, inscribing the four digit code of locality of the legal residence according to the "Classification List of the Territorial Administrative Units of Romania."


Q. 4 Place of previous residence

51. In the case of all persons who previously had legal residence in another locality, in Q. 4.1 write the county name (of the county of the place where the person had the previous legal residence) and at Q. 4.2, indicate the area type (localities municipalities / towns - code 1; or communes - code 2). For persons who changed legal residence several times, the last previous residence will be recorded. For persons have never changed legal residence during their whole life, this item will be crossed out with a diagonal line.

The recording will be made according to the actual administrative - territorial division.
In the space reserved for county name, the enumerator will enter the county code according to the following list:

County - Code
[List of county names - in Romanian - and codes omitted]

For persons previously having legal residence abroad, on the dotted line for county write "another country", without checking area type at 4.2.

Persons who had previous legal residence at another address in the same place, the same village of the commune or at another subordinate place within the same municipality , will be not considered as having changed their legal residence. Include only persons who have changed legal residence from one municipality/town/commune to another municipality/town/commune.

This item will be crossed out with a line for persons never having another legal residence.


Q. 5 Year of establishment in the legal locality of residence

52. The year of establishment in the legal locality of residence (that legal residence recorded at Q. 3 as it appears on the identification card of the enumerated person), will be recorded in the right-hand boxes only for persons who had different previous legal residence (recorded at Q. 4) than the present place.

The effective year when the persons have established their legal residence in the locality will be recorded as the year of establishment. In this respect only the last two figures of the establishment year will be written in the boxes, the first ones being pre-printed on the form. If the person came to the locality before 1901, the enumerator will record the year 1900.

For persons born in a locality where they have actual legal residence who, in the past, changed legal residence to another place for a while but later returned to their birthplace, consider the year of establishment as the year the person returned to the present legal residence.

For persons who lived permanently since birth in the actual legal residence locality, this box will be not filled.

Also considered to have lived permanently in the locality are persons who, since birth, have been absent from the place for one of the following reasons: persons in compulsory military service; persons serving a sentence; persons who have been inmates of sanitary treatment units; persons on duty outside the country; persons at seasonal work; persons evacuated during war, whether or not they returned to their birthplace. In the same situation are persons who left the locality for an extended period of time for work, school, or for other reasons, because in this case no change of the legal residence occurred, only that of usual residence.


Q. 6 Year of establishment in the actual locality of residence

53. The year of establishment in the actual locality of residence will be recorded for persons who have legal residence in another locality and for whom at Q. 3 (actual legal residence) code 9000 was not written, but rather an entry was made of the name of the county and municipality/town/commune where these persons had their legal residence.

Similar to the instructions for registration of Q. 5, only the last two numbers of the establishment year will be written in the boxes, the first ones being pre-printed on the form in the left part of the box.

As the year of establishment for persons who came for work in the locality, record the year when the person began working in the locality; for pupils/students - the first year of training in the locality; for residents of old peoples' homes - the year of entering in the institution, etc.

For persons who have legal residence in the actual residence locality and for whom at Q. 3 (actual legal residence) 9000 was entered in the code box, the space reserved for completing the year of establishing in the residence locality will be left unrecorded.


Q. 7 Order number of the person

The order number of the person is the number under which certain relatives of the personin the household were recorded in Chapter IV: father, mother, husband/wife.

54. In this chapter, for each person in the household record, in the spaces provided, the numbers corresponding to the order number under which the following relatives of that person were registered in Chapter IV: the mother, the father, the husband or wife. The order number is indicated on the left-side on the top of each page of Chapter IV (person number 1, number 2, etc.).

When the enumerated person does not have a mother/father, or husband/wife recorded on the same form, draw a line in the corresponding spaces.

Thus, for example, in the case of a household composed of a married couple with an unmarried child, for the husband registered as person no. 1 - household head - this item will completed for his wife by entering number 02 in the corresponding box; for the wife registered as person 2 in chapter IV of the form, recorded the husband in the corresponding box by entering the number 01; while for the child, registered in this chapter as person 3, record in the corresponding boxes for father enter the number 01 and for the mother, the number 02, leaving unrecorded the box corresponding to the order number of the child's husband/wife.


Q. 8 Sex

55. The sex of each enumerated person will be recorded according to the following codes: code 1 for male or code 2 for female.


Q. 9 Date of birth

56. For each person the enumerator will record the exact date of birth: the year, month, day, written in Arabic figures using, in all cases, a two-digit Arabic number. For months and days between 1 and 9, first digit of each number will be "0" (01,02...09).

For persons who do not remember the exact year, month and day of their birth, the enumerator will ask other members of the household or check the identification card or birth certificate. When neither of these documents is available (as for aged persons), additional questions will be asked to indirectly find the birth date, or at least the year of birth (using temporal reference points - such as the 1907 hostilities or the participation of Romania in WWI, etc. - and the relative age of the person at the moment of the event).


Q. 10 Place of birth

57. The place of birth represents the locality where the mother of the enumerated person gave birth to the person. Write down the legal residence of the mother at the date when the birth took place and not the actual locality of the birth. Thus, in the case of persons born in maternity unitsor birth houses situated in places other than the mother's legal residence, do not consider the locality of the birth house or maternity unit, etc. to be the place of birth, even if this is mentioned on the birth certificate or on the identification card; instead, record the mother's place of legal residence at the time of the birth.

For persons born in the same place where the census enumeration is recorded, mark code 90, in Q. 10.1- and fill in the spaces designated for the county. The areas for municipality / town / commune (Q. 10.2) will remain empty.

For persons born in a place other than that where they are enumerated, the corresponding spaces of Q 10.1 write the name of the county where the person was born, as well as the county's code (in the open boxes on the right), in conformity with the list of county codes used for recording the previous legal residence (see above mentioned paragraph 51); after that, at item 10.2 record the corresponding area type of the birth place - municipality/town (code 1) or commune (code 2).

Recording of county name will be done according to the actual administrative-territorial division and not that existing when the enumerated person was born.
Persons born in another village of the same commune where they are enumerated, or in another locality/sector of Bucharest or a component of the same municipality / town where they are enumerated will be not considered as born in another place, but in the locality of enumeration (mark an x in the code 90 box).

For persons born in another country or in foreign territories, record in the corresponding space the actual name of the country and in the code box record the corresponding code from the list below. For this case, item 10.2 will not be answered.

Country - Code
Albania - 51
Austria - 52
Belgium - 53
Bulgaria - 54
Czechoslovakia - 55
Denmark - 56
Switzerland - 57
Finland - 58
France - 59
Germany - 60
Hellenic Republic - 61
Italy - 62
Yugoslavia - 63
Norway - 64
Netherlands - 65
Poland - 66
Portugal - 67
United Kingdom of Great Britain - 68
Spain - 69
Sweden - 70
Hungary - 71
Moldavian Republic - 72
Ukraine Republic - 73
Other URSS Republics - 74
Other European countries - 75
Countries from other continents - 76
Undeclared - 99


Q. 11 Marital status of the person

58. For all persons, regardless of sex or age, indicate the stated marital status in the corresponding box, namely:

Code 1: unmarried (single)
Code 2: married
Code 3: widowed
Code 4: divorced

The code of unmarried will be marked only for persons who were never married. Children below 14 years of age are also included in this code, excepting those female persons who are legally married with a special age license, divorced or widowed.

In the case of separated married couples in which the husband and wife have different legal residences, whether living alone or with someone else, register the marital status declared by each of the spouses.


Q. 12 Year of marriage

59. For female persons born before 1977who are in their first marriage, record the year of marriage in the specified box by writing the last two figures of the year of marriage

Do not record the marriage year for remarried females, for those widowed or divorced or for persons born after 1976. The year of marriage will not be recorded for males.


Q. 13 Total number of children born alive

60. For all women born before 1978, regardless their marital status, record the total number of children born alive up to the census reference point, regardless of whether the children are living or are dead at the census enumeration date. The number of children born alive will be written in the corresponding box with two digits; figures from 1 to 9 will have a leading 0 added (for example: 01, 02 ... 09).

The number of children born alive should include all children born alive in the present or prior marriage or outside the mother's marriage, regardless of whether or not they are living in the mother's household.

Not included are fetal deaths; children of the husband from other marriages; adopted children or children placed in the care of alternative families.

This question will be not completed for women who have never had a live born child, for females born after 1977 (regardless of whether or not they had live born children), or for all males.

For women born before 1978 who, due to various reasons, did not state the number of children born alive, or for whom the enumerator could not record the answers because of the person's absence, the enumerator will enter code 99.


Q. 14 Citizenship

61. For all persons stated as having Romanian citizenship, code 10 - Romanian - will be checked.

For persons stating that they have citizenship other than Romanian, the citizenship declared by persons will be recorded in the space provided for other citizenship. For stateless persons, "without citizenship" will be recorded in the space designated for other citizenship in Q. 14.1.

For persons with dual citizenship, record only one of them, namely the one chosen by the person.

For persons for whom citizenship other than Romanian was registered (so code 10 was not marked with an x), next to the country name the enumerator will register the country's name- from the following list:

Country - Code
Albania - 51
Austria - 52
Belgium - 53
Bulgaria - 54
Czechoslovakia - 55
Denmark - 56
Switzerland - 57
Finland - 58
France - 59
Germany - 60
Hellenic Republic - 61
Italy - 62
Yugoslavia - 63
Norway - 64
Netherlands - 65
Poland - 66
Portugal - 67
United Kingdom of Great Britain - 68
Spain - 69
Sweden - 70
Hungary - 71
URSS - 72
Other European countries citizenship - 73
Countries from other continents citizenship - 74
Without citizenship - 80
Undeclared - 99

For children below 14 years of age, citizenship will be declared for them by their parents or supporting persons. For persons who are deaf, dumb, or mentally ill, record the statements of those who are living together with these persons.


Q. 15 Nationality

62. The enumerator has the obligation to assure all conditions, in order that each person should declare freely, without any constraint, the nationality to which they belong.

For children below 14 years of age, the nationality will be that of their parents; if the parents are of different nationalities, record the one declared by the parents for their children. For persons who are deaf, dumb, or mentally ill, record the statements of those who are living together with these persons.

Nationality should not be confused with mother tongue. Coincidence may exist, or not.

For persons declaring they belong to the Romanian nationality, mark an x in the right side box for code 10.

For persons declaring they belong to a nationality other than Romanian, record in the space provided the nationality as it was declared. The registration will be done exactly as it appears on the compilation form CN (see paragraph 102), but, nevertheless, also record the names of ethnic groups as is the case, such as: istroroman (Istroromanian), vlah (Romanian from Yugoslavia), ceangau, gagauz, ungur (Hungarian), neamt (German), hutul (Ukrainian) malorus (Russian), velicorus (Russian), crasovean, izraelit (Jew), toth (Slovak), - and respectively the other ethnics of European countries or other Continents (for example: Albanian, Austrian, Belgian, French, Italian, Spanish, Cuban, Argentinean, Egyptian, Algerian, Syrian, Lebanese, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean etc.), observing strictly the enumerated person's declaration.

The enumerator will not code nationality, this operation being the duty of the chief enumerator.


Q. 16 Mother tongue

63. For each person recorded on the questionnaire, the enumerator will register the mother tongue, according to the person's free declaration. Mother tongue represents the first language, usually spoken in early childhood, in the enumerated person's family.

Mother tongue could or could coincide with the nationality.

For children below 14 years of age, mother tongue will be declared for them by their parents. For persons who are deaf, dumb, or mentally ill, statements of those who are living together with these persons will also be recorded.

Code 10 (Romanian) will be marked for persons who declared Romanian as their mother tongue.

For persons declaring a mother tongue other than Romanian, record the mother tongue as it was freely declared, on the space provided for mother tongue. The enumerator will not codemother tongue.


Q. 17 Religion

64. Religion represents the belief system or their religious/spiritual choice, regardless of whether or not this is expressed by affiliation with a community organized on religious or spiritual grounds.

The enumerator will record religion by a strict observance of the declaration of each enumerated person, assuring all conditions so that the person should be free to declare their choice of religion.

For children below 14 years of age, their religion will that of their parents; if the parents are of different religions, record the one declared by the parents for their children.

For children in an orphanage, when their parents' religion is unknown this item will be recorded according to the statement of the Administration Council of the Orphanage.

Code 10 - Orthodox - will be marked for persons who declare that they are orthodox;

The space provided for other religion will be filled in for persons declaring a religion other than orthodox; also on this space, recorded "undeclared" for persons who don't want to declare their religion; "without religion" for persons who declare themselves as having no religion, faith or belief; or " "atheist" for persons declaring themselves as being so.

Depending on the recorded religion, confession or faith written on the dotted line, the enumerator will enter the code for that religion, according to the following list:

Religion - Code
Romano Catholic - 11
Greek Catholic (Romanian church united with Rome) - 12
Reformed church - 13
Unitarian church - 14
Evangelic of Augustan Confession - 15
Evangelic Lutheran Synod- Presbyterian - 16
Christian of old rite- 17
Baptist - 18
Pentecostal church - 19
Seventh day Adventists - 20
Christian by Gospel - 21
Armenian Church - 22
Moslem - 23
Jewish (Mosaic)- 24
Orthodox Church of old style- 28
Other religions- 25
Atheists - 26
Without religion - 27
Undeclared - 99

65. When the enumerator writes the code corresponding to each religion, it is important to consider the different names given to various religions or faiths used in ordinary conversation in different parts of the country; assign appropriate codes to the corresponding stated religions as follows:

Code 12 - for persons who declared themselves as "unite" (Eastern rite of Roman Catholic Church);
Code 13 for persons who declared themselves as being "Calvinist"(Reformed Calvinist);
Codes 14 or 15 - for persons who declared themselves as being of the religion "evangelicals" or "evangelicals - Lutheran," or "Lutherans," identify whether the religion mentioned by each person is affiliated with "evangelicals of Augustan Confession" or affiliated with "evangelicals synod - Presbyterian";
Code 17 - reserved for the "Christian of old rite" denomination; this code will also be assigned to persons who declared themselves as of the lipovean religion (Russians living in Romania who have their own old rite);
Code 22 - reserved for the "Armenian" religion; this code will also be assigned for persons who declared themselves as being of the "Armenian-Gregorian", or "Armenian-Catholic" religion;
Code 23 - for persons who declared their religion as "Sunnite-Muslim," "Shiite - Muslim", "Mohammedan" or "Islamism";
Code 24 - for persons who declared themselves to be of the "Israelite" or "Judaism" religion;
Code 28 - for persons who declared themselves as "stylists".


Q. 18 Level of education

66. The enumerator will record in item Q. 18.l the person's statements regarding:
name of the school and field of study of the highest level attained at school for persons born before 1981). If a person was born before 1986 and currently attends an educational institution, record also name of the school and the field of study.

67. Highest level of school completed refers to the highest educational level attained at graduation by the enumerated person, regardless of whether or not this is documented by a certificate or graduation diploma from secondary school or university.

The name of the educational institution completed should be recorded as it was at the time of graduation, without reflecting the updated names or mergers with other similar educational institutions existing at the census reference point.

Record the specific case following these examples:

Four classes of Primary School, 7 (8) years Elementary School, 10 years General School;
Industrial Chemistry High School (secondary school), Commercial High School, Medium General School, Industrial Gymnasium, Theoretical High School - first 4 years (first degree), Sanitary Medium Technical School, Pedagogical school, Pedagogical High School;

Metallurgical vocational school, first degree Wine-grower school, Art and craft school, Forest ranger school, Vocational school group for public food industry, Vocational school for economics;

Institute for Construction - civil constructions Faculty, Polytechnic Institute - Automotive Faculty, Academy for Economic Sciences - the Planning Faculty, Veterinary Medical Faculty , Polytechnic Institute, the Faculty for machine building - sub-engineering section, etc.

Also record the field of study of the completed educational institution, particularly for higher education, secondary/high schools, and vocational schools. Thus, do not write "Polytechnic Institute", but rather "Polytechnic Institute - electrotechnical Faculty; " do not write " special High School," but rather "construction High School"; do not write "vocational school," but rather "food industry vocational school".
Whenever the enumerated person has graduated at the same level from two or more educational institutions (for example the Faculty of Law and of Mathematics), record on the form only one institution, namely that selection stated by the enumerated person;

When the enumerated person has graduated abroad, recorded the name and the field of study of this institution, as declared; for example: University of Cracovia - the faculty of history; Moscow Institute for economics and statistics; Sorbonne University of Paris - chemistry faculty;

When a person is currently attending a school or educational institution (day, evening, extra-mural courses, without attendance or long-distance open learning), or has interrupted their courses at an educational institution, record the name and field of study of the last school or educational institution completed and the type of attendance.

For example, for persons currently attending or interrupting the courses in a faculty , record high school or secondary school as the highest level of education completed; for persons who interrupted the second degree of high school (classes XI and XII), record high school - first degree as the highest level of education; for persons who interrupted the first degree of high school, record the person as a graduate of a general 8 year school; and for those who interrupted the gymnasium cycle (classes V-VII or V-VIII), recorded them as graduated from primary school (4 classes).

For persons born before 1981 (10 years old and over), who didn't graduate and are not attending any educational institution, the enumerator will record, on the basis of their personal statement whether "they know to read and write," or "only knowhow to read," or "don't know how to read and write;"
For aged persons who attended only reading and writing courses for illiterates, record "reading and writing courses for illiterates;"
For children born after 1980 and for pre-school children, the space for item 18.1 will be barred by a line.

68. The name and field of study of the educational institution attended by the enumerated person will be recorded in item Q. 18.2 for persons born before 1986 who declare that they are attending courses in a private or public school or educational institutions, regardless of whether these are day, evening or without attendance courses.

The enumerator must write the exact name and field of study of the institution the person is attending (see also the provisions for Q. 18.1).

For example: primary school, first degree of high school, theoretical high school; the high school of Transportation and Telecommunications school group; the University of Bucharest - philology faculty, etc.

For persons not attending or interrupting the courses at an educational institution, as well as for children under pre-school age (born after 1985), the space for item 18.2 will be barred by a line.

Do not record as graduates from an educational institution or as attending an educational institution, any of the following cases:

- apprenticeship courses at the work place, with or without production process interruption;
- specialized courses of short duration for theoretical high school graduates;
- apprenticeship at the work place (exception: apprenticeship at the work place for a period of 1-3 years, associated with a vocational school, for whom will be recorded "apprenticeship at the work place");
- course for updating a specialization;
- post- university and doctoral (PhD) courses;
- popular universities;
- driving schools;
- trade union schools, etc.

The enumerators will not code Q. 18.1 or Q. 18.2.


Q. 19 Economic condition of the person

69. Economic condition of the person refers to the current economic and social situation of the enumerated person and the way of assuring his source of living.

For each person registered in Chapter IV of the form, the enumerator will mark the code box corresponding to the economic situation of the enumerated person: employed, unemployed (seeking another place of work or first-time job-seeker), student, pensioner, homemaker, dependent of a supporter, dependent on public aid, or other situation.

70. When recording the statement of the enumerated persons, the enumerator should keep in mind the following provisions:

Code 1 : The employed are all persons 14 year old and above who, at the census reference point, were in one of the following situations:

a) Persons permanently performing an economic or social activity based on an employment contract (engagement); or who were working independently (on their own account) in order to obtain an income, such as: wage, in kind payment, profit, household income, benefits, etc. For example: persons engaged at the reference point in an economic or social unit, public or private, agricultural production co-operative members, agricultural association members, craftsmen, consumption or credit co-operative members, persons working in their own unit (firm, shop, office etc.) or on their own account, unpaid family workers, etc.
Also considered employed are persons permanently engaged in an economic or social unit, who were temporarily absent from the work place at the census reference point due to the following reasons: absent due to illness or holiday/vacation, (for rest, for studies, without pay, for maternity, etc.), due to economic activity reduction, temporary suspension of work (due to bad weather, mechanical or electrical breakdown, shortage of raw materials, lack of clients), due to strikes, job training scheme etc.;
b) Persons who were not working, but who did work more than 6 months during the year 1991 and who, at the time of the census, were not looking for work (for example: persons with a seasonal agricultural, construction contract or other activities);
c) Persons who were not working but who had economic activity during the year 1991 such as agricultural production, craft or unpaid family work in the household. For example persons such as farmers, craftsmen, clerks, professional households, who were seasonally in an agricultural or productive activity by which the household obtained income or products designated for sale;
d) People who were gone for compulsory conscript service or for updating military knowledge.

The following persons are also considered employed:

Pupils and students who usually had an economic or social activity in order to obtain income, such as employees with a contract or those who work independently;
Pensioners maintained or rehired who, at the census reference point, were engaged in an occupation that brought in income.

71. Code2, 3: The unemployed are those people of working age, 14 years old and above up to the legal retirement age, who at the reference point were in one of the following situations:

Did not work or did not have a contract for employment but previously had a place of work or an activity in the year 1991, and who, for various reasons, lost this place of work and at the census reference point were looking for a place to work, regardless of whether or not they are registered at the labor force office. These persons are classified as code 2 - seeking another place of work. This category also fits women who have interrupted their activity in accordance with the legal provisions regarding the raising and nursing of children;
Did not work but were seeking their first job and until the census reference point had not yet been engaged in an income generating socio-economic activity (such as educational institution graduates), as well as homemakers who never worked but are looking for their first job at the census reference point.

All persons who not registered at labor force offices, whether or not they are receiving unemployment benefits, will be recorded as unemployed - code 2 or 3, according to the statement made.

72. Code 4: A pupil/student is a person who does not have an economic or social activity and attends any regular educational institution, (public or private) for systematic instruction at any level of education aiming to get a profession.

The following are also included in this category:

A pupil/student living only from the successor's pension or school's fellowship;
persons attending a military educational institution belonging to the National Defense Ministry or the Ministry of the Interior.

The following are not included in this category:

Persons 14 years of age and above, attending courses at an educational institution and, at the same time, usually performing an income-generating economic or social activity, either engaged with a contract or working on their own account.

73. Code 4: In the category of pensioner are included persons receiving any kind of pension benefits: old age retirement, disability retirement, survivor's pensioner, agricultural pensioner, military pensioner, veteran pensioner, pensioner of a craftsmen co-operative, survivor's pensioner of the revolution heroes, as well social aid and who, at the reference point, were not in an economic or social activity which brings in income.

The following are not included:

Pensioners who are maintained or rehired, as well as those who work on their own account, obtaining an income which is added to the pension (see paragraph 70 provisions);

Pupils, students in daily courses and pre-school children who are receiving successor's pension or revolution heroes' pension.

74. Code 6: A homemaker is a person 14 years old and above usually engaged in unpaid household duties in their own home or that of relatives (for example: the parent who is taking care of the household of their children and caring for their grandchildren) who does not have their own source of income.

The following are not included:

Homemakers engaged for housekeeping duties working for pay or profit (cash or in- kind, or assurance of a dwelling etc.), pupils and students, and pensioners, even when they are performing household duties. These will be coded 4 or 5, according to the situation.

75. Code 7: In the category supported by another person include: pre-school children, even when they are receiving successor's pension; aged people; handicapped and invalid persons not having any paid income activity and who are not homemakers and are not benefiting from any pension or another income source but are relying on the support of other persons.

76. In Code 8: Supported by the state includes all persons relying on the support of public institutions (retirement homes, hospital hostels, children's homes, etc.), or on co-operative institutions.

The following are not included:

School children from "children's homes" (these will be registered under code 4 -pupil/student);
Persons living in hostels receiving pension benefits(these will be included in code 5 - pensioner);
Pupils and students having a unique income source from a state fellowship (these will be recorded to the code 4).

77. Code 9: Other situations is used for persons who do not have a socio-economic activity and who have, as their main source of livelihood, income from rents, interest, dividends or other incomes.

For each person, a single status will be recorded in Q. 19, according to the above mentioned specifications.

For example, a student, pupil or pensioner who, at the reference point, is also engaged in an on-going economic and social activity and who is considered to be an occupied person, will have an x marked in code box 1.

Similarly, pupils and students who have a scholarship or a successor's pension will be recorded as code 4 (pupil/students) and not as code 8 (supported by the state), nor at code 5 (pensioner).

For persons detained or retained for investigations, record the previous economic condition of the person before the current situation.

78. Q. 20 - 23 from chapter IV of the form will be completed only for persons who at Q. 19 - "Economic status of the enumerated person" - were classified under code 1 - occupied - or code 2 - seeking another place of work. For the latter (code 2) the previous situation will be recorded at Q. 20-23.

For persons who at Q. 19 had been recorded with one of the codes from 3 to 9, Q. 20-23 will be crossed over with a diagonal line.


Q. 20 Occupation

(Profession or activity currently performed at the work place)

79. Occupation refers to the type of gainful socio-economic activity usually performed for pay or income (in cash or in kind), by the person as their main resource for living.
a) The enumerator will record the occupation completely in order to determine the craft, qualification, position (specialization), and the task actually done at the work place.
Thus:

For craftsmen, qualified workers, the services and trade operators, record as their occupation the specific craft performed: power transformer reeler, concrete mason, concrete reinforcement bar iron smith, plaster maker, carpenter, boiler maker, welder, form maker for refractory products, iron and non-ferrous (smelter) foundry worker, hairdresser, telephone operator, barman, waiter, shop salesman, car driver, trailer driver, tramcar driver, mason, oil processing operator. Do not record "worker" as the occupation but rather the specific function performed within the qualified profession (or the craft).

For technical, economic, professional and administrative staff having executive duties, the function of the position will be recorded as the occupation: physicist (expert on physics), economist, meteorologist, biologist, journalist, sociologist, architect, accountant etc.; or the function and qualification of the position: construction engineer, medical dentist, adviser on statistics, economic expert on trade and marketing, foreman in the wood industry, foreman of mechanics and locksmiths etc.

For management personnel of economic and social units (institutions of public administration, autonomous bodies, state or private capital commercial companies, political organizations, professional organizations, employers, trade unions, etc.), record the position as it is performed. For example: minister, ambassador, senator, state secretary, prefect, general director, division chief, service chief, office chief, chief engineering, district chief, workshop chief, etc.). In the same way, record the occupations of managerial staff from internal divisions, having production or social activity, belonging to autonomous bodies, commercial companies, diverse institutions (chief engineer, chief of section etc.). Note that occupations for functional structure division personnel will be recorded with both the position as well as the concrete activity of the division headed by the enumerated person. For example: division chief of personnel, division chief - supply, division chief - finance and accounting, division chief - commercial, division chief - advertising and public relations, bureau chief - administration.

For unskilled workers record the actual type of work done in a job: loader, unloader, manual merchandise stacker, food cart vendor, newspaper vendor, domestic cleaning woman, transport worker, grave digger, doorman, guardian, street sweeper;

For agricultural farm workers and farm members, as well as for farmers working in their own household performing specialized agricultural work, record as their occupation the craft or type of activity performed: field crop farmer, vegetable gardener, orchard man, viticulturist, flower gardener, apiarist, shepherd, greens caretaker. For persons active in both plant growing and animal breeding, record the occupation as "farmer." Agricultural workers hired by private farmers will be recorded as "farmer hired by private persons," regardless of the specific activity performed. For persons performing seasonal agricultural work, register "seasonal agricultural worker."

For military conscript record the occupation as "military."

b) Examples of correct and incorrect registration of occupations:

Incorrect: Electrician
Correct: Electrical line-testing electrician, Maintenance electrician, Motor-vehicle electrician

Incorrect: Engraver
Correct: Glass engraver, Photographic engraver

Incorrect: Seller
Correct: Shop seller, Kiosk seller, Food products street seller

Incorrect: Operator
Correct: Oil operator, Chemical operator, Electrical installations operator

Incorrect: Teaching professionals
Correct: College teaching professional, High school teaching professional, Gymnasium teaching professional, Teaching professional for persons with special needs

Incorrect: Engineer
Correct: Mining engineer, Civil engineer, Mechanical engineer

Incorrect: Physician
Correct: Surgeon, Dentist, Veterinarian

Incorrect: Counselor
Correct: Physics counselor, Chemistry counselor, Civil engineering counselor, Architecture counselor, Biology counselor, Juridical counselor

Incorrect: Inspector
Correct: Biology inspector, Pharmacy inspector, Economics inspector, Teaching inspector, Social protection inspector, Work quality inspector, Border inspector

Incorrect: Referent
Correct: Referent sociologist, Referent philologist, Referent economist, Referent statistician, Teaching referent, Social work referent

Incorrect: Researcher
Correct: Chemical researcher, Metallurgy engineer researcher, Food industry researcher

Incorrect: Assistant
Correct: Medical assistant, Pharmacy assistant, Mechanical technician assistant

Incorrect: Officer
Correct: Ship's officer, Aircraft officer etc.

c) Whenever a person is active in several socio-economic fields and obtaining income in them, the occupation recorded will be the main activity performed most frequently at the reference point or the one which brings more income as declared by the person.

For workers, clerks, craftsmen and private traders or associates, etc. who have their own private farms where they work in their free time, the occupation recorded will be the main occupation and not the agricultural one;

d) Persons temporarily absent from their job (for example those participating in approved qualification and specialization courses during work time, those vacationing) will be recorded with the occupation they had prior to the absence.

If the person enumerated is looking for another work place, record the occupation held at the last job.

For persons detained or retained for investigations and who at Q. 19 were cataloged under code 1 or 2, the occupation they had before the current situation will be registered.

Occupation coding will not be done by the enumerator.


Q. 21 Professional status

80. Professional status describes the position of a person related to the way of obtaining income for employment at the work place.

This characteristic will be recorded for all persons registered as having an occupation at Q. 20. Persons looking for another work place (code 2, Q. 19), those temporarily absent from work, as well as those detained or retained for questioning, will be recorded with their previous employment status.

The reporting codes are:

Code 1:Employer, private enterprise owner - for persons working in their own enterprise (commercial company, agency, shop, office, firm etc.) with one or more employees.

Code 2: Own account worker : for persons working in their own enterprise (commercial company, agency, shop, office, firm etc.) or independently, not having any engaged employees, with the exception of possible assistance by un -paid members of the household or relatives. Included here are farmers in their own households, tutors, craftsmen, independent professionals (medical doctors in their own clinic, lawyers, musicians, artists, independent accountants, translators), traders, and independent providers of service laborer (taxi drivers, independent carriers etc.).

Code 3: Employee - engaged - for persons performing an activity in a socio-economic enterprise (regardless of the ownership form) in which the job is based on a contract of work for pay in cash or in kind, or commissions, etc.
Also included here as employees are:
Conscripts on compulsory military service;
Persons permanently engaged by private individuals for housekeeping work (child care or senior care, for domestic work, etc.).

Code 4: Member of a cooperative association - for persons who are active members of an agricultural association or craft , consumption or credit cooperative.

Code 5: Unpaid family worker - for persons who perform an income generating activity in a family economic unit run by a household member, for which the person does not receive remuneration, such as wages, payment in kind, as an employee performing the same activity would receive, and who is a member of the household.

Code 6: Other situation - for persons who can't be classified in the above mentioned categories (codes from 1 to 5).


Q. 22 Work place

81. The enumerator will record the work place based on the declaration of the enumerated person regarding:

The full name of the unit (company, autonomous body, institution, organization), of the sub-unit (section, workshop, factory, store) where the person is working;

The main activity of the unit/sub-unit where the person is working;

This characteristic will be recorded for all persons registered as "employed" and "looking for another job" at Q. 19 (code 1 and 2). Persons looking for another job and those temporarily absent from work will be recorded with the previous place of work.

82. The unit and sub-unit name where the person currently performs the job will be recorded clearly without abbreviations.

Record the specific socio-economic unit where the enumerated person is working, such as an autonomous body, a commercial society, an enterprise, an institution (financial, administrative, educational, etc), a cooperative (of production, of consumption, or of credit), a store, an organization, association, etc.

For example:

Autonomous Body for Transportation from Bucharest, Cooperative for consumption from Novaci, Commercial Company for Agricultural Mechanization from Blaj, Commercial Society for Electromotor trade from Timisoara, National Romanian Bank, The craftsmen Cooperative the Metal, Bees Breeding Association, The Post and Telecommunication School Group, The Caritas Clinic Hospital.

If from the specific socio-economic activity of the unit is not obvious from the name, then after the registered name the enumerator is required to write the kind of the main activity of the unit.
For example:

The Company Vulcan SA - for production of boilers and energy equipment; Commercial Company Remat SA from Gorj - recycling of re-usable materials; Commercial Society Delicia Com Limited - retail trade; Commercial Society Elast Limited - for import/export activity.

When the enumerated person works in a sub-unit having a distinct activity within the socio-economic unit which performs activities necessary for other units (such as the plant, factory, section, computer station, transportation division, oil derrick, exploitation, cafeteria, presentation and selling shop, kindergarten, hostel, etc.), the enumerator will record the name of the sub-unit after the name of the unit.

For example:

Commercial Company Sidex - the coke chemical plant;
Commercial Company Aversa SA - for pumps production - "the cafeteria;"
Commercial Company "Rul" for ball-bearings production - "the Computer station;"
The Share Holders Company - Garments Resita - "The kindergarten".

When the socio-economic unit has a geographic sub-units, record both the name of the unit and the name of locality followed by the name of the sub-unit and the name of locality where enumerated person is working.

For example:

Distrigaz Northern Tirgu Mures - the natural gas distribution branch in Arad.

Note that:

for managerial staff and for those who work in functional, administrative departments of autonomous bodies, commercial companies or other units, which have sub-units in their authority, only record the unit name;

for cooperative members who work in an agricultural co-operative, in industrial, construction, or kindergarten activities, also record the section name;

for persons who work at home on contract for public or private economic or co-operative units, manufacturing objects or performing various operations, recorded the unit (sub-unit) for which they work as the work place;

for farmers in their own households, record - "own agricultural household" for place of work; for private craftsmen - "own workshop", for private lawyers - "own office," etc.;

for persons working on their own account (carpenters, laundresses, chimney sweepers, taxi drivers, tutors etc.), record - "own account worker;"

persons hired for building maintenance (service personnel, doormen, etc.), record "locative association" as the place of work;

for persons hired as private, domestic staff (for child or senior care, domestic personnel, etc.), record "domestic personnel;"

for persons on compulsory military service, recorded "public administration;"

for persons detained or retained for investigation who, at Q. 19 were registered as having the economic status of "occupied" (code 1) or "looking for another job" (code 2), record the last work place this person had.

83. The main (current) activity of the unit/sub-unit where the enumerated person is working: the enumerator will record the main activity of the place of work as follows:

Main activity of the unit - if the enumerated person is performing his occupation in an socio-economic unit without sub-units, or is performing a management, functional or administrative activity.

Main activity of the sub-unit - whenever the person states that he working in a separately organized sub-unit, whose name is recorded on the form.

Note that the main unit/sub-unit activity is recorded and not the specific activity of the enumerated person.

For example:

- for a person who works checking personnel in and off the clock for the Aversa Company - turnery shop, record the activity of the work place as "metal turnery goods" (indicating the activity of the unit) and not "checking personnel on the clock" (the person' s activity);
- for a person who works as a driver at Romania National Bank or at theAnda Shop, record "banking activity" and "trade," respectively, and not "transport."

In the case of socio-economic social units with complex activities, which have secondary activities performed in sub-units in addition to the main activity, recorded the sub-unit activity where the enumerated persons works and not the activity of the main unit.

For persons who work in auxiliary services of the unit (accounting, marketing, consultancy, products wrapping etc.), record the main activity of that unit and not the activities performed in the separate sections.

The same procedure will be followed for supply and auto-transportation activities, equipment repairs, research and development, design, and informatics when these activities are not performed in separate, specially organized sections.

For persons who work in sub-units such as a nursery, kindergarten, shop, club, hostel for non -family people, recorded the activity performed by the sub-unit.

The following activities are considered separate activities and will be recorded as follows:

Research, design, informatics - performed in sections, workshops, offices or separate compartments

Equipment repairs performed in separate sections (factories)

Construction equipment-assembly performed in special sub-units (work sites)

Production of wrapping needed for selling the main products of the unit, produced by specialized sub-units - indicate the kind of material used for wrapping (wood, metal, glass, etc.).

For individual farmers in their own households, craftsmen, salesmen, private physicians etc., record here the specific activity of the work place: animal breeding, pottery, trade, health etc.

The enumerator will not code the boxes for this item.


Q. 23 Sector where the work place is registered

84. Referencing the economic unit recorded as the place of work, this item should be registered as follows:

Code 1: Public - of the state - for persons having a place of work in units like autonomous bodies, commercial societies and other full state capital economic units, as well as budgetary institutions belonging to the public central administration (ministries, departments, etc.) and local administration (prefectures, city halls, etc.). In this code also record private households (individual farm or personal households), as well as persons working on their own account (private craftsmen, independent professionals), or those working for natural persons as domestic personnel. Also include the economic family unit for those enumerated persons who are unpaid family workers.

Code 2: Private - individual - for persons who stated their place of work was an enterprise, workshop, store, etc., owned by only one natural person and where the enumerated person performed his activity as employer or employee;

Code 3: private - associative - for persons who stated their place of work was a unit under the ownership of associated natural or legal persons (full private capital): commercial companies, other patrimonial associations (lawyers office, medical doctors, agricultural enterprise, etc.), and cooperative societies;
Commercial companies with full public capital are not included in code 3, but in code 1.

Code 4: mixed structure - for persons who declared their place of work was a mixed capital commercial company (state and private capital);

Code 5: cooperative - for persons who declared their work place was a commercial co-operative company (craft), consumption or credit, or agricultural production co-operative;

Code 6: other sectors - include here persons who declared their place of work was a units such as a political organization, trade union, employers union, professional union, apolitical organization, a specific union (The Writers Union, the Composers Union, etc.), a non-patrimonial association, foundation, an economic unit subordinated to a political or public organization, organized or not in a commercial company. In this category also include the personnel of religious affiliation units (patriarchy, episcopacy, convent, church, etc.)