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Portugal 1981 Censuses
Enumerator Instructions

[Attention: this English translation constitutes an abridged version of the original language Instructions]

[Table of contents was not translated into English. pp. 1-4 omitted.]

1 Introduction

One of the most important stages of a census is the data collection stage in the field. This stage needs a most careful preparation, together on the administrative processes and on the instructions to the people that will execute the work.

The enumerator is a key feature in every census process, and keeping that in mind, the instruction must obey a well defined and standardized criterion with respect to coverage and also with respect to the tools made available to accomplish the task we ask.

In this Manual we intend to give the information needed by the enumerators keeping in mind the following objectives:

1. General information over the 1981 Census and the cartographical tools that support them;
2. A specific and exhaustive preparation regarding the filling-in of the questionnaires;
3. A definition of the interview model to be used during normal situations and on difficult situations;
4. A clear and objective delimitation on the enumerator's role and on the rights and obligations that assist him.

1.1 Structure of the manual

This manual presents the following structure (thought to be the most convenient to achieve the set goals):

- General information on Census and on the on cartographic tools available;
- Specific filling-in instructions for the questionnaires
- Normalized rules for delivering, fill-in and collection as well as for enumerator behavior rules in the field;
- Rights and obligations of the enumerators

1.2 Enumerator definition

The enumerator is the person responsible for locally delivering and collecting all questionnaires and other forms from population and housing Census.

1.3 Enumerator role in the 81 Census

To every enumerator it's assigned a determined working area (statistical area or a group of statistical areas) and this person must make sure that no house or person is left without being counted and that the respective questionnaires are completed and correctly filled in.
The questionnaire distribution phase will have duration of eight days, while the filling-in and collection will be done during three weeks. On the first two weeks, 80 to 90% will be enumerated, and the last week will for be devoted to difficult cases.
The enumerator must fill-in or correct the questionnaires every time that, during the collection stage, he finds blank or presenting obvious mistakes.

1.4 Instruction tools and training

Before we start the training period, each future enumerator must have a briefcase with the following material set:

- A copy of the Enumerator's Instruction Manual (81 Censuses);
- A copy of every questionnaire;
- A copy of every auxiliary tool:
- Delivering declaration,
- A copy of every receipt;
- Warning letter


2 81 Censuses - What is it?

2.1 What is the census?

[In Portuguese,] the word "census" is used as a short form of the word "recenseamento " and as such, both words have the same exact meaning.
A Census is a statistical operation destined to collect, on an exhaustive way, data about all the statistical units included in a specific universe to be studied. The statistical units are individuals, families, dwellings, and buildings, as long as they correspond to the definition that was assigned to each of them.

2.2 Historical perspective of the population and housing census

The population census is older than housing census.
In January 1st of 1864, the first General Census of the Portuguese Population was conducted. This was the first census to follow the international recommendations defined for these kinds of operations.

In1853, the International Congress of Statistics, held in Brussels, recommended the realization of censuses every ten years, periodicity that has been maintained since 1890.

The fifth Census was held in 1911 with a year delay in comparison with the international recommendations but this was due to the change of the political situation in Portugal.

From that date on, the censuses were always done on the years ending in zero.

These operations evolved, mainly in three aspects:

1. The number of questions was increased, but also the number of personal characteristics, along with the concepts were better defined, in order to accomplish better usability;
2. The municipality starts to be the territorial execution base;
3. The data processing was improved that reduce the time spent between data collection and final results publication.

In 1970, another important milestone is happened, because in this year the 10th Population Census was conducted along with the 1st Housing Census, adding to the census operation (what traditionally was an enumeration and characterization of the country's population) a detailed characterization and a better account of the housing availability.

2.3 Importance of the population and housing censuses

The population is, without a doubt, the main element in any country. It is over the population that all public administration attention is focused on, directly or indirectly.
Today, it is almost impossible to live in a modern society without data for the population that forms that society.

To answer to all the needs for the population and housing needs of information the National Statistical Institute (NSI) conducts the 81 Censuses.

These censuses are made through the filling-in of questionnaires specially designed to obtain the answer to specific questions that the society has regarding certain needs of the population and housing, to help the resolution of problems in these areas.

2.4 What are the 81 Censuses and who does them?

The 81 Censuses are:
The 12th General Population Census
The 2nd General Housing Census

They will be held in March 1981. The European Economic Community (EEC) recommended all member countries to hold their census operation between March 1st and May 31st. Since Portugal is about to integrate the EEC, it was though to be convenient to follow those recommendations.

The institution responsible for the preparation, execution and dissemination of the censuses is the National Statistical Institute, along with the support from the local parish authorities.

2.5 81 Census questionnaires

The questionnaires, for the 81 Censuses, are divided in three types according to the filling-in characteristics:
Individual and dwelling questionnaire - whose filling-in can be done by the enumerated or by the enumerator;
Building and family questionnaire - where the filling-in is done only by the enumerator;
Collective questionnaire - that can be filled-in by the responsible person of the hotel or institution.

2.5.1 Individual questionnaire

With the individual questionnaire we intend to collect a set of information about every resident individual in Portugal on the census moment:
How many are we?
How many individuals of a certain age are in Portugal?
How many persons live in this municipality or in that parish?
How many persons do not know how to read or how to write?
How many individuals live from their work?

And many more questions can have answer through census data.

The same kinds of answers are obtained through census for other areas such as:
Dwelling questionnaire
Building questionnaire
Collective questionnaire
Family questionnaire

2.6 Preparatory operations

The 81 Censuses were prepared during various years and the questionnaires that integrate them were subject to careful and detailed study, to ensure that the questions were easy to understand by everybody and that the real operation (March 1981) would not have many surprises.

1. In 1975, a test was conducted that gave us information on what the type of questionnaires to be used and on the first stage of the operation.
2. In July 1979, a new test on the questionnaires was done that allowed us to evaluate the principal difficulties on the individual and dwelling questionnaires and the answer capacity of the individuals.
3. In June 1980 a pilot test was implemented and done, allowing for the last set of readjustments to the operation.

2.7 Executive structure of the 81 Census

The NSI is by law, the responsible institution for the execution of the census.
The NSI will require the help, in this operation, of the municipalities' and parishes' authorities to accomplish the work. However, the coordination is done by NSI members.
[Rest of section omitted.]


2.8 Census moment

The "Census moment", or reference date, corresponds to the day and hour in relation to what the data was collected. The reference to this moment it is absolutely fundamental to avoid duplications and omissions on the counting due to the normal displacement of people.

Therefore, the residence and the presence, as well as the larger part of the intended data are collected in reference to March 16th, 1981 at 0:00 hours.

2.9 81 Census legal base

The legal base for the NSI execution of the 81 Census is the Law Act No. 427/73, of August 25. [Rest of section omitted.]

2.10 The 81 Census and the citizens

Through the censuses it is possible to obtain, for each geographical level, a "picture" of the individuals and their housing conditions.

The Censuses are the only source that, by characterizing the population and housing universe, is a valuable instrument of diagnosis, planning and intervention, on a wide range of domains:

- On the definition of objectives and priorities for global development policies;
- Regional and local planning;
- Market research and opinions surveys;
- Studies in social sciences.

Therefore, the Censuses collected data regarding population and housing, are fundamental to inform the government and the local authorities regarding economic and social planning.

The comparison between the results of previous censuses allows the analysis of transformations on the Portuguese society in terms of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The censuses data are, for this reason, essential for the analysis of the social and economic structure of our country, its evolution and tendencies allowing, simultaneously, the comparison with other countries.

3 Cartography

As a support, cartography will be distributed to each enumerator at the beginning of the census operation, a set of cartographical supports with a delimitation of their working area.

In brief, we intend with this initiative that the enumerator:

Will have the cartographic representation of his working area and will have knowledge of its geographical limits;
Will have available the administrative and statistical codes that he shall use on the filling in of the questionnaires;
Observe all statistical units (buildings, dwellings, families and individuals) that shall in fact be observed by him within his area of work.

This chapter is divided with specific description on the following sub-chapters:
3.1 What is a map?
3.2 What is a map scale?

3.3 Conventional signals
3.4 What type of maps will be used?
3.5 How to use the maps?
3.6 Measures on the field.


4. Questionnaire instructions

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 General aspects

Before we start the specific instructions for each questionnaire, it is important to give the following instructions:

The censuses are directed at the population and the housing because we can hardly dissociate the individuals from where they live;

Each of the mentioned units constitutes a statistical unit and has a corresponding questionnaire.
- Individual questionnaire;
- Family questionnaire;
- Collective questionnaire;
- Dwelling questionnaire;
- Building questionnaire;
With the collected data we will be capable to cross individual and dwellings variables or between any other statistical units;

Regarding the interconnection between questionnaires the correct filling-in of them is extremely importance;

Always make sure that a dwelling is really vacant with all the detailed information you can gather;

4.1.2 General recommendations about the way questionnaires must be fill-in

The questionnaires were conceived to be the as easy as possible to fill-in, either by the population or by the enumerators.

The questionnaires, after being collected and sent to NSI, will be verified, coded and copied to digital support system. Depending on how good is the filling-in process, the better and simpler will be internal data treatment in NSI.

Having this in mind it is absolutely necessary to respect the following:

1. The /em>questions where a written answer is needed, please use good calligraphy, in order to facilitate the transcription, and never abbreviate.

2. The questions where it is needed to write a number, please do so from right to left placing the unit digit always on the last space on the right.

3. Never leave a question unanswered, except for question 19. Religion in the Individual questionnaire, because it is an optional question.

4. Verify the answers when collecting the questionnaires, paying special attention to unanswered questions and coherence.

4.2 Building questionnaire

4.2.1 What is a "Building"?

As for Building we understand every independent construction, including one or more rooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and delimited by external walls that must go from the foundations to the roof and which is destined to be inhabited by persons and or for other purposes (agricultural, commercial, industrial, etc.).

Therefore, a building is, basically, a distinct construction:

- Having a main entrance;
- Usually is not connected to other buildings;
- Has independent circuits of water, electricity, gas and even some specific types of services, as for example garbage collection;
- Has usually an independent door number.

4.2.2 Who must fill-in the building questionnaire?

The building questionnaire must always and exclusively be filled-in by the enumerator. Never give this questionnaire to the population.

4.2.3 When should you fill-in a building questionnaire?

All constructions destined to the inhabited, even if they are not occupied (vacant or secondary residences, for example).
All constructions even if they are mainly destined to economic activities, as long as they have at least one dwelling.
All the buildings that constitute collective dwellings (hotels, pensions, hospitals, colleges, elderly homes, prisons, etc.).
All the shacks, mobile dwellings (tents, boats, caravans, etc.) or other dwellings in places not destined to be inhabited (cases where you are not in presence of a building as earlier described in its definition, but where you need to create a building questionnaire for system control purposes).

4.2.4 When should you not fill-in a building questionnaire?

All those buildings that are exclusively destined for economic activities. However, you will only be sure of that after if you check it. Keeping that in mind, you must contact all buildings, even in those cases where you "are sure." Sometimes, a guard, an employee or even the manager himself might live there.
All those buildings still in construction and that are not ready to be occupied;
All those buildings in ruins and not occupied;

4.2.5 Situations where you must fill-in one or more Building questionnaires

In some particular cases as in certain "rural houses", where doubts may arise concerning the "house and its annexes" as just one building, or in the other hand filling in one questionnaire for the main house and another questionnaire for each one of the annexes. In these situations, we should consider the first option, being the building characteristics the ones for the main building only.

In the case of adjacent, town house-like constructions (interlinked but presenting independent entrances), you must consider each independent entrance as a building. Therefore, fill in a building questionnaire for each building.

4.2.6 Questions related to the building

The building identification, about its location, is very simple to fill-in; please make sure you never let this variable blank. In rural areas, if there is no street name please fill-in the location of the building with the name of the occupant. The information regarding "place" will only be filled-in on the rural areas.

Regarding the parish and municipality, its filling-in is also simple. Just pay attention to the limit areas for parishes to be sure you get the right parish identification, to avoid duplications or omissions.

The statistical section number will be the number indicated to you by your coordinator and corresponds to the part of the parish that is your area of work. Always identify to the best of your knowledge the limits of your area of work in order to avoid duplications or omissions with the neighbor areas. The block number (statistical subsection) is identified in the cartography that was given to you as a field work tool. The building questionnaire number will be the number attributed by you, in a sequential way, according to the development of your work. You must identify a building as isolated when it is not included in any place.

Question 1 - Type of building and period of construction

First of all, you will have to consider the type, meaning that you will need to check if you are looking at a conventional building or at some other type.

The period of construction will only be assigned for those buildings in the first case.
To collect the correct information you must enlighten yourself about the year or period of construction you must ask the proprietary, the doorman or any of the older residents.
In cases where persons (due to old age) might have difficulties remembering the exact period of construction, ask for comparisons with some milestones (i.e. before or after WWI, etc.)

In cases of persisting doubt, choose by using information or indications you may relate to the building structure.

Note: If a reconstruction was undertaken please use that work period as the information and not the original construction period.

Always mark as "other cases" if the housing unit is a shack, a mobile housing unit or other dwellings in places not destined to be inhabited.

Question 2 - Number of living quarters

Be careful to get the particular cases such as dwellings in the attics or in the yard, because sometimes, these are very hard to identify.

Attention: If you are looking at a questionnaire that belongs to a shack, a mobile housing unit or other dwellings in places not destined to be inhabited, the filling-in of the building questionnaire is over and you must go to the dwelling questionnaire.

[Questions 3-7 were asked only in case when enumerator is dealing with a building, per question 1]

Question 3 - Type of utilization

This question has the objective to know the use given to the building, to allow us to better understand the housing scenario.

First of all, we will have to identify if the building is used mainly for residential purposes or not. Such a fact must be observed using the largest percentage of occupation.

If the use is mainly residential we must still verify if it is exclusively or partially residential.

Exclusively residential buildings are those where the entire usable area of the building is used for human habitation. Any building that, in the ground floor or any floor below the ground, has garages, storage rooms for the exclusive usage of its occupants (with no economic activity), is classified in this category.

Partially residential building, this category comprises buildings in which a part of its usable area is used for human habitation, and other parts are used for commercial activities or services.

Question 4 - Number of floors

Includes all inhabitable or usable house levels that are above the ground. The ground floor should be considered as a floor.

The basements are not considered as floors, unless they receive natural light inside (if they have direct access to the street or to a patio, etc.) and if are being used as habitation.

The attics are not considered as floors.

Question 5 - Structure elements

In a building we can consider two types of elements:

Structure elements, are the resistant elements that are structure of the entire construction.

Other complementary elements, meaning those elements that are not used to sustain the building, such as cover, isolating materials, decorative materials, etc.

Note that a determined element may be used as a structure element in a building but can be used as a complementary material in other. Therefore, it is very importance to identify the elements and the function they have in the particular building.

The information to answer questions 5 and 6 must be obtained with the proprietary (when possible) or with the doorman or one of the oldest residents in the building.
If this is not possible, please use the following guidelines for evaluation:

The usage of structural concrete on the construction of buildings begins around 1935/40, being after 1950 the main solution, especially in the main urban centers.
Until that date stone, bricks, and adobe were the main materials used (options 4 and 8 in question 5).

Buildings built before 1940:
- Up to 4 Floors - usually the main structural element was timber, adobe or stone;
- From 5 to 7 floors - usually the structural element was stone.
Buildings constructed after 1940 and with more than seven floors have usually structural concrete as structural element.

Mostly in rural areas and in buildings of a small size, the mortared masonry walls without concrete slabs are used as structural element.

After 1950, the buildings legally constructed in the urban areas used structural concrete as their main structural material. Nevertheless there are cases where this does not happens (they use a metallic structure, etc.) so verification is always needed.

Note: In the case a building used different types of structure, please consider the material mainly used, giving that as an answer, and always giving just one answer.
In cases where a transformation of the building was done using different structural elements from the ones in the original construction, please consider these most recent ones as the answer.

Question 6 - Main material used in external wall covering

The use of a determined material is closely related with the regional housing characteristics, even knowing that in the last years there was a tendency for generalization.

When in presence of a building that uses two or more different types of material on the external wall covering please indicate only the one mostly used (largest extension).
If you have any difficulty in identifying this by simple observation, please contact the proprietary and ask for information.

Question 7 - Type of roof

First identify if the coverage is flat, inclined or mixed (part flat and part inclined). The answer can be, on the majority of cases, to be found by just simple observation.

If the cover is inclined identify if it is:

- covered with tiles
- covered with other materials (wood, stone, etc.)

4.3 Dwelling (living quarter) questionnaire

The enumerator must only fill sections A and B of the dwelling questionnaire, and must do so before delivering it to the family.

Regarding the identification of Place and Parish there is no difficulty in filling-in with correct information.

The section and subsection number corresponds to the coding of your working area within the parish and, as it was already indicated, the section number will be indicate to you by your coordinator and the subsection number can be obtained from the cartography.

Attention: All questionnaires of the same section must have the same number recorded and the same is true with the questionnaires within the same block.

The building number will be the one that you record on the building questionnaire according to the sequential order, and this number must be the same in every dwelling questionnaire within the building. The dwelling number must also obey to the sequential rule within the building. Make sure the rule of sequential numbering of dwellings within a building is respected every time you open a dwelling questionnaire.

Question A - Type of living quarter

The option "On board population and diplomatic personnel" is reserved to the internal services of the NSI. Never mark this answer.

On a general way we will have to consider two major types of dwellings:
Familiar (conventional) - strictly to a familiar living;
Collective - open to a largest number of occupants that go over the familiar relationships.

As for dwelling, we understand every distinct and independent inhabited place, that by the way that it was constructed, reconstructed, enlarged, or transformed, is destined to be inhabited by persons and on the census moment it was not being used entirely for other purposes.

All places constructed for human habitation that on the census moment are being totally used for other purposes different from residential will not be counted as dwellings.

Familiar dwellings:

Conventional familiar dwelling: Division or set of divisions and their annexes that, by making part of a classical building with a permanent structure, or being structurally separated of that, and by the way that it was constructed, reconstructed, enlarged, or transformed is destined to be inhabited and on the census moment it was not being used entirely for other purposes. The conventional familiar dwelling must also have an independent entrance give access to the street or to a common area in the building.

Non-conventional dwelling: Its is a space that on the census moment is inhabited by individuals and that by the type of construction and its precarious condition, does not entirely satisfies the requirements to be a conventional familiar dwelling. We include in this type:

- Shacks;
- Rudimentary wooden houses;
- Mobile housing units;
- Dwellings in a permanent building not designed for habitation;
- Other inhabited places.

Collective dwelling: As collective living quarters we understand every place where a group of persons, usually big, live together, inhabiting one or more constructions, and usually sharing meals with a common objective or general interest and are normally managed by an external or internal entity to the group.

Question B - Occupancy status

It is a dwelling of usual residence when we come to a place where the enumerated person lives the most part of the year.

It is of seasonal use, when the dwelling is used only as weekend home, in the country or in the beach, or for holidays.

If the dwelling for seasonal use is not occupied on the census moment, the filling-in of the questionnaire is over.

We consider that a dwelling is occupied with an absent occupant if the dwelling belongs to individuals who temporarily left to go to place outside the national territory for less than a year.

Always hand out the questionnaires and instructions. Complete the filling in of the questionnaires only on the collection moment. If the enumerated asks, please help him filling-in the questionnaire.

[Questions 1-13 were asked in cases of a housing unit or a collective living quarter, except hotels or similar and institutions of "other type," that is occupied as a usual residence or for seasonal use, per questions A, B]

Question 1 - Number of occupants

Collect the total number of persons who occupied the dwelling. This number must be the same as the number of individual questionnaires.

Question 2 - Electricity

"Yes" or "no" answer.

We intend to know if the dwelling has any electricity power supplied by a private or public network.

Note: Is not enough to have electric installation it has to have effectively electric power supply.

Question 3 - Water

As for piped water from a public network, we understand the water that is supplied to the community in exchange for payment calculated according to the measured use device.

As for piped water from a private network, we understand the water that is propriety of private individuals and it is exempted from public authorities' ruling.

Important: When a dwelling has water in the yard, the kitchen, or the bathroom we must considered it as having water available within the housing unit.

However, if the dwelling has water in the yard but not in any of the rooms, we must consider it as having piped water available within the building but outside the housing unit.

Question 4 - Toilet facilities

Note: With this question we must observe the coherence between the answer we have here and the one given on the Water question.

As for toilet with flush, we understand the ones having a mechanical device for evacuating used water into the sewer.

Question 5 - Bath or shower

It is very important to verify the coherence of the answer given on this question with the ones given in questions 3 and 6, due to the strict relationship between them (i.e. existence of water and sewage system for residual waters).

To be considered as a bathing facility, it must be connected to a sewage system.
The sole existence of a lavatory does not mean that the dwelling has a bathing facility, just like the existence of improvised facilities with suspended recipients manually filled with water to be used as shower.

Question 6 - Sewage disposal system

As for sewage disposal system we understand all permanent installations that allow the evacuation of residual waters of a dwelling through a determined way.

A septic tank is a special structure recipient that, making use of a particular piping, collects the waste of one or a few housing units, and requires particular procedures for its maintenance.

Attention: As indicated in the questionnaire, if this is not a conventional dwelling the filling in of the questionnaire is over after question 6.

[Questions 7-13 were asked in cases of a housing unit or a collective living quarter (except hotels or similar and institutions of "other type"), that is occupied as a usual residence or for seasonal use, and is not a tent, rudimentary timber house, mobile home, temporary or improvised home, per questions A, B]

Question 7 - Kitchen

As for kitchen we understand the place destined to be used during the preparation of the main meals, even if it is used as a dinning room, room or living room. The kitchen may be separated from the dwelling (on the patio for example) and still be considered as such.

By kitchenette we understand a small space, inside a room, separated by a small counter, used to prepare meals.

Question 8 - Number of rooms in the dwelling:

As for a room we understand the space in a dwelling, delimited by walls, having at least 4 square meters and with 2 meters of height on the majority of the space.

Even though they can satisfy to the definition above, the following are not counted as rooms:

- The kitchen;
- Corridors, balconies;
- Bathrooms, dispensary, halls.

The rooms that are exclusively used for an economic activity should not be counted as rooms in this question.

A room that is used in some way for an economic activity but is also used as a family room should be counted as a room.

Attention: Question 9 should only be answered by individuals who are living in the dwelling and are also the owners or co-owners of the dwelling.

Question 9 - Do you have a mortgage or loan resulting from the purchase of this dwelling:

"Yes" or "no" answer.

The most important aspect to answer this question correctly is to correctly identify what the mortgage or loan means.

We understand that one of the occupants is proprietary of the dwelling and has financial obligations with the mortgage or loan of this dwelling when the financial obligations arise from the acquisition of the dwelling only and not related to modifications or repairs of any kind done.

Note: in the case of a proprietary that answers "No" to this question, the filling-in of this questionnaire ends here.

Question 10 - Please indicate the amount of the monthly mortgage charge.

The classes presented refer to an average monthly charge, so if the periodicity of the supported charge is not monthly, we will have to do the math and calculate the average amount for every month.

In the case where the expense is not yet calculated by the financial entity, the enumerated must answer what he thinks what it can to be.

Note: The following questions are destined only for tenants of conventional dwellings, so if you answer the question 10 the filling in of the questionnaire is over.
[Questions 11-13 were asked of tenants of this housing unit or collective living quarter (except hotels or similar and institutions of "other type"), who occupy it as a usual residence or seasonally (and the dwelling is not a tent, rudimentary timber house, mobile home, temporary or improvised home, per questions A, B.]

Question 11 - If you are a tenant, please indicate the form of lease

This question is only for dwellings where none of the occupants is proprietary or co-proprietary of the respective dwelling.

In other cases where the use of the dwelling is a free of charge (i.e. door men, guards, etc.), we must select the option "Other situation (granted, etc)".

Question 12 - Rent

By rent we understand the monthly payment due for the occupation of a dwelling in a leasing regime.

Note: The monthly charges due to loans for acquisition of dwellings are not considered here.

Only those who answered question11 with options 2, 4, or 6 can answer this question.

The categories presented refer to an average monthly amount paid by the tenant, so if the periodicity of the payment is not monthly, we will have to do the math and calculate the average amount for every month.

Question 13 - Housing unit (dwelling) ownership

We must note that those cases of ownership or co-ownership of the occupants are not covered by this question.

In cases where doubts arise please check the rent contract (if there is one) or a receipt.

4.4 Individual questionnaire

This first part of the individual questionnaire (identification part) is to be filled-in by the enumerator.

The enumerator must fill-in the following codes in each questionnaire:

Statistical Section number - Must register the same number of section that already is in the building and dwelling questionnaires.

Building number - The enumerator must register the same number that he gave to the building in which the individual lives.

Dwelling number - The enumerator must register the same number that he gave to the dwelling in which the individual lives.

Family number - The enumerator must register the same number that he gave to the family in which the individual lives.

Individual number - Just like you did before for the other questionnaires, the individuals must be coded sequentially within the family, and must correspond to the exact code they have in the family questionnaire.

The individuals start filling-in the individual questionnaire with the next question.

Question 1 - Name and address

Name - When asking for answers for this question we must make clear that this information will not be available for use or identification of individuals. It is collected only for field work purposes, mainly to avoid duplications.

We must collect one name and one surname for every individual. If there are identical names in one family please add the familiar relationship to the name (i.e. John Smith father, John Smith son).

Address - for this variable it is enough to collect the correct name of the place and the corresponding parish.

Question 2 - Sex

Just answer "Male" or "Female."

There is no difficulty with this question, just make sure (when you receive the questionnaires) that there are no blank answers.

Question 3 - Citizenship

If the enumerated individual has more than one citizenship, even when one is Portuguese he must signal the option "More than one citizenship".

Question 4 - Where is your usual residence

(What is your situation on 16 March 1981, at 00:00 hours)

Resident and present in the housing unit - must be considered in this situation the persons who reside in the dwelling and are present on March 16, 1981 at 0:00 o'clock, or are absent and will return by 12 o'clock of that day.

Resides in the housing unit but is absent - for everybody who is a resident of the dwelling but is absent on the census moment (0:00 o'clock of March 16, 1981) and is not returning to it until 12 o'clock of that day.

Special cases:
The particular cases that are described here correspond to situations where the individual, even when he might eventually live most of the year in a place different from the usual place of residence, does not lose his residency status in that dwelling.


- The student that lives faraway from the family and does not have a paid activity and that on the census moment is present on boarding school or on private house as a guest. However if the student has a paid activity he must be considered resident and present in the place where he lives, and not in the family dwelling;
- Person living outside the family dwelling due to work, but maintains the familiar residence. Includes the individual on board of ships;
- Individual doing the compulsory military service;
- Person interned on health or rehab institution;
- Inmates in prison;
- Travelers who are in Portugal on the census moment;
- Emigrant, if he has gone abroad less than a year ago;

Important: The residents absent fill-in the entire questionnaire.

Non-resident but present at this living quarter - for every person who is not a usual resident in the dwelling and but is present on the census moment (0:00 o'clock of March 16, 1981).


- All persons indicated in the previous examples (e.g. students, travelers, etc.);
- Foreigners members of the Diplomatic Body and their families, as long as they live outside the embassies;
- Foreigner militaries and their families if they are living outside their barracks, as long as they are stationed in national territory;
- Foreigners that are in Portugal less than year;
- Emigrants, that are in Portugal for a short period of time (less than a year);

Important: Individuals not residing in the dwelling where they spend 16 March 1981, at 00:00 hours, end the filling-in of the questionnaire here.
[Questions 5-27 were asked of residents of the housing unit, per question 4]

Question 5 - Place of birth

If the individual was born in Portugal or in Macau, he has to report the municipality as well.

Individuals born abroad have to identify the country.

If the individuals were born in territories that are now independent, but were under Portuguese administration at the time of birth, they must write in the name of the country in the country option.

Question 6 - Date of birth

The indication of the year is of extreme importance.

Note: This question cannot be left blank, (day-month-year).

Question 7 - Marital status

Married - By married we must understand the person legally married or just living in a similar situation but not legalized. The marriage situation dominates other status.

Separated - By separated, we understand a person legally separated, meaning that after being legally married, obtained a legal separation from a court.

Divorced - Every person who had a legal dissolution of his/her marriage.

Question 8 - Literacy

The following options are available:

- Able to read and write
- Not able to read and write

Note: Individuals who only know how to sign their name (and do not know how to read or write anything else) are considered as not able to read and write.

Question 9 - School attendance

This question admits the following answers:

Are you attending school - to select this option is not enough to be enrolled in school, the respondent has to attend school regularly.
Have you ever attended school- choose this option if you do not attend school anymore, normally this is for persons who are not enrolled.
No, never attended - people that never enrolled in a school or teaching establishment, even if they know how to read and write.

[Questions 10-11 were asked of person who are attending or ever attended school, per question 9]

Question 10 - Level of education

The individual must indicate the level of education that he/she is attending or the highest level of education reached, even if he did not complete it.

Basic - Elementary school (1st degree - 4 years) corresponds to the first four years of school.
Basic - Preparatory school (2nd degree - 2 years) includes the fifth and sixth year of school.
Secondary - 1st degree, includes the seventh, eighth and ninths years of school.
Secondary - 2nd degree, includes the tenth and eleventh years of school.
Access year (preparation year for university) - equivalent to the senior year in high school.
Professional courses - includes those situations of old courses of low degree and with a strong professional vocation.
Post-secondary courses - includes those situations of old courses of medium degree, like for example primary school teacher, old commercial studies, etc.
Tertiary courses (university degrees) - includes bachelor, licentiate, master, and doctoral degrees.

Question 11 - Did you complete the education level indicated in the previous question

"Yes" or "no" answer.

Question 12 - If you completed a professional, post-secondary, or tertiary degree, please write in the name of the course

This question should only be answered by individuals with a professional, secondary, or post secondary education level completed.
When the enumerated has more than one course he must indicate the one with the closest relation with the profession he has. If he is unemployed, indicate the one with the closest relation to his vocation.

Question 13 - What was your place of usual residence on December 31, 1979?

Only individuals who were already born on December 31, 1979 answer to this question.
Individuals who were born in 1980 or after do not answer this question.

Question 14 - What was your place of usual residence on December 31, 1973?

Only individuals who were already born on December 31, 1973 answer to this question.
Individuals who were born in after that date do not answer this question.

Question 15 - Place of work or study

Only resident individuals who work or study answer this question.

Note: If this question is answered, question 16 must also be answered.

Question 16 - Main mode of transport

Important: Only individuals who answered the previous question answer this one.

The enumerated must select only one mode of transportation, that is, the one he uses the most.
The individual must indicate the main mode of transportation that he daily uses during the most part of the way to go to work or to the place of study.

Note: Individuals younger than 12 years old end the filling-in of the questionnaire after question 16.
Only individuals 12 years of age or older answer the next questions.
[Questions 17-27 were asked of persons age 12+]

Question 17 - Source of livelihood

With this question, we intend to know the origin of the income that people earn to satisfy their needs regarding food, clothes, shoes, etc.
If the person has various sources, chose only one (the main one).

Work - includes people who mainly live from their work, whether they are paid or not. The person doing the compulsory Military service answers with option.

Temporary benefits - Unemployment - include individuals who are unemployed and therefore, receive a monetary benefit. If they are unemployed but do not have an unemployment benefit, they must choose another option.

Temporary benefits - Sickness, accident, etc. - A benefit to persons who are temporarily incapable of working due to working accident or professional illness.

Temporary benefits - Others - due to accidents, diseases, maternity leave, etc. - These are benefits received due to other reasons different from the above.

Household support - individuals who live supported by other members of their family (i.e. house chores, students, elderly without any pension, etc.).

Important: The individuals who work without receiving payment on a family economic activity can chose the option "household support" and not "work" as their answer if they agree that their work is not sufficient to cover for all expenses that the family incurs to support them. This is a situation we may encounter in the rural area.

Pensions of any kind - All persons who receive a pension, and as long as this is not higher than any other income he may have.
Important: Who answer this question with this option must also answer the next question

Social support - All individuals who receive support from the State, Public Organizations or from other non-profit organizations.

Property or entrepreneurial income - when the subsistence of an individual is granted by rents from proprieties, bank interests, patents, etc.

Other cases - If you encounter a case that does not fit in any of the other case, please chose this answer (for example: scholarship grants).

Question 18 - If your main source of livelihood is through Pensions, please indicate of which type

Important: Only the enumerated that answer 6 on the previous question can answer this one.

Retirement pension (by old age) - This pension intends to be a salary substitute for people that stopped working because they reached the legal age to retire from their jobs. In most cases is 65 years old for men and 62 years of age for women on the providence, but for civil servants the retirement is at 60 years old together with 36 years of work or 70 years old with at least 5 years of work.

Important: Many persons do not know the nature of the pensions they are receiving, and by mistake they simply name them as retirement pensions. Please analyse carefully each situation.

Reserve pension - Specific situation for career military's.

Pension for live due to working accident or professional illness - Covers the person who have less than 65 years of age (if men) or less than 62 years of age (if women) and that cannot work due to working accident or professional illness.

Incapacity pension - It covers the persons who have less than 65 years of age (if men) or less than 62 years of age (if women) and that cannot work due to incapacity.
These persons stop receiving this pension when they reached the 65 or 62, depending if they are men or women.

Other type of pension (social pension, survival pension or other) - it covers the person who do not have an own income neither receives any kind of pension and that cannot work by being an invalid or because is over 65 years of age (if men) or over 62 years of age (if women).

Question 19 - Religion

Important: The individual does not have to practice a religion to declare it at his own.
This is a free question and answering this same question implies the data processing authorization.

Question 20 - Work condition

We consider that an individual had a job if in the reference week:

Worked for pay (no matter how many hours);
Worked, was not paid (as an unpaid family worker) during 15 or more hours of work.
Did not work for temporary reasons, such as vacations, accidents, licenses of various kinds, etc.

People in this condition must indicate on question 22 the number of hours that they normally work. Individuals who have a job do not answer question 21 and go directly to question 22.

Important: On question 17, a person may have answered that he/she received unemployment benefits; it was supported by the household, receiving a pension, etc. However if he did not actually work in the week of 8 to 14th of March of 1981, he must declare so.

Did not work or, being a familiar not paid, worked less than fifteen hours during the indicated week: this question includes the persons who on the reference week:

Did not work in an economic activity, like people in charged of household chores, students, unemployed, retired, etc. Included here people suspended from work without pay.
Worked less than fifteen hours as unpaid family worker, meaning that worked but without payment.

The enumerated that chose option 3 in question 20 should not answer question 22.

Question 21

Important: Only those who chose option 3 in the previous question should answer this question.
With this question we intend to know the reason why the enumerated did not work in the reference week.

Permanently handicap for working - all individuals who are handicap but did not reach the legal retirement age yet. In the case of handicap individuals who already achieved the retirement age they must choose option 3.
Other reason - This option is chosen when the individual is suspended from work (in the reference week) without payment, independently of the suspension being temporary or undefined.

Question 22 [Indicate the usual number of hours you work each week in the occupation you stated in question 20]

We must indicate the number of hours worked in a week in the main occupation.

All individuals who chose option 1 in question 20 must answer this question.
The enumerated persons who did not effectively work due to temporary motives identified in the previous question, must indicate the number of hours they would normally work.

Only persons who worked less than fifteen hours in exchange for pay choose option 2.

The individuals who worked less than fifteen hours without pay do not answer this question.

Question 23 - Main occupation

Main occupation - When the enumerated has more than one occupation, he must indicate the one where he spent more time.

Unemployed persons looking for a new job and individuals doing the compulsory military service must indicate the last occupation they had before their current situation.

Moreover, persons looking for a new job and individuals doing the compulsory military service that did not work before this situation do not answer this question.

How to report the occupation: Each profession (task, work), must be identified by a determined title or professional designation that must be correctly written on the space destined for the answer to this question.

Important: The enumerated who answers this question must answer questions 24 and 25.

Question 24 - Professional situation

Important: Only the individuals who answered the previous question answer this question.

With this question, we intend to know the condition of those working, in other words, we intend to know the dependency relations in which the work is done.

If the enumerated was unemployed but looking for a new job, or doing the compulsory military service (but before that had a job) on the week of reference, he must indicate the situation he was in on the last profession he had.

The unemployed looking for their first job and individuals doing the compulsory military service but who did not had a job before do not answer this question, like they did not answer the previous one.

The profession you indicated as your main occupation was performed as:

Employer - is the owner, partner or major shareholder; has his main occupation in the company or agricultural exploitation.

Own-account worker - Is the individual who works on his own and does not have any paid employee, but might have unpaid family help.

Contributing family worker - Is an individual who worked on a family economic activity without payment for 15 hours or longer on the week of reference.
If a family individual worked less than 15 hours they do not answer this question.

Employee - Is the individual who works for somebody else and, for that, receives payment.

Member of production co-operative - If a person is a partner of a production cooperative and if he works in it as with his main occupation.

Question 25 - Branch of economic activity

As for main activity we understand the type of economic activity engaged by the company or entity where the individual worked during the reference week.

Important: The answer must be precise. For example: pre-primary education, tribunal, hospital, Municipal Council, preparation and spinning of textile fibers, fish preparation and conservation, bread manufacture, clothing retail sale, road construction, etc.

Unemployed individuals who are looking for a new job and those doing the compulsory military service (if they had a job before), must indicate the activity of the last company to whom they worked.

Note: If the individual answering the questionnaire is male, the filling-in of this questionnaire is over.

[Questions 26-27 were asked of females age 12+]

Question 26 - If you are married or if you were, please indicate month and year of your wedding

Women who have been married more than once, please indicate the date of the first marriage.

Question 27 - Children

We must collect information indicating the number of children born alive, even if they are not alive anymore.

4.5 Family (household) questionnaire

The filling-in of the family questionnaire is very simple.
Meanwhile, do not forget that you must have one family questionnaire completely answered for every family in the dwelling. Hence, if there are two families in the dwelling, you must have two family questionnaires filled-in.

As for classical family we understand:

The group of persons who reside in a same dwelling and have "de jure" or "de facto" family relationships in between them, and who may occupy the totality or part of the living quarter; or an independent person who occupies part or the totality of a dwelling.
The independent person who occupies a part (i.e. as a guest) or the totality of a housing unit. This is the case of a family constituted by only one person.

In the case you find a family that is renting a part of a dwelling to a guest, you must fill-in two family questionnaires: one for the family that is renting the dwelling and another for the guest.

This questionnaire is totally filled-in by the enumerator.
You must insert the name of the place and the parish where the dwelling is located.
The statistical section code [census block], the building and the dwelling code must be exactly the same as those registered in the dwelling questionnaire.

Part A

This part of the questionnaire is to be answered only in the Azores region (Graciosa, S. Jorge and Terceira Islands of that archipelago)

The family is homeless due to the earthquake of January 1st, 1980?

This is a "Yes" or "no" answer.

By homeless we understand a family that does not reside in the housing unit they had before the earthquake, because this place is not safe anymore.

Part B

The following appears in a table with the familiar relationship within a same dwelling.
Familiar relationship with the family representative (reference person)

- Husband
- Wife
- Son/daughter single
- Son/daughter not single
- Daughter-in-law
- Son-in-law
- Father
- Mother
- Grandson or granddaughter
- Great-grandson or great-granddaughter
- Other relative person
- Other not related person

4.6 Collective questionnaire

4.6.1 Who should fill-in the collective questionnaire?

The person responsible for the collective dwelling, manager, proprietary, or the person delegated by either of these, is the competent person to answer.

4.6.2 How to fill-in the collective questionnaire?

For the collective questionnaire we only need to collect information on the name and citizenship of individuals.
Name: it is enough to register the first and last name for every individual.

Citizenship: The filling-in instructions are the same as for the same variable in the individual questionnaire.

4.6.3 To whom is this collective questionnaire destined to?

The collective questionnaire is exclusively destined to the persons who, on the census moment (March, 16th, 1981), are present in collective dwellings as non-residents.

4.6.4 How to act in the various cases

As you already know, the collective housing units are of two kinds:

- Institutions
- Hotels, pensions and similar Institutions

Health Institutions (hospitals, health houses, clinics, etc.)

We must consider the following cases:

All patients interned at the institution as well as the service personnel if not returning to their houses before 12 o'clock of the census day (March 16th). For these cases you must inscribe in the field "Description" the words: "On Duty".

If the health institution has personnel residing there, they should not be registered in a collective questionnaire, but in a classical family questionnaire, in case they constitute a classical family (in these cases the corresponding individual questionnaires must be filled-in as well as the family questionnaires).

Educational Institutions and other student institutions: For all students that stay in school over night a collective questionnaire must be filled-in.

For residents, fill-in a classical or institutional family questionnaire depending on the situations, and not a collective questionnaire. In this case, also fill-in the corresponding individual questionnaires.

Prison establishments: Identical situation to the previously described ones.

Military institutions: This enumeration will be done by the military personnel. We do not enumerate these institutions.

Other institutions: In the presence of any other situation the enumerator must use the same evaluation methods as for the health institutions.

Special cases: All the persons residing in institutions either by being users or duty personnel do not need to fill-in the collective questionnaire Persons in this situation the following are:

- Persons residing in assistance establishments (i.e. elderly homes, asylums, etc.)
- People residing in convents, monasteries or similar. Hotels, pensions, and similar

These must be enumerated on the exact day that corresponds to the census moment.

The enumeration of these establishments must be done as follows:

Clients - We must distinguish between two types of clients:
- Clients that reside on the hotel or similar,
- Clients that just present and not residents (this is the most common case).

For the first case we must fill-in an individual questionnaire for each person together with the corresponding family questionnaires. For the second case, a collective questionnaire must be filled-in for with every client on that situation.

Hotel personnel or similar that resides there - We must fill-in an individual questionnaire for each person together with the corresponding family questionnaires.

Personnel on duty on the night from 15 to 16 of March - We must fill-in a collective questionnaire for all personnel if they are returning home before t 12 o'clock of March, 16th.

For these cases, you must write in the field "Description" the words: "On Duty".

[Sections 5, 6, and 7 were not translated into English.]