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Instructions for filling in the questionnaires for population and housing census, Romania 1977

[pp. 1-6 not presented here]

[p. 7]

Chapter I

General methodology and organization

According to the Decree of Romanian State Council no. 145/1976, during the period of January 5-12 in 1977, the Population and Housing Census will be carried out through the whole country. The aim of the population and housing census is to obtain statistical data regarding the size of the population, its demographic and socio-cultural, economic and employment structure, as well as, data concerning the housing units stock and the population living conditions. The data obtained will allow a deeper knowledge about the human resources, about the labor force available for our society, the territorial distribution of the population and of the labor force by main branches of national economy and industry, as well as the major changes that have occurred with respect to the structure and territorial distribution.

The objectives of the census

1. The population census will cover all Romanian citizens legally residing in the country, Romanian citizens who are temporarily abroad at the moment of the census, as well as persons, foreign citizens or those without citizenship, who have legal residence in Romania.

The following persons will not be enumerated in the population census:

a) foreign citizens or those without citizenship who are temporarily in Romanian territory at the time of the census;
b) foreigners working at the diplomatic embassies, the consulates and economic representatives;
c) foreign staff representatives of the UN;
d) foreign press staff;
e) foreign representatives of air, sea and river transport companies and foreign tourist agencies;
f) foreign representatives of cultural centers (libraries etc.).

2. The housing (dwelling) census--which will be carried out simultaneously with the census of the population--will comprise buildings designed for living, buildings with other purposes in which there are dwellings, buildings with collective living quarters and the dwellings within these, as well as unconventional housing units located in any kind of building.

[p. 8]

Thus, the following dwellings will be enumerated:

a) buildings designed for living;
b) other buildings not designed for habitation, where one or more dwellings exist at the time of census;
c) collective living units (boarding schools, hostels for students, dormitories for workers, hostels for unmarried people, orphanages, old people's homes, hotels, hospitals, sanatoriums, tourist cabins, etc.);
d) buildings under constructions, partially occupied by individuals;
e) occupied or unoccupied dwellings, regardless of the buildings in which they are situated (buildings for housing units, collective living units, hotel type or hostel type buildings, or buildings that exist for other purposes);
f) marginal unit spaces situated in provisional buildings (barracks, huts) or in household facilities, but separated from the building (kitchens, warehouses, garages), spaces having other designations within the building (drying rooms, laundries, cellars, garrets), or some mobile units (train wagon, trailers, barges) permanently inhabited by persons which form distinct households.

The following dwellings will not be enumerated: the buildings intended solely for other purposes if there are no dwellings or collective living housing units inside these buildings. These include administrative, industrial, commercial, buildings for agriculture and livestock, social and cultural, storage spaces for warehouses as well as military camps, prisons or other premises guarded by the Ministry of The National Defense and Ministry of Interior, even if they are inhabited at the moment of the census.

The enumeration period and the reference point of time for the census.

3. The population and housing census will be conducted within the entire country's territory--communes, towns and municipalities--during the period of January 5-12, 1977, according to where individuals were at midnight the night of January 4 to 5, 1977. This is considered the "reference point of time" for the census. Enumeration, according to where the individuals were during the reference point of time, presumes that all the data recorded on the census forms will refer to the situation at midnight of January 4 to 5, 1977, even though the period for completing the forms is 8 days (up to January 12, 1977).

Between the reference point of time and the day of enumeration some changes may happen due to births, deaths, marriages, home/residence changes, etc. with respect to the number of individuals and the family situation of the persons of the household. A baby born on the night of January 4 to 5, 1977, before midnight, will be recorded on the census forms, while a baby born after midnight on the night of January 4 to 5, 1977, will be not recorded, even though he had been born by the time the forms were completed. If a person died after midnight on the night of January 4 to 5, 1977, this person will be recorded in the census form because he or she was alive at the reference point of time. But if the person died before midnight the night of January 4 to 5, 1977, he or she will be not enumerated.

In addition, between the reference point of time and the moment of enumeration, changes may happen regarding the situation of the dwelling because some buildings were built, put into commission, or demolished. So, if a housing unit that was put into commission by one or more dwellings after the reference point of time, these dwellings will be not considered occupied at the reference census moment, even though at the moment of enumeration these dwellings were occupied effectively.

[p. 9]

Enumeration method.

4. The recording of information on the forms regarding the enumerated persons will be done at the legal residence of the persons by the enumerator and will be based on each person's declaration that they are able to answer to questions.

Information concerning (minor) underage children and adult persons who are physically and mentally sick (unable to answer correctly) will be recorded based on declarations from another member of the household who know these persons and their information well. The same is applied for persons who are absent from the locality during the enumeration period of the census.

If a person is temporarily absent from his/her legal residence, the enumerator has the obligation to record the first and last name of this person in the questionnaire, following that the other data to be recorded during a next visit when the person is home. For persons who are difficult to find home because they are working on shifts, the enumerator will leave a message at the home/residence indicating the day and the hour when the person is asked to stay home to be enumerated.

Persons absent from the household during the entire period of enumeration will be enumerated at their legal residence according to the following:

  • on the basis of the information given by the other adult persons in the household, on the last day of the census (in the case that no adults of the household are present), or
  • on the basis of the declaration of other persons (neighbors or the president/empowered of the tenants), or
  • on the information that the person is asked to stay home to be registered on the next visit occasion derived from the official local documents (the building's books).

5. The enumeration of the characteristics of the dwellings and buildings will be conducted by the enumerators based on the owners, principal tenants or others members of the household statement. The surface of the floor space of the rooms and other dependencies of the dwellings will be enumerated by the enumerator based on the enumeration in LM questionnaire after checking these data made during November-December 15, 1976, by representatives of city halls. If this questionnaire did not exist due to the fact that the dwelling was built after December 15 or by omission, the enumerator shall record in the census questionnaire the number of rooms and surface of the floor space of rooms and other areas of the dwellings, according to the legal papers held by the owner or main tenant. If these papers do not exist, the recording will be made from direct measurement.

[pp. 10-11 not presented here.]

[p. 12]

Preliminary visit of the buildings and dwellings

9. During the period of January 3- 4, 1977, the enumerator has to visit each building and dwelling where somebody is living, or somebody may live, as well as all unoccupied buildings or ongoing construction in the area of his or her census sector.

In this respect, the enumerator is going to identify in the field the limits of his census sector according to chapter I of the list, from the interior side of the cover of the file "The component of the census sector." Particular attention should be extended to the following buildings in so that they are not omitted from the component of the census sector's enumerator: buildings situated on a street corner, buildings having entrances on two different streets, dwellings situated in an isolated area from the locality (small villages, group of houses, railroad cabins of the Romanian Railroads supervisor, ranger's cabins etc.), and apartment buildings formed by multiple block-houses where two or more census sectors were established. After checking the census sector, the enumerator will communicate through the chief enumerator to the municipality, town or communal census commissions the cases of omissions and other noted deficiencies.

[pg. 13]

10. The enumerator will visit all the institutions and firms that exist in his sector and will verify if someone is living permanently or temporarily in those buildings. He will establish the hour when the persons living there could be enumerated with the administration of those units.

The units (with guarded precincts) of National Defense Ministry, Ministry of the Interior and the buildings detained by the foreign states, as well as the buildings from Economic Office "Carpati", situated on the limits of the census sector's units should be visited and enumerated by the staff designated by the mentioned ministries and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, according to the Foreign Affairs Ministry.

11. On the occasion of the preliminary visit, the enumerator recommends to the persons from the households who should be enumerated, that they have to think before answering to the questions, and when it is the case to learn previously from the documents, in order to give most clear and correct answers (occupation, profession, working place, graduated school, the year of establishing in locality, year of building construction etc.). In this respect, the enumerator will recommend to the persons, income earners, to inform them correctly about the full name of the unit in which the person works, about the main activity of the work place, as well as what social-economic sector belongs the working place (state, handcraft cooperatives etc.) and also about the name of occupation and the specialty.

In the cases where the persons have the intention to leave the household for various reasons and go to other localities, being absent during the whole period of the census, the enumerator will advise that, before leaving, they have to inform the other members of the households of the exact address where they will be going (county, municipality, town, commune, village, street and number), as well as other personal data in order to ensure the correct enumeration in the census forms.

For completing the data referring at persons who came for a short period of time, the enumerator will give the F1 form "Check list for temporarily present person," which will be completed and given back to the enumerator during the period January, 5-12 1977, with the occasion of completing the basic enumeration form.

12. During the preliminary visit, the enumerator will complete the B form - "the File's general List of the enumerator" with some data regarding the existing dwellings from the census sector. For completing this form, the following specification should be given:

Every dwelling existing in the census sector, as well as each collective living unit (hostel, boarding house, hotel, etc.) and marginal living units will be enumerated on each row separately.

The dwellings are enumerated on the general list according to the location order of the buildings, as follows: on the first row - homes having even numbers and then homes having uneven numbers of homes, where there is the case.

For markets and alleys, where the buildings are numerated continuously, their enumeration on the general list will be done following the corresponding order.

Whether the census sector is formed by one ore more streets or by partial streets, first the name of the street will be written, then, on separate rows, the dwellings.

When the census sector comprises two or more villages (or component localities), they will be completed for each village, separately, on a general list (or component locality), within the file.

[p. 14]

On the A column the house's number (or of the plot's) where the dwelling is situated, or the marginal living unit or the collective living units are situated will be enumerated. If in the same plot or yard there are many buildings with dwellings the order letter will be enumerated too (A, B. C etc.)

On the B column the dwelling's, apartment's number, if the building has two or more dwellings, will be enumerated; when only one dwelling exists in the building, a line will be drawn on this column.

On the C column, the name and the first name of the owner or of the main tenant of the dwelling will be enumerated. When on this row a collective living unit (hostel, boarding house, hotel, hospital etc.) is enumerated, then on this column the name of this unit will be written.

In columns 1 and 2 the number of the households and the number of the persons of the household from that dwelling, who have to be recorded, including the persons who left for a longer period, irrespective of the fact that they form or not a distinct household will be enumerated.

Column 2 includes, also, the persons who arrived in the place for a longer period of time (for working, for studies, etc.) who are staying in the house as a boarder, sub-tenant, engaged as homemaker for domestic activities or childcare.

For the collective living units, column 1 will be barred and in column 2 will be written the number of persons living in these units at preliminary visit date. Consequently, the spaces (beds) number existing in those units will not be enumerated.

Columns 3 - 6 will be completed provisionally by pencil, gradually, when the data are enumerated on the census enumeration forms, and the enumeration date will be recorded in column 7.

In column 8 -- Special mentions the enumerator takes note regarding the households, where there are persons temporarily present (for which he left to be completed with the F 1 form); households where the persons hardly could be found home -- by indicating the day and the hour when these persons may be enumerated; the marginal living units located in provisional constructions (barracks, etc.), house facilities or in spaces having a designation other than in the dwelling (kitchen, garage, warehouse, etc) or permanent living mobile units (wagon, trailer, barge, etc).

In the case of buildings or dwellings unoccupied like vacation houses of private ownership, as well as in the case of dwellings from which all the persons are gone in another locality for a longer period of time (for work or study) write "unoccupied," "vacation houses private ownership," or "gone for a longer period of time" in this column.

13. On January 4, 1977, in the afternoon, the enumerator will verify together with the chief enumerator whether the data regarding the buildings, dwellings and the households recorded on the B form -- the General List of the enumerator - correspond to the data from the C. 1 form -- the building's List - with the number of the dwellings and persons received by the chief enumerator from the census commission of the municipality, town or commune.

The omissions from the B form found during this check will be corrected by introducing the corresponding data, mentioned by the enumerators, after the field findings.

14. For buildings located outside the constructive area of the locality that appears in the C1 form, column 6 with the inscription "no," the enumerator will write into the B form, column 8, the same notation "no."

Chapter II

[pp. 15-16 not presented here]

[p. 17]

A. The enumeration forms.

17. The dwellings (including the marginal housing units) and the persons who are occupying these units will be recorded on the LP form, regardless whether these dwellings are situated in the housing units, in the buildings not designated for habitation or in collective living units.

The UC form is designated for the enumeration of the collective living units hostel type and the persons living there. The UH form is designated for the enumeration of the collective living units, hotel type and of the persons temporarily present in these units at the time of the census.

18. On each form, it is compulsory to complete the identification data (the complete address -- the county, the municipality/town, the commune, the sub-urban commune, the village, the number and the alphabetical order of the letter of the building, the stairs--entrance--and the apartment).

The names of the territorial administrative units will be written without abbreviations, as it is established in the existing country's territory divisions according to the legal documents in force at the time of the census (the Annex to the Law no. 2/1968 with the modifications brought by the Law no. 55/1968). These names will be copied from the census file's label. For the communes (sub-urban communes), it is necessary to indicate, in all the cases, the name of the village as well. For the municipalities and towns, the component locality (village is required if it is provided in the territorial administrative division. The alphabetical order letter of the building will be recorded only when there are two or more buildings in the same (yard) plot area.

[p. 18]

On "The file's number" box, printed on the upper left side of the form, the number from the census' file cover should be written.

The LP form -- Buildings, dwelling, persons.

The form has 4 chapters:
Data regarding the building (Chapter I)
Data regarding the dwelling (Chapter II)
The list of persons from the households (Chapter III)
Temporarily present persons in the dwelling (Chapter IV)

Chapter I -- Characteristic data of building

Where the dwelling is located

19. This chapter will be filled out for all buildings intended for human habitation, buildings intended for other designation, or collective living units where the dwelling units exist, regardless of whether they are occupied or not at the time of the census.

A building is defined as a permanent construction above the ground, forming a whole unit from an architectural and constructive point of view, being an isolated (detached) or separate space from the other constructions by outer walls, having its own roof and a direct street access or access from the yard, garden etc.

The following will be considered distinct buildings:

a) isolated buildings that are at some distance from other buildings, situated at the same site-plot (yard), and the buildings connected between them by passageways, service balconies, etc.;

b) joined (united) constructions forming an integral part of the construction or those situated on neighboring sites but having a different constructive system and architectural concept (facades, and building materials for outer walls), separate direct street access (entrance) or an entrance from the yard, garden, etc., and without direct interior connections. If direct interior connections exist, then these buildings will be considered only one building.

The joined constructions situated at the same site-plot (yard) having a common constructive system and architectural concept (facades and the same building materials), irrespective of the year when the construction was completed, even if there does not exist direct interior connections (as the situation of the blockhouses formed by independent structures) between them are considered as a single building.

In the case of joined constructions, already modified or arranged, in order to define them separately, identification will be done by using the architectural and constructive criteria, like the fa├žade and building material of the exterior walls and whether the building has independent access (direct from the street, or via the yard, garden, etc.).

[p. 19]

The Chapter I will be filled for:

a) buildings designated for living, not yet commissioned for the population's use, but due to the degree of the completion could be occupied entirely by the population;
b) buildings where the construction was completed and offered for living to the population;
c) unfinished buildings for living, under construction (on-going projects), whether partially occupied or not by the population at the time of the census;
d) entirely evacuated buildings for demolition purposes if demolition did not started yet, as well as the vacant buildings because lodgers moved out, and they are not occupied by some other persons at the time of the census.

Chapter I will be not recorded for:

a) buildings for living or those under construction if they are not occupied (including the on going constructions used by the constructors as workers' accommodation or as working site offices);
b) buildings for living where demolition has already started;
c) buildings for collective living (hostels and hotels type) where no dwellings exist;
d) permanent marginal living spaces that are improvised, housekeeping constructions or isolated from the building or other premises having another designation, such as mobile housing units.

Brick barracks, used as dwellings by some households, will be considered as buildings and will be enumerated in Chapter I.

20. If in one building there are two or more dwellings Chapter I will be completed only on the LP form of the first dwellings. For items 1-6 from Chapter I, a line will be drawn in all the forms completed for the others dwellings from the building.

The LP form of the first dwelling in the building, the number of the form will be written in the reserved box, which will be repeated in the forms filled out for the other dwellings (marked with x at code 2 or 3, item 7, Chapter II) from the building.

The total number of dwellings from the building (marked with x at code 2 or 3, item 7, Chapter II) will be written in the first row of the box situated at right side of the Chapter's II title only on the first dwelling's form. For the other dwellings located in the same building, a line will be drawn. The boxes regarding "The number of the LP form of first dwelling in the building " and "The total number of dwellings in the building", as well as Chapter I from the LP forms filled out for the marginal housing units will not be considered.

For flats with more than one stair in which there two or more census sectors were formed, Chapter I will be filled out only by the enumerator which will record the flat with number one. The enumerators from the other sectors of the building will draw a line at items 1-6 and will complete the box below the PL form title referring to "File number as the first dwelling from the building."

21. The building is located in the perimeter of construction or outside (item 1)

This item will be filled in using the annotations from the B form, column 8, in which, for the buildings located outside the constructive perimeter of the locality "no" was written.

[p. 20]

22. Actual designation of the building (item 2)

The following will be taken in consideration for this item:

a) buildings designated for living are those always used for living or are used for living a large part of the year;
b) buildings where dwellings exist but have another designation are those buildings used largely for purposes other than living (for example: institutions, schools, shops etc.);
c) buildings occupied by collective living units are those where a large part is occupied by hostel or hotels (see paragraphs 77 and 88 from the present handbook);
d) buildings where multiple dwelling buildings exist and only some apartments are occupied, as well as the individual building having a single dwelling where only one room or part of the living rooms are occupied.

23. Year of construction (item 3).

The year when the building was put into commission is considered the year of construction. This is the year when the building's work was completed (when all the inside equipment was fixed and finishing works completed).

For buildings partially put into commission, the year of construction will be considered the year when the first dwelling was finished or if it was a single dwelling building, when the first room was ready for habitation.

For the buildings where extension attachments have been undertaken or new floors were added after the construction was finished, the year of construction may be the year when the building was originally constructed. If these additional spaces are larger than the initial building capacity (expressed by the size of the newly created surface), the year of construction will be considered the year of last additional construction (or the year an additional extra floor was constructed).

When the year of construction is unknown, this will be assessed by taking into consideration the following: similarity with other buildings from the same census sector or even other census sectors where the year of construction is known, or the existence of construction materials or of a certain particular construction style that is characteristic to a certain years or period, etc.

24. The materials used for the outer walls of construction (item 4)

The type of construction materials used for the construction of the walls will be recorded based on the statements of the building's occupants (or based on the personal observation of the enumerators).

[p. 21]

a) For the constructions executed by using sliding forms, as well as for the buildings having prefabricated panels with reinforced concrete, mark x on the code box 1 (reinforced concrete). In addition, for the buildings constructed with a steel skeleton frame having the exterior walls made from bricks masonry or substitutes, code 1 will be also recorded;
b) For exterior walls made using bricks substitutes, the walls are assumed to be made using: perforated bricks (with hollows), ceramics and concrete blocks or light-weight building slabs; the curved red bricks and metal reinforcement panels have to be assimilated to the reinforced concrete panels and will be coded with code 2;
d) For the dwellings with outer walls made from different materials (stones, wood, bricks, adobe, etc.), only the material using the biggest proportion will be recorded.
e) If the materials have equal proportion, the less resistant will be recorded.

25. Elevator (item 5)

The building is considered to have an elevator if the buildings have a complete installation (motor and cabin), regardless of the fact that the elevator is or is not functional at the time of the census. If the installation was completely or partially removed (for example only the motor), the building is considered as not having an elevator. Only the elevators for persons in the buildings that are designed for living or in those with other designation or with collective living units (if there are dwellings) will be recorded on the form.

26. Garage (item 6)

The number and capacity of the number of motor vehicles garages belonging to the residential building (the mark x at code 1, item2) will be recorded.

A garage is understood to be the designed room for storing cars even if at the moment of the census it is used for this or other purposes (storage space etc.).

Garages located in the residential building as well as ones in the yard will be recorded.

The spaces used for storing motor-vehicles, if they are located in warehouses, lumber rooms, built from light materials (wood etc.), are collapsible, or are rearranged and used for living, etc. will not be recorded.

For establishing the capacity of the garage for storing motor vehicles, there must have a surface of around 12 sq. m. in the garage for each motor vehicle.

Chapter II - Data regarding the dwelling

27. This chapter will be completed for each dwelling situated in a building containing housing units for habitation, in a building having another designation and in a building with collective living units.

The dwelling (apartment) is a built-in unit comprising of a room or a suite of rooms for habitation that is situated on the same floor or different floors. It is provided, generally, with accessories (kitchen, bathroom, etc.), or other independent utilities designated for use, has a separate entrance for the staircase from the yard or the street, which were built up, transformed or adapted to be used by a single household.

[p. 22]

Some dwellings may have two entrances, one main entrance and another as a service entrance. The dwelling represents a distinct unit, from the functional point of view, being independent from the other dwellings or spaces, regardless of whether it is occupied by one or more households.

A dwelling will be considered:

a) an apartment--formed by one or more rooms for habitation with the corresponding accessories, and forming one entire unit from the construction and functional point of view;
b) a dwelling situated on an individual house unit--is designated by its construction to be occupied generally, by a single household;
c) a dwelling with isolated facilities--formed by one or more rooms for living, having a separate entrance, but isolated facilities (in the yard, basement, attic, etc.) and with no direct connection with the living rooms;
d) a dwelling with no facilities--formed by one or more rooms for living, having separate entrances, and generally occupied by a single household;

When the dwellings are identified, it is necessary to take into account the following particular situations:

a) if an apartment was divided by dividing walls into two completely independent dwellings, each of it having separate entrance and own facilities (kitchen, bathroom, etc.) after it was originally built, each will be considered as a separate dwelling;
b) a divided apartment by improvision (by glass partition, by blocking a door, etc.) will be considered a single dwelling;
c) if around a hall, there are several rooms occupied by different households, having collective facilities, the whole unit will be considered an apartment;
d) a duplex system apartment (situated on two levels, having interior stairs) represents a single dwelling, regardless how many households are living there;
e) isolated rooms from the dwelling used for living by the same household will be included in that dwelling and recorded in the same LP form;
f) rooms in the habited buildings of house units, or in the buildings having other designations, such as those situated along the corridors or used for living by various households and each having a separate entrance (regardless whether there are facilities), will be considered separate dwellings. Monasteries cells (occupied by a single monk or nun) will be recorded in a similar fashion;
g) dwellings located inside institutions or commercial companies (including isolated railroad cabins along the railway; isolated cabins of the road surveyor; isolated buildings of the meteorological stations or state reserve warehouse deposits, zoo-pastoral and forestry stations; isolated buildings designated to serve the high voltage lines, the television and radio stations; and other similar isolated units) that are occupied will be considered separate dwellings.

The following will not be considered dwellings:

a) the rooms of collective living units (habited rooms of hotels; dormitories of boarding schools, children nurseries, student hostels or old people's homes; hospital's rooms; etc.);
b) spaces from the constructions of the household's type or detached accessories from the regular dwelling and occupied by members of the same family;
c) guard rooms used, at the time of the census by personnel who work on shifts and who have residence outside the institution.

[p. 23]

Chapter II will be filled out also for spaces considered marginal housing units (improvised). Respectively, habitation units which are not designated for habitation, but at the moment of the census represent the main residence of one or more households such as: accessories or spaces with other designation in the building (drying room, laundry, cellar, garret, garage etc); household facilities and accessories isolated from the building (kitchen, garage, warehouse, workshop, etc); improvised constructions (barracks, huts, shacks, wood or metal camping for construction workers, etc.) and mobile housing units (railroad wagon, trailers, barges etc.).

When the barracks are recorded as marginal housing units, the following particular situations should be taken into consideration:

a) the living compartments formed by one or more rooms having or not having facilities that from the structural point of view and functionality are similar to the dwellings, these should be considered as a single marginal house unit regardless of the number of households occupying these compartments;
b) whether a barrack is divided into large dormitories, where several households share the space by improvised ways (screens, curtains etc.)--each of these dormitories will be considered as marginal housing unit.

Chapter II will be completed also for the dwellings located in collective housing units, permanently occupied by managerial, administrative and service staff, as well as for hostels and hotels' rooms permanently occupied by married student households or other households (being considered classical dwellings).

If in a building there are two or more dwellings, these will be enumerated in the LP forms according to the order numbers given to each apartment (dwelling). When the dwellings (apartments) are not numbered, they should be recorded as follows:

a) a dwellings situated in the multi-apartment house: the recording will start with the first apartment situated on the left side of the entrance or stairs case starting with the first floor and continuing with the other dwellings up to the last floor;
b) dwellings located in multi-apartment buildings with the dwellings aligned, coupled etc.: the recording will start with the first dwelling of the building from the yard (plot area) entrance toward the end of the yard, and from the left to the right in the case of the buildings located in front of the yard (plot area) or at the end of the yard.

A similar procedure will be applied to the marginal housing units located in the buildings or outside of these.

29. The type of dwelling (item 7).

To identify the type of the dwelling, the indications of paragraph 27 from the present handbook should be taken into consideration.

a) An x will be entered in the box of code 1 when permanent dwellings (main) is the case, meaning permanently occupied or unoccupied by the members of one or more households.
b) The dwellings from resorts considered as vacation houses in the private property of citizens who have other localities or permanent dwellings in accordance with the law no. 4/1973, will be marked with x in the box for code 2.
c) An x will be written in the box for the code 3, 4 or 5 (by situation) when marginal housing units are the case.

[p. 24]

30. The type of ownership (item 8).

Related to the clear classification of the dwellings by type of ownership, the following specifications have to be made:

a) state property: when the dwellings are under the city hall administration, or of the ministries and other central institutions, as well as of their subordinated agencies;
b) co-operative organizations property: when the dwellings are in the property of production agricultural co-operatives, crafts co-operatives and consumption ones;
c) civil organizations property: when the dwellings are owned by unions and organizations without working purposes (writers, composers, parties, syndicates' associations etc.);
d) properties of the religious cults: in this category are included the dwellings owned by the religious cults or by its religious establishments, parishes, religious communities, monasteries etc;
e) private property: in the case of the personal ownership of the dwellings by the population;

When the dwellings are of mixed ownership (private and public ownership, public and of the religious cults, etc.) these will be framed in one of mentioned forms of ownership, depending of the predominant share of living floor space had by one of the ownership type.

31. The floor level of the dwelling (item 9).

The level of the floor for each dwelling located in the building will be recorded where it is situated (basement, semi-basement, mezzanine, the number of the floor or of the attic). For the dwellings located in the basement, semi-basement, ground and attic, the corresponding floor is recorded by entering the mark x in the box of the corresponding code, according to the existing situation (30, 40, 50, or 60).

Whether the dwelling is located at the upper floor, the floor number will be recorded in Arabic numbers (for example: 01, 05, 11) in the cassette designated to this aim.

The dwellings having living rooms located in several floors (representing a whole unit, from the construction's and functional point of view) will be considered at the same level as the main entrance in the dwelling.

For the dwellings having detached rooms, using separate entrances, or located in other levels in the form the level where the dwelling is situated, the detached rooms being considered, conventionally, that are situated at the same level with this will be recorded.

The marginal housing units, regardless where these are located, should not to be mentioned the level of the floor.

[p. 25]

When the floor level, where the dwelling is situated, is recorded, the following has to be taken into consideration:

a) The level of the floor is a space in a building, between two successive floors, where the free space from the floor to the ceiling elements (beams, pipes, etc.) reaching from the floor to the ceiling at least to a high of 1.80 m. above the ground. The following are considered as levels of the floor: the basement, semi- basement, the ground, the mezzanine, each floor and the attic.
b) The garret, the partial or intermediary concrete panel floors, the cellar, are not considered levels.
c) The basement is a level where more than half of the height of the rooms is under the level of the ground.
d) The semi-basement is the level having no more than half of the spaces under the level of the ground.
e) The ground, is the level where the lower floor is at the same level with the ground or roughly at the same level; sometimes this level is situated above the ground (about 1,50 m).
f) The floor represents any level, having the same plan spreading, situated either between ground floor and mezzanine, or between the attic, garret or terrace. The mezzanine is the level inserted between the ground floor and the first floor, being different from the other floors, either by its lower height or the absence of balconies or by the designation (accessories spaces for the ground stores, warehouse for goods, workshops or offices). It will be considered as first floor and the rest of floors will be numbered continuously.
g) The attic is the level built above other levels and just below the roof of a house. Generally, the height in the attic up to the ceiling is at least 1.80 m.

32. Water supply system (item 10)

The water supply system will be recorded for all the dwellings, regardless of the source and location. Item 10 indicates if there is a public system or a fountain.

The housing unit is considered as having a water supply from the public network whether or not it has piped water installation from a local community-wide system (of an enterprise or institution, etc.). Also, if the water is supplied to the housing unit from the street drinking fountain throughout a piped system it is considered as water supply from the public network.

The housing units having their own supply system will be considered as receiving water through a piped system from a natural source: pit, fountain, spring, etc.

33. Location of water supply system (item 10a)

The following correlations between item 10 and 10a exist:

a) if a dwelling has water from the public network (code 1 at item 10), an x should be marked as one of the 4 possible answers from item 10a;
b) if a dwelling has water from a fountain (item 10, code 2), an x should be marked in item 10a only at code 3 (outside building until 100 m) or code 4 (outside building over 100 m); with exception: the dwelling which has water from a fountain through its own supply system (for which at item 10 it was marked code 2) and for which item 9 could also be marked code 1 (water supply system inside dwelling) or code 2 (outside dwelling, but inside building);
c) when the dwellings are located in the individual building, having only one housing unit, with water supply inside the building, an x will be written on the box for the code 1 because the building is identically with the dwelling;
d) when there are housing units using two ways for water supply -- only the water supply offering the higher comfort to the dwelling will be indicated.

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34. Hot water supply installation (item 11)

The availability of hot water is considered to exist in the housing units when the hot water is piped to the bathroom, kitchen, or other toilets group from the public community network, regardless of the means of heating (steam -- generating station, boilers etc.). Dwellings where boilers are used only for hot water used by a bathtub or shower or where the heating of water is made only with electric boilers are not considered as having hot water supply.

In the case, that item 11 was marked as code 1 (the dwelling has a hot water supply system), the following correlations will be verified:
For item 10--water supply installations--a mark of x will be recorded at code 1 and for item 10a also code 1 (the dwelling has water supply system from public network);
For item 12--sewerage installation, a mark of x will be recorded at code 1 or 2 (the dwelling has sewerage installation).

It is considered that the dwellings have hot water also for the dwellings from the localities where it is used, both to the kitchen and bathroom, the geothermal water only or/and for heating. In these cases, the above-mentioned correlations are not considered. When the housing units have the heating based only geothermal water supplies (without any hot water system installations for the kitchen and bathroom)--these dwellings are not considered as having hot water supply.

35. Sewerage installations (item 12)

The dwellings are considered as having installations for sewage system when the housing unit is using a piped system for waste water disposal that is connected to a public sewage disposal plant (the mark x will be recorded on the box for the code 1), or the dwellings having available piped system for waste water empties to a certain place as a pit absorbent (the mark x will be recorded to the box for the code 2).

36. Electrical installation (item 13)

It is considered that the housing unit has available electrical installation, whether the indoor
cables are connected to the public community supply or other local electricity source (generating plant, micro-power station, etc).

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37. Kitchen gas (item 14)

The dwelling that receives gas through a pipe is considered as having kitchen gas. The dwellings that use liquefied gas (gas cylinder) are not considered as having kitchen gas.

38. The type of heating (item 15)

This item will be recorded for all the dwellings, regardless of the way of heating and the fuel used.

A dwelling that uses electrical radiators, liquefied gas, stoves with oil, air conditioning etc., are considering as having "other type of heating".

The dwellings heated by their own domestic system, producing steam, hot water -- code 1, 2 or 3 and that using systems with geothermal waters (code 2) will be recorded also as having thermal station.

39. Living rooms (item 16)

This item will be recorded for the permanent living rooms, for seasonal/secondary as well as for the spaces situated in the marginal housing units.

If the dwelling has more than 9 rooms, on the last row (code 70) from the table, in the free box from column "number of rooms", it will be written the number of rooms exceeding 9 rooms and in the neighboring box -- their surface (for example, for a dwelling with 12 rooms, on this row will be written the number 3 for "number of rooms" and the number 28 for "surface in sq.m., without decimals", being the total surface of those rooms).

The living room is defined as a living space in a dwelling having a surface of at least 4 square meters (of a size large enough to hold a bed for an adult), having at least 180 meters high over the majority of the surface, receiving the day light either directly through the windows and/or the outside doors, or indirectly from verandahs, through the windows and/or the doors from the other rooms using the glass partition.

The purpose of the living rooms is established in relation with the intended designation by construction of these buildings, taking, any way, into consideration the main use given to the respective room, by the members of the household, at the census moment.

The living rooms are considered: bedrooms (dormitories), dining rooms, (living rooms), guest rooms (visitors), studies (libraries), the servant's rooms - for housekeeping staff, as well as the lobbies, so long as they are fulfilling the criteria concerning the floor space, height and light necessary for a room for living.

Also considered are living rooms, the spaces of the dwellings designated by construction to be housing units for habitation, but which, at the census moment were used for professional purposes by the households, as well as the habitable rooms offered to the national tourism units, on the contract bases signed by the holder of the dwelling.

[p. 28]

The space with double use (as a kitchen and living room) in a dwelling formed by multiple spaces is considered either a habitable room, or kitchen according to the intended designation, not as it is actually used.

The space designated for living, provided with a niche used for cooking is considered a habitable room. The space used both as a bedroom, as well as to prepare the meal, in a single room dwelling, is considered a habitable room.

It must emphasize that those rooms from some dwellings occupied by owner or tenant, which are used by state institutions or co-operative ones (police station, co-operative bureau etc.) are not considered rooms and will not be recorded in LP form.

Will be not considered as living rooms the accessories and facilities of the dwelling, as defined at paragraph 40 (kitchens, bathrooms, toilets, verandahs, vestibules, the passageways, glass porches, parlors, tindas, non-habitable lobbies, the corridors, passages, offices, food storage larders, lumber box-rooms, lodges, boxes, etc.) even if these are inhabited.

The living floor space is filled by the enumerator, after checking, based on the records existing on the Lm form -- "Data regarding the dwelling"- that was made according to the existing papers (rent contracts, sketches, plans etc.) or through direct measurements, by following the provisions from paragraph 5 in the present handbook. In the process of establishing the living floor space through direct measurements, as well as at the checking of the surfaces extracted from Lm forms or from other documents, the following will be taken into consideration:

a) the living floor space is calculated based on the interior dimensions of the room, measured at ground level,
b) the living floor space is calculated in square meters, using one decimal, but in the form it will be recorded by applying rounding rules, without decimals (if the first decimal is smaller than 5, it will be neglected and if is 5 or more, it will be round with one unit in plus).

In order to ease the calculus, for establishing and verifying rooms' surfaces that are square or rectangular, it will be used a helping table from the training material, in which the living floor space calculated with one decimal is written in the census form, by rounding rules.

On the "total" row, the number will be written and total surface of living rooms from the dwelling. For marginal housing units (the codes 3, 4 or 5 at item 7, Chapter II), the data regarding the number and surface of rooms used for sleep will be written only on this row ("total").

40. Dependencies and other spaces (item 17).

In the table from item 17 the surface and the modality of using those dependencies and other spaces belonging to the dwelling (by a single household or in common with other households), as well as their location (inside the dwelling, outside, but inside the building or outside the building) will be recorded.

On the form are printed (in the column "Name of the space" the names of the main dependencies (kitchen, bathroom, flush toilet), remaining that on the free rows to be written by the enumerator also the other spaces of this kind, by codifying also on the "Code" column, the corresponding code for each.

In order to identify these spaces, not considered as habitable rooms, it has to be taken into consideration the following:

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The kitchen is a room that has been designated and equipped for the preparation of the meals, situated inside the dwelling or outside, having adequate cooking facilities.

The dwellings having only summer-time kitchens--during the winter cooking is done in one of the living rooms--is considered without kitchen.

For the dwellings having several kitchens available, all of them will be recorded, the data for the best equipped being written on the number 72 row, the others being written on the empty rows which will also be numbered as 72.

The bathroom is a space, situated in or out of the dwelling, designated to assure the body's hygiene, having special bathing facilities to this purpose as: bathtub, with or without shower or sink.

A bathroom will also be considered as:

a) the room designated to this purpose, having water supply facility and sewerage, but not yet fixed the bathing facilities (bathtub, shower and sink) and it is not used for other purposes;
b) the room within the dwelling, where the traditional means are used for body's washing, characteristic to a certain zone (steam bath), and not used for other purposes; the bathrooms having both bath tub and shower, will be considered with bath tub;
c) the room having special bathing facilities (showers, sinks) even if this space is used, mainly to other purposes (laundry).

The following will not be considered a bathroom: the room having only the sink, and used, mainly, for other purposes (bedroom, kitchen, laundry, etc.).

When a dwelling has several bathrooms, all of them will be recorded, the data for the best equipped being written on the number 73/74 row, the others being written on the empty rows, which will also be numbered as 73/74.

Correlations -- when the code 73 (bath tub) or at code 74 (only shower) from item 17 "Dependencies and other spaces," the code entry is 1 for the location, it is necessary that to the item 10a (the water supply system location) has an x marked in the box code 1 (inside the dwelling) and code 1 or 2 at the item 12 (sewerage facilities within housing unit). In addition, if for those dependencies from item17, the code 2 or 3was written for item 10a, the code 2 or 3should be written correspondingly.

Flush toilets will be recorded regardless of if they are modern water closets having a water tank and waste water that empties into a piped system, or if they are so called "dry" latrines- no water used and evacuation as in cesspools. If they are located inside a room, regardless of construction materials of walls (bricks, beams etc.), the toilets situated within the bathroom or within a separate room will be recorded.

On the form, the flush toilets from bathrooms (code 75), as well as the ones from separated rooms (having water -- code 76 and without water -- code 77) located inside the dwelling, outside, but inside the building or outside the building will be recorded.

For the dwellings that have more than one flush toilet data will be recorded on the free rows for each toilet being indicated the code 76 or 77 by case. For the codes 75 and 76, it will be followed the same correlations as for the codes 73 and 74.

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a) Verandah (code 78) is a closed space of windows, built at the ground floor of the building in its area, along the wall from the entrance of the dwelling;

b) Vestibule (code 79) (entry, glass porches) is a passage or hall between the outer door and the other spaces inside of the building (from staircase, corridor, yard or the street and other rooms of the house). It usually is a space with indirect light and has a smaller size where only a rack of clothes would fit;
c) Tinda (code 80) is a typical Romanian rural entrance, the first hall of a peasant's house- used as passage between two living rooms, sometime serving either as a kitchen and dining room too (if the dwelling has not a kitchen, the tinda will be recorded as kitchen -- code 72 at item 17), and as - very seldom- as bedroom;
d) Uninhabitable hall (code 81) is a space designated to connect the vestibule from the entrance with the other rooms of the dwelling, not fulfilling the requirements for size of the surface, height and light of a regular living room;
e) The corridor (passage) (code 82) is a long and narrow space designed as a passage between several rooms (for living, accessories) and could be used as a space for the outdoor connection;
f) The office (code 83) is a space inside the dwelling, between the kitchen or the bathroom and the habitable rooms, serving as an intermediary passage between the rooms;
g) The larder for food storage (code 84) is a space inside or outdoor space, designated to preserve food needed by the household's members;
h) Lumber Box-Room (code 85) small closed space, inside the dwelling, without direct light or air, used for storage of the various housing things;
i) Logia (code 85) is a space build-up in the framework of the building, being covered, or free open on external side of the house (sometime is covered by an arch or a series of arches supported by the columns);
j) Covered terrace (also code 85) is a platform for passing, opened to the outside, located at the level of an apartment or situated on the house's roof, it is considered to be a logia;
k) The box (code 87) is a small space, located usually on the building's basement (only those will be recorded), where usually are kept housekeeping tools, food, fuel etc.

For dwellings having more than one of such spaces, each of them will be recorded on a distinct row (inside item 17) that also indicates the code number.

The enumerator has the obligation of transcribing each of those dependencies/spaces according to their designation; he will transcribe the data referring to surfaces from Lm form or other documents, after a thorough checking, or through direct measurements, following the existing provisions at paragraph 5 from the present handbook.

In the case of a common sharing of the main dependencies by persons living in 2 or more dwellings, the dependencies located outside the dwellings, will be recorded for each dwelling only by using (code 2 -- in common) those and their location (code 2 -- outside the dwelling, but inside the building or code 3 -- outside the building). In this situation, for the column regarding surfaces, a line will be drawn.

If the kitchen, bathroom or flush toilet are located inside of a dwelling, but are commonly used by other dwellings' occupants, the surface of the dependency will be written only for the dwelling where is located.

[p. 31]

The other dependencies or spaces located outside the dwelling (excluding kitchen, bathroom or flush toilet) that are used in common by the occupants of two or more dwellings will not be recorded data on the LP form.

Dependencies and other isolated spaces from the building will be recorded for item 17 only if they are built from resistant material (brick, concrete, beams etc.), except the flush toilets, for which the construction material is not important.

On the "Total" row the total surface/living floor space of all the dependencies and other spaces from the dwelling will be written.

Chapter III -- The persons list recorded on the household.

41. In this chapter all the persons from the household will be recorded regardless of whether at the hour "0" in the night of January, 4 to 5, 1977, were present in the locality, temporarily absents from the locality or gone for a longer period (at work, studies etc.).

The persons living in collective living quarters, as well those who came for a longer period in the locality (at work, studies etc.) in the collective living quarters, will not be recorded in Chapter III of LP form, but in the UC form "Collective living quarters -- hostel type".

42. If the household contains more than 6 persons, the recording is continued on a LP -- annex form "List of persons from the household" for the persons found in the dwelling, who came for a longer period (at work, studies, visit -- over 6 months etc.), who do not belong to the household, but to another household located in other locality (for example, tenants), as well for the persons who are domestic servants.

If the dwelling is occupied exclusively by one or more persons in the locality for a longer period (work, study etc.) regardless of if they formed distinct households or not, those will be recorded in Chapter III "The persons list recorded on the household" from LP form.

If in the dwelling, there are 2 or more households, one of them will be recorded in Chapter III of LP form and for the each of the other households, an LP -- annex form will be completed. In that situation, the numbering of persons will start also with number 1M; in the upper left box "Order number of the household inside the dwellings" the number 2 will be written for the second household, 3 for the third and so on.

In Chapter III the persons who in the night of 4 to 5, January were temporarily present in the household, visiting relatives etc., will not be recorded. Rather, they will be recorded in the Chapter IV of the LP form "Temporarily present persons in the dwellings".

For the household occupying the same lot (yard) of two dwellings located in separate buildings, data regarding the entire household will be recorded on one of the LP forms completed for those dwellings. The other form for Chapter III, the transcript from the first form, only will have the following data: "Order number of the household in the dwelling" and "Tenure status of the household inside the dwelling". Chapter III for the other items and Chapter IV will be annulled.

If all the members of the household are gone in another locality for a longer period, Chapter III from LP form only will be completed for that dwelling: "Order number of the household in the dwelling", "Tenure status of the household inside the dwelling" , columns 01, 02, 03, 04, 05 for each person from household. For each person from the household in column 03 x will be marked under the number 3 and the same sign will be written under the number in column 05 referring to one of the reasons for going for a longer period in other locality. The other items from Chapter III will remain unfilled and Chapter IV will be annulled.

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43. By household it is understood the group of two or more persons, living usually together, having generally relative relations and are commonly managing their economy (together are sharing the food supply and consumption, and other essential for living).

A household is also considered a group of two or more persons having no relative relations among them, but stating that throughout understanding, they are living and managing together.

The persons stating that at the census moment they are living alone and are managing alone will be recorded on a separate LP form. They form one person households. In this category the persons living alone from the collective living quarters will also be included who do not belong to other households.

Those persons in one of the following situations will also be considered part of the household:

a) household members (having the legal residence in the locality or who have been in the locality for more than 6 months), whatever if at the reference moment were present or temporarily absent (in delegation, at relatives, in visit, in leave etc.);
b) persons left in other localities for a longer period of time -- over 6 months (to work, study, other motives);
c) household members on the military conscription;
d) pupil/students at military institutions;
e) absent persons from the households, retained in correctional or penal institutions for re-education or retained for investigations;
f) persons who left abroad for various reasons: service duty (delegation, mission), for work, study, vacation, excursions, visits etc.

Unrelated persons who usually are living together, having a common housekeeping (the old men are included, as well as other persons under the care of the household, children in the care of alternative families and other persons being in the care of the household) will be considered also as being part of the household.

For the persons mentioned in letter f), the recording will be made based on other household's members statements and for the persons mentioned in letters c), d) and e) -- according to data written on F4 form.

Persons who are tenants, came for work, study or as domestic servants, even if they have regular meals in the household will be considered as part of the household. Those persons appertain to other households in other localities and will be recorded as members of those households. Those persons will be recorded on another LP -- annex form "List of persons from the household."

Persons who came to visit as well as the persons who left the household for good, regardless of whether they are in touch with the former household (they are receiving or sending money or any kind of other support) will not be also considered as part of the household. These include: persons (sons or daughters) who left the household for other place, being employed to a working place, as a result of the graduation of a form of education; persons who have left because of marriage; permanent inmate persons on the old people's home, even though they still receiving or sending money or other aid of other kind.

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44. In order to assure a correct enumeration of all persons of the household, before starting the recording, the enumerator has to establish the followings:

a) which are the households from the dwelling;
b) how many persons are in each household;
c) what is their situation at the reference point of time of the census (present, temporarily absent came or gone for a longer period of time),
d) whether there are persons from other households located in other localities, came for a longer period or alone persons.

Carefully should be recorded also the temporarily present persons, which will be enumerated in Chapter IV.

There are several particular situations, possible to appear during the enumeration of the persons on chapter III and IV, as following:

45. The persons will be recorded on the Chapter III, by observing the following order:

a) in the case of one household formed by one family nucleus, the persons of the household will be recorded starting with the head of the household, and then is continued with the husband/wife, following the unmarried children, enumerated on decreasing order of the age.

The family nucleus is considered:
1. the husband and wife without children;
2. the husband and wife having unmarried children;
3. one of the parents having unmarried children.
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All the children who are not married living together with the parents (regardless of if they are coming from a legal marriage or not, from prior marriage of one of the partners or whether they are adopted children) are considered as part of the family nucleus.

The children who were married but at the reference moment of the census were divorced or widowed, and who returned to the parent's household under the conditions that they do not have children of their own on subsistence are also considered as part of the family nucleus.

The head of the household is considered:
a) households with a single family nucleus of type 1 or 2: the husband if he is occupied, the wife, if she is occupied and the husband is pensioner or on subsistence;
b) households with a single family nucleus of type 3: the parent if he/she is occupied; the adult child who is bringing the higher income and if the parent is pensioner or in subsistence;
c) a household is made from a single-family nucleus and other related or unrelated persons -- the head of the household is established as in the first two cases. This could be also one of the persons who is not a part of the family nucleus and namely the one who is bringing the higher income, the one who is older or the owner or main tenant of the dwelling;
d) in the case of households with 2 or more family nuclei with or without other related or unrelated persons --the household head is considered the older nucleus head or the one who is bringing the higher income, the one who is older or the owner or main tenant of the dwelling;
e) non-family households (which do not have family nuclei) -- the household head is considered the older male with the higher income or the older female with the higher income if all the males are pensioners or in subsistence.
In other cases not counted in any of the above-mentioned categories, the household head is considered the person declared and acknowledged to be so by the other members of the household.

b) whether the household is formed by two or more family nucleus, the first recorded will be the family nucleus of the head of the household, together with the persons, in the enumeration order as mentioned above, followed then by other family nucleus in the same order (starting with husband/wife), and then are followed by the related persons who do not form a family nucleus;

c) whether a household has any family nucleus being formed by related persons or not related, the recognized head of the household will be recorded first, followed by the others, and then the other persons, on the basis of decreasing order of age.

46. Order number of the household. (the cassette on the upper left side of the Chapter III of the form LP). The order number of the household will be recorded by inscribing 1 for the first household of the dwellings. If the household has more than 6 persons, the same order number of the household will be recorded for each LP -- annex form filled in. For the other households from the household the order numbers 2, 3 etc. will be written in the box from the LP -- annex forms "The list of persons from household", filled for those households.

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If the dwelling has only persons came for a longer period, this box will not be filled. Also, will not be filled neither the box "The number of household from dwelling", from Chapter II.

47. Tenure status of the household in the dwelling. (the cassette on the upper left side of the chapter III of the form LP or LP - annex).

The mark x will be filled in for the corresponding code box according to the stated tenure status situation of the household recorded. It will not be marked on the LP --annex form for the persons from the first household that could not be recorded in the LP form, as well as on the LP or LP -- annex form filled for the persons who came for a longer period of time in the locality.

48. Name and the first name (column 01). of the person will be recorded without abbreviation, legibly and clearly, including the father's initial letter

For children with an unknown father, the mother's initial will be written. It is mentioned that for married women or widowed will be written also the father's initial letter and not of the husband's.

49. The level of relationship of the members of the household to the head of the household (column 02).

For the person no.1 (column 01), where the data regarding the head of the household are recorded, the mark x is already pre-typed on the code box 01.

For the other persons recorded in the household, the relationship to the reference head of the household will be indicated, by marking x on the corresponding code for the stated situation:

a) husband (wife) - irrespective of if their marriage is official or not; 02
b) son (daughter) - natural child, foster child, adopted child of the reference, from the actual marriage or previous one; 03
d) son-in-law (daughter-in-law); 04
e) grandson (granddaughter) of the son (of the daughter); 05
f) spouse of nephew/niece 06
g) father (mother)- natural, stepfather (stepmother), or adoptive father (adoptive mother); 07
h) grandfather (grandmother); 08
i) brother (sister) -- by blood or not; 09
j) nephew/niece from brother/(sister); 10
k) brother-in-law (sister-in-law); 11
l) nephew/niece from brother/(sister)-in-low; 12
m) father-in-law (mother-in-law); 13
n) other relative, blood relationship, alliance relationship; 14

For those unrelated, the code will be 15.
When the persons are living alone, and are not included in any household, these will be recorded as the person coded 01 - the head of the household, because it is considered as forming a one-person household.

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The persons who came in locality for a long period and pertain to another household from another locality, will be enumerated separately on the LP-annex form "List of persons in the household". In the box for relationship to the household, "came for a longer period," code 30 will be written.

50. The situation at census moment (column 03). For each person the situation at the census reference moment ('0' hours of January 4-5, 1977), in relation to the legal residence will be recorded.

The mark x will be recorded on the code box 1 - for present persons. These are the persons who on the night of 4 to 5, January, 1977 at "0" hours were at their legal residence.

The following will be considered as present, at the census reference moment (the point of time):

a) working persons (night shifts, as guards, airmen, seamen, railroad personnel, road transporters) who are at their duty;
b) persons who have left for the market shopping, to the mill, to hunt etc;
c) persons who have left to other place (locality) but are on their way returning home (by transportation means);
d) children at nurseries and weekly kindergarten;
e) persons in compulsory military service, in the military educational institutions;
f) persons who are detained for investigations.

Persons from the household who were gone from home for a short period (less than 6 months) are considered temporarily absent (code 2). In this situation are the persons gone for:
delegation (for work, duty service); leave, vacation; apprenticeship; visits; medical motives (inmates to the sanitary units - in hospital, sanatorium; maternity -- for less than 6 months, if they are in the same locality).

The school children and the students who at the census moment left the place where they are studying (going home to the parents, for vacation, excursion, camping etc.) will be recorded temporarily absent in the place where they are studying (being recorded in the school residences and student hostels, boarding etc).

Persons gone for visit in the same locality will not be considered temporarily absent.

Absent, gone for a long period of time (code 3) -- are to be considered the persons who at the reference census moment ("0" hours, January, 4 to 5, 1977) were gone from the locality for a longer period. In this category will be include: pupils/students gone to study in other localities, persons hired at enterprises, institutions, private persons, irrespective of how long they are absent for their household. Persons gone from the locality for more than 6 months such as inmates to the sanitarium, those visiting relatives, etc. will also be included.

Persons in which column 02 "Relationship with the head of the household" have code 30 "Persons who came for a longer period" should not have an x marked by code 3.

51. For how long is the person missing from the household (column 04). For persons temporarily absent from the household (code 2 in column 03), gone for a longer period (code 3 in column 03), as well as for persons who came for a longer period in the locality (for work, study), how long the person is missing from the household will be recorded (in months or days) in column 04.

For persons temporary absent will be recorded the number of days and for the persons gone for a longer period or who came in the locality for a longer period -- the number of months only.

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52. The reason for going/coming (column 05). The answer will be recorded through the inscription of the x mark in the box under the corresponding situation. Column 05 will not be completed for persons present in the household (code 1 in column 03).

For pupils/students who are studying in other localities and for persons gone for a longer period in other localities -- to work or for other reasons-- but at the census moment were at home, how long they were gone from the household for work or study and not for how long they are temporarily present in the household will be recorded in column 04. In column 05 the reason for which they are gone for a longer period in other locality and not the one for which they are temporary present in the household will be written.

53. The address where the person is gone (column 06). For temporarily absent persons from the household and for those gone for a longer period (column 03 code 2 and 3), the address where the person is gone will be written in column 06. For persons who came for a longer period (column 02 code 30), the address of household in which he/she belongs will be written. The address (county, town or commune, component locality, street and f number) will be written clearly in the specially designed space from the form.

If the address is not completely known by the persons declaring the data, the enumerator will write only those data known. For present persons a line will be drawn in column 06.

54. The place of birth (column 07). For persons born in a place other than where they are enumerated the name of the county where the person was born and the corresponding area of the birthplace -- municipality/town or commune/ sub-urban commune will be recorded. For the persons born in the same place where the census enumeration staff is recording them, "in the same locality" will be written.

Persons born in another village of the same commune, where they are enumerated, or in another locality component of the same municipality/town where they are enumerated will be not considered as born in another place, but in the locality of enumeration.

The place of birth represents the locality where the mother of the enumerated person had the legal residence at the date when the birth took place. So, for persons born in maternities or birth houses situated in other places than of the mother's legal residence (residence), the locality where the birth house is located or the maternity, etc. (even this is mentioned on the birth certificate or on the identification card) is not considered the place of birth.

For persons born in another country the actual name of the country will be recorded (in the corresponding space of county).

The enumerator will inscribe in column 07 the county's name or "in the same locality", will inscribe the code of the county or country in the code box from this column (according to the list below) and the mark x will be written in the corresponding box for the area type of the birth place.

The recording of the county's name will be done according to the actual administrative-territorial division and not what existed when the enumerated person was born.

[p. 38]

[table of codes not presented here]

For persons born in the locality where they actually reside, code 44will be written.

For persons born abroad, one of the following codes will be written:
[table of codes not presented here]

55. The year of establishing in the actual legal residence locality (column 08). The year of establishing the actual legal residence locality will be recorded for the persons who had a different previous legal residence than the present place.

The cassette designated with the year of establishment of the actual legal residence for the persons who lived permanently, after the birth, in the actual legal residence place (locality) will be not filled in. The enumerator will inscribe the last two digits of the year when the person has established its legal residence, the first two being preprinted on the form. If the person has established the legal residence before 1901, the enumerator will inscribe the figures 00.

The persons born in a locality where they have the actual legal residence, but in the past they changed, for a certain period, the legal residence to other place, returning later to the birthplace, will be considered as the year of establishment the returning year to the present legal residence. In addition, the pupils and students which have studied in another locality, but who came back to their parents' home, are considered as having changed their legal residence.

For pupils and students who came in the locality for studying, the year when they started the classes in this locality will be written.

Persons who were absent from the place for one of the following reasons will be considered also as living permanently, after the birth: for [text not readable] year of establishment the returning year to the present legal residence. Her address [text not readable] persons in compulsory military service; persons who have to expiate a punishment privative of liberty; persons who have been inmate of sanitary units for treatment; persons on duty outside the country; persons on seasonal working; persons evacuated during the war, whether they returned to the birth place.

[pg. 39]

56. Previous residence (column 09). For all the persons having declared a year of establishing in the locality, the address of the last residence (usual or legal): county's name - name of the county of the place where the person had the previous legal residence and the areas (corresponding categories of the localities municipalities / towns or communes (suburban or regular) will be recorded in column 09. The last usual or legal residence represents the locality in which the person lived before coming to the enumeration locality.

In the reserved space of county's name it will be coded the county by the enumerator according to the following list:

[table of codes not presented here]

For persons never having another legal residence, the enumerator will put a dash (-).

57. The actual legal residence (column 10). For persons having a different legal residence, in a place other than the locality of the enumeration census unit -- the county name, municipality/town/ or commune of the legal residence will be recorded in column 10.

The name of the county and of the municipality/town/commune will be written legibly, without abbreviations, based on the enumerated person statements. For a correct enumeration, the enumerator will consult the person's identity card.

[p. 40]

The actual legal residence of a person is the address written on the identification card by the population evidence authorities. The residence/floating visa will not be considered as legal residence.

For persons having the same address for legal residence as the locality of census enumeration unit, a mark x will be written for the code 9000 and in the blank spaces of column 10 a horizontal line will be drawn.

For children under 14 years of age who do not own an identity card, the residence of the child will be considered that of the parents (or of those who are taking care of them).

The locality coding (municipality/town/commune) will be done by each enumerator, according to the "Classification List of the territorial administrative units of Romania".

58. The sex (column 11). For each enumerated person an x mark will be written according to the corresponding answer: code 1 for male or code 2 for female.

59. The date of birth (column 12). For each person the enumerator will record the exact date of birth: the year, the month, the day, written in Arabic figures using, in all the cases two Arabic figures. So, for the months and days to the numbers between 1 to the 9, in front of each figure "0" will be written first (01,02, . . . , 09).

For the persons who do not remember the year, month and the day of birth exactly, the enumerator will ask the other members of the household or for the identification card or the birth certificate. When neither of these documents are available (for aged persons), additional questions will be asked aiming the indirect finding at the birth date, or at least the year of birth (as temporal reference point as: 1907 rebellion and the relation to the age of the person at the moment of event, the participation of Romania to the first world war etc.).

60. Marital status (column 13).
For all persons, regardless of the sex and the age, the stated marital status will be recorded by inscribing the x mark on the corresponding box, namely: single, unmarried, married, widowed, or divorced.

In the case of separated married couples in which the husband and wife have a different legal residence, living alone or with someone else, the marital status declared by each of the spouses will be enumerated. The code of unmarried will be marked only for the persons who never were married.

The children below 14 years of age are included also to this code, except for those female persons legally married, divorced or widowed before reaching 15 years of age.

61. Total number of live born children (column 14), number of living children (column 15). For all the women born before 1962, regardless of the marital status, the total number of live-born children up to the census moment will be recorded, regardless of whether they are living or are dead at census enumeration date (column 14) and how many of them are alive at census moment (column 15). The number of children will be written in the corresponding box with two digits (before figures from 1 to 9 will be added 0, for example: 01, 02, . . . . 09).

[pg. 41]

The number of live born children should comprise all live born children regardless if they are alive or not and only the ones alive at census moment in column 15.

For both categories, all the children born in the present or prior marriage, or outside the mother's marriage, regardless if they are living or not on the mother's household will be considered.

The fetal deaths, the children of the husband from other marriages, the adopted children and the children on the placement care of alternative families will not be taken into consideration.

These characteristics will be not recorded for the women who never had a live born child, for females under 15 years of age (irrespective of if they had or not live born children), as well as for all male persons.

For the women aged 15 years and over, who did not state due to various reasons, the number of children, or for whom the enumerator could not record the answers, the enumerator will insert the code 99.

62. Citizenship (column 16). For all citizens stating as having Romanian citizenship, a mark x will be recorded on the code box 10 Romanian).

For persons stating they have a citizenship other than Romanian, the citizenship declared by persons will be recorded in the space provided for other citizenship. For stateless persons, "without citizenship" will be mentioned on the space provided for other citizenship.

For persons for whom another citizenship than Romanian was enumerated (so the code 10 was not marked with x sign), the enumerator will inscribed in the corresponding box, next to the country's name - the country's code -- from the below mentioned list:

[table omitted]

63. Nationality (column 17). The person should freely declare to which nationality he/she belongs, which the enumerator will record as -- according to its option -- by observing the fundamental right of the person (according to article 4 from State Council Decree no. 145/1976, regarding the carrying out of population and housing census). The census staff members have the obligation to assure all the conditions in order that each person should declare freely without any constraint the nationality to which he/she belongs.

For children below 14 years of age, the nationality will be declared for them by their parents.

For persons declaring as belonging to the Romanian nationality, the mark x will be recorded on the corresponding box, for the code 10.

For the persons declaring he/she is has a nationality other than Romanian, the nationality as it was declared will be recorded on the provided space. The enumeration will strictly observe the enumerated person's declaration.

The enumerator will not codify the nationalities.

[pg. 42]

64. Educational attainment (column 18). The highest level of graduated (completed) school is referring to the highest educational institution the enumerated person graduated from regardless of if this is proved by a certificate or graduation diploma (of the secondary school or of university).

If the enumerated person graduated from two or more educational institutions, at the same level, (for example the Faculty of Low and the Mathematics) only one of them, namely the one given by the enumerated person, will be recorded on the form.

The following will not be recorded as a graduated educational institution:

a) specialization courses at the working place, with or without production process interruption;
b) apprenticeship at the working place (exception: apprenticeship at the working place for a period during 1-3 years, assimilated to the vocational school);
c) courses for specialization of short duration, for the theoretical high schools graduates;
d) course for specialization improvement;
e) post- university courses;
f) popular universities;
g) trade union schools:
h) political schools etc.

In this respect, the name of the graduated educational institution will be written, as it was at the graduation moment, without [text not readable] educational institution [text not readable] or equivalency with other similar existing educational institutions at the census moment.

For example, it will be recorded according to the following cases:

a) Four classes of Primary School, 7 (8) years Elementary School, 10 years General School;
b) Industrial Chemistry High School (secondary school), Commercial High School, Medium General School, Industrial Gymnasium, Theoretical High School -- first 4 years (first degree), Sanitary Medium Technical School, Pedagogical school, Pedagogical High School;
c) Metallurgical vocational school, first degree Wine-grower school, Art and craft school, Forestry rangers school, Vocational school group for public food industry, Vocational school for economics;
d) Institute (university) for Constructions: civil constructions Faculty (Department), Polytechnic Institute the Faculty of Automatics (Department), Academy for Economic Sciences -- the Planning Faculty (Department), Veterinary Medical Faculty (Department), Polytechnic Institute, the Faculty (Department) for machines building -- sub-engineering section, etc.

When the enumerated persons graduated abroad: the name of this institution will be recorded, as declared (for example: University of Cracovia -- the faculty (department) of history, the Moscow's Institute for economics and statistics).

[p. 43]

When a person is attending a school or educational institution (day, evening, extra-mural courses or without attendance), or interrupted the courses of an educational institution, will be recorded in the column 18 the name of the last school or educational institution.

For example, for persons attending or interrupting the courses of a faculty (department) high school or any secondary school will be recorded as the graduated school. For persons who interrupted the second degree of the high school (classes XI and XII) the graduated educational institution will be recorded as high school first degree. For persons who interrupted the first degree of high school, it will be considered as graduated of the general 8 years school; and for those who interrupted the gymnasium's cycle (classes V-VII or V-VIII), it will be recorded as graduated of the primary school (4 classes).

For the children born after 1965 that are attending or have interrupted the classes I-IV are not considered as having graduated any school and a line will be drawn. Also a line will be drawn for preschool age children.

For aged persons who attended only the read and write courses for illiterates, it will be recorded "read and write courses for illiterates".

For persons born before 1966, who didn't graduate and are not attending any educational institution, the enumerator will record, on the basis of their personal statement, as is the case "they know to read and write", or" knowing only to read", or" didn't know to read and write".

The code box from column 18 will not be filled by the enumerator.

65. Profession (column 19). For persons aged 14 years and over, which have a profession acquired through studies, classes or apprenticeship at working place, in column 19 will be written the name of this profession.

The profession will be recorded for the persons, who have an activity that brings income, as well as for persons, which do not have such an activity, but have acquired a professional qualification through studies or apprenticeship at working place.

A profession represents the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired through study, necessary for a certain work in the socio-economic activity.

The profession should be recorded in a way that would reflect the craft, the specialization of enumerated person.

Thus:

a) for workers which have graduated vocational high schools, foreman educational institutions, or become qualified through apprenticeship at the working place, will be inscribed the craft acquired, for instance: mining electrician, concrete mason, oil processing operator, hairdresser etc;
b) for foremen the specialization will be written as: foreman - mining, oil worker, carpenter etc;
c) for persons graduating post high school educational institutions and vocational high schools, but are not working as workers, the acquired craft will be inscribed as: nurse, statistician, teacher etc;
d) for persons who have attended higher education institutions, the specialization will be also mentioned: mining engineer, chemist, mathematician, doctor etc.
e) for management personnel the position will not be recorded but the craft and specialization acquired through studies. For example, it will not be written: general director, division chief, service chief, office chief, chief engineering, district chief, workshop chief etc., but: engineer, accountant etc. For professors it will be specified also the specialization: physics, history, geography etc.
f) for agricultural workers engaged on farms, farms members, as well as for farmers working on their own household which have required their knowledge through qualification classes or apprenticeship at working place, will be recorded: vegetable gardener, viticulturist, flower gardener, apiarist, shepherd, greensward care taker. For persons who have no specialization, "agricultural worker" will be enumerated in column 19;
g) for unqualified workers, "unqualified worker" will be recorded;
h) for workers attending qualification classes, as well as the students of foremen educational institutions, the profession before being withdrawn from production will be recorded;
[p. 44]

Pensioners will be recorded with the profession acquired through study, qualification classes or apprenticeship at place of work.

If a person acquired 2 or more professions, only one will be written and namely the one declared by the enumerated person.

The following general names will not be considered as professions: worker, office worker, craftsman, free-lancer etc.

For persons who do not remember the exact name of a profession, the enumerator will ask to examine his/her certificate of graduation.

For children below14 years of age, as for the persons which have not acquired a qualification, a line will be drawn in column 19.

66. The name of the educational institution attended (column 20). For the persons who declare that they are attending the courses of an educational institution, the name of the educational institutions will be recorded in column 20 regardless of if it is a day, evening or without attendance course following also the provisions made at paragraph referring to the recording in column 18. The enumerators will not codify the column 20.

67. Mother tongue (column 21). For each recorded person on the questionnaire, the enumerator will register the mother tongue, according to the free declaration of the person, in the column 21.

For children below 14 years of age, the mother tongue will be declared for them by their parents. For the persons deaf -- and -- dumb, or mentally ill, will be recorded, also, the statements of those who are living together with these persons.

A mark x will be recorded on the code box 10 (Romanian) -- for the persons who declared Romanian as being their mother tongue.

For persons declaring a mother tongue other than Romanian, the mother tongue as it was freely declared will be recorded on the space provided for mother tongue.

The enumerator will not codify the mother tongue.

[p. 45]

68. Main income source (column 22). For each enumerated person, the enumerator will record in this column the main income source by marking an x in the box corresponding to the situation declared by the person regardless of if he or she has an income bringing occupation.
The main income source represents the modality by which the person ensures his/her existence (through permanent work, occasional work, a pension, a scholarship, support from another person or an institution).

The following will be taken into consideration:

Code 1 -- persons with an income from permanent work: persons aged 14 years and over who have an income-bringing permanent occupation. In this category the persons from state and co-operative units, civil organizations, as well as co-operative agricultural workers, individual agricultural workers, craftsmen and free-lancers will be included. Also will be included:

a) employees attending qualification classes as well as foremen education institutions students;
b) pensioners rehired for more than 4 months;
c) persons on unpaid leave for a longer period, if they had an income bringing occupation before;
d) persons in a phase of changing the working place (if they are not in this situation for more than 6 months).

In the category of persons with incomes only from occasional agricultural works -- code 2 -- will be included the persons aged 14 years and over which have an occasional agricultural activity, besides domestic work.

In this category will be included:

a) persons from workers, specialists, office workers, craftsmen's households who have an occasional agricultural activity in farming or vegetable production;
b) persons from co-operative agricultural workers' households, who did not work in the commune household, but occasionally on the lot received by the household head or in animal breeding ;
c) persons from individual agricultural workers' households, who occasionally work in agriculture in their own household.

In this particular category the cooperative's members will also be included who are not permanently hired outside APC and have worked in the commune household of APC during the last year.

The following will not be included:

a) co-operative agricultural workers or their relatives, permanently hired outside APC, even if they had occasionally worked at APC;
b) pupils/students which occasionally work in APC, especially during vacations;
c) APC pensioners which are very old or disabled, as well as the children below 14 years which occasionally in the commune household or in the personal household of the parents or supporters.

In the category of persons for whom the only source of income is the pension -- code 3 -- are included state pensioners, survivor's pensioners, persons benefiting of social aid, if the pension or the social aid represents the only source of income. In this category are included also the rehired pensioners for less than 4 months. The APC pensioner are not included.

The category of persons having as only source of income the APC pension -- code 4 --will include all the persons which are receiving old age limit pension, pension due to a disability, orphan pension for both parents, even if they are working on the lot received for use. Are not included the APC members which are cumulating the APC pension with another type of pension, those persons being included at code 3.

[p. 46]

All the persons being supported by state institutions (old people's homes, sanatoriums, orphanages etc.) or by co-operative institutions are included as the dependent persons, supported by state institutions or cooperative -- code 5.

In this category pupils/students with a scholarship, who are declaring that they are not in the care of their parents or relatives and for which the scholarship is the only source of income will also be included.

In the category of persons supported by other persons, all persons without an income bringing occupation and who are not benefiting from any pension, being supported by private persons are included -- code 6. The pupils/students with a scholarship, who are declaring that they are in the care of their parents or relatives, as well as the homemakers, old persons and disable persons supported by their families will be included in this category.

The category of persons having other income sources -- code 7 -- includes the persons who have other income sources than the ones above mentioned, for example: rents, savings or other income.

Only one income source will be recorded for each person, if the person has more than one, the main source will be written.

69. For the persons having in column 22 (main income source) a mark x at code 6 - persons supported by other persons. it will be indicated also the order number of the supporter from the census form. If the supporter is not enumerated on the same form, columns 24-26 will be completed with data regarding the working place, the socio-economic sector and occupation of the main supporter.

70. Place of work (columns 24-25). The enumerator will record as the place of work the declaration of the enumerated person regarding the full name of the unit (institution, organization, section, workshop, factory, store) where the person is working and for pensioners, the last working place had, as well as the main activity of the unit/sub-unit where the person is working (column 24).

The unit's and sub-unit's name where the person currently performs the job (remunerated in cash or kind) will be recorded clearly without abbreviations.

For example: Cooperative for textiles "Sirguinta", The Colentina Hospital etc. Whether from the unit denomination the kind of activity is not obvious, then after the denomination enumeration it is compulsory to write the kind of the main activity of the unit. For example: The Company "Aurora" -- beer company, The enterprise "Cocor" -- universal store.

When the enumerated person is working in a sub-unit, having a distinct activity within the economic or social unit performing activities necessary, also, for other units (the plant, factory, section, computer station, kindergarten, hostel, etc) the enumerator will record, after the name of the sub-unit, also the name of the unit. For example: "The kindergarten" of Company "Dacia - textile enterprise.

[p. 47]

In the case when the economic or social units have a territorial spread of the sub-units, both the name of the unit and the name of locality and then the name of the sub-unit and the name of locality where the enumerated person is working will be recorded.

It is mentioned that:

a) for units having subunits whose activities appertain to more than one economic branch, the name and activity of sub-unit where the person works, as well as the name of the main unit will be written;

b) for those who work in the central apparatus of the unit, "central apparatus" will be recorded after the unit's name also;

c) for co-operative members who work in an agricultural co-operative the cooperative name will be recorded and for those working only on their lot, "working on the received lot" will also be mentioned;

d) for co-operative members who work in activities as: industry, constructions, education or health, the name of agricultural production cooperative will also be written next to the permanent activity of the person;

e) for APC members and individual farmers, who are working at census moment as employees in industrial enterprises in forestry etc., the name of these enterprises only if they work permanent or in the most part of the year in those enterprises will be recorded.

f) for farmers in own households, "own agricultural households"; for private craftsmen -- "own working shop" will be recorded as the place of work, the same will be done in the case of members of individual farmers and private craftsmen's households, if they participate in the activities of household or workshop;

g) for persons working on own account (carpenters, laundresses, chimney sweepers etc.) "own account worker" will be written for this item;

h) for the persons hired for building's maintenance (services personnel, doormen etc.), "locative association" will be recorded as place of work;

i) for the persons hired at private, natural persons (for children or old people care, domestic personnel etc.) "hired by private persons" will be written;

j) for persons working at home, based on a contract, the name and activity of the unit for which they are working will be written;

k) for the members of co-operative and individual agricultural workers', specialists' and craftsmen's households, who do not have another occupation and who help occasionally at some agricultural works (on the received agricultural lots or in the private agricultural households), for which in column 22 the code 2 was marked (incomes only from occasional works in agriculture) in column 24, it will be written:

1) "on the received lot" for members of co-operative agricultural workers' households,
2) "in the individual agricultural household" for members of individual agricultural workers' households, or
3) "in own agricultural household" for members of specialists' and craftsmen's households.

l) for persons who are not working (children, disabled persons and old people) or who are doing only housework, a line will be drawn in column 24;

m) for persons usually working in enterprises and institutions, who are attending qualification classes, as well as for pupils from foremen schools, the name and activity of the enterprise, institution where they worked until the classes started will be written in column 24;

n) for persons who are on unpaid leave for a long period or who are about to change their working place, the name and activity of the unit where they worked before will be written;

n) for persons with pension (code 3) or APC pension (code 4), as well as for persons supported by institutions (code 5), who had an occupation before, the name and activity of last working place will be written;

o) for pensioners rehired for more than 4 months, the name and activity of enterprise, institution where they are working at the census moment will be written;

p) for persons supported by other persons (code 6) and for whom the supported is enumerated on the same form, a line will be drawn in column 24. If the supported person is not recorded on the form, the name and activity of the unit in which this supporter is working will be written in column 24.

The code box from column 24 will not be filled by enumerator.

[p. 48]

71. Socio--economic sector of working place (column 25) or of the sub-unit performing its occupation than of the economic unit census staff. [text not readable] for non-family people, sport complex. Related to the economic unit recorded as place of work this item should be enumerated as follows:

a) a mark x will be written in the code box 1 (of state- public) -- for persons having as the place of work state units, budgetary institutions, units of the public central administration (ministries, departments etc.). For this code the cult personnel will be recorded also;
b) a mark x will be written on the code box 2 (APC sector) -- for the members of agricultural cooperative production, who work in the commune household or only on the received lot;
c) a mark x will be written on the code box 3 (craftsmen or consumption cooperatives) - for persons who stated that they are working in craftsmen or consumption co-operatives, as well as in lawyers' colleges;
d) commercial companies full public capital are not included in code 3, but in code 1.
e) a mark x will be written on the code box 4 (mass and civil organizations) -- for the persons who declared as the place of work mass and civil organizations, such as political organizations, trade unions, youth or females' organizations, the writers union, the composers union, Red Cross etc.;
f) a mark x will be written on the code box 5 (individual) -- for persons who declared as working in "individual agricultural household", "personal agricultural household", "own craft shop", "on own account", "at private persons" or "locative associations".

For persons supported by other persons (code 6 at column 22), a line will be drawn in column 25 if the supporter is recorded on the same census form. If not, the corresponding box of socio-economic sector of the supporter's working place, written in column 24will be marked.

72. Occupation (the craft or qualified task actually performed at the working place) -- column 26. For persons aged 14 years and over who are usually performing an income bringing activity in one of the national economy's branches, the occupation the person had at the place of work written at column 24 will be clearly inscribed in column 26.

Occupation refers to the social useful activity, usually performed for pay or income by a person in an economic branch, being the person's main resource for living.

The enumerator will clearly record the occupation's name to determine the craft, qualification, position (specialization), the task actually done at the workplace for workers and the function for economic, technical, administrative personnel, or the specialization for doctors, teachers, composers etc.

[p. 49]

Thus:
a) qualified workers will have occupation recorded as the practical performed craft: power transformer electrician, concrete mason, concrete reinforcement bars iron smith, plaster maker, carpenter, boiler maker, welder, form maker for refractory products, iron and non-ferrous (smelter) founding worker, hairdresser, telephone operator, barman, waiter, shop salesman, car driver, trailer driver, tramcar driver, mason, oil processing operator. They will be not recorded as occupation "worker" but the effective performed qualified profession (or the craft).

b) unqualified workers will have occupation recorded as the actually type of work done in a job: loader, unload worker, manual merchandise stacker, food ambulant vendor, newspapers vendor, cleaning women homemaker, carrier (transport worker), grave digger, doorman, guardian, street sweeper -- if the person has more than one unqualified jobs, the most consuming time one will be recorded.

c) the technical, economical, professional and administrative staff, will have occupation recorded as: the appointment's function -- physicist (expert on physics), economist, meteorologist, biologist, journalist, sociologist, architect, accountant etc.

d) agricultural workers engaged on farms, agricultural cooperative members, as well as farmers working on their own household performing specialized agricultural works, will have occupation recorded as the craft or the type of activity performed: farmer on land culture, vegetable gardener, orchard man, viticulturist, flower gardener, apiarist, shepherd, greensward care taker. For the persons not having a specialized task, will have occupation recorded as "farmers".

e) the workers, specialists, co-operative and private craftsmen who have personal households, will be recorded with the usual occupation and with the agricultural one, even if in their free time they occasionally work in own agricultural household. Those household's members and the ones of co-operative farmers' households who do not have a permanent occupation outside the agricultural household, will be recorded as farmer on land culture, vegetable gardener, orchard man, viticulturist, flower gardener, apiarist, shepherd, if the person really works in agricultural activities in the personal household. If the most of the time the person performs housework, a line will be drawn in column 26.

f) the workers attending qualification classes as well as pupils from foremen institutions will be recorded with the last occupation.

g) the pensioners will be recorded with their last occupation and those rehired for more than 4 months, will be recorded with the occupation they had at the census moment.

h) persons who are on unpaid leave for a long period will be recorded with the last occupation they had. The same will be applied for those in the course of changing jobs.

i) if a person has 2 or more occupations, functions, in column 26 will be written the one performed most of the time and which constitutes the main source of income.

j) for persons supported by other persons, a line will be drawn in column 26 if the supporter is recorded on the same form, if not -- the supporter's occupation at the working place recorded in the column 24 will be inscribed in column 26.

The code box for column 26 will not be filled in by the enumerator.

[p. 50]

73. The order number of the person under which the father, the mother, husband/wife (column 27) are recorded on census form: The answers will be recorded on the adequate spaces, corresponding to the order number under which the following relatives of the persons': the mother, the father, the husband or the wife were enumerated in the chapter III. The order number is indicated at the beginning of each row in column 01 (the person number 1, number 2 etc.).

When the enumerated person does not have a mother/father, or husband/wife who are recorded on the same form -- a line will be drawn in the corresponding spaces.

74. The recapitulation of the enumerated persons on the LP form. After the recording all persons found in a household on the chapter III of the LP form (including the LP form - Annex), the enumerator will fill in the chapter referring to the Recapitulation of the enumerated persons on the form, by summarizing and writing the number of the persons.

When the enumeration of the Recapitulation is done, the following guidelines should be taken into consideration:

a) in columns 1 and 2 -- Number of the persons of the household, will be written the number of the males (column 1) and of the females (column 2) from chapter III, for whom the answers were enumerated in the column 03, as follows:

present persons (code 1)
temporarily absent (code 2)
left for a longer period

In the number of persons from the household, the persons who came for a longer period in the locality for which the code 30 was written in column 02 will not be included. If in chapter III or on the LP-annex form such persons were only found, a line will be drawn in column 1 and 2.

b) in columns 3 and 4 the number of the persons left for a long period (for which in column 03 was marked the sign x in the box under code 3) from the total number of the persons recorded on the columns 1 and 2 will be mentioned.

c) in columns 5 and 6, the number of the persons who arrived for a longer period recorded in chapter III of LP form or in LP-annex form at column 02 with code 30 will be mentioned.

[p. 51]

d) in columns 7 and 8 the number of persons having stable legal residence, persons from household will be written, which is obtain by calculus, as follows:

column 7 = column 1 -- column 3 + column 5;
column 8 = column 2 -- column 4 + column 6.

d) in columns 9 - 12 - the number of temporarily absent persons, for which in column 03 was marked x in the box under code 2 from the total persons on the columns 7 and 8 will be mentioned.

Chapter IV - The persons temporarily present in the household

75. In this chapter all persons who at the census referring moment were temporarily present in one of the households in the locality which occupies the dwelling will be enumerated.

Persons will be considered temporarily present who at the "0" hours on 4 to 5 January, 1977 were in the locality for a period less than 6 months: on a mission, vacation (holiday), visiting relatives or friends, hospitalized even if in the same locality with the one in which they reside.

The pupils and the students who at the census reference moment left the locality where they are in the schools, were on vacation, or went to the parents place, will be recorded as temporarily present in the locality where they came.

For example: A student/pupil enumerated in another locality than that where is the household that it belongs, came home to the parents, during the vacation) -- on the LP form of the parents' household left from the household (code 3 in column 03) will be recorded on the chapter III but also in chapter IV. In the place of school attending, it will be recorded as came for a longer period and in the same time temporary absent (code 2 in column 03): whether he is living in a boarding house -- on the LP-annex form of the house owner - chapter IV, item 2 code 2, and whether he is living on a student hostel, school boarding etc. -- on UC form -- chapter II.

If there are 2-3 temporary present persons in a dwelling, each of them will be recorded in chapter IV on a separate row. Whether there are more than 3 temporarily present persons, the enumerator will add an extension paper having the same columns as the form itself, where the rest of the persons will be recorded.

In the B column, the enumerator will inscribe the first and last person's name (and first letter of father's name).

Each temporarily present person in the household will have the following enumerated in columns 1-6:

a) sex (as in the provisions for column 11 from chapter III);
b) the date of birth (column 12);
c) for how long they are missing from household (column 04);
d) the motive of leaving/coming (column 05);

In column 7 the address of the legal residence (county, town, commune, component locality, village, street, number) will be recorded.

[p. 52]

The LP form - annex: List of the persons enumerated in the household

76. The LP form -- Annex, will be completed for those households where the number of members to be enumerated, in the unit, is larger than 7 persons. This will be used for dwellings with more than one household, following the provisions from the paragraph 42 from the present handbook. The household -- owner or main tenant of the dwelling will be enumerated on the LP form and the others -- each of them on a separate LP- annex form. An LP- annex form will also be filled out for persons who came for a longer period from other locality.

In order to identify the LP form -- Annex, on the top left side of the form the file's number, the number of LP form of the first dwelling from the building and the PL's number within the file (to which is belonging) will be inserted. At this number will be added also a letter (a, b, c...), according to the number of LP- annex forms filled out.

The cassette "Order number of household inside the dwelling" will be filled according to the provisions from paragraphs 42 and 46 from this handbook.

The filling in of columns 01-27 from "List of persons from the household" (LP-annex) will be done according the filling in provisions for chapter III of the LP form. The LP form -- Annex will be placed within the LP form where it belongs.

The UC form - Persons living in collective units--Hostel type

77. On the UC form the collective living units, hostel type, as well as the persons accommodated in these units will be enumerated.

The collective living unit, hostel type, comprises one or more distinct buildings -- under the unique administration, at the unique address -- intended and designated for collective permanent living by many persons, generally not related among them, but who are united for joint purposes and interests, and who commonly are using some spaces and facilities (bathrooms, kitchens, dining rooms, toilets etc).

As collective living unit, hostel type, will be considered: boarding school; school and pre-school children' houses (orphanages); school's hostels; student's hostels; workers' hostels and dormitories; hostel for non-family persons; orphanages; old -- people houses; hospital -- hostels; preventoriums; sanatoriums for incurable illness (mental illness); barracks, wagons and other mobile units used for collective living (collective dormitories occupied by the workers).

For the temporarily present persons in the collective living units, hostel-type -- a UH form will be completed (only the chapter II, and the chapter I will be barred by an oblique line).

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The following will be not considered as collective living quarters, hostel-type:

a) the collective living units where the workers, the technicians, the economic experts and other specialists are permanently living there with their families;

b) the nurseries, and kindergartens, regardless of whether these are functioning on a daily or weekly basis;

c) the military buildings barracks and other constructions having special designation, even there are dwellings and dormitories in these units.

78. The name of the collective living unit hostel -- type will be written clearly and without abbreviations (for example: the school boarding of the Agricultural High School etc.)

Chapter I -- Data regarding the collective living unit (Hostel type)

The type of the collective living unit (item 1).
79. For each of the collective living units mentioned in the framework of his item, the mark x will be recorded on the corresponding box to the type of the specific collective living unit.

The number of the buildings of the collective living unit (item 2).
80. The total number of the buildings (blockhouses, individual units), forming the collective living unit existing at the same address will be recorded.

The number of buildings forming the collective living unit, with dwellings (from the number of the buildings forming to the enumerated collective unit) will also be recorded.

When the collective unit is located in residential building or in the buildings with other designations (institution, shop etc.) in which there are dwellings, those buildings will not be recorded in number and ownership type. The same will be applied for hostels located in marginal living quarters, for which the fact that there is a marginal living unit will still be recorded next to the name.

The ownership form of the buildings (item 3)
81. In order to classify the buildings of the collective living unit by ownership form, the provisions of the paragraph 30 should be taken into consideration.

Space/rooms- number (item 4)
82. The number of the rooms, used as designated in the collective living unit (hostel rooms, dormitories, hospital rooms, etc.) will be recorded.

When recording, the service rooms should not be taken into consideration, the offices, storage rooms, dining rooms, riding rooms, the cabinets. The permanent occupied rooms by the management or administrative dwellings, or the permanent occupied rooms by the households of the married students or other households should be not recorded on UC forms.

[p. 54]

Space capacity expressed by the number of places (item 5)
83. Tthe total number of the places of the collective living unit, hostel-type, meaning the accommodation capacity of the unit at the census moment (and not the accommodated persons in these units) will be written. So, when in a school boarding, having a 100 beds as capacity for accommodation, the number 100 will be enumerated, even at the census moment only 50 beds were occupied, or more than 100 persons were accommodated there (the effective capacity should be taken into consideration).

84. In the case of buildings with collective living units where there are also dwellings, the LP form's number in the file, recorded for the first dwelling from the building in the right side box of chapter I will be enumerated.

For the collective living unit from the same lot in which there were formed 2 or more census sectors, the chapter I of the UC (UH) form for the entire collective living unit will be completed only on the form from the first sector's file; besides this, the enumerator from the first sector completes the LP forms for all the dwellings (including not classical housing units) situated in the collective living unit, posing and numbering them in this sector's file.

Chapter II - List of the recorded persons on the collective living unit -- Hostel type.

85. In this chapter all persons accommodated in the collective living unit, who, usually arrived for a longer period of time (for working, studying, or other reasons), as well as the single persons permanently living in the hostel, who are forming one person households should be recorded.

The following will be not recorded on the UC form, Chapter II:

a) the persons from the households of the management, administrative and services personnel, as well as of the married students who are occupying a dwelling (room) in the collective living unit (because these will be recorded on a separate LP form);

b) foreign students accommodated in student hostels.

86. The recapitulation of the enumerated persons in the UC form. The enumerator will complete the Recapitulation of the enumerated persons in the form existing only on the first UC form for which chapter I was filled in. On the other UC forms (filled when in the unit exist more than 10 persons) the recapitulation space will be bared with a line. The recapitulation of recorded persons in the UC form will be done taking into consideration the followings:

a) in columns 1 and 2 the total number of the persons -- by sex -- resulting from summarizing the persons recorded on the chapter II (column 1 males and column 2 females) will be written;
b) in the columns 3 and 4 the persons who arrived for a longer period in the collective living unit, hostel type (column 02, code 40) are mentioned;
c) in the columns 5 and 6 the single persons are mentioned;
d) in the columns 7 and 8 the persons temporary absent (code 2 in column 03) are mentioned from the total number of persons from the collective living quarter (column 1 and 2).
[p. 55]

For temporary present persons in the collective unit hostel type, for which an UH form "Collective living quarter -- hotel type" (filled with data only for chapter II "List of temporary present persons from the collective living quarter"), "Recapitulation" will be filled for column 9 and 10.

87. If more than 10 persons were found in the collective living quarter hostel type, as well as temporarily present persons, the UC forms filled next (respectively UH forms) will have the same order number as the first form, at which an order letter will be added (a, b, c etc.). On the following completed form the chapter I and "Recapitulation" will be bared with a line.

The UH form- Persons of the collective living units - Hotel type.

88. On this form the collective living units, hotel type and the persons temporarily present accommodations will be recorded d there.

The collective living unit hotel type comprises one or more buildings - under an unique administration, at the same address -- designated to be occupied temporarily by one or more persons, usually temporary present in the place (who arrived on mission, excursion, vacationing, medical care etc.), provided with spaces and facilities commonly used (as bath rooms, kitchens, dining rooms, toilettes, etc.).

The following will be considered as collective living units hotel type: hotels, motels, inns, villas (tourist boarding houses), tourist halting place, the guest houses and the guest rooms, hospitals, sanatoriums, medical stations, stationary (health center), dispensaries (having beds), and maternities etc.

The UH forms will be completed for the dormitories used by the transportation personnel (railroads, flyers) in transit (living usually in another places), as well as ships used as collective living units hotel type.

It is mentioned that for the collective living units hotel type have to be completed also the UC form (only chapter II) in the case that in the unit exist persons who arrived for a longer period of time in (including the ill inmates people from the sanatoriums, or hospitals, being there for more than 6 months). In these situations, the chapter I of the UC form will be barred by an oblique line.

On the UH forms will not be filled for the tents existing on the camping places.

89. The name of the collective living unit, hotel type will be written on the designated space for this purpose, clearly and without abbreviations (for example: Hotel "Intercontinental", mountain Cabin "Balea", etc.).

Chapter I - Data regarding the collective living unit, hotel type

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90. The type of the collective living unit (item 1), the total Number of the buildings forming the collective living unit in the framework of the group, out of which with dwellings (item 2), the Ownership form of the buildings (item 3), the rooms Number - hotel's rooms, collective dormitories, etc. (item 4) and the accommodation -- spaces/capacity (item 5), will be recorded, according to the provisions from paragraphs 79, 80, 81, 82, 83 from this handbook.

For the tourist halting places - in item 2 (the number of the buildings in the collective living unit) and in item 3 (the ownership form), an oblique line will be bar the corresponding spaces to these items because these places are not considered as buildings.

Chapter II -- The list of the temporarily present persons in the collective living unit hotel type

91. In this chapter all temporarily present persons in the collective living unit hotel type taking also into consideration the provisions from paragraph 75 regarding the filling in of LP form -- chapter IV "Persons temporary present in the dwellings" will be recorded.

92. The recapitulation will be filled out by recording -- by sex -- the number of the temporarily present persons in the collective living unit hotel type, recorded in chapter II of the form.

The way of numbering UH forms when more than one UH form is filled in is similar to that described for the filling in of the UC form in collective living quarters, hostel type (see the provisions from item 87).

[pp. 57-66 not presented here]