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1991 Census of Population and Housing: Portugal
Enumerator Instructions

1 Introduction

One of the most important stages of a census is the data collection stage in the field. This stage requires a careful preparation, concerning both the administrative processes and the instructions to the people that will execute the work.

The enumerator plays a key role in every census process, and, keeping that in mind, the enumerator' instructions must follow a well-defined and standardized criterion with respect to coverage and the tools made available to accomplish the required task.

For an efficient execution of the tasks, the instructions must guarantee that the enumerator knows the importance of his/her job. It is a responsibility of the organization to support this work on the motivational and technical levels.

This manual was prepared to give technical information to the enumerators, not only regarding the filling-in of questionnaires but also regarding cartographic tools of identification in the field and on auxiliary field forms.

1.1 Instructions' structure

This manual presents the following structure (thought to be the most convenient to achieve the goals set):

-- Presentation of the geographical base for spatial referencing;
-- Spatial and geographic identification of the questionnaires
-- Integration structure and questionnaire control
-- Concepts
-- Utilization methods of the questionnaires
-- Filling-in instructions of the questionnaires
-- Filling-in instructions of the auxiliary forms

1.2 Enumerator definition

The enumerator is the person responsible for locally delivering and collecting all questionnaires and other forms from the 1991 Census.

1.3 Enumerator role in the 91 Census

A determined working area (statistical area or a group of statistical areas) is assigned to every enumerator and this person must assure that no house or person is left without being counted and that the respective questionnaires are completed and correctly filled-in. At the same time, the enumerator must respect the geographic boundaries of the assigned area.

The enumerator must fill-in or correct every questionnaire that was left blank or that presents obvious mistakes during the collection stage.

2 Geographical base for spatial referencing

The geographical base for spatial referencing is a data collection support instrument to be used on the XIII Population Census and on the III Housing Census. Basically it divides the area of every parish into statistical sections (census blocks) and then, those into subsections (the correspondent to the construction block in urban areas and to the place or parts of a place in rural areas). These divisions are always rigorously supported on cartographic elements on the maps and on the terrain.

Every statistical section is a continuous area of only one parish and it groups approximately 300 dwellings intended for habitation. By statistical subsection we understand the smallest homogenous construction area or a part of a place, in rural areas.

Every enumerator will have a set of cartographic materials with the precise delimitation of their work area, together with the delimitation of the correspondent subsections.

A place is a population agglomerate with more than 10 dwellings meant to be inhabited by persons and having a specific denomination, independently of being in one or more parishes.

[Instructions regarding usage of cartographic material as well as the corresponding examples, were not translated into English]

3 Spatial and geographical identification of the questionnaires

One of the objectives of the enumerator is to count the number of buildings, dwellings, families and individuals present in the entire country, but also in every place no matter how small or isolated it is. Hence, it is not only important to know how many, but where every statistical unit is.

To attain such objective, it is necessary to label every questionnaire: that is a specific task reserved for the enumerator that in order to do so needs the support of the geographical base for spatial referencing.

3.1 Numbering principles

The numbering of subsections was previously done, according to the spatial reference geographic base (they are already numbered within statistical sections, from 1 to 99); the statistical sections are numbered from 1 to 999 within parishes. Hence, the number of codification for a subsection is a composite number of 5 numbers (3 for the section code plus 2 for the subsection).

Note: All questionnaires of the same subsection will have the same identification for municipality, parish, place and subsection number.

3.2 Applying these concepts to the questionnaires

Question 1

In the building, individual dwelling, collective dwelling, conventional and institutional family questionnaires:

The enumerator must write in the names of each one of these three variables: municipality, parish and place. The identification of the place must be the one that is registered in the cartography.

Question 1

In the individual questionnaire:
Municipality, parish and name.

The enumerator must write in the names of each one of these three variables.
The variable name is only used for fieldwork control purposes and to avoid duplication on the questionnaires answered.

Note: There must be a precise correspondence between the numbers and the names of the individual questionnaires and the numbers and the names within the family questionnaires. Therefore, the individual number must be the same as the sequence number of this same individual in the family.

Question 2

In the building, conventional dwelling, collective dwelling, conventional and institutional family and individual questionnaires:
Subsection number

All types of questionnaires regarding the same building must be identified in the same way, meaning that they must have the same subsection number.

Question 4

In the building questionnaire:

Indicate the street, door number, postal code of the building, writing in capital letters.
In rural areas where there is no street name, and for better control of the enumerator, you must fill-in this field with the name of the enumerated person.

4 Integration structure and questionnaire control

In this census there is a strong link between the different statistical units (a building may contain one or more dwellings, a dwelling might have one, two or more families, a family can be constituted by one or more individuals). To manage this diversity and to always have the way every statistical unit integrates itself in the context of all the others, we must pay particular attention to the coding of the questionnaires.

4.1. Coding principles

This subsection explains in more depth the principles described in subsection 3.1.

When the dwelling questionnaire is distributed, you must immediately fill-in the spaces assigned to the variables municipality, parish, place, address and subsection number.
Always make sure that the coding is sequential at all times.

Building coding: the buildings must be coded sequentially, from 1 to 999 inside the statistical subsection. This sequential code must never be interrupted.

Dwelling coding: The municipality, the parish, the place, the subsection code, and the building codes must be exactly the same to those in the correspondent building questionnaire. The dwellings must be coded sequentially, from 1 to 99 inside the corresponding building questionnaires. This sequential code must never be interrupted.

Conventional family coding: The municipality, the parish, the place, the subsection code, the building code, and the dwelling code must be exactly the same to those in the corresponding dwelling questionnaire.
The families must be coded sequentially, from 1 to 99 inside the dwelling. This sequential code must never be interrupted.

Individual coding: The municipality, the parish, the place, the subsection code, the building code, the dwelling code and the family code must be exactly the same to those in the corresponding family questionnaire.
The individuals must be coded sequentially, from 1 to 99 inside the family, and must correspond to the same code they have in the family questionnaire. This sequential code must never be interrupted.

4.2 Questions for the integration and control of the questionnaires

Question 3

In the building, conventional dwelling, collective dwelling, conventional and institutional family questionnaires:

Building Number

The Building number must be the same for every dwelling and family in the same building.

Question 4

In the dwelling, collective, conventional and institutional family questionnaires:

Dwelling (living quarter) number

The dwelling number must be the same for every family within a dwelling.

Question 5

In the dwelling questionnaires:

Floor number

When the dwelling belongs to a building with various floors, you must collect the corresponding number and side for each floor.

Question 5

In the conventional and institutional family questionnaires:

Family number

Regarding the family number, this must follow a sequential order within the dwelling (see general instruction in subsection 4.1). Therefore, the first family in the dwelling will be assigned the number 1, the second family will be assigned the number 2, and continue in this fashion.

4.3 Questions from the individual questionnaire

Building number will be the same as every individual in the building.

Dwelling number will be the same as every individual in the dwelling.

Family number will be the same as every individual in the family.

Individual number: we must register the number that corresponds to that individual in the family questionnaire.

5 Concepts

5.1 What is the census moment?

The census moment, or data reference date, corresponds to the day and hour when the data will be collected. The reference to this moment it is absolutely fundamental to avoid duplications and omissions on the counting due to the normal displacement of people.

Therefore, the residence and presence, as well as the larger part of the intended data, refer to April 15th, 1991 at 00h00.

5.2 What is a building?

As for building we understand every independent construction, including one or more dwellings, rooms or other spaces destined to the habitation of persons, covered and included within external or division walls, which must go from the foundations to the roof.

5.3 What is a dwelling (living quarter)?

As for dwelling we understand every distinct and independent inhabited place, that by the way that it was constructed, reconstructed, enlarged or transformed, is intended to be inhabited and on the census moment it was not being used entirely for other purposes.

5.3.1 What is a family [conventional] dwelling?

Is every housing unit that by the way it was constructed or by the way it is being used, is destined to be inhabited, normally by only one family, even knowing that more than one can reside there on the census moment.

5.3.2 What is a collective dwelling?

It is every place which, by the way it was constructed or transformed, is destined to be inhabited by more than one family and that on the census moment, and is occupied by one or more individuals, regardless of being residents or just present and not residents.

5.4 What is a conventional family (household)?

As for classical (conventional) family we understand the group of persons that reside in a same dwelling and have family relationships in between them, de jure or de facto, and they may occupy the totality or part of the living quarters.
A classic family may also be an independent person that occupies part or the totality of a dwelling.

5.5 What is an institutional family?

As for institutional family we understand a group of people that reside in a collective dwelling, and independently of their family relationship observe a common discipline or are beneficiaries of the same institution objectives.

6 Utilization methods of the questionnaires

6.1 Building questionnaire

6.1.1 Who must fill-in the building questionnaire?

The building questionnaire must be exclusively filled-in by the enumerator. Do not ever give this questionnaire to the population.

To accomplish the correct filling-in of this questionnaire, you must ask the building proprietary all the questions you may think necessary, or, in substitution, to the doorman, tenants, etc.

6.1.2 Which buildings should be enumerated?

All buildings that have one or more dwellings (you must fill-in as many dwelling questionnaires as the number of dwellings that exist in the building);

All constructions destined to the inhabited (houses, apartment buildings, etc.), even if they are vacant or if they are secondary residences;

All constructions even if they are mainly destined to economic activities, as long as they have at least one dwelling. This is the case of a factory that has in its interior a dwelling for the keeper or a building mainly occupied with offices but where a dwelling is occupied by a doorman;

All the buildings that constitute collective dwellings (hotels, pensions, hospitals, colleges, elderly homes, prisons, etc.);

All the shacks, mobile dwellings (tents, boats, caravans, etc.) or other dwellings in places not destined to be inhabited (cases where you are not in presence of a building as described earlier in its definition) as long as in the moment of enumeration it is occupied by persons.

Attention: As for "places not destined to be inhabited" we understand any construction that has been conceived from scratch for an economical activity (factories, warehouse, offices, windmills, barns, etc.) or any other place that is inhabited on the census moment (garage, cave, stairways, building entrances, or an area under a bridge, where a homeless might be found, etc.) as long as these places have not received any transformation for inhabitation purposes.

6.1.3 Which are the buildings that shall not be enumerated?

All those that are exclusively destined to economic activities. However, you will only be sure of that after you check them. Keeping that in mind, you must contact all buildings, even in those cases where you are sure (some times a security guard, an employee, or even the manager himself might live there);

All those buildings still in construction and that are not ready to be occupied;

All those buildings in ruins and not occupied;

Buildings totally occupied by embassies.

6.1.4 Particular cases of buildings

In the case of constructions in a "block" fashion, a building is assigned to each independent entrance.

In the case of constructions in "circles" or in "rectangle" we should consider one or more buildings according to what its structure indicates and taking into account the independent entrances.

In the case of "private condominiums" the above defined criteria apply.

In the case of certain "rural houses," where doubts may arise between considering the house and its annexes as one building, versus filling-in one questionnaire for the main house and another questionnaire for each one of the annexes, we should consider the first option. When there are annexes inhabited by families, we should consider those annexes as independent buildings.

6.2 Dwelling questionnaire

6.2.1 Who must fill-in the dwelling questionnaire?

The first page of the dwelling questionnaire must be filled-in by the enumerator before giving the questionnaire to one of the individuals present in the dwelling.
After question 8 (inclusively) the questionnaire must be filled-in by an individual present in the dwelling.

6.3 Conventional (classic) family questionnaire

6.3.1 Who must fill-in the conventional family questionnaire?

The classic family questionnaire is filled-in by the enumerator at the time of the collection.

6.3.2. To whom is the classic family questionnaire destined?

This questionnaire is destined for all persons that are considered as members of a classic family according to subsection 5.4.

6.3.3 Particular cases

In dwellings with more than one family, one classic family questionnaire must be filled-in for each existing family in the dwelling.

For the individuals present but not resident on a dwelling occupied by a resident family:

a) They must be included on the questionnaire of that family, with the corresponding code;

b) In the case that more than one family exists in the dwelling, these individuals will be integrated in the family with which they relate the most;

c) Domestic servants that live with the family, as long as they do not go (almost) every week to a residence of their own family, will be included in the family questionnaire where they work.

For the family dwellings occupied only by individuals present but not resident:

a) When the dwelling is occupied only by non-resident families a classic family questionnaire must be filled-in identically to the others;

b) If the dwelling is occupied only by individuals present but not residents, who are not related to each other (either de jure or de facto), every one will constitute one classic family.

6.4 Institutional Family questionnaire

6.4.1 Who must fill-in the institutional family questionnaire?

The Institutional Family questionnaire must exclusively be filled-in by the enumerator.

6.4.2. To whom is the institutional family questionnaire destined?

It is intended to all residents in a collective dwelling who, independently of the family relationship between them, benefit from the institution's objectives and they are ruled by an interior or exterior entity to the group.

6.4.3 Who should not fill-in the institutional family questionnaire?

The persons that reside in an institution, and do not observe a common discipline, nor are beneficiaries of the institution's objectives.

6.5 Individual questionnaire

6.5.1 Who must fill-in the individual questionnaire?

The questionnaire must be filled-in by the individual himself, by a relative or a friend.

6.5.2. To whom is the individual questionnaire destined?

All Portuguese and foreigners that reside in the national territory at the census moment.
All foreign residents that at the census moment are in Portugal in family dwellings.

6.5.3 Who should not fill-in the individual questionnaire?

All foreign members of a diplomatic body and their families, if they live in their embassy; all members of foreign military forces and their families living in their barracks stationed in the national territory.

All foreigners who and that on April 15th, 1991 at 0:00 hours, are in Portugal in hotels, pensions or similar accommodations.

6.6 Collective questionnaire

6.6.1 Who must fill-in the collective questionnaire?

The responsible person for the collective dwelling, manager, proprietary, or his/her representative is the competent person to answer.

6.6.2. To whom is the collective questionnaire destined?

The collective questionnaire is exclusively destined to the persons that, on the census moment (i.e. April 15th, 1991 at 0:00 hours), are in collective dwellings as non-residents.

7 Filling-in instructions of the questionnaires

7.1. Building questionnaire

Question 5: Type of building and period of construction

The first aspect that has to be considered is the type of building to be enumerated. One can find a conventional building in the sense that its structure and the materials used to build it are permanent, or other types of inhabited constructions, which should be chosen when you identify a shack or other improvised construction, tent, caravan, boat, natural shelter, etc.

Note: If the later building type is chosen (option 9) the filling-in of this questionnaire is over.

As you can understand by the question's structure, the period of construction will only be collected for classical (conventional) buildings.

To collect the correct information and classify the building into categories 1 through 7, you must inform yourself about the year or period of construction by asking the proprietary, doorman or any of the older residents.

In cases where persons (due to old age) might have some difficulties remembering the exact period of construction, ask for comparisons with some milestones (i.e. before or after the World War I, etc.).

In cases of persisting doubt decide by using information of similar and nearby buildings.

Note: If reconstruction was undertaken please register the date for reconstruction and not the original construction period.

Question 6: Number of floors

In relation to the number of floors, we should only consider the ones above ground.

The ground floor should be considered as a floor.

Basements are not considered as floors, unless they receive natural light inside (if they have direct access to the street or to a patio, etc.).

Attics are not considered as floors.

Question 7: Number of living quarters

The objective of this question is to count the number of dwellings, that is, the places or separate and independent spaces, delimited by walls and roof, which exist in every building and permit the residence of one or more individuals.

In the case where you find a collective living quarter, you must count it as a single living quarter.

Question 8: Type of utilization

This question has the objective of describing the utilization given to the building as a whole, to try to get a better knowledge of the housing universe.

Three options were considered for the type of utilization question:

a) Exclusively residential building: is one where all the usable area of the building is used for human habitation. This category also comprises buildings that are totally occupied with collective dwellings designed as hotels, elderly homes, asylums, religious housing or student dormitory, etc.

b) Mostly residential building: this category comprises buildings in which more than half of its usable area (more or equal to 50 percent but less than 100 percent) is used for human habitation, although commercial activities or services may exist in the ground floor or any floor.

c) Mostly non-residential building: this category comprises buildings in which the area for human habitation corresponds to less than half (less than 50 percent) of the usable area, and the majority of the area is occupied with offices, commerce or other economic activities. Buildings which have just one dwelling occupied by night-guards, employees or the manager himself are considered in this category.

Question 9: Main structural material used

Question 9.1: Structure elements

In a building we can consider two types of elements:

a) Structural elements, which support the structure and the elements that support the different floors (pillars, isolated or not, or the walls itself).

b) Other complementary elements, meaning those elements that are not used to sustain the building, such as the roof, division walls, isolating materials, decorative materials, etc.

Note that a given element may be used as a structural element in a building but can be used as a complementary material in another. Therefore it is very importance to identify the elements and the function they have in the particular building.

The information to answer question 9, structure elements (question 9.1) and external wall coverage, must be obtained from the proprietary (when possible) or from the doorman or one of the oldest residents in the building.
If such is not possible please use the following guidelines for evaluation:

a) The use of Structural concrete on the construction of buildings started in 1935/40, and after 1950 it became the main alternative, especially in the main urban centers. From this date onwards, buildings legally constructed in the urban areas have structural concrete as their main structural material.
Nevertheless, there are cases where this does not happen (they use a metallic structure, and in these cases you must sign the option others).

b) In buildings built before 1940, elements such as mortared masonry walls without concrete slabs, adobe, stone or timber are used.

c) In buildings of great dimension, mainly in rural areas, the technique of mortared masonry walls without concrete slabs are the most used.

Note: In the case of old buildings that used different types of structure, please consider the mainly used element, providing that as an answer, and always giving just one answer.

Question 9.2: Main material used in external wall covering

The use of a determined material is closely related to the regional housing characteristics, although in recent years there is a tendency for generalization.

In option 3 of this question (i.e. mortared masonry walls without concrete slabs) we must include all the buildings where the walls are made of any kind of blocks previously prepared (even stone).

Question 9.3: Type of roof and materials used

First identify if the coverage is flat, inclined or mixed. In the majority of the cases, the answer can be found by simple observation.

If the roof is inclined identify if it is:

a) Roof with tiles
b) Roof with other materials

7.2. Dwelling (living quarter) questionnaire

Question 6: Type of living quarter:

The family dwellings can be of the following two types:

Conventional family dwelling: Division or set of divisions and their annexes that make part of a classical building, i.e., a permanent structure or a structure that by the way it was constructed, reconstructed, enlarged or transformed is destined to be inhabited and on the census moment it was not being used entirely for other purposes.

Non-Conventional dwelling: Place that on the census moment is inhabited by individuals and that by the type and precarious way of the construction does not entirely satisfy the requirements to be a conventional family dwelling.

We include in this type: Shacks, rudimentary wood houses, mobile housing units, dwellings in a permanent building not designed for habitation and other inhabited places.

As collective living quarters we understand every place that by the way it was constructed or transformed is destined to shelter more than one household and on the census moment is occupied by one or more individuals being residents or by-passers.

We include in this type: hotel or similar, camps and institutions.
In this last type we can identify the following sub-types of dwellings according to their purposes:

Social support
Other types

Note: We only observe collective living quarters if they are functioning on the census moment, namely the hotels and similar as long as they are available to receive persons.

Attention: If you see the collective living quarter, identify its type and end by filling-in of the questionnaire.

[Questions 7-18 were asked of private dwellings only]

Question 7: Occupancy status

First of all, in this question, we have to identify if the family dwelling is occupied or vacant.

For occupied dwellings we must understand every housing unit that at the census moment was not being offered in the real estate market.

We understand as occupied all the dwellings that have the following characteristics:

a) It is a dwelling of usual residence, when a dwelling is the usual place of residence of at least one family. As for usual residence we understand the place where the enumerated live for most part of the year.

b) It is of seasonal or for secondary use, when the dwelling is used only in some periods and when no one usually resides there. If at the census moment the dwelling is occupied only by non-residents, it will still be considered a seasonal dwelling.

c) If it has an emigrant occupant for more than one year, or, if the occupant has been there less than a year but the emigration period is suppose to be longer than a year, choose this option.

d) We consider that the dwelling has an absent occupant if the dwelling belongs to individuals that temporarily left the place that used to be their usual place of residence because they are absent for long periods of time in other place of the national territory.

As for vacant dwelling we understand all those dwellings that, at the census moment, are available in the real estate market (i.e. for sale, for rent, etc.).

-- For sale;
-- To rent;
-- For demolition: is destined to be destroyed even if presenting good enough conditions to inhabit;
-- Other cases: is vacant for other reasons different from the ones above.

Note: If you have identified a situation different from a usual place of residence, end the filling-in of the questionnaire.
[Questions 8-18 were asked of usual residence dwellings only]

Question 8: Does the housing unit have electricity?

"Yes" or "No" answer.

We intend to know if the dwelling has any electricity power supplied by a private or public network.

Question 9: Water supply system:

We intend to know what kind of system does the dwelling have for water supply.

The first distinction between forms of water supply is whether the dwelling has piped water supply or not.

a) If it has piped water available in the housing unit it can be:
1. From a public network
2. From a private source

Note: When a dwelling has piped water in the yard, the kitchen or the bathroom, we must consider it as having piped water available within the housing unit.

b) However, if the dwelling has water in the yard but not in any of the rooms we must consider it as having Piped water available within the building but outside the housing unit.

If it does not have piped water available in the interior of the dwelling or the building, the residents must be supplied water from one of the following methods:

a) Public drinking fountain
b) Private well or hole
c) Private well with pump
d) Public well without pump or surface water fountain
e) Other

Note: If it has various sources of water supply you must consider the one that is used the most for cooking and for hygiene purposes.

Question 10: Toilet facilities

a) With toilet within the housing unit for exclusive use:
1. Flush toilet
2. No flush toilet
b) With toilet within the building but outside of the housing unit for shared use:
1. Flush toilet
2. No flush toilet
c) No toilet available

Note: With this question we must observe the coherence between the answer we have here and the ones given on the previous question. One cannot have a flush toilet if it goes to a fountain for water.

Question 11: Housing unit with fixed bath or shower?

"Yes" or "No" answer.

We intend to know whether or not the dwelling has bathing facilities.
To be considered as a bathing facility, it must be connected to a sewage system.
The sole existence of a lavatory does not mean that the dwelling has a bathing facility.

Question 12: Sewage disposal system:

In relation to the sewage disposal system we have to consider the following modalities:

a) Housing unit with sewage disposal system:
-- Connected to a public sewage disposal plant
-- Connected to a private sewage disposal plant (septic tank, etc.)
-- Other arrangements
b) Housing unit without sewage disposal system

As for sewage disposal system we understand all permanent installation that allows the drainage of residual waters of a dwelling.

Attention: The next questions should only be answered by conventional family dwellings occupied as usual residence. If they are not of a conventional type the filling-in of the questionnaire is over.
[Questions 13-18 apply only to conventional dwellings]

Question 13: Availability of kitchen:

This question aims at identifying the presence of a kitchen (and corresponding available area) or kitchenette in the dwelling.

By kitchen we understand the place destined to be used during the preparation of the main meals, even if it is used as a dining room, room or living room. The kitchen may be separate from the dwelling (on the patio for example) and still be considered as one.
By kitchenette we understand a small space, inside a room, separated by a small counter, being the place to prepare meals.

The available options to answer this question are:

-- The housing unit has a kitchen with:
-- Less than 4 square meters
-- 4 square meters or more
-- The housing unit has only a kitchenette
-- Without kitchen or kitchenette

Question 14: Number of rooms in the dwelling:

By room we understand the space in a dwelling, delimited by walls, having at least 4 square meters and with 2 meters of height on the majority of the space.

Even though they satisfy the previous definition, the following are not counted as rooms:

-- The kitchen;
-- Corridors, balconies;
-- Bathrooms, dispensary, halls;
-- Spaces exclusively destined to economic activities.

The rooms that are exclusively used for an economic activity must not be counted as rooms in this question.

Note: Questions 15 and 15.1 should only be answered by the proprietary or co-proprietary of the dwellings.

Question 15: Do you have a mortgage or loan resulting from the purchase of this dwelling:

"Yes" or "No" answer.

The most important aspect for a correct answer to this question is to identify what the mortgage or loan means.

We understand that one of the occupants is proprietary of the dwelling and has financial obligations with the mortgage or loan of this dwelling when the financial obligations are in respect to the acquisition of the dwelling only and not related to works of any kind done within.

Any other type of expenses related to the housing unit, should not be considered in this question.

If the dwelling is totally paid for, independently of the acquisition method, the answer to this question must be "No" (i.e. code 3).

Note: in the case of a proprietary that answers No to this question, the filling-in of his questionnaire ends here.

Question 15.1: Please indicate the level of the monthly mortgage paid

If you answered Yes on question 15, please answer this question.
The options presented refer to an average monthly charge, so if the payment is done with a different periodicity, we will have to do the math and calculate the average amount for every month.

This monthly mortgage charge reports to the one supported last month in relation to the census moment.

In the case where the payment has not yet been calculated by the financing institution, the buyer must answer based on his/her estimate.

Note: The following questions [16-18] are destined only for tenants of conventional dwellings. So, if you answered question 15.1 the filling-in of the questionnaire is over.

Question 16: If you are a tenant, please indicate the form of lease

This question is only for dwellings where none of the occupants is proprietary or co-proprietary of the respective dwelling.

In these cases, we must identify if, when rented, the dwelling was:

a) Furnished by the owner
b) Not furnished by the owner

If the dwelling is rented to one individual that rented it to another individual, we consider that housing unit as a sub-rented housing unit.

In other cases where the dwelling is occupied free of charge (i.e. door men, guards, etc.), we must select the option other situation (granted, etc).

Question 17: If rent is paid, please indicate the level of the monthly amount

By rent we understand the monthly payment due by the occupation of a dwelling in a leasing regime.

The options presented refer to an average monthly amount pad by the tenant, so if the periodicity of the payment is not monthly, we will calculate the average amount for every month.

Only those enumerated that chose options 1, 3 or 5 in question 16 can answer this question.

Questions 18: Dwelling ownership

We must note that those cases of propriety or co-propriety of the occupants are not covered by this question.

7.3. Classical (conventional) family questionnaire

In this question we have to fill-in a table with several codes to establish the relation of the private household members and the reference person.

Every classic household must have a reference person.
By reference person, we understand the family member that is considered as such by the other members, has to be a resident in the dwelling, is 18 years old or older and preferentially is responsible for the dwelling.

This reference person must always be a dwelling resident, but may be absent on the census moment.

In families where these conditions do not apply, use the oldest person as the reference person.

On Column 2 you must collect the complete name of the reference person and the first and last name of all the others.

On Column 3 you must apply the corresponding relationship code to every individual in relation to the reference person.
The codes available in this column are:

Codes to be used in the relationship description

02 Spouse
03 Son/daughter not married
04 Son/daughter married
05 Foster son/daughter not married
06 Foster son/daughter married
07 Stepson/stepdaughter not married
08 Stepson/stepdaughter married
09 Father or Mother
10 Father-in-law or mother-in-law
11 Daughter-in-law or son-in-law
12 Brother or sister
13 Grandson or granddaughter/great-grandson or great-granddaughter
14 Grandfather or grandmother / great-grandfather or great-grandmother
15 Other relative person
16 Domestic servant
17 Other

Column 4 should only be used for married individuals or living as such with the corresponding spouse number in column 1.

Columns 5 and 6 are only filled-in by individuals who have a father or a mother residing in the dwelling, with the corresponding code number of the father (column 5) and the mother (column 6), using for that purpose the code number that is in column 1.

For columns 4, 5 and 6 you must use only the codes shown on column 1.
To correctly fill-in the family questionnaire you must ask:

-- Which are the family relationships of every single person with the reference person?
-- Who is the spouse if the reference person is married or is living as such?
-- Who are the parents, in those cases where the parents live together with the reference person?

7.4. Institutional Family Questionnaire

What is an institutional family?
As for institutional family we understand the group of individuals residing in a collective dwelling, and, independently of the family relationship between them, they benefit from the institution's objectives and they are ruled by an interior or exterior entity to the group.

The filling-in of the institutional family questionnaire is done by listing the names of all individuals that compose the family.

Every person included in the institutional family questionnaire must fill-in an individual questionnaire, where the family number and the individual number must correspond to the number (coding) in the institutional family questionnaire.

Attention: A collective dwelling can only have a numerical sequence (1 to n) for all families that reside there (conventional and institutional); meaning that in a dwelling of this kind with 4 families (2 conventional and 2 institutional) a numerical sequence must be used from 1 to 4.

7.5. Individual questionnaire

We must fill-in one individual questionnaire for:

All residents in a dwelling, even if they are temporarily absent, excluding children who were born after the census moment and including the people that died after that date.

All individuals who, although are not residents, are temporarily present in the dwelling on the census moment.

The questionnaire does not apply to:

All foreign members of a diplomatic mission and their families if they live in their embassy; all foreign militaries and families living in their barracks stationed in national territory.

All individuals that on the census moment are in collective dwellings and do not reside there.

Question 2: Sex

Just answer male or female.

There is no difficulty with this question, just make sure (when you receive the questionnaires) that the answer is filled-in, and if it is not filled -- in, complete this using the name as an indicator. This answer cannot be blank.

Question 3: Where is your usual place of residence?

(What was your situation on 15 April 1991, at 00:00 hours)

This answer cannot be blank. If you notice that when you receive the questionnaires, you must ask the individual to mark the correct answer.

As for usual place of residence we consider the place where the individual spends most time of year, normally together with the direct family, and this is the place where the totality or most of his belongings are.

Particular cases of residents:

The particular cases that are described here correspond to situations where the individual, even knowing that he might eventually live most of the year elsewhere from the usual place of residence, does not lose his residency status in that dwelling.


a) The student who lives away from her family and does not have a paid activity and that on the census moment is present in a boarding school or in a private house as a guest. However if the student has a paid activity he must be considered a resident and present in the place where he lives, and not in the family dwelling;

b) Person living outside the family dwelling due to work, but maintains the family residence. Includes the individual on board of ships if they been away for less than 6 months;

c) Individual on the compulsory military service;

d) Person institutionalized in a health, prison, or rehabilitation institution;

e) Emigrant, if he has gone abroad less than a year ago;

f) Foreigners who have lived in Portugal for more than a year.
Resides in the housing unit but is absent : for everyone who is resident at the dwelling but is absent on the census moment (0:00 o'clock on April 15, 1991) and is not returning to it until 12 o'clock of that same day.


1. Any of the particular cases described above can be in a situation of residents but absent on the census moment;

2. Person traveling on the census moment;

3. Personnel on duty on the night of the 14th to the 15th of April and that will not return home until 12 o'clock of that day.
Not resident but present at this living quarter: for everybody that is not a usual resident at the dwelling and is present in the dwelling on the census moment (0:00 o'clock of April 15, 1991).


1. All persons indicated on the previous examples (students, travelers, etc.) on the place where they are present on the census moment;

2. Persons visiting family and friends;

3. Foreign members of a diplomatic mission and their families, as long as they live outside the embassies and foreign militaries and their families if they are living outside of the barracks, as long as they are stationed in national territory;

4. Foreigners that are in Portugal for less than a year;

5. Foreigners visiting Portugal for tourism;

6. Emigrants for more than a year, that are in Portugal for a short period of time (less than a year);

7. Passengers on board of ships stationed on Portuguese ports on census moment.

Note: For individuals that reside elsewhere different from where they are staying at 0:00 o'clock of April 15, 1991, end the filling-in of the questionnaire here.
[Applies to questions 4-28]

Question 4: Date of birth

The indication of the year is of extreme importance.

Note: This question cannot be left blank (day, month and year).

Question 5: Marital status

We must collect the real situation of the individual (de facto situation), even if this situation is not the same as the legal situation. When a coincidence exists between the two, the first is the one collected.

Options available in this question:

-- Single
-- Married: legally registered
-- Married: not legally registered -- status where a person, independently of their legal status, is living in a situation similar to the marriage but without the legal arrangements.
-- Widow
-- Separated: A person after marrying or living together with other person has left the spouse and the separation does not have a legal recognition.
-- Divorced: Every person that had a legal dissolution of the marriage.

Question 6: Place of birth

(Place of residence of the mother at the time of birth)

If the mother of the individual was living in Portugal he/she has to provide information regarding the municipality.

If the mother was living abroad the enumerated person has to identify the country (either by choosing one of the available options or by writing the country's name).

Question 7: What is your citizenship?

The options of answer to this question are:

1 Portuguese only
3 Stateless

More than one citizenship
5 Portuguese and other
7 Other cases
8 From country of birth
9 Foreign, from another country, please write in ____

If the enumerated individual is currently applying for a different citizenship, he/she must indicate the citizenship valid at the moment and not the one he/she is applying for.

Question 8: Literacy

The following options are available:

-- Able to read and write
-- Not able to read and write

Note: For individuals that only know how to sign their name (and do not know how to read or write anything else) we consider them as not able to read and write.

Question 9: School attendance

We admit the following answers:

No, never attended -- people who never enrolled in a school or teaching establishment, even if they know how to read and write. Also applies to children who have not yet reached school age. Children attending pre-primary are not included in here.

Attending -- to select this option it is not enough to be enrolled in a school -- regular attendance is required. Children attending pre-primary are included here.

Attended, but not anymore -- this option applies to people who do not attend school anymore, either because they are not enrolled anymore or because they ended the course or quitted school.

Question 10: Level of education

The individual must indicate the highest level of education reached, even if he/she did not complete it and whether or not she is attending it.

Pre-Primary -- education level given to children 3 years old or younger and that are not on compulsory school age.

Basic -- 1st degree -- corresponds to the first four years of school.

Basic -- 2nd degree -- includes the fifth and sixth years of school.

Secondary -- 1st degree -- includes the seventh, eighth and ninth years of school.

Secondary -- 2nd degree -- includes the tenth, eleventh and twelfth years of school.

Post-secondary -- includes those situations of old courses of medium degree, like for example primary school teacher, old commercial studies, etc.

Tertiary -- 1st and 2nd degrees (Bac. and Lic.) -- includes bachelor and licentiate degrees

Tertiary -- 3rd and 4th degrees (Master and PhD.) -- Master and Doctor in Philosophy degrees

For individuals that attended or are attending professional courses, we can encounter one of the following two situations:

a) If the course has equivalence with the official education bureau, we assign the education level that corresponds to that course,

b) If the course has no equivalence with the official education bureau, we must assign the education level that the individual had before the course.

Question 11: Did you complete the education level indicated in the previous question?

"Yes" or "No" answer.

Question 12: If you are a tertiary level graduate, please write in the name of your field of education:

This question should only be answered by individuals with a higher education level completed.

When the individual has more than one higher education course, he must indicate the highest degree. In the case both are at the same level, indicate the one most closely related to her profession. If she never worked, indicate the one closest to her vocation.

Question 13: Where was your place of usual residence on December 31, 1985?

Only individuals that were already born on December 31, 1985 should answer this question.
Individuals that were born in 1986 or after do not answer this question.

Question 14: Where was your place of usual residence on December 31, 1989?

Only individuals who were already born on December 31, 1989 answer this question.
Individuals who were born in 1990 or 1991 do not answer this question.

Note: The respondent has to choose one option identifying the municipality or country (according to each case) in questions 13 and 14, and if their answer is not there to select, she must write in the municipality or the country.

Attention: Only present and resident who have a job or are studying answer questions 15, 16 and 17.

Question 15: Place of work or study

If the individual works and simultaneously studies, he/she must answer this question.

Note: If this question is answered questions 16 and 17 must also be answered.

Question 16: How long does it take you on average to travel to your place of work or study?

The enumerated must choose the option that represents the average time spent from the moment he leaves home until he arrives to the place of work or study.

Individuals who do not have a fixed place of work must answer according to the main office of the firm they work at (the place where they go if they need something from the company).

Only individuals who work at home or at a walking distance, answer None.

Question 17: Main mode of transportation

The individual must indicate the main mode of transportation used daily during the most part of the way to go to work or to the place of study.

The enumerated must choose only one mode of transport used; only the one he uses the most.

Note: Individuals younger than 12 years old end the filling-in of the questionnaire after question 17.
[Applies to questions 18-28]

Question 18: Source of livelihood

For main source of livelihood we understand the main source of income for the last 12 months.

If the enumerated has various sources of income choose only one (the main one).

Work: includes people who live mainly from their work, being paid or not. Persons in the compulsory military service, should choose this answer.

Temporary benefits:

Sickness, accident, etc.
Others -- due to accidents, hilliness, maternity leave, etc.

Pensions -- All persons who receive a pension, and as long as this is not higher than any other income.

Social support -- All individuals who receive support from the State, Public Organizations or from other institutions without profit purposes.

Household support -- individuals who live supported by the rest of the family (i.e. students, elderly without any pension, etc.)

Attention: Individuals who work without receiving payment on a family economic activity can choose the option "Household support" and not "Work" if they agree that their work is not sufficient to cover for all expenses that the family has with them. This is a situation we may encounter in rural areas.

Property or entrepreneurial income -- when the subsistence of an individual is granted by rents from proprieties, bank interests, copyrights, etc.

Other cases -- If you encounter a case that does not fit in any of the other modalities please choose this answer (for example: scholarship grants).

Question 19: Condition regarding work

The individuals must indicate the situation they were in the week of 7-13 of April 1991:

a) Did work on an economic activity, being paid or not;

b) Was temporarily absent from the place of work: if on the week of 7-13 of April 1991, the person did not work but had a job. We can include in this option holidays, accidents, licenses of various kinds, etc. or any other cause for temporarily absence with or without authorization;

c) Was unemployed: all individuals 12 years of age or older, that are not attending compulsory school and that on the reference week did not have a job, paid or not and were available to work on paid or unpaid job;

d) Permanently unable to work: all individuals 12 years of age or older, who on the reference week, did not work because of a handicap (either receiving a pension or not for that fact);

e) Retired, pensioners or on reserve: all individuals that did not work on the reference week, but received a retirement pension or other of the same kind;

f) Student: it includes all individuals younger than 12 years old, who, on the reference week, attended any kind of education level and that did not have a job, were not on compulsory military service and did not consider themselves as unemployed;

g) Home chores: all individuals that on the reference week had as main occupation the domestic tasks in their own home;

h) In the option "Other reasons" we can include all the situations not described above.


a) Individuals who are students and simultaneously are responsible for household tasks, are included on the modality "Student";

b) The student, homemaker or any individual that on the week of 7-13 of April 1991 satisfies all the conditions to be considered as unemployed, must be included in that modality;

c) The working-student that on the reference week did not work, cannot choose the option "Student," he must choose the answer "temporarily absent from the work place."

Attention: All individuals who chose answers 1 or 2 [are currently working] on question 19 must directly go to question 21; all those who chose answers 3 to 8 [main activity other than work] must answer question 20.
[Questions 20.1 and 20.2 were asked of persons who were not working at the time of the census]

Question 20.1: Have you ever worked?

"Yes" or "No" answer.

Answer "Yes" even for those cases where the enumerated worked for a very short period of time or only occasionally.

Those who worked, even if occasionally, choose "Yes."
Those who have never worked, choose "No."

Question 20.2: Did you want to work?

If the individual considers he wanted to work he must distinguish whether he did anything to find a job or not.
If the individual looked for a job, he must indicate how long ago he did that.

When the individual is enrolled in an unemployment center, he must always consider option 1 of the question as the correct answer.

Attention: Questions 21 to 24 are only for individuals who currently have a job (answers 1 and 2 in question 19) and to those not having a job at the moment express the desire to work (answers 1 to 8 from question 20.2).

Question 21: What is your main occupation

The individuals must indicate the situation they had in the week of 7-13 of April 1991.

As for the main occupation, we understand the type or modality of work the individual spent most time in during the reference week.

If the individual was unemployed on the week of reference, indicate the last occupation he had.

If during the reference week the individual had performed a different activity from his usual one (by being on vacation for example) he/she must indicate the usual occupation.

Be precise. For example, instead of engineer, textile employer and teacher, be precise and write: civil engineer, textile fiber preparatory worker, primary education teacher, etc. instead of generic designations like engineer, teacher, office worker, etc.

The occupation is a complex notion; it contains three dimensions to be considered: the individual's specialization, the working sector in which he works and the professional function/category he has on the job.

Question 22.1: Indicate the usual number of hours you work each week in the occupation you stated in question 21.

We must choose the answer indicating the interval of hours that correspond to the number of hours worked weekly with the main occupation.

Question 22.2: Indicate the status in employment in the occupation you stated in question 21.

With this question we intend to know the condition of those individuals who work towards their own work, or in other words we intend to know the dependency relations in which the work is done.

If the individual was unemployed during the week of reference, he must indicate the situation he was in on the last profession he had.

If the individual performed more than one activity during the week of reference, he must indicate the one that occupied him the most.

Employer is the owner, partner or major shareholder and has his main occupation in the company or agricultural exploration.

Employee is the individual who works for others and receives payment in exchange.

Own-account worker is the individual who works on his own and usually does not have any employee.

Unpaid family worker is an individual who works on a family economic activity without payment for 15 hours or longer on the week of reference.
If an individual worked longer than 15 hours without payment on a family economic activity, being simultaneously a student or a homemaker, the individual falls into these other categories.

Compulsory military service: individuals who are on compulsory military service during the census moment.

Member of a producers' cooperative: If the individual is a partner of a cooperative organization and if he/she worked in there as his/her main occupation, the workers that employed and paid for by a cooperative fall under the category of "Employee."

Question 23: What is the main activity of the company or entity where you practice the occupation you stated in question 21?

As for main activity we understand the type of economic activity developed by the company or entity where the individual had carried out his main occupation during the reference week.

The answer must be precise. For example: pre-primary education, tribunal, hospital, municipal council, preparation and spinning of textile fibers, fish preparation and conservation, bread manufacture, clothing retail sale, road construction, etc.

If the individual was unemployed during the week of reference, he must indicate the activity of the last company where he worked.

Question 24: Number of workers

(Number of persons who regularly work in the company where you carry out the occupation indicated in question 21.)

The main objective of this question is to know the number of workers of a company or similar unit where the individual works (choose the main occupation if he has more than one).

If the individual was unemployed on the week of reference and wanted to work, he must indicate the number of persons that usually work for the last company where he worked.

Question 25: Religion

This is an optional question and answering it implies the data processing authorization.

If the individual did not answer this question, please do not try to obtain an answer.

Note: The individual does not have to practice a religion to declare one.

Attention: If the individual answering the questionnaire is male the filling-in of this questionnaire is over.
[Applies to questions 26-28]

Question 26: Date of first or unique marriage (legal or not)

If the current marriage is the only one, one must indicate the month and the year it happened.
If the current marriage is not the first one, the respondent must indicate the date of the first marriage and not that of the current one.

We must always collect the "de facto" situation and not the legal situation.

Question 27: Date of last marriage (with or without registry)

Once again we call your attention to the fact that we must always collect the "de facto" situation and not the legal situation.

If you married only once, do not answer this question.

Question 28: Children

We must collect information indicating the number of children born alive of the individuals, even if they are not alive anymore.

Single mothers must answer this question as well, even if they did not answer questions 26 and 27 by considering that their union was casual.

7.6. Collective questionnaire

The filling-in of this collective questionnaire consists only in listing the names and gender of all individuals present but not resident on the collective dwellings.

The collective housing units are of two kinds:

a) Hotels, pensions and similar
b) Institutions

Hotels, pensions and similar: These must be enumerated on the day of the census.

Note: only one questionnaire must be filled-in with all the guests present as well as the personnel on duty but not resident.


Health Institutions:All patients interned in the institution as well as the service personnel if not returning to their houses before 12 o'clock of the census day (April 15th).

If the health institution has personnel residing there, they should not be registered in a collective questionnaire but in a classic family questionnaire, when they constitute a classic family (in these cases the correspondent individual questionnaires must be filled-in as well as the family questionnaires).

Educational institutions and other student institutions: For all students that stay in school over night a collective questionnaire must be filled-in.
For residents, complete a classical or institutional family questionnaire, depending on the situations, and in those cases also fill-in the corresponding individual questionnaires.

Prison establishments: All individuals in prison for less than a year, as long as they have family with whom they usually live, must be considered residents with their family, and have to be registered in the collective questionnaire because they are considered present but not resident.

Individuals in prison for more than a year, or without family with whom they usually reside, must be considered residents in the prison establishment and make part of institutional family. For them, we must fill-in an institutional family questionnaire and corresponding individual questionnaires.

Military institutions: This enumeration will be done by the military structure itself, we do not enumerate these institutions.

The collective questionnaire includes all the individuals present but not resident in institutions:

a) Students present;
b) People interned in health institutions or rehabilitation institutions;
c) Inmates in prison institutions, with the exceptions already pointed out;
d) Individuals that inhabit in work establishments, etc.

The collective questionnaire does not apply to the persons residing in institutions either as users or service personnel.

The following cases fall in this situation:

a) People residing in assistance establishments (i.e. elderly homes, asylums, etc.)
b) People residing in convents, monasteries or similar.

Look for more information in points 5.3.2 and 6.6.

8 Filling-in instructions of the auxiliary forms

8.1. Statistical subsection cover

This cover is intended to contain and organize all collected questionnaires that are related to one statistical subsection and must be filled-in only when the enumeration process of one subsection is completed.

Apart from the total number of questionnaires, this cover must also have:

-- The number of family dwellings that exist in the subsection;
-- The number of collective dwellings that exist in the subsection;
-- The total number of persons, by sex, enumerated in the subsection.
-- The number of persons by sex listed in the collective questionnaire.
Attention: The subsection cover must be filled-in for every statistical subsection, independently of having buildings or not; when buildings do not exist the values must all be zeros.

8.2. Statistical section cover

In terms of content, the statistical section cover is identical to the subsection cover.

8.3. Summary sheet of the statistical section

The summary sheet of the statistical section is to be sent by fax to the corresponding Regional Direction, for posterior analysis and treatment.

Its filling-in presents no additional difficulty because its content is identical to the statistical cover section.