Presidency of the Republic
Technical Secretary of Planning
General Directorate of Statistics, Surveys, and Census
National Census of Population and Dwellings
[The index of the document is omitted here.]
Just like in other countries of Latin America, in Paraguay the experience of the Population and Dwellings Census is relatively short and goes back 42 years. In fact, the first Census of Population and dwellings was done in 1950 and the following were done in the years 1962, 1972 and 1982.
The Census that the country plans to take in 1992 responds, as in the previous cases, to the need to count on actualized statistical data about the demographic and socio-economic reality. The census information obtained will facilitate the formulation of plans, programs and developmental projects, in terms of the most important national objectives.
One of the characteristics of the census is that of providing information at small geographical units; at the same time, provide the adequate framework for designing samples; and from this, obtain the supplies necessary for preparing population projections and estimates.
Without doubt, the principal user of the resulting information of the census should be the Paraguayan population as a group which will, knowing its realities in an objective and documented manner, will be able to intervene in all decisions to reach the much desired goals of socio-economic well-being.
2. Definition of the census
The Census of Population and Dwellings is the complete count of all of the persons, households and dwellings that are found in the country, at a given moment, which is like an instant photograph of all of the population of the country, at the zero hour of the day of the Census.
3. Type of census
The 1992 Census, like the previous ones, will be a Factual Census, because we will interview all of the persons in the dwelling who slept the night of August 25th to 26th.
4. Date and time of the census
This is Wednesday, August 26th, 1992. Therefore, all of the census information will refer to the zero hour of the census day.
5. Obligatory and confidential nature of the census
Frequently there is resistance, on the part of the informants, to providing the information that is requested in the different investigations that are statistical in nature, due to fears that the information will be used for purposes of taxation, obligatory military service, police affairs, etc., for which it is necessary to mention the active Law Decrees number 11,126/42, which reorganizes and coordinates the statistical services of the republic, and number 15,415/70 which creates a Council of Statistics, especially in regards to the obligatory nature and the confidentiality of the statistical information to which article 8 refers, in the following terms:
"The businesses, establishments, societies or private administrations of any type and in general all of the persons to whom the General Directorate of Statistics addresses become obliged through this law to provide the statistical data that is requested of them, in the knowledge that it will not be shared and will only serve to appreciate the diverse aspects of national life."
In accordance with the above, the census information that is published will be referred to in political-administrative divisions or other that are of geographic nature, but never in an individualized manner.
In any case, with the goal of safeguarding the confidentiality, the interview, as far as possible, should be done in a private manner, which means, without the presence of persons outside of the census household that is being enumerated.
6. Census household
For the purpose of the census, a household is the set of persons who, related or not, occupy a dwelling or part of it, eat from a common pot, which means that they share the food expenses.
A census household can be constituted by:
- A family (where the members have family ties)
- Two or more persons who, without being related, live together, and share the expenses of food or other household expenses.
- A person who lives alone also constitutes a census household.
If a private dwelling is a house, it is possible to find more than one census household in it, which means two or more groups of persons who do not eat from a common pot.
7. Head of household, male or female
This is the person considered as such by the rest of the members of the household, whether because of age or because he/she is the primary provider or for any other reason, but he/she should be over 14 years old. A census household will only have one head of household. The head of household can be a man or a woman.
This is all location or building that has been built, converted or designated for the purpose of permanent or temporary housing of persons. Therefore we can say that the buildings under construction or any non-mobile or mobile shelter, occupied on the day of the census by persons, as a place of shelter, is a dwelling.
-The private dwelling: when it is designated for sheltering one or more private households. Examples: a house, a rural house, an apartment, a flat, a camp, a boat, a vehicle, etc.
-The collective dwelling: when it houses groups of persons (collective household) who live together for reasons of work, health, religious vocation, education, defense, corrections, tourism, etc. Example: hospital, convent, educational boarding, barracks, jail, hotel, etc. In the collective dwelling, the regiment is not a family regiment.
1. The census-taker or enumerator
This is the person in charge of collecting the census information for each dwelling, household, and persons, within an enumeration area. The enumerator is the key person in the census work, in a great measure the success of the census depends on him.
He/she will work under the direction of the section supervisor, who will orient and help him/her in any difficulty.
Professors of educational centers, both public and private, high school and university students, as well as public officials, and community and church leaders will collaborate as enumerators.
2. Recommendations to the enumerator
Before the census
- Punctually attend the training course.
- Study and fulfill the instructions in the manual. In the case of doubts, request clarifications from the instructor.
- Accompany the supervisor in the verification of the limits of your segment, the day before the census.
- For the rural enumerator: Coordinate with the supervisor the manner in which you will carry out the route of your segment.
During the census
- Be present on the day of August 26, 1992, at 7 am, in the place that the supervisor indicates to you, taking the Enumerator's Manual as a consulting element.
- Carry out your tasks personally. You should not ask another person to do the work that you were assigned. If you have any problem fulfilling your task, immediately communicate it to the supervisor.
- Fill in: The census form and the form C-1-Enumerator's Summary. With the interview concluded, adhere (stick) the proof of enumerated dwelling in a visible place.
- For the rural enumerator: show up on the days, in the place and at the time, that the supervisor indicates. Carry out all of the tasks presented in the training.
After the census
- Show up in the census office or the place indicated by the supervisor, after concluding your work in the area that was assigned to you.
- Turn in all of the documents that you used and return those that were not used.
3. Prohibitions to the enumerator
The enumerator should not:
a.- Tell, alter, or comment on the information received.
b.- Request money or goods from the persons who you are enumerating.
c.- Cause fear in the enumerated persons.
d.- Argue with or create polemic with the informants.
e. Ask questions that are not part of the census.
f.- Allow friends or relatives to help you with your work.
g.- Keep the materials after the census.
h.- Place the census forms in places that are accessible to persons who are not part of the census.
4. The census interview
The interview is a conversation that is established between the enumerator and the head of household or some responsible member who is provides information about the dwelling and the household that you are going to enumerate. This person will be called, indiscriminately, interviewee or informant. It should be done in the following manner:
-You will greet the person cordially.
-You will introduce yourself showing your enumerator's identification.
-You will explain the reasons for the census.
The enumerator should give the interviewee the security and confidence that the information the he provides is confidential and that it cannot be revealed even if there is a judicial order involved.
The enumerator should be friendly and respectful. During the interview you should pay attention to the persons that the informant gives you. In no case should you show surprise at the answers that you receive.
You should not forget that all of the persons interviewed are important and that the data that they provide will be valuable for the census.
5. Manner of completing the interview
- Ask the questions in the order and form that they appear on the census form.
- Read each questions slowly and, where this is the case, each of the answers, so that the informant can understand them.
- In the case that you note that the question was not understood, you should repeat it and, if necessary, make the corresponding clarification or translation to guaranÃ or other language, taking care to not change the meaning.
- Do not suggest the answers, let the informant answer freely.
6. How to overcome the refusal to provide information
If when you visit the dwelling, or during the interview, you note that there is no interest in cooperating with the census, you should try to convince the interviewee, proceeding in the following manner:
- Briefly explain the goal of the census.
- Avoid any type of argument.
- If the negation persists, you should thank the person and leave. As soon as you can, you will inform the supervisor of what occurred.
7. Who will be enumerated:
All of the persons who live in our country. This will be achieved by enumerating each dwelling and all of the members of the census household[s].
a) All of the persons who slept in the dwelling on the night before the census day (the night of August 25 to 26, 1992).
b) Relatives or friends who are found residing in or are visiting in the dwelling, whether for reasons of health, vacations, etc. and who slept there the night before the census day.
c) The domestic employee, who slept in the dwelling the night before the census day.
d) The children who were born before the "0" hour of the census day.
e) The persons who died before the "0" hour of the census day.
f) The members of the household who for social reasons or work reasons did not sleep in the dwelling the night before the census day:
- Who are present when the census is taken.
- Who are not found present, but with the security that they will not be enumerated in another place.
Example: the night watchmen, doctors, nurses, vehicle drivers, etc.
Do not enumerate:
a) The persons who died before the "0" hour of the census day.
b) The children who were born after the "0" hour of the census day.
Whenever possible, it is convenient that the informant be the same person to whom the information corresponds.
The information for the children under 12 years old and the persons with impediments will be provided by their parents or persons responsible for the household.
1. Description of the census form
The census form is the instrument for registering the data of dwellings, households, and population. It is comprised of:
- Form number: each census household should have an identification number.
Section I - Geographic localization - This information locates the dwelling geographically and it is obligatory that it appear on all of the forms.
Section II - Information about the dwelling - General characteristics about the dwelling.
Section III - Information about the household - Information about each household of the dwelling.
Section IV - Information about the population - Information about each of the persons of the census household.
2. How to note the data on the census form
Always use a pencil, in the case of correction, erase and write the correct information.
There are three manners of writing the information:
a) Writing in clear handwriting, when you are presented with a line.
Indigenous language : MaKa
b) With a number, when you are presented with small boxes.
4. Years completed [ 17 ]
c) With an X when you are presented with a circle.
20. Is there a room for bathing?
[ ] No, there is not
3. Completing the census form
Number of the form
All of the census forms used should have a number. You should assign a number to each household that you visit, beginning with number 1 for the first household, 2 for the second, and continuing subsequently.
The unoccupied dwellings also have a form number, because we assume that in each one of them you should count on a census household.
If the number of members of the household is greater than nine persons, you should use an additional form. This form will use the same number assigned to the household that you are enumerating, followed by the word cont. (which means continuation).
If the third household has eleven persons:
- And the second form in this manner:
All of the forms used should have the geographical localization, you should copy on each form the information from the cover of the folder that contains the census forms. Example:
1. Department: Itapua 
2. District: Encarnacion 
[ ] Rural
4. Neighborhood: San Pedro
5. Street: Mcal Estigarribia
House number  
It is important to take into account that in regards to the circles, there are several possible situations.
-Sometimes, in addition to the x, you should specify a written answer or another x.
Question 1 of dwelling
1. Type of dwelling
 Rural ranch house
 Apartment or flat
 Rental room
 Improvised dwelling
[x] Other: Camp
Question 5 of population
Do you have any physical or mental impediment?
 2 Deaf
 3 Mute
 4 Paralyzed
 Other ____
It is important to take into account that when a circle is used, the answers are exclusive, and you should therefore mark only one x per question, except for questions 22 of section III (information about the household).
Question 9 of population
9. Where did you live five years ago, which means in August of 1987?
6 Other place
Mark "here" if he/she lived in this place, if not, mark "other place", note the district and mark if he/she lived in the city/town or in a camp. Write the department. Write the country, if he/she lived outside of Paraguay.
In addition, do not forget that all of the questions should have an answer. If it does not correspond to ask the question(s), carefully make a diagonal line, to nullify the space of the answer(s).
The information for this section will be completed for the single household. In the case that there is more than one census household within a dwelling, you will complete this section only for the first household.
This section is comprised of thirteen questions.
Remember: You should mark only one answer for each answer.
1. Type of dwelling
A. Private dwelling
 Rural ranch house
 Apartment or flat
 Rental room
 Improvised dwelling
 Other _____
B. Collective dwelling
 Educational boarding school
 Military or police barracks
 Jail or reformatory
 Religious community
 Other _____
[For all of the above,] continue with question 24
A. Private dwelling: is also classified by:
- House: This is the one that is built with prepared materials. It has direct exit to the street, road, path, etc. and constitutes a single dwelling.
- Rural ranch house: Dwelling with an exit to the exterior. The ranch house, in general, has adobe walls, dirt floor, straw, palm, or bark roof.
- Apartment or flat: This is the dwelling that forms part of a building of two or more floors and has access to the street through a hallway, corridor, stairway and/or elevator.
- Rental room: When the dwelling occupies, in independent manner, a room of various similar rooms that exist in a building or along a patio. Generally, they have common use of sanitary services.
- Improvised dwelling: When the dwelling is built with discarded materials (cardboard, straw [woven straw], cans, tarps, plastic, cane, packaging, etc.)
- Other: Specify
In this category we include the spaces that are not destined for human habitation, but that are used as spaces for human habitation on the census day.
Example: Factories, stores, businesses, offices, garages, boats, sheds, old chassis, tent, guard house, stable, refugee camp, etc.
The refugee camps will use a form for each household with correlative numbers.
B. Collective dwelling: These are also classified like this:
-Educational boarding school
-Military or police barracks
-Jail or reformatory
Also considered as a collective dwelling are the groups of six or more renters who live in private dwellings.
2. Condition of occupancy
 With persons absent [end of the interview]
 For commercial or professional use [end of interview]
 For rent or sale [end of interview]
 Other reason [end of interview] _____
a) Occupied with persons present: This is the dwelling that on the day of the census is occupied and the persons who live in it are found present.
b) Occupied with persons absent: This is the dwelling that is permanently occupied, but that on the day of the census, the person who live in it are not found.
Reserve the form that corresponds to this dwelling, assigning its order number and continue with the enumeration. When you complete the route of your segment, return to the dwelling that you left pending. If the occupants continue absent, mark X in the circle corresponding to occupied dwelling with persons absent and communicate this situation to your supervisor.
Unoccupied: There are four pre-established items for the possible reasons for which a dwelling could be unoccupied; mark only one answer. The example shows a dwelling that is unoccupied because it is for summer or weekend use.
Questions 3 to 5: What material predominates in the exterior walls, roof and floor?
These questions refer to the material that is most used in said construction.
 2 Adobe
 3 Mud and cane
 4 Wood
 5 Discarded materials: cardboard, rubber, packing wood, etc.
[x] 6 Other ___
4. What is the predominant material of the floor?
 2 Brick
 3 Common tile/flagstone
 4 Tile, ceramic tile, granite
 5 Cement
[x] 6 Wood
 7 Other ____
5. What is the predominant material of the roof?
 2 Straw
 3 Palm
 4 Wood
 5 Metal sheet
[x] 6 Fiber-cement or similar
 7 Reinforced concrete or framed concrete
 8 Discarded materials: Cardboard, rubber, packing wood, etc.
 9 Other ____
Question 6: What is the main water supply?
This refers to the source from which the water for the dwelling originates. Take into account that you should mark Corposana or Senasa when either of these institutions provides the water through a system of pipes.
Private network: When the providers of the water through a system of pipes are: any business or person and that Corposana and Senasa do not participate in it.
6. From where do you get the water that is used in the dwelling?
 2 Private network
 3 Well with a pump
 4 Well without a pump
 5 Spring, river or ditch
[x] 6 Water delivery truck
 7 Other
[Question 7 is asked of occupied households with present members]
Question 7: Do you have water â¦?
- Outside the dwelling but inside the patio?
- Outside the patio?
These questions refer to the place where the water supply for the dwelling is found.
7. Do you have waterâ¦.
 2 Outside the dwelling but inside the patio?
 3 Outside the patio?
Question 8: What type of lighting does the dwelling have?
If it is evident that the dwelling has electrical energy available, ask if it comes from Ande or from a private business, motor, or generator.
 2 Motor or generator
 3 Gas lamp
 4 Petromax lamp or "Night sun"
 5 Kerosene lamp (Mbopi)
 6 Candle lamp, wax candle and/or
Question 9: How does the dwelling remove the trash?
If the community does not have public or private trash collection service, read the answer options starting with number 2. Mark only one answer in the corresponding option.
9. How do you dispose of the trash?
 2 Burn it or bury it in holes
 3 Throw it on the patio
 4 Throw it in a creek or river
 5 Throw it in an empty lot, ditch, street, etc.
Question 10: The plot or land where the dwelling stands isâ¦
This question refers exclusively to the property title of the lot or land. Consider that:
- Fiscal or municipal: When the lot belongs to the state or municipality
- Private property: When the land belongs to the owner of the dwelling and it is inhabited by the same, or is rented or loaned to another person.
- Occupied de facto. This refers to the property occupied without authorization of the owner.
 2 Private property
 3 Occupied de facto
Question 11: Under what condition is the dwelling occupied?
If the occupants of the dwelling are:
- Owners: in this case, the dwelling is occupied by the owner
- Is being paid for in quotas: when they are paying (monthly) quotas for the dwelling
- Leaser or renter: The occupants are paying a rent for the dwelling
- De facto occupant: Persons who occupy the dwelling without the permission of the owner.
 2 Is being paid for in quotas
 3 Owner in condominium
 4 Leaser or renter
 5 De facto occupant (without permission)
 6 Neither owner nor pays rent
Question 12: Do the persons who occupy this dwelling eat from a common pot, which means, do they share food expenses?
- With this question we want to find out how many households there are in dwelling.
- If the answer to this question is yes, this means that there is only one household and you should move to section III. If the answer is no, this means that there is more than one household and you should continue with question 13.
Question 13: How many households or groups of persons are there in this dwelling?
- You will ask this question when the answer to question 12 was no and you will note the total number of census household that make up the dwelling that is being interviewed.
Example: If in the third dwelling there are two households, you will note it like this:
13. How many households or groups of persons are there in this dwelling?
Number of families or groups of persons = number of households 
If in the dwelling there is more than one census household, for the first household complete sections I, II, III and IV; for the second and following households, make a diagonal line in section II (Information about the dwelling). Complete sections I, III, and IV. Note in section III (information about the household), question 14, the order number of that corresponds to each household within the dwelling.
- Census household is the group of persons who eat from a common pot, which means that they share food expenses.
- Prepare a form for each census household.
- Note in each census form, the information for geographic location.
- If there are more than five households in a dwelling, consider the dwelling as a rental unit and proceed as indicated for this case.
- In the case of doubt about the correct identification of the block number, request and consult the Ande receipt.
Question 14: This is completed when there are two or more households in the dwelling. Following the above example it is regarding the third dwelling visited:
-For the first household, you will note the answer like this:
14. Write the order number of this household:
Order number of the household 
-For the second household, write the answer like this:
14. Write the order number of the household
Order number of the household 
Remember that in this case, the first household will have form number 3, the second will have form number 4, and the fourth dwelling visited will have form number 5, and so on.
Question 15: How many rooms are there in this household?
15. How many households are there in this household?
(Do not count the kitchen nor bathroom)
Number of rooms 
This refers to the number of rooms that a household has, without taking into account the rooms of the bathroom, nor the kitchen. Room is a space that is closed off by four walls and a roof.
Question 16: How many rooms are used for sleeping?
16. How many rooms are used for sleeping?
Number of rooms for sleeping 
In this case, you should take into account all of the rooms that are habitually used for sleeping. This also includes the living room, dining room, the garage or any other room that is habitually used for sleeping.
Question 17: Is there a room for cooking?
We want to know if the household has a room that is exclusively designated for preparing foods.
17. How many rooms for cooking?
 2 No, they do not have one
If the room used for cooking is shared with another household, you should mark the option "Yes, they have one".
Question 18: What do they use habitually for cooking?
-This refers to the type of fuel: gas, coal, firewood, etc., that is used with the greatest frequency. Mark only the one with the greatest use.
18. What do you habitually use for cooking?
 2 Coal
 3 Gas
 4 Electricity
 5 Kerosene, alcohol, etc.
Question 19: Where do you cook?
-This refers to the place where the food is cooked. It can be on the floor, on top of a pit or fireplace, or over the economic kitchen.
19. Where do you cook?
 2 Over a pit or fireplace
 3 Over an economic kitchen
Question 20: Do you have a bathroom?
- We want to know if the household has a room designated for bathing persons. Consider that they have a room for bathing when they have a room with roof and walls.
20. Do you have a bathroom?
 2 No, they do not
If they have a place for bathing that is shared with another household, you should mark the option "Yes, they do"
Question 21. What type of toilet or sanitary service to you have?
-Mark only one answer according to the type of toilet that the dwelling has. If they have more than two types of toilet, mark the most modern and sanitary one (or the one of the greatest value).
21. What type of toilet or sanitary service do you have?
 2 Modern bathroom connected to a public network
 3 Municipal-type latrine
 4 Common latrine
 5 Does not have
Question 22: In this household they haveâ¦
-This refers to whether the household has, or not, the electro domestic appliances and/or vehicles that appear on the list. In each option, you should necessarily mark one answer.
22. In this household they have: Yes / No
Clothes washing machine
Automobile or station wagon
Wagon, cart, or buggy
Question 23: What type of language do the persons speak among themselves in this household?
-The question refers to the language that is habitually used by the persons in their daily communication within the household. You should consider the one that is of greatest use. Mark one of the options from the list that is presented. If in the household, they speak an indigenous language, you should note the name of the language on the space provided. If the person speaks another language, you should note the name of the language in the designated space.
 1 Only Guarani
 2 Spanish and Guarani
 3 Only Spanish
Question 24: Summary of all of the persons in the household
The summary of all of the persons in the household will be done through five questions. The first three must be asked before registering the data on the population so that it serves as control 1, register this [the data on the population], and then last two after registering the data for all of the persons of the household. Verify the answer with the information about population that you registered previously. Note the answers to the questions 1 to 5 in the corresponding boxes.
24. Summary of all of the persons in the household
If you used more than one form in this household, complete the summary only on the first form, including all of the persons in this household.
1. How many men are there in this household? ____3
2. How many women are there in this household? ____2
3. How many persons, in total, are there in this household? _____5
Complete after ending the interview with all of the persons of the household:
4. Persons 0 to 17 years old in this dwelling ____2
5. Persons between 18 completed years and more that are in this household ____3
Census taker or enumerator, supervisor
-The enumerator will note his/her name and last name, will sign and will note the date in which he/she verified the census form.
Luis Acosta / Luis Acosta
Date: Day  month  year 
- This space is designated for noting any data that you encounter about the dwelling, the household, and the persons.
- If you are enumerating a household that has been damaged by flooding rivers, here you will note "damage from flooding".
- If the persons refuse to provide the census information, write "refused" or "rejected."
You should start this section by reading the instructions on the top part of the form, in which it is recommended that you ask the head of household for the names and last names of the persons who slept there on the eve of the census.
You should note the information according to the relationship to the head of household, in the following order: First persons, which always refers to the head of household, male or female. After the head of household you should register the spouse, the unmarried children from eldest to youngest, the married children, the son/daughter-in-law, the grandchildren, other relatives, the non-relatives and the domestic personnel and their relatives. In addition you should register those who are not present and they know will not be enumerated in any other place.
No household can be without a head of household, male or female.
If it is a baby who does not have a name, on the corresponding line write NN and the last name of the father or the mother, according to the situation.
Mark only one circle according to the answer of the interviewee. Other relatives include brothers, uncles/aunts, cousins, brother/sister-in-law, stepchild of the married couple.
Mark the corresponding answer.
If the name of the person does not reveal the sex, do not doubt in asking the interviewee, especially if he/she is a foreigner.
 1 Spouse/companion
[x] 2 Son or daughter
 3 Son/daughter-in-law
 4 Grandson/granddaughter
 5 Parents or mother/father-in-law
 6 Other relative
 7 Non-relative
 8 Domestic personnel or his/her relative
 2 Woman
At the same time that you note the names and last names of each one of the persons in the census household, you should register his/her relationship to the head of household, male or female and the sex.
4. How old are you in years completed?
Years completed [2 2]
This refers to the years that he/she has already completed and not the age that the person will complete on his/her next birthday (even if it is only one day before his/her birthday). If the child is less than one year old, write 00.
Question 5: Does he/she have any physical or mental impediment?
5. Does he/she have any physical or mental impediment?
(Only blind=does not see)
(Deaf=does not hear)
(Mute=does not speak)
(Paralyzed=does not walk)
 1 Yes
 2 Deaf
 3 Mute
[x] 4 Paralyzed
This question had as its objective the number of disabled persons in the population.
This question is difficult and we request special attention and care on the part of the enumerators.
You should not omit any person, whatever his/her age or sex.
This question can have various answer for one persons. This means that one person can be deaf, mute, and have difficulty for walking, in which case you should mark all of the disabilities.
A disability, as the name indicates, impedes that a person fulfill a function, such as speech, walking, listening, communicating his/her ideas, take care of him/herself, work independently without help, etc.
After asking the question, you should wait a moment, it can be that it is difficult to decide whether or not to tell about a defect of a relative. If the enumerator observes a person with a disability in the home, he/she should note the information when he/she is sure of the information for this person, without needing to ask the question.
This question has 4 pre-established specified answers and an open option: Others. The pre-established answers are:
1. Blind. Person who cannot see, whether since birth or because he/she lost his/her sight due to illness or accident. Do not include persons who can see, but with difficulty.
2. Deaf. Person who is totally deaf, since birth or due to illness or accident. Do not include persons who hear with difficulty.
3. Mute. Person who cannot speak, since birth or due to illness or accident. Do not include persons who speak with difficulty.
4. Paralyzed. All person who has difficulty, cannot move arms and/or legs, needs help for many of his/her normal activities.
5. Other. If the person presents an impediment that is not established above, you should mark this box. The options are the following:
a. Mental retardation. Person who habitually does not learn what is taught, does not understand what is said to him/her, does not speak well. This includes mongoloid persons.
b. Does not hear well: Persons who, without being deaf, have serious hearing problems that make it difficult to study and/or work.
c. Behavior: Persons who have visible behavior problems that does not permit him/her to study and/or work. They are persons who are normally categorized as crazy or trarova [local term that is synonymous with crazy].
d. Physical Deficiency: All persons who have some physical impediment that, without being paralyzed, such as minor paralysis, deformed arms and/or legs, hydrocephalus (large head).
e. Other impediments: If the impediment found cannot be classified in one of the above groups, you should specify it.
Specify that this refers to the mother of the person being interviewed and not only to the mother of the head of household.
6. Is the mother of [the respondent] alive?
[x] 2 Dead
 3 Does not know
This refers to the place where the mother of the person being enumerated lived when the person being enumerated was born. You should not confuse the geographic location, for example, the hospital, the maternity hospital, or another place where the mother went to give birth to her child.
7. Where was he/she born?
[x] 1 Here
 6 Other place
Department or country ____
Year of arrival [ _ _ ]
Example: If he/she was born in the National Maternity [hospital] and his/her mother lived in San Lorenzo, you should consider that the place of birth is San Lorenzo and not AsunciÃ³n.
Mark "here" if he/she was born in the place where you are enumerating, without noting district or department. If it is not the case, mark "another place" and write the name of the district and the department in the blank spaces.
If he/she was born in another country, write the country and the year of arrival to stay in Paraguay. If he/she is a tourist, write the country of origin and as year of arrival, write 98.
Question 8: Where do you live currently?
If he/she lives in the same place where you are enumerating, mark "here" and move to the following question.
If he/she does not live in the place where you are enumerating, mark "other place" and the district.
If the district is urban, mark city/town, if it is a rural area, mark campaign.
Then note the department and if he/she lives outside of Paraguay, write the country.
8. Where do you live currently?
Write the name of the department.
Write the name of the country if he/she lives outside of Paraguay.
[x] 1 Here
 6 Other place
District : _____
 1 City/town
 6 Rural area
Department or country: _____
Only for persons five years old and more
This will be registered exactly like question 8, taking into account that this question makes reference to five years ago, which means, August of 1987.
9. Where did you live five years ago, which means, in August of 1987?
Write the name of the department.
Write the name of the country if he/she lived outside of Paraguay.
 1 Here
[x] 6 Other place
District : Ciudad del Este [name of district, in Spanish]
[x] 1 City/town
 6 Rural area
Department or country: Alto Parana [name of department, in Spanish]
Question 10: What is the last grade or course that you passed?
This refers only to the last grade or course that was passed and not the one that he/she is currently enrolled in.
If the grade passed is pre-school, note pre-elementary. If he/she is in the first grade and did not attend pre-elementary, (pre-school) mark "none".
Secondary level: includes Basic education, secondary in Humanistic, Commercial, Technical, teacher's training, and Commerce education.
Higher: Teacher's Preparation, Military and Police Training.
None   0
Pre-school   1
Elementary       
Secondary      [x]  
Higher     
University       
Question 11: Do you currently study in an educational center for regular education?
Regular education [formal education]: Pre-School, elementary, secondary, higher and university.
Ask if the person being enumerated is currently studying, and if not, you should register the reason for not studying.
If the person is currently attending a regular educational center, in any of the levels cited above, you should mark yes.
If he/she is not attending any, read the different reasons established in the list of why he/she does not attend. Mark only one answer.
For persons over 30 years old, if he/she does not study, mark no, for other reasons. This option includes not being of an age for studying, whether he/she is too young, old, does not want to study, is pregnant, has children, etc.
 1 Yes
 2 Because he/she works and cannot afford it
[x] 3 Due to problems related to the school
 4 For other reasons
[x] 2 Catholic
Question 13: What is your marital status?
There are six options: married, in a consensual union, widowed, divorced, and single.
Mark only one answer.
If the person is single, but has his/her companion, for both of them, write "union".
If the person declared to be married but is in a consensual union with another person, you should also mark "union".
 2 Consensual union
 3 Widowed
 4 Separated
 5 Divorced
[x] 6 Single
Question 14: Did you work the majority of last week?
We consider "last week" or "reference week" to be from Sunday the 16th to Saturday the 22nd of August.
14. Did you work the majority of last week?
[x] 1 Worked
 2 Did not work, but has a job
 3 Looked for work having worked previously
[For answers 01, 02, 03] Ask Questions 15 to 17
 4 Looked for first job
 5 Did household chores
 6 Is a student
 7 Lived off of rents
 8 Is retired or receives a pension
 9 Obligatory military service
 10 Other situation
[For answers 04 to 10] Continue with question 18.
Take into account the following definitions:
Work: Includes all persons who worked for a payment or salary, "in cash" or "in kind", for "tips or commissions" or as "self-employed". Also, the person who worked for a family member for more than two hours daily or more than 15 hours a week without payment or remuneration.
Did not work, but had a job: Includes all of the persons who have employment or a business, but in the week of reference did not work due to illness, vacation, broken machinery, lack of work materials, bad weather, etc.
Looked for work having worked previously. This refers to the persons who, having working before, want to do so, for which they have made the effort to find employment, personally offering his/her services to possible employers or registering in placement and employment office, placing requests with friends and/or relatives, etc.
Did housework: This is the group of persons dedicated to domestic labors in his/her own household, such as housewives and other relatives who do housework without being paid.
Studied: This refers to the persons who were exclusively dedicated to studies, without doing any paid activity. If, in addition to studying, he/she did any paid work, mark X inside the circle that corresponds to "work" and do not mark "student".
Lived off of rents: Include the persons who received income only from the product of their goods or capital without working. If, in addition to rents, he/she worked, mark "worked".
Is retired or pensioned: Include the persons who did not have a paid occupation the week before the census and have been maintained only from what they receive in concept of retirement or pension. If, in addition to the retirement or pension, they worked, mark "worked".
Obligatory military service: Include the young men/women who provide services in barracks, commissaries, military bases and others.
Other situation: Includes any other cause for which he/she did not do nor look for paid employment. Example: does not want to work, is incapacitated, is ill, attends an establishment for regular education, etc.
If in question 14 you marked options 01, 02, 03, you should ask questions 15, 16 and 17.
If you marked any of the options starting with 04 through 10, make a diagonal line through questions 15, 16 and 17. If it is a man, continue with the next person; if it is a woman, move on to question 18.
Question 15: What is (or was) your principal occupation in your work?
In the corresponding space, write the specific occupation, job, or profession that the informant declares to have done in the last week or the last time that he/she worked.
15. What is (was) your principal occupation in your job? ____
Below we offer some examples that will allow you to appreciate the correct form of making the annotations:
Incorrect annotation / Correct annotation
Construction laborer / Concrete layer, tile installer, floor installer, framer, etc.
Mechanic / Automobile mechanic, typewriter mechanic, etc.
Laborer / Blacksmith, welder, baker, restaurant cook, etc.
Vendor / Wholesale vendor, retail vendor, traveling fruit vendor, etc.
Employee / Short-hand taker, secretary, head of personnel, manager, administrator, etc.
Professional / Civil Engineer, Dentist, Pharmacist, Lawyer, elementary school professor, etc.
If the informant has two or more occupations, you will write down the one that provides the greatest income. If both provide equal income, you will note the one to which the informant dedicates the most time. If he/she has equal income and dedicates the same amount of time, you will note the one that he considers the most important.
If, for example, the informant is by profession a lawyer and works and the director of a school, you will write down school director.
16. In this work you are (or were)?
 Worker or day laborer
 Boss or employer
 Self-employed or independent worker
 Un-paid family member
 Domestic employee
Take the following definitions into account:
Employee: The person whose occupation predominates the intellectual force over the physical, and who works for a payment, salary or commission, for a boss or employer (whether public or private). The following are employees: the managers, directors, secretaries, office personnel, teachers, nurses, etc.
Worker or day laborer: the person who carries out an occupation that is predominantly physical, through shifts, monthly, monthly, weekly or contract pay, "for tips" or "in kind". Included in this group are construction laborers, overseers, patio or farm hands, milkers, chauffeurs, hotel cooks, in addition, it includes farmers who work outside of their own land.
Boss or employer: This is the person who exploits his/her own economic business, having one or more paid workers (employees or workers) without including domestic employees.
Self-employed or independent worker: The person who exploits his/her own company or business or who practices a profession or occupation on his/her own account without having an employer nor paid worker under his/her care.
Unpaid family worker: This is the person who works more than two houses a day or more than fifteen hours a week in a company or business that is exploited by a member of his/her family without receiving any payment for his/her work.
Domestic employee: This is the person in charge of household tasks, with pay. Example: cook, maid, nanny, gardener who earns a salary and others.
As in question 15, you should request the specific description of the activity to which it is dedicated.
17. To what is the company, business or institution where you work (or worked) dedicated to? Examples: cotton growing, horticulture crop production, building construction, elementary education, healthcare, clothing manufacture, commerce, Antelco, Ande, lumber finishing, etc.
Payroll- Ministry of Education
Below we offer some examples that will help you appreciate the correct form for making the notations.
Incorrect annotation / Correct annotation
Workshop / Blacksmith's workshop, Automobile repair workshop, Bicycle repair shop, Carpentry workshop, etc.
Commerce / Shoe sales, vegetable sales, restaurants, etc.
Factory / Shoe manufacture, cheese manufacture, clothing assembly, soap manufacture, alcohol manufacture, soft drink manufacture, etc.
Public Administration / Ministry of Education, Ministry of Finance, Statistics, Census, etc.
Only for women 14 years old and older.
The questions 18 and on refer to fertility. They will be asked only of women who are fourteen years old and older.
Question 18: Have you had a son (or daughter) born alive?
If she responds yes, continue asking questions 19 and on.
If she answers no, end the interview and continue with the next person.
In the box, write, with legible numbers, the number of sons/daughters that the woman had and those that are alive at this time. Mark the circle "none" if she does not have children who are alive.
Write, with legible numbers, the number of children that were born alive and then died. You should not register those that were born dead. If none died, mark the circle that corresponds to "none".
Note the complete date. Day, month, and year of the last live birth, even when the child later died.
With question 21, the interview is completed. Move to the next person if there are still members of the household. If there are more persons, continue with the following household. If this is the last person of the last household or if it the only household, move on to enumerate the next dwelling.
- Use only paper-type pencil in completing the form.
- Mark the corresponding circles with an x without going outside of the boundaries.
- Observe and be sure that the circle you marked corresponds to the answer that the interviewee gave you.
- Complete the words and proper names that the census form requires with clear, legible script.
- Write the number clearly, without corrections in the corresponding boxes.
- That each household must necessarily have a head of household. In the case that the head of household is absent (whether for work or any other reason), another member of the same household should take his/her place (wife, eldest son, brother, etc.) and the relationship will be taken in regards to the person who figures as head of household. In the collective households, this question will not be asked and you should mark "not related".
On Form C-1- Enumerator's Summary, you should register all of the dwellings (occupied, unoccupied, and those that are under construction) and the buildings that serve for other purposes, such as commercial spaces, industries, churches, prayer sites, sports locations, collective units that form a special enumeration area, etc. and those that are found inside the enumeration area, in the order that you visit them.
Form C-1 Enumerator's Summary has the following goals:
- Present the summary of your work as an enumerator.
- Facilitate the revision of your work for the section supervisor.
- Facilitate the preparation of the preliminary count of the population for the district leader.
1. Specific Instructions for completing Form C-1 Enumerator's Summary
Section I. Geographic localization
This information should be copied from the label on the cover of the folder
Enumerator's Summary C-1
National Census of Population and Dwellings
August 26, 1992
Section I. Geographic location
1. Department - Caazapa - 
2. District - Buena Vista - 
4. Neighborhood ____ [ ] section [ ] Block [ ] Enumeration Area [ ] [3tr note AE= Enumeration Area]
5. Colony ____ [ ] Section [ ] Enumeration Area [ ]
6. Campaign -Potrero guazu 
7. Other location ____ [ ]
Form number _/_
9. Indigenous community ____ [ ] Specify ethnicity or partiality [ ]
In this box, in the upper triangle you will number, starting with 1 in correlative form, the quantity of forms used. After having numbered the last form, in the lower triangle of each of the forms you will write the total number of forms used.
When you used one Form C-1 for an Enumeration Area
When you use three Form C-1 for an Enumeration Area
The location of the dwelling is made up of five columns:
(01) Street or road. Write the name of the street, avenue, alley, road, etc.
(02) Number of the house or building. Write the number that appears hanging on the wall or door that is seen from the street.
If the house does not have a number, write in this column the number that corresponds to the Census Form and enclose it in a circle.
Only for the urban area: Columns 03 and 04
(03) Number of floors. Complete this column only for buildings with several floors. For the dwelling on the lowest level you will assign numbers 2, 3, etc.
(04) Number or letter of the apartment. Complete this column for apartment buildings, noting the numbers or letters that identify the apartments.
(05) Write the number of the Census Form that corresponds to each household.
-Remember that if the dwelling is occupied by persons who are absent or unoccupied it should have a numbered census form, because we assume that in each we should count a census household.
This section is comprised of six columns, which are the following:
(06) Name and last name of the head of household. Write the name and last name of each head of household, which should be the same one that is found on the Census Form.
If in your Enumeration Area you encounter a collective dwelling, which constitutes a special Enumeration Area, which therefore will be enumerated by a special enumerator, you should note in this column the name of the institution in the place of the head of household. But you should not enumerate the persons who live in it. In the following columns from 07 to 12 you should make dashes. In column 13 "observations" indicate what type of collective dwelling it is (example: barracks, boarding school, home for the elderly, etc.)
On the form, note the population information requested in the following columns:
(07), (08) and (09) Note the quantity of men, women and the total.
(10) Note the quantity of persons between 0 and 17 years old.
(11) Note the quantity of persons who are 18 years old and more.
Control that the sum of men+ woman = total, is the same as the sum of 0 - 17 + 18 years old and more. Example: (07) + (08) = (09); (09) = (10) + (11).
Date and observations:
(12) Date of the interview. Note the date of the interview.
(13) Observations: In this column note situation such as the following:
-That the dwelling is found unoccupied, abandoned, etc.;
-That the dwelling has an additional use (for example: store);
-That the building is found in advanced state of construction, in this case you will not prepare a Census Form, therefore it will not have a form number, but it should be included on this form;
-In the case of buildings not designated for dwelling (do not use a Census Form), you should note on the form the street, building number, and its use.
Examples: Butcher shop, hair dresser, lumber deposit, oil factory, church, site of worship, club, mechanic's workshop, carpentry shop, and others;
-Other information that will be useful for better identifying the dwelling in the future.
On the line for Totals at the foot of the form, you should note the sum of each of the columns, from 07 to 11.
Do not forget to verify that the sum of Men + Women and the sum of population 0 to 17 years + 18 years and more, give the same total.
If you use more than one form C-1 you should mark X in the box that corresponds to "mark X if continued".
Taking into account the characteristics of the collective dwellings, for the enumeration we have prepared the formation of special enumeration areas (special enumeration area) within which we will take into account the educational boarding schools, homes for the mentally ill, jails or reformatories, religious communities, housing for workers or laborers, hotels and boarding homes with 20 persons or more.
Each collective dwelling constitutes a collective household.
Also considered a collective dwelling are the groups formed by 6 boarders or more who live in a private home, but taking into account that the owner of the boarding house and his/her relatives constitute a family household.
The small collective households will be enumerated by enumerators designated for private households.
The large collective dwellings are denominated special enumeration areas and will be interviewed by enumerators selected among the employees or owners of the institutions that are considered as collective dwellings and, occasionally, from among professors and teachers in private and public schools, as well as within institutions of the public sector; in addition, students from fifth and six years of private schools and the general public, who are capable, will be taken into account to carry out this patriotic task.
In accordance with the objectives of the dwelling census, in collective dwellings:
1. We will not investigate:
- The infrastructure of the buildings;
- The composition of the household (in collective dwellings there is no head of household, therefore, in regards to relationship, for each member you should mark the option "not related".
- Information about the household (basic services that are available and other aspects).
2. Who will be enumerated
a) In a collective dwelling, the following should be enumerated:
- All of the persons who spent the night in the dwelling on the night of August 25th to the 26th, 1992, among which we count:
- Those who work and reside in the same collective dwelling.
- The transients, residents, or interred in the collective dwelling.
b) In a collective dwelling, the following should not be enumerated:
-The persons who work in the collective dwelling (administrators, managers, owners, employees, etc.) who form part of private households.
-The persons who, for transitory circumstances, were found in the collective dwelling but who will be enumerated in their private dwellings. (Example: persons who are sick, doctors on call, watchmen, etc.)
3. Procedure for filling in the census form
The information that should be noted is the following:
a) Form number
b) All of the information for Section I. Geographic location.
c) In Section II. Information about the dwelling, mark the corresponding part in question 1, and continue with question 24 of Section III and with Section IV. Information about the population.
4. How to proceed if you are the enumerator of...
a) Private dwelling: Once you have concluded the enumeration of all of the persons who conform a collective dwelling, continue enumerating the rest of the private dwellings of the Enumeration Area that you were assigned.
b) Collective dwellings: Once you have concluded the enumeration of all of the persons who conform the collective dwelling, continue enumerating the rest of the collective dwellings of the special enumeration area that was assigned to you.
In the corresponding folder, include all of the forms used in each special Enumeration Area and do not forget to register the corresponding information on Form C-1 Enumerator's summary.
Remember that you should use a Form C-1 Enumerator's summary for each special enumeration area.
In the training course
- An Enumerator's manual
- A Census form
On the day of the census
A bag that will contain a folder for each enumeration area (if your segment has more than one enumeration area, you will receive as many folders as enumeration area contained in your segment), pencil, pencil sharpener, and eraser.
Each folder will contain:
- Census forms: The quantity that you need to cover your enumeration area, plus one additional form.
- Form C-1 Enumerator's summary.
- Enumerator's identification.
- Proof of enumerated dwelling.
- Pencil, pencil sharpener, and eraser.
- In the urban area, the folder will have, attached to the cove, the map of the Sector and the stamp with geographic location; attached to the back side, the drawing/map of the enumeration area.
- In the rural area: the drawing/map of the Enumeration Area, inside the folder; and attached to the cover, the geographic location.
1. Division of labor
For the field operative, we consider the largest division of the national territory to be into urban and rural.
2. Urban area
District capitals/seats are considered urban. The urban methodology of enumeration will be applied, not only in the capitals of the districts, but also in the other "blocked areas" of rural areas, where the population is found concentrated. The urban area, for the purposes of the census, is sub-divided into:
- Enumeration area (AE): which is the smallest of the census divisions and can be made up of a block, with or without dwellings, or part of a block, by a building or part of a building. It is colored on the map, with orange colored lines.
- Segment: which is the work area of an enumerator, with an average of fifteen dwellings, which should be enumerated in one single day, the 26th of August, 1992. The segment can have one or more Enumeration Areas, depending on the quantity of dwellings. The segment is colored with wavy red lines when it has more than one Enumeration Area. These are joined with red-colored arrows.
- Sector: which is the work area of the supervisor, formed by 10 Segments, on average. It is drawn on the map, with light blue-colored lines.
- Neighborhood: which is a territorial division characteristic of urban areas. It is formed by a set of blocks with boundaries that are easy to recognize, with streets, roads, railroad lines, etc. Its borders are drawn with green-colored lines.
3. Rural area
This is the territory that is found outside of the limits of the urban area, occupied by dwellings that are established in a disorganized manner and distant from each other. The location of the dwelling is on one or both sides of a route, road, creek, etc. The rural area, for the purposes of the census, is sub-divided into:
- Enumeration area (AE): which is the smallest of the census divisions, it is formed by a complete locality (company, resting place, colony, etc.) or by part of a locality. This depends on the number of dwellings and whether the boundaries are identifiable. The boundary of the enumeration area is drawn with orange-colored lines.
- Segment: which is the work area of an enumerator. This is formed by one or more enumeration areas. The number of dwelling is 40, on average. It should be enumerated in a maximum period of two weeks.
- Sector: which is the work area of the supervisor, it is formed by six segments, on average. The number of segments that conform a sector, depends on the quantity of dwellings and their distribution. It is drawn on the map with light blue-colored lines.
- Locality: which is one of the divisions of the rural part of the district, can be denominated as company, colony, ranch, site, etc. The boundary of the Sector is drawn with green-colored lines.
4. The census segments: Cases that can arise
a) A segment with one enumeration area:
1. The enumeration area is equal to one block.
2. The enumeration area is part of a block.
3. The enumeration area is a building.
b) A segment with more than one enumeration area:
1. Comprised of two or more blocks.
2. Comprised of two blocks (one of them without dwellings).
3. Comprised of one complete block and part of another block.
c) Each enumeration area is a segment:
1. A building when it has many dwellings.
Note: There are block that have irregular shape with a disorganized distribution of dwelling that, despite not being contemplated as such, adjust perfectly to these examples.
a) One segment with an enumeration area:
1. One company, 1 enumeration area (40 dwellings on average).
2. One company, 1 enumeration area (disperse dwellings).
3. Part one company, 1 enumeration area.
b) One segment with more than one enumeration area:
1. Two companies, 2 enumeration areas
5. Norms for following the route of the segment
a) You should follow the route of each enumeration area of your segment:
Begin with: A corner, on the northeastern side, and follow the route of all of the Enumeration Area with your right shoulder next to the wall, until you reach the dwelling that is right before the first one that you visited.
Begin with: The first dwelling of the first enumeration area until you complete it. Only move on to the other enumeration area after you have finished the first. In the following blocks, proceed in the same manner until you have completed the segment.
b) If the segment is comprised of dwelling on part of a block, you should:
Begin with: The first dwelling indicated on the drawing/map and advance towards the one that appears last, with your right shoulder next to the wall.
c) If the segment is comprised of dwelling on various floors of an apartment building, you should:
Begin with: The highest floor and with the apartment that, on each floor, is found immediately to the right of the stairway. Follow the route through each hallway with your right shoulder next to the wall.
d) If the segment is comprised of rooms in a boarding house, you should:
Begin with: The room that is found to the right of the entryway and continue the route with your right should next to the wall. If there is more than one floor, you should begin with the highest floor.
a) You should follow the route of each enumeration area of your segment:
At the beginning of your route, select one starting point on your drawing/map that can be identified easily on the ground, such as the intersection of two roads, bridges, etc. Plan your route in a manner that you do not have to travel long distances unnecessarily.
- That in a segment there can be more than one enumeration area and each enumeration area has a corresponding folder.
- Enumerate all of the dwellings that are found inside the boundaries of your segment.
- In reality, what you should take into account for establishing your route is that you should always advance with your shoulder next to the wall, both on the block as well as in each individual building.
- Do not limit yourself to enumerating only the dwellings that are found on your drawing/map. It is possible that some that dwellings that you should enumerate have been omitted or that new dwellings have been built. Do not forget to include them in the drawing/map.