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Paraguay 1962 Enumerator Instructions
Enumerator's Manual, General census of population and housing, 1962

[Day of the census, although mentioned, is not defined in this document.]

Republic of Paraguay
Ministry of the treasury
General Office of Statistics and Censuses

Enumerator's Manual

General Census of Population and Housing, 1962

[Pages 1-2 were not translated into English]

[pg. 3]

Locality ["Lugar Poblado"]

15 - For the purposes of the Population Census, all places or sites of the Paraguayan territory in which one or several people - related to each other or not - live in a permanent manner in houses or dwelling of whatever type and dedicate themselves to one or various kinds of work, chores or jobs, of whatever character, such as, agriculture, livestock, commerce, industry, craft, etc. are known by the generic term of locality [lugar poblado]

16 - It is not necessary that the place or site have streets or plazas, or its own authorities, or churches. It can have a particular name by which it is currently known in order to differentiate it from similar sites nearby.

17 - With this criteria, localities will be considered to be not only cities and towns, but also hamlets, places, farms, roadside camps, (police) posts, (indigenous) villages, etc.

[Pages 4-6 were not translated into English]

[pg. 7]

Basic Definitions

43 - Dwelling. Any premise or enclosure [recinto, compound] structurally separate and independent, which has been constructed, made, converted, or arranged for the purpose of permanent or temporary lodging for people, as well as any type of shelter, fixed or mobile, occupied as a place of dwelling on the date of the census. Therefore, the dwelling can be constituted by:

a) A house, apartment, floor, room or group of rooms, hut [rancho], etc. independent, set apart to give lodging to a group of people or a single person;
b) A boat, vehicle, railroad car, tent, etc., as well as any other type of shelter (barn, garage), occupied as a place of lodging on the date of the census.

[pg. 8]

44 - Private dwelling. Is one used, or meant to be used, as a living space or domicile separate and independent, by a family, or other group of persons with or without family ties but who live together under a family structure, or by one person who lives alone.

45 - Collective dwelling. Is one used or meant to be used as a place of dwelling by a group of persons among whom there are not always family ties and who generally live a communal life for reasons of punishment, health, teaching, military or religious life, work or others, such as: reformatories, barracks, hospitals, boarding schools, hotels, convents, boarding houses, elderly homes, work camps, etc.

Specific Cases

46 - a) Boarding houses. A family dwelling in which boarders lodge (including those who pay only for the habitation) will continue to be considered a family [dwelling] if the total number of boarders is five or less, but if the total number of boarders is six or more, the dwelling will be classified as group quarters.

47 - If in a group quarters, for example, an insane asylum or hospital, there exists one or more units of habitation in which the director or any other official lives, with their family, such units shall be considered private dwellings.

48 - b) Dwellings in buildings not specifically designated for habitation. Buildings exclusively designated for commercial, industrial or service purposes, such as stores, warehouses, storage units, factories, etc., will not be considered a dwellings, unless within them exists an apartment, room or group of rooms, occupied as a dwelling by the owner, or the watchperson, or the doorman, etc. with or without their family. In this case, the part occupied by the person or persons mentioned shall be considered a dwelling.

49 - Census household. The census household refers to all groups of people with or without family ties, who live together under a family regimen for reasons of discipline, health, religious or military life, teaching, etc.
This general definition implies the distinction between the following two basic categories:

a) The private household;
b) The group quarters.

50 - Private household. The private household includes all the resident members of a private or family dwelling who live together, under a family regimen and is constituted in the majority of cases by the head of family, the family members of this person (wife or partner, children, grandchildren, nieces and nephews, etc.), visitors, guests, boarders, domestic servants and all other occupants.

51 - If there are five boarders or less in the private household, it will continue being considered private, but if the number be of six or more, it will be considered collective.

52 - A person who lives alone in a dwelling also constitutes a private household.

53 - Group quarters [Colectividad]. A group quarters includes all the inhabitants of a collective dwelling who generally do not have family ties among them but who live a communal life for reasons of health, discipline, religious life, etc. Families with six or more boarders are also considered as non-family groups.

[Pages 9-10 were not translated into English]

[pg. 10]

Section "B": Dwelling

69 - In this section shall be written all the information corresponding to all occupied dwellings on the date or "census day." If the dwelling is unoccupied write only the information that pertains to the ten items of section "A," about geographic location.

70 - In the cases in which, due to the enumeration of a large family, several census forms will have to be used, [pg. 11] annotations corresponding to the dwelling will be done only in section "B" of the first form; and in every additional form, only the information pertinent to the address of the dwelling will be repeated (item X of section "A").

Item I: Occupancy condition

71 - Condition of occupancy of the dwelling means one or the other of two possible situations in which the dwelling may be found on the "census day," with respect to the presence or non-presence of occupants, that is to say, if it is inhabited or uninhabited.

72 - Inhabited dwelling means all dwellings which on the day of the census are occupied by a census household (private or collective). It is possible that, at the moment of the visit to the dwelling, the enumerator may not find anyone because the dweller(s) are momentarily absent. Any such circumstance should be clarified by checking with the neighbors of the dwelling.

73 - Uninhabited dwelling means any dwelling which on the day of the census is not occupied by a census household (private or collective). An uninhabited dwelling includes dwellings under "construction," in "repair," and other forms of vacated dwellings. For example, dwellings in demolition, litigation, foreclosure, etc. and those for which the reason for vacancy are unknown.

74 - Make an (x) in the corresponding box.

75 - Regarding dwellings which are unoccupied because they are on sale, or available for rent, or are used only temporarily (summer time, vacations, retirement or other similar uses) annotate this situation in the "observations."

Item II: Dwelling type

76 - Under this item information will be gathered about the places or premises identified as dwellings, from the point of view of the following general characteristics:

a) Earmarked (whether or not constructed for lodging) and actual utilization (used to inhabit).
b) Relationship of collective living (private home or group quarters).
c) Similar structural particulars (house, apartment, ranch, etc.).

77 - Considering these integral elements of the definition of "type of dwelling," under the subtitle "places earmarked as dwellings," the information will be indicated by making an (x) in the corresponding box under each one of the groups:

a) Private dwellings.
b) Group quarters.

And under the subtitle: "other places utilized as dwelling," the information will be registered on the dotted line meant for this purpose.

78 - The relationship between places earmarked to be family dwellings include, in an almost exhaustive form, the different varieties of the same within the national reality. As you can observe, both the types of dwellings predominant in urban zones (individual households, apartments, etc.), as the type predominant in rural zones (huts) have been specified, including also dwellings of a clandestine type or outside of the authorized requirements for construction, such as dwellings or houses of [pg. 12]discarded materials (improvised houses); mobile dwellings (vessels, chatas [flat boat], etc.) and others.

79 - For the "group quarters," in the same way as for the familial, the places corresponding to the diverse types of institutions are mentioned in a very complete form.

80 - In reference to: "other places utilized as dwellings," no list has been enumerated [i.e. listed on the for,], rather one should proceed to the specific annotation [i.e. description] of those places which have not been earmarked, constructed, edified, adapted, or transformed for habitation, but which "de facto" are utilized as places of lodging on the day of the census. This is the case, for example, of the stables, garages, etc.

81 - The following definitions will help you to properly complete the annotations of the census:

Family dwellings

a) Independent House. "Independent house" or "private house" or, more commonly, "house," means a building or construction that contains a single family dwelling. Therefore, chalets, house with yard/garden [casas-quintas] isolated houses, and, in general, all constructions, whatever their style, which constitute the locus of private domiciles along a street should be annotated as "independent house" or "private house" or "house."

b) Apartment or floor. The following situations may present themselves, but no matter the situation, they will be annotated under this single heading:

1. Apartment in apartment building. The room or group of rooms that constitutes a family dwelling within a building, occupying only a part of the building. Such a building always includes several family dwelling units.

2. Apartment or room in a house. The room or group of rooms which, fulfilling the requirements for the definition of dwelling (see definition), are located within an "independent house."

3. Apartment or room in a shop, school, factory, group quarters, etc. The room or group of rooms which, fulfilling the requirements for the definition of a dwelling, are located within a building or place of a school, industrial shop, factory, group quarters, etc., such as the apartments or rooms earmarked for the use of the doorman, guardians, directors, or officials, of an institution or company or group quarters.

c) Rental rooms. The room or small number of rooms that, along with others similar to itself, are located within a construction or building that has communal hygienic services. Generally, a room constitutes a family dwelling.

d) Hut. The typical dwelling of rural areas; formed by walls of clay, stray, or sticks [caƱas]. Generally the roof is made of straw, but even if it has another type of roof it should be considered a hut. As for the floor, it is usually of dirt.

e) Improvised house. An improvised construction made with materials of little or no value which have been previously utilized for other ends (boards for drawers, tin for cans, sackcloth, etc.) or of material earmarked for construction but used and deteriorated (corroded iron plates, sheets of broken fibrocement, etc.). By extension, this group includes constructions make of natural rocks, bricks, blocks, etc. piled up without mortar or clay, when their parts remain loose and with gaps which allow the wind to penetrate.

[pg. 13]

f) Vessels, chatas [flat boat]. Constitute the type of dwellings which are mobile for the purposes of recreation, or for the convenience of work.

g) Other (tents, huts, etc.). Corresponds to a type of precarious dwelling of more or less transitional use or of a particular adaptation.

Group quarters:

82 - The group quarters listed do not require any definition. It should only be remember that one or more family dwellings can exist in any type of group quarters.

Other places utilized as dwellings:

83 - The names of the places that are used as dwellings on the day of the census (garage, barn, stable, etc.) should be specifically annotated even if they are earmarked for a different purpose.

Item III: Predominant materials

Exterior walls:

84 - After meticulous observation, and with the help of the inhabitants of the dwelling, who, in many cases, will be able to give appropriate information about the case, register the material of which the outer walls of the dwelling are principally constructed.

85 - The following clarifications will help to determine the nature of some of the materials indicated in the four headings under this item:

a) Zinc plates are plats of galvanized iron;

b) Flat or wavy plates of fibrocement are also known by their factory brand name, such as "Eternit."

86 - Any other material that is not specified under the previous headings should be annotated under the heading "other."

87 - Make the respective mark in the corresponding box.

Roofs:

88 - Take note of the following clarifications:

a) Small vault [bovedilla] means a flat roof of bricks constructed over wood or iron struts on top of which exists a finish of tile [baldosa] , or, in other cases, a layer of asphalt. They may or may not have shingles [tejas].

b) Similar to the sheets of fibrocement, roofs can also be formed of corrugated sheets of asphaltic carton, so called because they are impregnated in the asphalt. They are black in color and they become grayish with time. The asphaltic cardboard may be painted. Mark the same box for a roof of fibrocement or of asphaltic carton and other similar materials.

c) When the roof is made of shingles, these are fastened together by way of a mortar and the roof is inclined. In some cases, some roofs have the shingles fastened with nails or wire, but this is not generally the case.

Floors:

89 - Take note of the following clarifications:

a) Tile is one variety of material for floors, generally of 20 centimeters by 20 centimeters per side, and is made in various colors.

[pg. 14]

b) Mosaic is a higher quality tile of vibrant, lively colors, and has a higher durability.

c) In some regions of the country there are dwellings with floors of wood paneling. In that case the annotation should go under the heading: wood.

Item IV: Rooms [for all occurrences]

90 - Under this Item should be annotated, in numerals, the number of rooms of the dwelling in two groups:

a) That of rooms that are used to sleep; and
b) That of rooms that are meant for "other" uses.

91 - Room means a space situated in the dwelling which has a roof and is enclosed by walls that reach up to the roof, and has at least the capacity to make room for the bed of an adult. Therefore, bedrooms, living rooms, dining rooms, guest rooms, habitable attics, study or recreation rooms, and servant's rooms are all considered rooms.

92 - The bathrooms and kitchen will not be considered habitations or rooms for this question.

93 - Rooms which are utilized exclusively for commercial, industrial , or service purposes such as warehouses, stores, consulting-rooms [i.e. for a doctor, other professional], offices, etc., should not be considered rooms, even if they form an integral part of the dwelling. However, if one of these rooms or habitation serves at the same time as lodging, as it sometimes occurs with a habitation that serves as a warehouse, workshop, or store, as well as a bedroom, then this should be considered a room. By extension, this same treatment should be given to inhabited garages.

Bedrooms:

94 - Within the definition given for room, the total number of bedrooms correctly named as such (where the bed, dressers, etc. are permanently located) and all those rooms which are converted into bedrooms when the family goes to bed should be annotated under the heading of room.

Other rooms

95 - The total number of rooms that remain in the dwelling that have not been declared bedrooms should be annotated under this heading, within the definition given for room.

Important note

96 - The number of bedrooms, plus the number of "other rooms," should give the total number of rooms in the dwelling.

Item V: Water service

97 - Information concerning two principle aspects will be registered under this item:

a) The source of the water supply; and

b) The location or place of the source of water supply.

Source:

98 - Mark the corresponding box with an (x), within either one of the following headings:

[p. 15]

a) Well or cistern. Well is an excavation more or less to the depth of the water being utilized. Tank is a deposit in which rain water is kept. Both the well and the tank can run dry during the dry season, as well as be uncovered. For this reason the first two boxes are for distinguishing, for an uncovered well or tank, if the dwelling obtains the provision of required water in a permanent or non-permanent form.

b) River, stream, fountain (manantial). These are self-explanatory.

c) Tap, well, cistern, fountain, bathroom fittings. The tap or spout is connected to the public network of the Corposana as is therefore considered a sanitary source of water supply. In the same way, the tank, well, or fountain can be considered sanitary sources when they enjoy the correct protection, being free from external contamination. Thus the well and the tank should be closed, as well as the receptacle that holds the fountain waters. The interior walls of the well or tank, as well as the construction that protects the fountain should be reinforced in waterproof material. As for the extraction of the water from these sources; there should be an appropriate procedure, such as a hand pump or motorized pump.

d) Public system. This is the system of water distribution from the Corposana.

e) Tank vendor. This is self-explanatory.

Location:

99 - The location of the fountain of water supply can be:

a) Inside the house; and
b) Outside the house.

100 - The source of supply is considered to be inside the dwelling when it is found inside the interior habitations of the same (kitchen, bathroom, etc.) or on the property belonging to the dwelling (patio/yard). The source of supply is considered to be outside the dwelling when one has to leave the property or estate where the dwelling is located for the supply.

Item VI: Bath facilities

101 - Under this item, it should be discovered whether there exists in the dwelling a room or habitation meant exclusively for the personal hygiene (shower, bathtub, sink, washbasin) of the inhabitants.

Item VII: Toilet facilities/sewerage

102 - Information on the following two aspects is registered under this Item:

a) The type of toilet facilities/sewerage, that is to say, the combination of the installation for personal use ["W.C."] or other type of artifact, with the type of drainage which discharge goes through.

b) The use, private or communal, of the services.

103 - The following types of toilet facilities/sewerage services exist:

1. W.C. connected to sewer system. This is a flushing latrine with a discharge of water for the immediate cleaning of the toilet, and is connected to a public sewer system.

2. W.C. connected to a septic tank. This is differentiated by the preceding type by the type of drainage system.

[pg. 16]

Septic tank means an enclosed cavity of concrete to which the drainage flows and where a decantation and putrefaction process occurs. These tanks or pits [fosas] drain, ultimately, by spilling into an absorption well [pozo].

Drain or toilet pit [pozo negro], is an excavation enclosed by a cover [loza] with lateral walls that may or may not be covered with brick or other materials, into which the eliminated materials flow.

3. Municipal-type latrine. A latrine constructed in accordance with the municipal ordinances. It consists of a cover [loza] or plate of material or cement and a pit whose walls are covered with bricks or cement. It does not have a place to discharge water. The entire thing is enclosed within a wooden or cement stall.

4. Common latrine. A latrine which is not subject to municipal ordinances and generally lacks hygienic conditions.

Use:

104 - The use of the sanitary service is private when the family which occupies the dwelling has exclusive use of it, and is common when more than one family uses it.

Item VIII: Kitchen facilities

105 - Under this item, information is registered as to whether or not, within the dwelling, a habitation or room does or does not exist earmarked exclusively for the functioning of the kitchen services. Annotate this in the corresponding box.

Item IX: Lighting

106 - The electric lighting is public when it is provided by the Municipality or by private companies under municipal control. Annotate the different cases considered in the corresponding box.

Item XI: Waste disposal

107 - Annotate in the corresponding box.

Item XI: Ownership

108 - Annotate, in the corresponding box, the grade of the building occupancy, in accordance with the following definitions:

a) Owner. If the dwelling belongs to the Head of the family or to some other members [of the family] who live there. Both those who own the land and the building, as well as those who own only the building (horizontal property) are considered to be owners. In the same way, one who inhabits the house that he has constructed, although they are still paying for the property, is considered an owner.

b) Renter. If the family occupies the dwelling by way of monthly or annual rental payments to the owner.

c) De facto occupant. When the family or a single person occupies the land where they construct their dwelling without previous authorization from the owner of the land. This is the case for those referred to as "emergency occupants."

d) Other. Other situations should be registered under this heading, such as that of medieros (who receive a dwellings as part of their salary); the usufructuarios [persons who receive in usufruct] (who, with the permission of the owner, occupy a dwelling without paying); and any other mode of occupancy of the dwelling.

[pg. 17]

Item XII: Domestic goods

109 - Mark the corresponding box.

Section "C": Population

General observations

110 - The Population Census will be executed in all the territory of Paraguay the 14th of October of 1962. This Manual has made, and will continue to make, reference to this date, under the denomination "census day."

111 - The Population Census will be constituted by what, technically, is denominated a "de facto census". This means that all the inhabitants of the country, citizens and foreigners, should be enumerated in the place in which they are found on the "census day," without taking into account their habitual residence.

112 - As to the type of enumeration; the interview method will be applied, that is, that the information corresponding to each person will be obtained and annotated in the Census Form by an enumerator authorized to do such work.

113 - All the information that is registered on the Census Form should correspond to the day and hour (census date) indicated. Within this norm, for the Population Census, all the people should be enumerated who, at twelve p.m. on the night preceding the census day, were on the territory of the Republic.

Therefore, children born after twelve midnight on the night before the census day should not be enumerated, but those born before this hour and those deceased after this hour should be enumerated.

If a census household should be enumerated posterior to the census day, for example, one or more days afterwards, the information that should be collected should refer to the given census day.

114 - A practical norm to follow for the enumeration is to ask about all the people who spent the night in the dwellings during the night before the census day.

115 - The domestic servants should be enumerated within the census households, as long as they sleep in the same dwelling occupied by those households. Besides the people who spent the night in the dwelling the night before the census day, the following should also been enumerated with them:

a) Those members of the family who, for reasons of employment or special reasons, did not spend the night in the household and were absent or left very early, (night watchmen , medics, on-call nurses, police, midwives, market workers, food suppliers, assistants for a party or funeral, etc.);

b) Those members of the family who left on a trip after the twelve midnight on the census day and who are currently traveling.

116 - "Section C" of the Census Form presents, first of all, in a vertical format, one after the other, the twenty topics of investigation of the Population Census. The topics are grouped together under the following general titles:

1. General characteristics
2. Educational characteristics
3. Occupational characteristics
4. Other characteristics

[ pg. 18]

117 - "General characteristics" includes ten census topics with respect to which information is requested for all the members of this particular household. "Educational characteristics" includes four census topics, and the pertinent information is registered only for persons seven or more years of age. "Occupational characteristics" includes four topics, and the pertinent data are annotated for all the persons twelve or more years of age. "Other characteristics" includes two topics, and the persons who are specifically addressed are investigated.

118 - Immediately after the column which contains the specifications of the census topics, which contain the explanations necessary for the registration of the information, is a section that contains eleven columns, in each of which, successively, the information pertinent to each member of this particular household should be registered.

119 - The first column should always be used to register the information which pertains to the head of household, being the only column in which it will not be necessary to annotate information about family ties or relationship because it will already be done in printed form.

General Characteristics

Item I: First and last name

120 - Initiate the enumeration of a private household by registering the first and last name of the head of household. The Head of Household is the person who, be it due to their age or for being the principal economic support of the family, or for other reasons, is considered as such by the rest of the family members, and can either a man or a woman.

121 - In all cases, completely annotate the first and last name. With respect to married women, annotate their first and last maiden name, and then the last name of the husband preceded by the word "of." In the case of widows, preceded by the expression, "widow of."

122 - Rigorously annotate the name of the diverse members of the private household, in the following order:

a) Head of the household.

b) The wife or companion of the head.

c) The unmarried sons and daughters in descending order of age.

d) The married sons and daughters, who form part of the private household, followed by their spouses and children. All in descending order of age.

e) Other relatives (grandparents, uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, in-laws, etc.).

f) Visitors

g) Pensioned and visitors

h) Domestic servants and their children and relatives.

123 - In the case of the members of a group quarters, register first the name of the director or head, followed by the employees of the institution that do not have a private dwelling assigned, and then the names of the rest of the members who integrate the quarters.

124 - If the name of a person who should be enumerated is not known, or if there is a minor who does not have a name yet, annotate simply: N.N.

125 - The first and last names are registered only to facilitate the enumeration and some revision work posterior to the census information. Within the census information, each person, with their respective individual data, becomes a mere unit of a global enumeration, without their name being recognizable in the publication of the census results. It would be good to make note of this fact in cases of resistance to the collection of the census information.

[pg. 19]

Item II: Relationship to the head of household

126 - The condition of head is already printed in the respective space, in the first column of the form. Annotate in the following columns, which correspond to the rest of the family members, the relationship that unites them with the head, for example: wife, child, son-in-law, grandchild, servant, etc.

127 - If the family is based on an unmarried union, annotate the reciprocal relationship of the man with the woman as: "Companion."

128 - In the case of the family members of the employees, pensioners, extended family, visitors, servants, etc., annotate: child of pensioner, child of servant, nephew of extended family member, etc., as the case may be. In the case of a group quarters, annotate the hierarchy of the person, that is to say, that which serves to indicate the order with which their name was written in the first column. For example, in the case of the heads of an institute: Director, Boss, Manager, Superior, and for the rest of the group: patient, interned, prisoner, religious individual, etc., depending on the case.

129 - If two or more persons who are not related occupy the same dwelling, register one of them as the head and the other(s) as "friends."

Item III: Sex

130 - Annotate the data in the corresponding box.

Item IV: Age In years completed

131 - "Age in years completed" means the age that the person has reached on their last birthday. One form of verifying the exactness of the age declared by the enumerated is asking for the date of birth, always, of course, when they are in conditions to provide this information.

132 - The enumerator should have in mind people's common tendency to round their age, declaring numbers that end in zero or five. Especially in these cases it would be good to find out the date of birth, that is, make sure that the person is not rounding their age, whether it be higher or lower.

133 - If the person does not know their age and no way is found to acquire it, be it utilizing their personal documents or asking their neighbors, the enumerator should make an estimation of their age. If the enumerated person is not present, obtain the information from those present who know the person.

Item V: Marriage status

134 - Annotate the case in the corresponding box, in accordance with the following definitions:

Single: Has never been married and does not live in a consensual union.
Married: Has entered marital bonds, maintains that state, and does not live in a consensual union.
Consensual union: Live in a marital union without having married.
Widow: Having been married, survives the other spouse and has not remarried, nor lives in a consensual union.
Divorcee: Has terminated their marital bond with their spouse by judicial decree and has not remarried, nor lives in a consensual union.
[pg. 20]

135 - In the cases in which the first and last name of a woman (Item 1) who declares themselves as married, does not include the last name of the husband, the enumerator should make sure if the marital state given is the true one, basing themselves on the other information obtained.

Item VI: Place of birth

136 - For those born in the country, annotate the name of the district of birth.

137 - For those born outside the country, annotate the name of the country of birth, in accordance with the borders and denominations of that country on the census day.

138 - If the person does not know or has doubts over the name of their country on the census day, annotate the name of the country as of the date of birth of the person, but in this case make note of it in the "observations" section.

Item VII: Migration

139 - Annotate the year in which the person came to live or reside in the place where they are enumerated.

140 - Place of enumeration means the locality or location, such as: city, town, estate, village, etc., of any population size, where the dwelling of the enumerator is found.

141 - Live or reside in the place of enumeration means: establishment in the place for reasons of work, business, family life, or for any other socio-economic reason, for a period of time of six months or more, or for a lesser period, if the person has come to settle in the place.

142 - A person should not be considered a resident of the place of enumeration if their residence is for purposes of vacation, visits to family, a study trip, or for a similar cause, for less than six months.

143 - If a person has changed their dwelling from one quarter or zone [parroquia] to another within the same city or town, this should not be considered a change of residence for the purposes of this question.

144 - According to these definitions, if the person always lived in the place of enumeration, annotate the box corresponding to the word always with an (x). Otherwise, annotate the year in which they established their residence in the place of enumeration. If the person does not remember exactly the year in which they established their residence in the place of enumeration, annotate the year which appears most probable to this person.

145 - In the case of the enumerated who is in the place of enumeration on vacation or on a study or family visit, or who is in the place for some similar reason for less than six months, but without settling in the place, make an (x) in the box corresponding to the words in transit.

146 - In the case of a person who has returned to the place of enumeration, after having resided in another place/other places, as long as the absence from the place has been for more than six months, annotate the year of their last arrival to the place. If the absence were for less than six months, even if it were to go and settle in another place, or if it were for purposes of vacation, a study visit, etc., such absence should not be considered. An (x) should be marked in the box corresponding to always.

[pg. 21]

147 - It is important that, when registering the information pertinent to this item, the enumerator previously verify:

a) That the informant does not confuse the year of migration to the place of enumeration with the year of their birth;

b) That they do not necessarily have to declare the year that was annotated for the head of household as year of migration for the whole family;

c) That the person for whom the box always is registered not have declared a place of birth other than the locality of enumeration;

d) That if the person be a foreigner, nationalized or not, the year of their establishment or settlement in the country should be annotated.

148 - On the other hand, it is possible:

a) That within the same district of birth a person has emigrated from the place of birth to the place where they are enumerated, in which case the year of their migration should be annotated;

b) That older persons or elderly, residents of a place for many years, emigrated to the place when they were very young and that they are totally ignorant as to the area from which they came. It is even possible that the year of their migration coincides with the year of their birth. The year of migration should be annotated as exactly as possible.

149 - Whenever the year of migration is registered in item 7, the registration of the complementary information should continue in item 8. If the information in Item 7 were registered in the boxes corresponding to always or in transit, the investigation of the topic migration is finished, and the investigation should pass on directly to the items about "educational characteristics." In this last case, a diagonal line should be drawn over the space reserved for the registration of the information in item 8.

Item VIII: Place of origin of migration

150 - Annotate the name of the District of origin of the person who declared the year (Item 7) in which they established themselves in the place of enumeration.

151 - Immediately after annotating the name of the district, annotate if the person who emigrated came from an urban area or a rural area. A person is considered to have come from an urban area if they came from a city or town. They are considered to have emigrated from a rural area if they came from an estate, small village [paraje], post [puesto], hamlet, etc., located in any colony or company.

152 - In the first case (emigrated from an urban area) mark box 1; and, in the second case (emigrated from a rural area) mark box 2.

153 - If the person is a foreigner, simply annotate the name of country of origin and nothing more.

154 - If the person, particularly in the case of a national [i.e. citizen], is absolutely ignorant of the name of their district of origin, annotate "unknown."

Item IX: Language

155 - Annotate the name of the language that the person habitually speaks in the household in their daily interaction with their relatives [parientes o relacionados].

156 - In the particular case where a person speaks only the language Guarani or a foreign language (English, French, German, Italian, etc.) in the household; annotate if, besides this, the person has an understanding of the Spanish language. Mark: yes or no, according to the case.

[pg. 22]

Item X: Religion

157 - Annotate the religion that the enumerated person professes to be from, in the corresponding box.

158 - Christian (non-Catholic), is understood as Methodist, Baptist, Evangelist, and the rest of the denominations used by the religious groups commonly known as Protestants.

159 - Under the heading "Other Religion," annotate non-Christian persons, such as Buddhists, Shintoists, Muslims, etc.

Educational characteristics

Item XI: School attendance

160 - Annotate in the corresponding box if the enumerated person, from the age of seven and up, does or does not attend, on the date of the census, an institute of regular education of the country.

161 - Regular education means the education imparted in public or private establishments, within the educational plans or programs officially approved in the country.

Item XII: Reasons for not attending school

162 - Take note that this topic of census investigation is exclusively restricted to minors, of both sexes, including those of seven to fourteen years of age.

163 - Before proceeding to register the information in the corresponding box, verify the age that has been registered for the person, found on question number 4: age in years completed. For those older than fourteen years of age, draw a diagonal line in the space reserved for this answer.

Item XIII: Education level

164 - Annotate (with a number) the last year of studies attained by the person on the dotted line corresponding to the type of instruction that they have received in a regular education establishment.

165 - On the Census form there have been six levels of instruction specifically considered, plus an additional level under the heading: "other;" whose particular cases should be appropriately studied in the process of revision of information, after the enumeration.

166 - The aforementioned levels of information are the following: Primary education, which is imparted in Primary Schools, daytime or nighttime and Agricultural Schools; Basic, in the national schools and lyceums; in the Secondary/High schools, Military School, metropolitan and regional Seminaries, and Military Lyceum; Teacher Training, in the National schools for Teachers and Regional schools; Commercial, in the Schools of Commerce; University, in the Schools of Law, Medicine, Economic Sciences, Philosophy and Letters, Architecture, Physical Sciences and Math, Chemistry and Pharmacology, Dentistry, Veterinary, and Agronomics.

167 - Education that does not exactly correspond to any of the previous levels is considered under the heading "other," particularly studies in bachelors/high school graduates or University.

168 - Among these, for example, is the education dictated in the Professional Training Schools for women: dieticians, midwives, nurses, social services, fine arts, and music. For males, vocational schools, or technical schools.

[pg. 23]

169 - The numbers 0 (zero) through 6 are printed immediately after the specific name of each level of instruction, corresponding to the code by which each level is differentiated. The number corresponding to the years of study attained, within the respective level of instruction, should be annotated on the dotted line immediately after this code. Thus, for example, for a person who attained the fourth year if Primary, the annotation on the form would read: Primary 1 x 4; if they attained the Third year of Basic, it would read: Basic 2 x 3; if they attained the Second year of Teacher Training, it would read: Teacher Training 4 x 2, and so on, depending on the case.

170 - For the registration of the information under the heading "other," one should proceed in the same way as for the cases indicated in paragraphs 167 and 168. For example, for a Nurse who attained the first year of study, under the heading "other" write: Nurse 1. And so on depending on the case.

171 - For a person who never attained a single year of school annotate a 0 (zero) after the code corresponding to the heading "No education," so that the annotation reads: No education 0 x 0.

172 - If the person remembers the level of education attained but not the last year attained, annotate an "X" on the dotted line corresponding to the last level of instruction. For example: Primary 1 x

173 - If the person does not remember the level of instruction or the year of study attained, but, being literate, is sure that they attained some year of regular study, annotate a double (XX) on the line corresponding to the heading "Other." For example: Other XX.

Item XIV: Literacy

174 - Find out if the person knows how to read and write and make an (x) in the corresponding box under yes or no, depending on the case. If the person only knows how to read, or can only sign, in either case an (x) should be annotated in the box corresponding to: no.

Occupational characteristics

Observations

175 - The four topics designated Items 15 to 18 are included under the general title "Occupational characteristics." By way of the information collected, the whole population of the country will, first of all, be grouped under two large primary groups:

a) The economically active population, and
b) The economically non-active population.

Each of these two large groups will be, at the same time, differentiated into sub-groups, all and each of which are specified under item 15.

176 - The occupation of the enumerated is then investigated (Item 16). When a person has more than one occupation, the one considered is the occupation which provides the greatest amount of income. If a person only has one job, this will be the occupation considered.

177 - Then, under the denomination of industry (branch of economic activity), the type of industry or place of work where the occupation is carried out is investigated (Item 17), and the category or title with which they carried it out, be it as an employee, laborer, etc., (Item 18).

178 - To obtain a rational and appropriate grouping of the information, numerous individual situation should be considered; those that have been adjusted to definitions refined by economics, sociologists, and demographers. These definitions, and the methodological procedure of the registration of the data, are structured in such as was as to reflect the occupational situation of the enumerated on the "Census day."

[pg. 24]

These definitions, and the methodological procedures of the registration of the data, are structured in such a way that they reflect the occupational situation of the enumerated on the "Census day."

179 - The information solicited for the topics designated in Items 15 thru 18 are intimately correlated. This means that once the basic, initial information has been registered in Item 15, no information should be annotated in Items 16 thru 18 without first of all clarifying whether or not it follows the information registered in the Item immediately preceding it. Thus, information should always be registered in Item 15, but should conditionally be registered in items 16 thru 18, depending on situation of the persons being enumerated.

Item XV: Type of activity

180 - The type of occupational activity or situation of the persons on the "census day" will be annotated under this item, distinguishing the different situations by way of the denominations and definitions that are indicated for the different groups.

181 - Only one of the boxes on the form should be annotated for each person enumerated, above twelve years of age.

The following specifies, in detail, the type of people that are included in each group:

Employed:

182 Includes all persons who are employed on the "Census day" - that is to say, that have jobs. The following classes can be distinguished:

a) Persons who work for someone who is not a family members, receiving a monetary pay (salary, commission, etc.) or material goods (house, food, etc.), for the work that they do, of any type;

b) Persons who work on a farm plot [chacra], estate, commerce, or industry, or carry out a profession, be it by themselves or with the help of one or more persons, to whom they pay a wage or salary;

c) Persons who work for another family member on a farm ["estancia"], store, workshop, office, etc., with or without pay. In this last case - those who work for a member of a family without receiving pay - they are considered employed as long they work at least three hours a day, or the equivalent of two eight-hour days of work, per week.

183 - Also included in this group (employed) are those people who are not found, on the "Census day," to be exercising their occupation for reasons of sickness, vacation, strike, or temporary job interruption, or any other type of reason that does not signify a permanent retirement by the person.

Unemployed:

184 - Includes all the persons who, on the "Census day," do not have a job or paid work, but who have worked before and are seeking work. Those persons who are not looking for work because they have obtained a job that they will start after the date of the "Census day" should also be included in this group.

[pg. 25]

Seeking work for the first time

185 - Includes all persons who have never worked, and who are seeking their first employment.

Domestic duties

186 - Includes persons who dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic duties in their own household. When this labor is done for pay (as a salary or in material goods), such as is the case for domestic servants, the respective person will be annotated as "occupied."

Student

187 - Includes all persons who dedicate themselves exclusively to studying.

188 - If a person dedicated to "Domestic Duties," or a "Student" carry's out a paid occupation, on the date of the census, they are automatically considered to be an "employed" person.

Retired or Pensioner

189 - Includes all those persons who do not carry out a paid occupation and who receive a monthly sum from the State for retirement or for pension. Therefore, widows and other persons who receive pensions, including non-contributory pensions [pensiones graciables], fall into this group.

Rentier

190 - Includes persons who do not carry out a paid activity and who live from the product of their assets.

Other

191 - Includes all those persons who do not carry out a paid activity because of physical or mental incapacity (invalids), shut-ins [vida de clausura], or judicial order (prisoners). This also includes all persons who cannot classify themselves within any of the preceding groups, such as minors who do not attend school, and elderly persons without economic recourses, etc. If the incapacity is temporary, the person should be classified as "employed," as long as their employment is in some way assured.

192 - Once a person is classified under this item, continue with the annotation pertinent to the following item, number 16, only for those who have been placed into one of the groups: "employed," "unemployed," and "seeking work for the first time." For persons classified under any of the other groups ("domestic duties," "student," "retired or pensioner," "rentier," and "other") the census investigation is finished, and the spaces reserved for the registration of the information solicited in Items 16 thru 18 should be crossed out with a diagonal line.

Item XVI: Occupation

193 - Specifically annotate the profession, office, or class of work that they carry out on the census day, but only for the persons classified in the preceding item (item 15) under one of the three groups: "employed," "unemployed," and "seeking work for the first time."

[pg. 26]

194 - Avoid vague designations, such as: laborer, operator, office worker, vendor, etc.; employ, rather, designation that give the most complete idea possible of the person's occupation, for example: agronomical engineer, movie operator, fruit vendor, travel agent, shoemaker's apprentice, etc.

195 - There are some occupations of laborers, artisans, and professionals for whom their simple denominations precisely define their occupations, such as: carpenters, masons, plumber, medic, lawyer, etc.

196 - On the other hand, certain occupations in the commercial field require specification, such as sales agent, etc. Similarly, in the case of the office workers, clarify if they are typist, cashier, treasurer, bookkeeper, archivist, etc.

197 - In the case of professionals, such as medics, lawyer, engineers, etc., this is the type of occupation that, in general, should be registered. Cases do exist, however, in which such persons do not carry out the given professions, dedicating themselves to other activities. For example, a lawyer who works exclusively in the management of a Bank; a medic who dedicates him or her self exclusively to teaching in a university. In these cases, the last activity mentioned will be annotated, such as: bank manager, or university professor, and the like, depending on the case.

198 - For the government employees, annotate, in like manner, their specific occupations in accordance with the examples given in the preceding cases, avoiding the designation of "public employee." If the person is a member of the "armed forces" (not including police), no matter what their class or position, they should be annotated as "military personnel."

199 - With respect to the domestic servants, it should be specified whether or not this is a case of, for example, cook, clothes-washer, babysitter, cleaner, etc. In the same way, in the case of those who work in agricultural fields, the term "farmer" should be reserved for those who direct a farm of which they are the owners, or "foreman" or "administrator" when they are not owners of the farm which they direct. "Agriculturist" would be a person who directs the workings of a farm plot [chacra].

For those who work in specific activities (milkers, herdsman, animal trainers/breakers, tractor drivers, peons, etc.) annotate their specific occupation.

200 - In the case of "unemployed" persons, annotate the last employment they carried out.

201 - For the persons who are "seeking work for the first time," register the profession, office, or type of work which they are capable or have permission to do [clasificadas], and in a case where they are not capable nor have permission for any, simply register: "none." Having made the annotation of the occupation, according to the case, the census investigation is over for this group of persons. Therefore, draw a diagonal line over the area corresponding to the information pertaining to the following Items (Items 17 and 18).

Item XVII: Industry (branch of economic activity)

202 - Industry means the type of business, establishment, office, organization, company, institution, etc., in which the person carries out the declared occupation.

203 - Annotate the information only for those persons for whom, in the previous Item (Item 16), an occupation was registered, and who pertain to one or the other of the groups: "employed," or "unemployed."

[pg. 27]

204 - As in the case of the occupation, try to be as concrete as possible in registering the type of establishment in which the person works or worked (in the case of "unemployed"), avoiding vague denominations. Therefore, avoid denominations such as workshop, office, store, company, factory, warehouse, etc. and instead specify in the following manner: shoe factory, radio repair shop, bookkeeper, leather storage shed, air transport company, refrigeration, construction company, textile factory, refinery, etc.

205 - Avoid annotating denominations that are based exclusively on the name of the establishment, such as "The Violeta" factory, "Fenix House," etc, and which do not give any idea about the type of industry or business carried out.

206 - In the case of mixed businesses, such as a hair cutting place in which one also has a small store or sells lottery tickets or tobacco, register the business which provides the most benefit or which the proprietor considers most important.

207 - If the person is a government employee, of an autonomous, semi-autonomous or municipal entity, annotate the proper name of the department in which they work, such as: Housing Ministry, Copacar, Apal, Municipal Bacteriological Institute, etc."

208 - If the person carries out the same occupation in more than one business or industry, the type of industry from which they receive their greatest income should be annotated. For example, in the case of a bookkeeper who keeps the books for a glass factory, a woman's clothing store, and a transport company, and receives their greatest income from the glass factory, this should be annotated as their "industry." It should be understood that this is not a case of a person who has an accountant firm and who attends a variety of clients, in the way that is done in many professions (medics, dentists, etc.).

209 - If the person carries out their occupation in a company that functions in two or more different industrial activities, the industrial activity with which the person is directly associated should be annotated, as long as this is one of the principal activities of the company, and not an accessory activity. Examples:

a) In the case of a single company that has factory for coaches, and one for furniture, the employee principle industry will be annotated as "coach factory" or "furniture factory," in accordance with the industry in which he works;

b) If a textile factory has its own electric plant that provides it with its necessary driving power, a person who works in the factory should be annotated as working principally in the industry of "textile factory," and not in "electric plant," since the latter activity is an accessory to the factory.

210 - With respect to domestic servants, their principle industry should be annotated as, "family house," or "group quarters."

Title XVIII: Employment status (occupational category)

211 - The information about the employment status should be obtained based on the following definitions:

Employer

212 - A person who owns their own economic company, or who carries out, on their own, a profession or office and who has one or more workers, to whom they pay a salary or wage. This does not include individuals who only have domestic servants.

[pg. 28]

Self-employed

213 - A person who, without depending on an employer, owns their own economic company, or who carries out, on their own, a profession or office, without employing any paid workers. They can work alone or with associate(s).

Employee

214 - A person whose job mainly involves intellectual effort over physical effort, and who works for pay for a public or private boss or employer, of whose census household they are not a member.

The following are also considered employees:

a) Directors, managers, administrators, bosses, inspectors, secretaries, and all other managerial personnel of the various levels;

b) The professors, salaried professionals, and auxiliary specialists of liberal professions;

c) Desk, counter, or office employees,

d) Bill collectors, traveling salespersons, agents, company couriers, radio-technicians, operators, flight attendant and pilots.

Laborer

215 - A person who's job activity is predominantly manual, and who works for a wage or salary for a public or private foreman or employer, of whose census household they are not a member.

216 - Domestic servants, that is, those who dedicate themselves to household activities (cook, nanny, valet, servant, etc.) should be considered part of this group; these people's industry is denominated as: "family household."

217 - Laborers also include:

a) Teachers of manual labor, foremen, boatswain, apuntadores, officers [skilled workers or oficiales], semi-officers [unskilled workers or medio oficiales], apprentices, peons, changadores;

b) Drivers, machinists, fireperson [foguistas];

c) The foremen and peons of agricultural projects,

d) Deliverers, doorkeepers, packagers, waiters;

e) Hair cutters, hair stylists, manicurists, and other operators of a beauty salon.

218 - Make a mark in the corresponding box only for those persons who are classified as "employed," or "unemployed."

Other Characteristics

219 - The topics included under items 19 and 20 are investigated under the general title "Other characteristics." This investigation is limited - the first to only women, and the second to people of all ages who are affected [by the conditions contained in the questions].

Item IXX: Fertility

220 - These questions should be asked of all women ages twelve and above who have had children, no matter what the civil state was that they previously declared, including that of single.

221 - Annotate the total number of children they have had, born alive to the mothers, including in this number the children who have died before the census date, and excluding miscarriages/abortions and children born dead.

[pg. 29]

222 - If the person declares that they have not had any children, either alive or dead, annotate a zero on the respective dotted line on the Census Form.

223 - Remember that there is a tendency to forget or not declare children born alive who are no longer in the household with the mother, due to their being interned in a boarding school, or some other type of institution, or who live with other family members, as often occurs with children who were had from previous marriages or consensual unions.

224 - For this reason the enumerator should try to obtain the most precise number possible of the total number of children born alive to the mother. At the same time, the enumerator should employ the greatest prudence, ability, and discretion in asking these questions.

225 - In all cases, the fact that the enumerator suffers some rejection or irony from some families in asking these questions in reference to single women should not be a motive for them to stop asking such questions in all the households that they have to enumerate.

226 - Once the total number of children born alive to the mother has been annotate, the age, in completed years, at which the mother had her first child should also be annotate on the corresponding dotted line.

Item XX: Permanent physical disabilities

227 - Annotate the permanent physical impediment(s) of the affected person (of any age) by marking an (x) in the corresponding box.

Summary of enumerated persons

228 - Once finished registering the census information pertinent to the last member of the family on the Form, make sure that everyone has been enumerated, particularly recently born children or other children who are members of the family. After this, annotate, on the bottom right of the first page of the Census For, after the heading summary, the number of men and women in the family for whom the census was done.

[Chapter V on Page 29 to end of Page 31 was not translated into English]

Investigation of Deaths

245 - With the purpose of obtaining more information that is complete, accurate and the most recent possible about the mortality in the country, an investigation over the deaths that have occurred in each census household during the course of the month of September of 1962 will be done along with the general enumeration.

246 - This investigation over deaths in the census household will take place immediately after the Enumerator has fulfilled their mission of enumerating the Dwelling and the Family.

Questions to ask

247 - After the enumeration, that is, after the Dwelling and Housing Census Form has been filled out completely, the Enumerator will ask the Head of Household the following questions:

a) How many people, members or habitual integrators of your family, have died in the course of the month of September 1962?
b) Sex of each deceased person.
c) Age (hours, days, months, or years, according to the case) of each deceased person.

248 - The enumerator should make sure that the persons who have died have been family members who have been born into the family, or have been habitual members of the family, in other words, that would have been included with the family in the census if they had not died before the Census. Therefore, include all those persons who died in the month of September of 1962, who were member of the census family, no matter where they died, which might have been a hospital, asylum, clinic, hotel, residence, military institution, school, the house of a friend or family members (while they were visiting them) or by an accident at some other site (street, work, etc.).

Registration of the information

249 - The Enumerator should make the respective annotations in the rectangle that is found situated in the bottom right corner of the first page of the Census Form, and is titled: deceased in the month of September.

250 - In the column corresponding to each sex, and after the box corresponding to the unit of measurement of age (1 hour, 2 days, 3 months, 4 years) annotate in numbers, the hours, days, months, or years of the effective age of the deceased persons.

251 - The enumerator may encounter a variety of situation. In effect, in one census family various persons may have died, only one, or none. The following is an example of a registration: In one family a man and a women died, both younger than one year old. On the line after box 3, the age in months that the boy attained should be annotated in the column "Men, 1st case," and the age in months that the girl attained should be annotate in the column "Women, 2nd case."

252 - If the head of the census family, or the person who provides the information, indicates that no one has died, the Enumerator should draw a diagonal line in the space reserved for the registration of this information.