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Poland Population Census 1978
Instruction Questionnaire

Part III: Principles of Filling in Page 1 of the a Form

17. Type of occupied housing unit [p.26]
Within the scope of the A form, all the inhabited dwellings, mobile units, and provisional premises that is all the habitable units in which separate or collective households can be identified shall be specified.

Only one occupied housing unit, such as an individual dwelling, mobile unit, or provisional premises shall be registered in a single A form.

The type of the housing unit in question shall be specified after the inspection of all the rooms and habitable spaces located therein, as well as after juxtaposing the observations made by the census enumerator with the definitions provided below. Answer to this question is provided by means of circling the symbol corresponding to the given type of a housing unit. The 1 symbol shall be circled for a dwelling, 2 for a mobile unit, and 3 for all types of provisional premises. In the majority of cases, the census officer will encounter typical dwellings.

While registering a household located in a dwelling, the "description of dwelling" section shall be filled in. In the event of registering a mobile unit or provisional premises, only the type of the said housing unit shall be specified (preferably, by writing down such descriptive terms as railway carriage, caravan, barge, shack, shed, stable, attic, garage). In such a case, the rest of the A form shall be crossed out.

Dwelling
1. Dwelling is a housing unit incorporating one or more habitable spaces, as well as several auxiliary rooms (such as bathroom, hall, toilet, etc.), which has been built or modified to serve habitation-related purposes and constitutes an integral structural whole.

Structural integrity of a dwelling shall be understood as its visible separateness from all the other dwellings or habitable spaces located in a given building, as well as has a separate entrance connecting the dwelling with a hall, collective stairway, vestibule, or directly with the yard, garden, or street.

2. Separate housing units (incorporating one or more rooms) inhabited by other families or single individuals shall not be considered parts of the dwelling in question, even if the said individuals have been paying rent separately but there are collectively used habitable spaces used within the given dwelling.

Separate housing units shall not be considered parts of the dwelling in question even if other families or single individuals residing therein have installed separate kitchen appliances, but they all use the same bathroom or toilet.

If a given building, which has prior been an integral structural whole, has been permanently reconstructed in order to divide it into two or more dwellings which are not connected with one another in any way, then each of such dwellings shall be considered an integral whole and registered separately.

3. Single-family houses shall be treated as single dwellings. Nevertheless, if within such a hose there are two or more household and the sets of rooms inhabited by each of them complies with the integrality and separateness principles, they should be then treated as separate dwellings.

4. Certain difficulties with proper identification of housing units may be encountered in the dwellings located in rural areas, as they are typically inhabited by the representatives of more than one household.

In the case of old rural buildings which have been parts of former villages (or even smaller towns), it shall be assumed that if the habitable spaces inhabited by the representatives of a given household are not directly connected (by means of doors) with the habitable spaces inhabited by the second household , those households inhabit separate dwellings. Such principle is also applicable when the representatives of one of the households inhabit only one habitable space in the hose, but it is not connected with the rooms utilized on daily basis by the representatives of the second household.

If the habitable spaces inhabited by the representatives of a given household are directly connected (by means of doors) with the habitable spaces inhabited by the second household, those households inhabit a single dwelling.

5. In rural areas, there are sometimes cases that are exactly opposite to the ones specified in point 4, as one household (especially an agricultural one) inhabits two separate dwellings located in two separate houses which are in turn situated on the same land. While encountering such a habitation-related phenomenon, the census enumerator shall at first check, whether both the houses are inhabited all year long, not only during the summer season. If one of them (especially the older one) is inhabited during summer only, then it should be indicated in the C form.
However, if the representatives of a given household inhabit the said houses all year long, then:

- Both inhabited dwellings shall be registered on separate A forms labeled with the same ordinal number (same A form number). The main dwelling (in the majority of cases the newer one) shall be registered on the initial form. The pieces of information concerning the second dwelling shall be provided in the auxiliary form. For the latter, the "second dwelling" annotation shall be written down next to the field with the number of the form. The "Description of dwelling" and "Information on building where the enumerated dwelling is" shall be filled in for both forms and the "Information on households in dwelling enumerated" field (page 4 of the A form) shall be filled in only for the main form. In the auxiliary A form, the said field shall be crossed out.
- All the inhabitants of both the dwellings shall be registered in the same, main form, unless there are more than 6 inhabitants. In such an event, the 7th individual and the remaining ones shall be indicated in the auxiliary form.

If there is only the so-called provisional kitchen located in the second dwelling, it should not be indicated in any of the forms.

6. While performing the census-related undertakings, the census enumerator may encounter specific cases, where it would not be clear whether a given dwelling is inhabited by the representatives of separate households or a single, collective one. In some collective dwellings, certain habitable spaces are occupied by the personnel hired by the representatives of the said household, such as teachers working in children's house, nurses working in hospitals or sanatoriums, or help employed in holiday houses. Problems may especially arise, when the said habitable spaces are not separate structures, but rooms shared with other inhabitants of the collective dwelling (students, boarders, patients, etc.).

Habitable spaces occupied by the personnel shall be typically considered separate one-room dwellings, for which a separate A form shall be filled in. If a given member of the collective household, for example a teacher, lives therein with his or her family and occupies at least two of such rooms, then even if they are not directly connected with one another they should be registered in a single A form as a single, two-room dwelling.

In some sanatoriums, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities, there is the possibility of more than one member of the staff inhabiting such spaces (the discussed case concerns mainly nurses), as they tend to live collectively in the same room. If there are more than 20 individuals occupying such a habitable space, it should be assumed that they constitute a separate household (hostel type). Such a household should be registered using the Az form.
Unusual situations, translating into registration difficulties may arise also in standard houses, especially if:

- Workers occupy habitable spaces connected with their workplace,
- More than one nun occupies a given dwelling.

Such dwellings, in which living conditions are similar to those characteristic for collective dwellings, shall not be considered as such. They shall be registered as standard dwellings and indicated by means of the A form.

7. In some areas, especially those located in a close proximity to large-size workshops and factories, there are instances of utilizing whole blocks of flats as hostels. The said objects are not additionally modified to serve as collective dwellings. The dwellings located in such block of flats are adjusted to be occupied by separate households and will be inhabited by families on standard basis afterwards.

Such hostels shall be registered in both parts of the N-obw form:

- In the first part all the dwellings shall be specified,
- In the second part devoted to collective dwellings the hostel type dwelling shall be specified.

In the last part of the form, the following statements shall be made:

- Item 17 "residential building"
- Item 18 a straight line ("___")
- Item 20 numbers of all the dwellings specified in the first part of the form.

Such hostels indicated in the N-obw form must be also registered by means of A form (in opposition to all other types of collective dwellings, which are indicated in Az forms).
For a dwelling located in the building transformed into a hostel, a separate A form shall be filled in. In such a case, the following principles shall be complied with:

a) Page 1 of the A form shall be filled in basing on the general rules provided in this guidebook, but:
- For question 1 concerning the type of occupied housing unit, the 1 answer shall be provided,
- For the field, where the name of the lodger is to be provided, the full name of the hostel shall be provided with the additional "being a part of a residential building" annotation. For example: "Huta Katowice's Hostel - being a part of a residential building".
b) On pages 2 and 3, the inhabitants of the given dwelling shall be registered. While answering question number 7:
- If a family (with or without children) occupies the dwelling, then the relation to the head of the household shall be specified, for example "husband" , "wife", "daughter".
- If there is no relation between the individuals living in a given dwelling, then the "inhabitant of a hostel" answer shall be provided.

General rules of census performance shall be followed while providing answers to other questions on pages 2 and 3.

c) On page 4 of the A form:
- The "Information on building where the enumerated dwelling is" section shall be filled in basing on general rules of census performance. In the question about the type of building, the 1 answer shall be provided.
- The whole "Information on households in dwelling enumerated" part (questions 1 and 2) shall be crossed out.

8. The specified rules shall be followed by the census enumerator even during the pre-census round, during which by means of the N-obw form the number of dwellings to be registered shall be specified.

In some cases, tenement dwellings might have been specified in the N-form (especially in multitenant houses). They might have been specified while registering single-family houses or buildings located in rural areas which factually consist of more than one dwelling, but only one habitable space has been identified. Similarly, in collective dwellings, the rooms occupied by personnel (discussed in point 6) might have not been specified. During the census, the census enumerator has to spot such inconsistencies and make amendments in N-obw forms, as well as present the documentation to the supervisor to be accepted. However, if some inconsistencies have been omitted, they should be corrected during the census round:

a) If there is the necessity to combine few tenement dwellings into a single one, a single A form with the number of the first registered dwelling on it shall be utilized for the said purpose. The numbers of the consecutive forms shall not be changed. Instead, the field for the form number shall be left blank. The made amendments shall be also transferred to the N-obw form, so the questions, in which tenement dwellings being a single factual dwelling have been identified should be underlined, and in the "Notes" section, the said dwellings shall be described as "a single factual dwelling". The prior number of A form (rubric 1) and the number of the successive building in census district (rubric 6) for the next dwelling (and possibly for other ones) shall be crossed out.

b) If, during the census round, the census enumerator identifies a building located on a rural area or a single-family house, in which according to the N-obw form a single dwelling in located, but there are in fact more dwellings, they have to be indicated on separate A forms. For the dwellings, for which separate number of A forms have not been specified, consecutive numbers proceeding the one specified for the last dwelling in the census district shall be utilized. The next number in the district shall correspond to the one used for the first dwelling in a given building. Proper amendments shall be transferred to the N-obw form, so the additional dwellings together with their numbers written down in the A form shall be specified. In the "Notes" section, the "separate dwelling" annotation shall be written down.

c) If, during the census, it turns out that two dwellings located in separate buildings are occupied by the representatives of the same household, then in the A form for the second form the number of the A form shall be crossed out and the number of the form in which the first dwelling has been registered shall be provided. Next to the number, the "a" letter should be written down, as well as the "second dwelling" annotation. In the N-obw form, the line in which the second dwelling is indicated shall be crossed out together with the number provided in rubric 11. In the "notes" field, the lines concerning the two dwellings shall be combined together and the "single household" annotation shall be added.

Mobile unit
9. Mobile units are units occupied by certain groups of people, especially due to the nature of their work or the followed lifestyle. Those are frequently barges, trailers, ships, or railway carriages).

10. If a given mobile unit is occupied by workers in connection with the nature of their work, for example by construction workers, they shall be considered to be the representatives of a collective household and registered in the Az form (utilized for registering collective households).

11. It should be taken into account, that mobile units are rarely indicated in N-obw forms. If, during the pre-census round or during the census proper, the census enumerator encounters such an object, it should be indicated in the A (Az) form, as well as included in the N-obw form.

Provisional premises
12. Provisional premises are the objects which are not suitable to serve as habitable spaces, but still serve as shelters for people, especially after certain unforeseeable events, such as natural disasters. Those are, among others: all types of utility rooms, provisional shacks, barns, trailers, and attics, as well as shops, storage areas, garages, etc.

13. Basements and attics serving as provisional premises shall not be confused with standard dwellings located in basements and attics. It should be remembered that typically basement are storage-oriented areas without windows and rather not properly decorated, without proper floors or roughcasts. Attics are frequently the rooms that are directly covered with the roof of the building.

In the case of some modern buildings, in the designing stage there are certain spaces designed to serve as basements, drying rooms, washing rooms, etc. They may be even adjusted to occupational standards (direct lighting, proper roughcast on the walls, flooring, and sanitary devices installed). The only difference in their case is the height, as they tend to be a bit shorter, approximately 2.2 m. Such rooms shall not be considered provisional premises but rather a part of the dwelling or a dwelling proper (depending on whether or not there are other rooms in the building). 14. It should be remembered that a given provisional premises may not have been indicated in the N-obw form. If, during the pre-census round or during the census proper, the census enumerator encounters such an object, it should be indicated in the A (Az) form, as well as included in the N-obw form.

18. Name and first name of lodger (user of dwelling) [p.32]

1. The lodger is considered to be the person, on which the given dwelling has been registered, for example a tenant in a tenement house, user of a condominium member of a housing association, owner of a single-family house or a building located in a rural area, leaser in a private house, etc. Typically, such a person is referred to as "user of dwelling".

2. If there are two or more lodgers occupying the dwelling and each of them pays his or her rent separately, they should be considered co-lodgers and if they demand so register all of them as users of dwelling. However, the names and first names of subtenants that is the individuals whom the tenant rents a part of the house, shall not be written down in the form, as well as the names of the individuals, especially friends or members of family that use the dwelling without paying the rent.

3. If a mobile unit or provisional premises, the name and first name of the lodger must also be provided.

Description of Dwelling

19. Useful floor space (total) (Question I) [p.33]
1. Useful total floor space of a given dwelling is the sum of all the floor spaces of the rooms being part of the said object that is spaces of rooms, kitchen with window or without it, rooms not occupied or seasonally used, antechambers, bathrooms, toilets, pantry chambers, glazed verandas, as well as other rooms having different or similar names.

Floor space of porches and verandas shall be added to the useful floor space only if they have the form of enclosed spaces that is covered with walls from all sides (the walls may be partially glazed).

2. While specifying total floor space of the houses located in rural areas, there may be some difficulties with including the porch in the calculation process. In such a case, the following principles shall be taken into account:

a) Porch is not considered to be a useful part of the dwelling and is not added while calculating useful total floor space if:

- Porch is used to connect habitable spaces with agricultural buildings and facilities,
- There is a main hall in the dwelling despite the said porch,
- There are more dwellings in the house and the porch is utilized as hall by the inhabitants

b) If none of the following applies, the porch is considered to be a useful part of the dwelling and is added while calculating useful total floor space.

3. Useful total floor space of the dwelling incorporates also the areas that are covered by in-built chimneys, wardrobes, as well as all the niches and nooks in the dwelling.

4. While specifying the total floor space of the dwelling, the following should not be taken into account:

- Rooms utilized for professional purposes only, if such spaces have separate entrances from the hall or yard.
- Rooms that are too devastated to inhabit.

5. Useful total floor space of rooms built by modifying the initial structure of the roof shall be calculated as follows:

- Floor space of the rooms the ceilings of which is located on the height of 2 m and more shall be calculated in its entirety,
- Floor space of the rooms the ceilings of which is located on the height of 1.10 1.99 m shall be divided by half,
- Floor space of the rooms the ceilings of which is located on the height of 1 m and less shall not be calculated at all.

6. Data concerning useful total floor space of the dwelling may be taken from the auxiliary form filled in by the lodger (user of dwelling). During the census session, the census enumerator leaves such forms in all the visited dwellings for the inhabitants to provide the census office with additional pieces of information, among others, with the calculations concerning floor space. The said form incorporates tips and hints on how to calculate the value in question. The responsibility of the census enumerator is to familiarize himself or herself with those pieces of information.
Before transferring the said data from the auxiliary form to the main one, the census enumerator shall at first visit all the habitable spaces in the dwelling and check whether or not the measurements specified in the former are acceptable and plausible. If there are certain doubts about the validity of calculations or the lodger has not filled in the auxiliary form, the census enumerator shall ask for a document containing the said information to be presented to him or her. If such documentation is available, then the enumerator shall transfer data provided therein to the main form. If there is no accessible notification justifying the provided useful floor space, the enumerator shall ask the lodger to measure the space in all the rooms. If possible, the former shall help and support the user of dwelling in the performance of the said task. Data concerning total floor space shall be provided in full square meters after proper rounding off. Decimals from 1 to 4 shall be neglected and 5 to 9 considered to be full meters. For example, for values from 45.1 m2 to 45.4 m2, the 45 m2 value shall be provided and for 45.5 m2 to 45.9 m2 46 m2.

20 Number of rooms (Question II) [p. 35]
1. A room shall be understood as:a part of the dwelling which is additionally separated from other rooms with walls, having direct lighting, and characterized by the useful floor space no smaller than 4 meters squared.

Direct lighting shall be understood as a window or glazed doors located on the outer side of the building and therefore granting the view of the yard, street, garden, porch, etc.
If there is no direct lighting in the habitable space then, even if it has an internal window (skylight) connected with other rooms or the hall, such a space shall not be considered a room.

2. All the rooms in the dwelling must be registered, so both those occupied, partially used, and unoccupied ones. What is more, rooms used only for vocation-related purposes (consulting rooms, shoemaker's workshops, tailoring rooms) must be included in this category as well, if only they are located within the dwelling. However, if a given room, which is used strictly for the vocation-related purposes has a separate entrance from the hall, yard, or other freely accessible part of the room, then it shall not be considered a separate room, even it is a part of the dwelling. Such a space shall also not be included while calculating total floor space of the dwelling (see 19, point 4).

3. Habitable spaces shall be divided in the following manner:

a) Rooms,
b) Kitchens,
c) Other rooms.

Such spaces as multifunctional rooms (serving education, relaxation, food consumption, and rest-related purposes), bedrooms, dining rooms, kitchens, kids' rooms, as well as all the rooms used for vocational purposes (offices, workshops) and those utilized as accommodation for visitors and patients shall be indicated in point a.

In point b, kitchens with windows of the overall floor space of 4 m2 or more shall be indicated that is kitchens that may be qualified as typical rooms.

Kitchens without windows shall not fall into this category, even if their total floor space exceed 4 m2 , as well as kitchens with windows, the floor space of which is lower than 4 m2. The said spaces shall be indicated in point c.

One-room dwellings which also serve the role of kitchens should be classified in accordance with the opinion of the lodger. If the latter has some difficulties with classifying such a room, then it should be assumed that a habitable space equipped with a coal or gas-powered furnace (connected to the bottle or the network) shall be considered a kitchen and a space in which a small electric oven or moveable cooker is stored shall be classified as a room.

Point c other rooms has been implemented with other (furnished) habitable spaces that are not currently used for occupational purposes in mind. Such a specification concerns especially:

- rooms utilized to store various kitchen utensils, clothing, furniture, food products, etc.
- rooms that are used seasonally only, for example during summer,
- empty rooms that may be but are not taken advantage of,
- partially devastated and not renovated rooms which can be easily restored to their initial condition (for example: replacement of windows or installation of doors is required),
- rooms not equipped with a furnace and therefore not utilized during winter.

The latter are characteristic for rural areas but such cases may be encountered in towns and cities as well. If the lodgers not consider them to be proper rooms, then they should not be indicated while filling in the main form.

Rooms that are so devastated that they cannot be used anymore shall not be indicated (as well as their floor space shall not be calculated see: question 19, point 4).

Rooms that are taken advantage of to store food products shall not be mistaken with typical pantries which are built with storage of large quantities of food in mind and are larger, as well as have bigger windows. Typical pantries are not rooms and shall not be indicated in the form. Nevertheless, they shall be included while calculating the total useful floor space.

4. Such spaces as halls, bathrooms, toilets, verandas, porches, typical pantries, sheds and chambers are not rooms regardless of their floor space and type of lighting.

21. Space for kitchen not being room (Question III) [p.37]

1. Spaces for kitchen serve the same role as typical kitchens being rooms (preparation and consumption of meals), but due to lack of proper lighting or the overall floor space below 4 m2 are not considered rooms and cannot be indicated in question II in point b. Question number III was incorporated into the form in order to indicate the presence of such spaces in the dwelling.

2. Provision of answer to question number III is based on encircling the 1 symbol if there is such a space in the dwelling or, encircling the 0 if there is no such space present.

3. It may happen, especially in the case of dwellings occupied by two or more households, that there is another space not being a room despite the kitchen. Such a state of affairs shall be indicated by indicating the kitchen in question II, position b, as well as space for kitchen not being room in question III.

22. General remarks concerning questions IV-X on facilities in the dwelling [p.37]
1. Both active facilities (installations) and currently inactive ones (due to various repairs, damages, etc.) shall be indicated. Moreover, the devices and facilities that have been brought to the dwelling but have not been yet installed (for example, in a newly built house) shall be enlisted as well.

2. Devices and facilities that have not been operational for more than a year shall not be indicated.

3. Provision of answers to the question is based on encircling a suitable symbol in the form.

23. Piped water (Question IV) [p.38]
1. If, within the dwelling, there is a tap with running water installed then, basing on the hints and tips in points 3 and 4, the census enumerator shall specify whether such a facility is connected to the public water supply system or to the local system, and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 1 or 2.

2. If there is no tap with running water inside the dwelling, but such a device is located inside the building (for example, in the hall) and is used as such by the inhabitants of the building, it must be also specified whether the device is connected to the public water supply system or to the local system, and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 3 or 4.

3. Public water supply system shall be understood as a set of pipes transferring water from the source to the separate buildings and the overall length of such pipe-based connections is equal to or longer than 250 m.

Not only municipal water supply systems shall be taken into account but also those provincial and house estate ones, as they may be exploited, for example, in the area of a housing estate. What is more, the census enumerator shall also check for workplace water supply systems which may be used, for example, by mines, railway associations, agricultural farms, water associations, military units, etc. Length is the only decisive feature here.

4. Local water supply system shall be understood as a system supplying water to one or more buildings located in a close vicinity where the length of pipes does not exceed 250 m. Local systems are sometimes called individual systems or, in rural areas agricultural ones.
Local systems may be owned by one or more lodgers, as well as may be managed by organized agricultural units, production associations, factories, etc.

5. In some mountain areas, there are gravitational water supply systems. If such a system is taken advantage of in order to provide running water to at least 5 buildings and the overall length of the installation exceeds 250 m, such a system may be considered a proper water supply one. In all other cases, it shall be classified as a local system.

6. If there is no water supply system within the dwelling and the inhabitants do not use the system installed inside the house, then the 0 symbol shall be encircled.

In some cases, the inhabitants of a given building may have access to running water, but in order to do so, it is necessary to leave the building. In such an instance, the 0 shall be encircled as well.

24. Flush toilet (Question V) [p.39]
1. Only toilets flushed with running water that is connected to the water supply system shall be indicated.

2. If, within the dwelling, there is a flush toilet installed then, basing on the hints and tips in points 4 and 5, the census enumerator shall specify whether wastewater is removed my means of public or local water treatment system, and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 1 or 2.

3. If there is no flush toilet inside the dwelling, but such a device is located inside the building (for example, in the hall or basement) and is used as such by the inhabitants of the building, it must be also specified whether the device is connected to the public water treatment system or to the local system, and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 3 or 4.

In some cases, the inhabitants of the building (all or some of them) have private flush toilet which are not located within the dwelling but in the same time inside the house. Even if such a system is utilized by the representatives of a single household only, it should be considered to be located within the building rather than within the dwelling.

4. Water treatment system shall be understood as an underground sewerage system utilized to transfer wastewater from the dwellings to a given destination, such as river, channel, lake, sea, upper layer of the ground), if only the overall length of the installation is equal to or exceeds 250 m. It may be a general water treatment system, as well as economic or natural waste treatment one. The latter as the name suggests is utilized to remove the surplus of natural wastewater but in some cases, dwellings or whole houses can be connected to it.

Water treatment system, such as water supply one, may be municipal, provincial or workplace-managed.

5. Local water treatment system shall be understood as a network connecting few neighboring buildings and transferring wastewater to a cesspit or to river, channel, lake, sea, upper layer of the ground, etc. The distance between the destination and the buildings does not exceed 250 m.

Local water treatment system, similarly to a local water supply one, may be owned by one or more lodgers, as well as may be managed by organized agricultural units.

6. If there is no water treatment system within the dwelling and the inhabitants do not use the system installed inside the house, then the 0 symbol shall be encircled.

In some cases, the inhabitants of a given building may have access to a flush toilet, but in order to do so, it is necessary to leave the building. In such an instance, the 0 shall be encircled as well.

25. Sink or washbasin (Question VI) [p.40]
1. While specifying the answer to this question, the census enumerator shall take advantage of the hints and tips provided in points 4 and 5 of question 24.

2. If, within the dwelling, there is a sink or washbasin installed as well as both the devices, making it possible to remove the surplus of wastewater, the census enumerator shall specify whether wastewater is removed my means of public or local water treatment system , and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 1 or 2.

3. If there is no sink or washbasin inside the dwelling, but such devices are located inside the building (for example, in the hall) and is used as such by the inhabitants of the building, it must be also specified whether the device is connected to the public water treatment system or to the local system, and in accordance with the specified answer encircle symbol 3 or 4.

4. In some specific cases, the inhabitants use the sink, from which wastewater is transferred to a gutter (open sewer). Such cases shall be classified as using local system and depending on localization of the system inside or outside the house, symbol 2 or 4 shall be encircled.

5. If there is no water treatment system within the dwelling and the inhabitants do not use the system installed inside the house, then the 0 symbol shall be encircled.

26 Bathroom in dwelling (Question VII)
1. Bathroom is a special room in which bath or shower is installed, as well as the system of removing wastewater from the dwelling. According to the said definition, a room shall be also called bathroom if not all the required devices have been installed (there is no tub or shower present) or the said facilities have not been connected to the network, but there is an identifiable system of removing wastewater.

2. If there is a bathroom equipped with a tub or a shower in the dwelling and the said device is connected to the wastewater disposal network, then the 1 answer shall be indicated.

3. If there is a bathroom in the dwelling, but no tub or shower has been installed, then the 2 symbol shall be chosen.

4. If there is no bathroom in the dwelling, the 0 answer shall be indicated.

27. Hot water supplies (Question VIII) [p.41]
1. If there is a tap with hot running water in the dwelling and the water is heated outside the dwelling, so in the heat and power station or local heat station, then the 1 symbol shall be chosen.

2. If there is an electric stove, gas stove, or central heating boiler connected to the network in the dwelling, then the 2 symbol shall be chosen.

Heating water in the dwelling by means of a central heating stove (regardless of its placement) shall be considered as heating water within the dwelling and therefore the 2 symbol shall be indicated.

3. If there are no water supplies in the dwelling, as well as there are no professional devices installed aiming at heating the said liquid within the dwelling, then the 3 symbol shall be encircled.

28 Gas in dwelling (Question IX) [p.42]
1. If gas is supplied to the dwelling from a public network, then the 1 symbol shall be encircled.

2. If there is a device for heating or boiling water installed in the dwelling and the said facility is supplied with gas from bottles (of capacity of 11 kg or more), the 2 symbol shall be chosen.
The said answer shall not be chosen for dwellings which are supplied with gas from tourist bottles.

3. If there is no gas in dwelling, supplied neither from a public network nor from bottles, as well as there are no devices used for heating or boiling water, then the 0 symbol shall be encircled.

29 Heating (Question X) [p.42]
1. In the case of this question, as opposed to the ones above, there is no negative answer (no 0 symbol to be chosen), as every single dwelling requires heating in the winter season, especially due to severe weather conditions. Heating method must be specified for every single dwelling separately.

2. If the inhabitants use few methods of heating, then the dominant one shall be chosen that is the one covering the most of the dwelling with its effect or utilized for the majority of time. Auxiliary (supplementary) method of heating and the one not used frequently shall not be taken into account.

3. If thermal energy is supplied from power stations, heat and power stations, or from boiler for flat block in the case of a block of flat or other multifamily building, then the 1 symbol shall be chosen by the census enumerator.

4. If the dwelling is equipped with an individual central heating system radiators are the main sources of heat distribution and thermal energy is supplied from boiler in one-family house or boiler in storey houses, then the 2 symbol shall be chosen by the census enumerator.

5. If in the dwelling heat is distributed by means of heating by electric accumulators or tiled stoves equipped with electric heaters, as well as the lodger has concluded an agreement with a power supply plant for distribution of power to the dwelling or installed his or her own power consumption meters, then the 3 symbol shall be encircled.

Sporadic increasing temperature in the dwelling by means of electric heaters shall not be considered as distribution of heat by means of electric accumulators.

6. If other types of heating are utilized in the dwelling, then the 4 symbol shall be encircled by the census enumerator. The said answer mainly concerns the utilization of fixed stoves using such solid fuels as coal, coke, briquette, wood, sawdust, etc. The utilization of gas stoves shall also be considered in this case.

Part IV: Principles Concerning Filling in Pages 2 and 3 of the A Form

30 Individuals to be registered [p.44]
1. On pages 2 and 3 of the A form and in analogous rubrics of the Az form, the pieces of information concerning the individuals to be registered in a given dwelling, mobile unit, provisional premises, or collective dwelling must be provided.

2. Data provided shall be gathered as of midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978. Therefore, the factual state of affairs encountered by the census enumerator in a given dwelling, mobile unit, provisional premises, or collective dwelling is irrelevant. Only the occupation status as of midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 shall be taken into account. Therefore:

- A newly born child shall be registered only if he or she was born before midnight 6th and 7th December 1978 (children born after the said date shall not be registered).
- A deceased individual, who died after midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 shall be registered (individuals who died before the said date shall not be registered).

3. The following individuals living in a given dwelling (room) shall be registered:

- All the individuals living there permanently (registered for a permanent stay), regardless of whether they were absent or present in the dwelling on midnight 6th and 7th December 1978.
- Individuals living in another dwelling, who were registered for a temporary stay in the dwelling as of midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978

4. The place of a permanent stay of a given individual shall be understood as a dwelling (room) in which he or she has been registered by the respective authorities for a permanent stay. Nevertheless, in some cases, formalities may be connected with a certain delay. Then, the factual state of registration shall be taken into account. For example, a newborn shall be considered a permanent inhabitant of the dwelling owned by his or her parents, even though the child has not been yet registered for a permanent stay. A newlywed shall be considered to be a permanent inhabitant of the dwelling owned by his or her partner, even though the formalities concerning registration have not been brought to an end.

5. In some specific cases, when a person staying in the dwelling:

a) States that he or she lives here permanently and not feel connected with the place of previous permanent stay anymore (for example, he or she has left the place forever),
b) Is not registered anywhere and has no place of permanent stay (may concern some Gypsies),

Such an individual shall be registered as staying permanently in a given dwelling.

6. Individuals, who have moved house and live in a different dwelling even if such an event happened after midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 shall be registered in the new place of residence (unless they have been registered in the previous dwelling).

Census enumerator who has visited the previous place of residence of such individuals who has not managed to register the inhabitants before they moved house shall only inform his or her supervisor about the said fact. If possible, names, first names, name of the main lodger, as well as the estimated number of individuals who moved house shall be provided.

7. If, due to a renovation of the dwelling or the building, the inhabitants have been moved to some provisional dwellings, the individuals living in the said provisional objects shall be registered as living there permanently. No individuals shall be registered in a renovated house.

8. Foreigners taking advantage of immunities and privileges granted them by international acts or customs that is heads and foreign personnel of diplomatic organizations, consulates, as well as their families shall not be registered at all, even if they have been living permanently in the dwelling where the census is performed.

Census enumerators shall be informed about the dwellings, in which such foreigners have been living in order not to visit them during the census round.

9. Other foreigners and individuals without any citizenship residing in Poland shall be registered basing on the following principles:

a) If they have been registered for a permanent stay in the country or have their families here, then they shall be registered as permanent occupants of a given dwelling,
b) If they have been visiting Poland for a limited period of time, as, for example, they have been visiting their family, relatives, or they have been on a trip, then they shall be registered as temporal occupants of the dwelling in question.

10. Individuals staying temporarily in a given dwelling on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 shall be included in the census, regardless of whether or not they have been registered for a temporary stay.

Temporal inhabitants of a given dwelling shall be understood as those registered there for a temporal stay as of midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978, regardless of whether or not they have been staying in the place of registration. Such procedure concerns predominantly the individuals registered for a temporary stay for over 2 months. The said group mainly includes individuals living outside their place of origin due to work or education who are registered in hostels, dormitories, and facilities alike. It may happen that such individuals will be absent in their place of temporary occupation, spending the midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 somewhere else, for example, in their place of permanent occupation or visiting other places as a part of their holidays. Nevertheless, they shall be in such a case registered as if they were present in the place of temporary occupation.

11. While beginning the census related procedure in a given dwelling, the census enumerator shall check the number of individuals to be registered in accordance with the provided principles. He or she should, therefore, check the number of individuals registered for a permanent stay in the dwelling and then ask the inhabitants whether any of them has been registered for a temporary stay as of midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 (or stayed in the dwelling temporarily then without proper registration). Names and surnames of the registered individuals shall not be written down in the form immediately, as in accordance with the principles set forth in 37, page 53 it is at first necessary to specify the order of registration.

31 Notions of a household and a head of household [p.46]

1. Household. A household shall be understood as a number of related individuals who have been living or staying together in one dwelling.

It shall be noted, however, that even non-related individuals may be the members of a given household, providing that they live together and support the main lodger financially. Family members who live together but have separate sources of maintenance shall be understood as separate households. Single individuals create single-person households as well.

2. Head of household. A person who financially supports a given social unit in majority of cases or entirely shall be considered to be a head of household. If two members of a given household support it financially to an equal extent, the head of the household is the person, who is capable of managing the gathered funds.

Representatives of single-person households are in the same time heads of such households.

3. In order for the census to be executed properly in a given dwelling (mobile unit, provisional premises, or collective dwelling), it shall be specified whether the individuals registered for a permanent or a temporal stay in a given dwelling constitute a single or dew separate households. If the existence of two or more households has been identified, the representatives of each of such social unit shall be specified as well. In the same time, the census enumerator shall also specify who is head of each household.

The recommended registration order during the census is provided in question 37, page 53.

If there are more than one household in a given dwelling, the one to which the main lodger that is the person, whose name has been included on the first page of the main A form, belongs shall be registered as first.

4. In the case of collective dwellings, the classification of individuals into separate households shall not be performed, even if such connections occur. However, kinship between given individuals shall be indicated in accordance with the principles set forth in question 81, 108.

5. Some households may be represented by single individuals, who do not support a given household financially while in the same time not creating separate households. Those are:

- Helps, agricultural workers, apprentices, trainees but only if they live with their employers,
- Students living in lodgings,
- Workers and employees living in other parts of the country, who live in a given dwelling temporarily due to the temporal nature of the performed works, such as it is with wood cutters, land developers, construction workers building only a single object, etc.

Individuals falling in the above category shall be registered after the last person in a given household, with a proper annotation in question 7 (for example, "help" see: question 37 point 4 on page 53).

32 Name, first name and number of the person (Questions 1 and 2) [p.48]
1. If the total number of the representatives of a given household exceeds 6, then an additional A form shall be used to register the remaining number of them.

In the same time, the numeration of the auxiliary form shall be changed by replacing numbers 01, 02, 03, etc. with such numbers as 07, 08, 09 etc. If there are still more individuals, consecutive auxiliary forms shall be used during the census.

2. In the case of newborns without a name, they should have the "no name yet" annotation written down as the answer to question number 2.

33 Permanently living (whether or not a given person is present in dwelling at the census time) or temporarily staying (please encircle the relevant category) (Question 3) [p.48]
1. For every single representative of a given household, one of the three available options shall be encircled:

A. Permanently living and present,
B. Permanently living but not present,
C. Temporarily living.

30 specifies who shall be considered to be "living permanently" or "temporarily staying". However, the notions of "present" and "not present" must be discussed separately.

2. The majority of the household are the individual living in a dwelling permanently and present at census time, so on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978, who are additionally not registered anywhere else for a temporary stay. In the case of such individuals the "Permanently living and present" option shall be chosen.

If given individuals living in a dwelling permanently were not present in it on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978, they shall not always be considered "not present" as it depends on the reason of the absence.

Almost all other individuals shall be registered twice, as in relation to them the following principles will apply:

a) Individuals classified by a given census enumerator as living in a dwelling permanently but not present (excluding Polish citizens staying abroad) shall be registered by a different enumerator as individuals staying temporarily in another dwelling.
b) Individuals classified by a given census enumerator as staying in a given dwelling temporarily (except from foreigners staying temporarily within the borders of Poland) shall be registered by a different enumerator as individuals living permanently in another dwelling but currently absent.

3. However, in some cases it will be impossible to register certain individuals twice. If given individuals living in a dwelling permanently were not present in it on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978, they shall not always be considered "not present" as it depends on the reason of the absence.

Due to the fact, the "A. Permanently living and present" option shall be chosen for individuals who, on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978:

- Worked on a night shift in a factory, communication-oriented company, hospital, or were engaged in coastal fishing on Baltic Sea, etc.
- Took part in an event, party, meeting, name day celebration, birthday celebration, etc.
- Were making their way home from a cinema, theater, etc. Or were travelling to a market, etc.
- Where travelling on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 and, for example, waiting for a train at that time,
- Were temporarily arrested by law enforcement authorities for violation of social norms, etc.

Generally, the above concerns the individuals who have not been registered in any other place in Poland and it is additionally impossible to register them at all. It is cause by the fact that the census will not be executed in hospitals, factories, companies, and units alike. There is also no need to register guests at parties, especially if the party lasted after midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978.

Basing on the census performance method, the "A. Permanently living and present" option shall be chosen for the individuals, who, on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978:

- Served in the army (stayed in barracks as a part of their military training, vocation-related undertakings, entrance tests for military forces, or regular training of both high and low rank soldiers),
- Studied in universities run by law enforcement organs,
- Stayed in prison, penitentiary wards, or facilities for juvenile delinquents.

All other individuals living in a dwelling permanently but not present on midnight, between 6th and 7th December 1978 or registered somewhere else for a temporary stay shall have the "B. Permanently living but not present" option chosen. The same individuals shall have, in the place of their temporal stay, the "C. Temporarily living" option selected.

34 Please specify for person classified to the category B, or category C, cause of absence or of temporary staying [p.50]
1. The question concerns only the individuals, who have the "B. Permanently living but not present", or "C. Temporarily living" option selected in question 3. All the individuals, for whom the "A. Permanently living and present" option has been chosen shall have a straight line ("___") written down in question 4.

2. The reason of absence or temporary staying shall be specified by writing down such explanations as: "on holiday", "on leave", "visiting family", "in hospital" , "in sanatorium", "performing", "at a scientific conference", "taking part in a sports event", "on a business trip", "traineeship", etc. In such cases, no additional justification or explanation is needed. For example, the "on leave" and "on holiday" phrases may be used interchangeably.

3. Nevertheless, in the case of such answers as:

- "studying in school",
- "studying at university",
- "professional work",
- "in a healthcare facility"

All have a specific meaning ascribed to them and shall be utilized only when a given person lives outside his or her place of permanent residence and:

- Studies in a high or vocational school, studies at a university,
- Is engaged in professional work in a company or organization the seat of which is located outside the place of permanent stay (registration for permanent stay) of a given person for example, the surveyed individual left to work in a distant company, factory, or commutes to work every day, for example, to engage in woodcutting activities.
- Is engaged in supporting the Voluntary Work Association,
- Is in a healthcare facility, for example, in a child's house, vocational rehabilitation facility, pensioner's house, etc.

4. In other cases, the reason of absence or temporary stay shall be specified in such a manner not to make the reason of a longer absence doubtful (especially if it lasts over 2 months - see question 35). Therefore, such terms as "caring for an ill father" (instead of "visiting father" or "visiting family") or "in a hospital serious illness" (instead of "in hospital") shall be utilized.

5. Another important issue for the census enumerators is to specify the number of individuals staying abroad, regardless of the reason of their absence. Such individuals (living permanently but not present) shall have the "staying abroad" annotation written down (for example: "staying in a workplace abroad", "working abroad", "studying abroad", "on a trip abroad", etc.). Maritime fishermen shall have "maritime fishing" or "professional angling" terms written down in this question.

35 For persons listed under category B and C please specify duration of absence or temporary staying (Question 5) [p.51]

1. Individuals, who have a reason or absence or temporary stay indicated in question 4 shall have an answer for this question specified as well.

2. The "1. Up to 2 months" or "2. Over 2 months" option shall be chosen, depending not only on the current duration of the absence or stay but also the overall planed duration of such stay or absence. In the case of longer stays or absences, any breaks connected with visits in the place of temporary residence shall not be taken into account. For example, if a student leaves the campus every Sunday in order to visit his or her family living in the place of permanent residence, it should not be concluded that the period of absence is equal to a week but it lasts "over 2 months". 3. If the absent or temporary staying person is registered by the authorities for a temporary stay lasting over 2 months (which requires a more complex procedure than the those required for a shorter stay), than the "2. Over 2 months" option shall be chosen without considering the details of such a state of affairs and even if it is certain that the said period will almost certainly be shorter.

36 Please write in the address of permanent living of persons temporarily staying (C) in the enumerated dwelling (Question 6) [p.52]
1. The question concerns only the individuals, for whom the "C. Temporarily living" option has been chosen in question 3. Other individuals shall have a straight line ("___") written down in this question.

2. In fields a and b, the address of permanent living (registration for permanent living) shall be provided by writing down the locality and street with the number of the house, or the number of the house alone if there are no streets in a given locality. For the rural areas, in field c, the name of the community shall also be provided. For other localities, a straight line ("___") shall be written down in this question. Foreigners shall provide the name of the country they have arrived from in field c.

37 Relation to the head of household (please write in respectively: head of household, wife or husband, son, daughter, grandson, father, etc.) (Question 7) [p.52]
1. For a person, who, in accordance with the rules set forth in 31, has been considered to be head of household, the "head of household" title shall be written down in question 7. The same title shall be written down for the individuals creating single-person households.

2. For all other representatives of a given household, the relation to the head of household shall be specified by writing in respectively: "husband" ("wife"), "son", "daughter", "stepson", "stepdaughter", "father", "mother-in-law", "brother", "grandson", "granddaughter", "aunt", or "distant relative" if there is no possibility of specifying the kinship. A person, who is not related to the head of household but is considered to be a member of the household due to the provided financial support, shall have the "not related to the head of household" answer written down, or, in abbreviation "n. related".

It must be taken account that such levels of relation to the head of household as "tenant", "subtenant", or "co-tenant" cannot be used while specifying the kinship. They are members of their respective household and should be considered "head of households" in the social units they are members of.

3. The principles of closest kinship shall apply while identifying relation to the head of household, so, in the first place such individuals as husband or wife, children or parents, etc. Individuals in a relationship having children who are not engaged shall be registered next to one another. However, if there has been a mistake, due to which it is impossible to keep the proper order, the annotation shall not be corrected, nor shall be a new form used. It is enough to justify the relation in a comprehensible manner (for example, "Janek's wife", "grandson, Czeslaw's son").

4. If there are certain individuals living in a dwelling but not supporting the household financially (such a case is discussed in question 31, point 5 on page 47), such individuals shall be classified with proper terms and titles, such as: "help", "apprentice", "agricultural worker", "student", "hired worker".

It should be remembered that the above concerns only single individuals. If a help lives in a given dwelling together with his or her child, then they create a separate household ("head of household" and "daughter" or "son"). Such individuals may be both permanent and temporal inhabitants (typically staying in a dwelling for over 2 months).

5. If in a given dwelling there are also other individuals staying there in a temporary manner, then they shall be registered as follows:

a) If the duration of the stay has been specified as lasting up to 2 months and if they are related to the head of household the relation shall be specified similarly to other inhabitants or, if there is no kinship, they should be classified as "guests".
b) If the duration of the stay has been specified as lasting over 2 months it should be specified whether or not the said individuals support the household financially. Afterwards, the division into household shall be made in the same manner as for permanent inhabitants.

38 Sex (please encircle respectively: 1. M (male) or 2.Z (female) (Question 8) [p.54]
For boys (men), the 1.M option shall be encircled and for girls (women) 2. Z.

39 Year of birth (four-digit number) (Question 9) [p.54]
Year of birth shall be provided in the form of a four-digit number.

40 Marriage status (write in: single, or married, widower, widow, divorced) (Question 10) [p.54]
1. In accordance with the pieces of information provided by the surveyed individual, write the following:

[] "single"
[] "married"
[] "widower"
[] "widow"
[] "divorced"

2. Only if the said individual has certain doubts and asks the census enumerator for help, shall the said professional clarify that the factual marriage status rather than the legal and formal one shall be provided. Therefore:

- Married individuals are those, who have entered into marriage, even if they are not formally married,
- Divorced individuals are those who no longer live with their partners, even if the formal divorce has not yet been granted to them.

3. Small children
shall have "single" marriage status indicated.

41 Education attainment (for persons born in 1963 or earlier, one of the education categories listed in the footnote xxx should be written in) (Question 11) [p.55]
1. For all the individuals aged 15 and over, so born in 1963 or earlier, the highest level of education completed shall be specified. The surveyed individual shall be asked if he or she has obtained a document justifying graduation form a given school (graduation diploma, school completion diploma, certain number of classes completion diploma, etc.). While asking about the said diploma, the census enumerator shall not request it to be presented, unless the examined individual expresses the willingness to do so.

Night and part time schools shall be treated similarly to those typical ones. The case is similar with schools operating abroad. So-called "externs", who have taken an external school-leaving exam and passed it shall be also considered as graduates of such schools.

In general, courses shall not be taken into account while specifying education attainment. Only exception are those courses which are equivalents to obtaining a given education degree, for example:

- Tele-technical and telecommunication-related courses organized by the Postal Services and Telegraphy Ministry between 1950-1953, being equivalent to graduating from a high school,
- Remote agricultural courses, being equivalent to graduating from a vocational school,
- Courses for workers, being equivalent to graduating from a primary school.

In the interwar period, some schools offered so-called "courses" (for example: "Commercial Courses"). The course completion diplomas shall be considered to be equivalent to school diplomas.

2. While providing the answer to question 11, one of the terms provided at the bottom of page 2 of the A form shall be utilized, as they apply to the highest education level achieved.

"Higher education completed" shall be written down for the individuals being in possession of a university graduation diploma, regardless whether engineer or master of arts title has been achieved by the said individuals. Both second and first level diplomas fall into this category, as for example engineer or economy specialist diplomas.

"Higher education not completed after general education" or "Higher education not completed after vocational education" shall be written down for the individuals, who have been attending a university and successfully completed at least 2 years of education (four semesters), but have not completed the said school yet. Moreover, the individuals with high school "certificate of completion" also fall into this category. The title shall be based on the previously completed high school general or vocational one.

The said category does not concern individuals, who have started studying after graduating from post-secondary schools and those who have started tertiary education but have not managed to complete it. Such individuals fall into the "Post-secondary completed" category (see below). Individuals, who have started their tertiary education but have not completed two years of it, shall have the "Secondary education completed" annotation written down.

"Post-secondary completed" concerns individuals who have graduated from a post-secondary school, for the attendance to which the school-leaving exam was needed up to 1972 and afterwards completion of a high school. Names of such schools might have changed throughout the consecutive years (however, no "upper" constituent has been used). Similar approach was used for both vocational and general study centers, for example "Study center for teachers". Those are also post-secondary schools and shall not be referred to as universities or tertiary education units.

The "Post-secondary completed" annotation shall be also written down for the individuals, who after graduating from such a unit have started tertiary education but have not managed to complete it, regardless of the number of finished semesters.

"Secondary education completed" shall be written down for all the individuals who have managed to graduate from a high school (general or vocational one), regardless whether they have been awarded with a school-leaving diploma or a technician degree.

"Secondary education not completed" shall be written down for the individuals, who have attended a high school after graduating from a primary school, and successfully completed at least two years of education there. The individuals who graduated from 4-year gymnasiums which operated in the thirties and shortly after the war, shall also fall into this category.

The said category does not include the individuals, who started secondary education after completing a basic vocational education. Those individuals (with no high school education completed, regardless of the number of successfully completed years) shall have the "Basic vocational completed" annotation written down (see below). The individuals , who have not completed two years of education in a high school and entered it after finishing a primary school shall have the "Primary education completed" annotation written down.

"Basic vocational completed" shall be indicated for the individuals who have graduated from 2- or 3-year basic vocational school (basic agricultural school, basic vocational school, masters' school, industrial school, vocational gymnasium, etc.), as well as for the individuals who have attended a high school but have not completed it.

"Primary education completed" shall be indicated for the individuals who have been awarded with a primary school completion diploma, common school completion diploma (before the war), and vocational courses completion diplomas.

Finishing primary education is equal to successfully completing the last year of education in such a unit, regardless of how many years of education there have been, as primary schools have been 7-, 8- ,and even in the past 4-year ones.

"Primary education not completed" shall be indicated for the individuals who have been studying in a primary school, as well as for those, who have not completed primary education, regardless of the number of years of education finished.
For the individuals who have never attended any school (or have done so, but have not managed to finish even the first year of a primary school), shall have one of the following ascribed:

- Self-education if they know how to read and write,
- Reading only, or
-Neither writing nor reading

Person who is capable of reading a newspaper shall be considered as those able to read. An individual who is capable of writing a letter (even without complying with grammatical rules) shall be considered as able to write. It shall be assumed that a person who can write can read as well (self-education). The ability of writing and reading may be in any language (reading and writing in Polish is not compulsory).

Individuals up to 15, so born between 1964-1978, shall have a straight line ("___") written down as an answer to question 11.

42 Direction in education (please write in: general education, or specialization in mechanics, textile industry, construction, or in agriculture, economics, etc.) (Question 12) [p.57]

All the individuals who completed education from tertiary to primary shall have in question 12 direction in education provided, in accordance with the school profile specified in question 11.

The following concerns the individuals for which the following has been indicated:

- Higher education (completed, not completed),
- Post-secondary completed,
- Secondary education (completed, not completed),
- Basic vocational completed.

In the case of question 12, the direction in education in the given school must also be specified, even if the said school has not been completed. For example, in the case of higher education not completed (high school or post-secondary school completed), the direction in education shall concern the one in the not completed university, not in the completed secondary or post-secondary unit.

Below, the methods of specifying the direction in education are provided:

- Construction,
- Chemistry,
- Wood industry,
- Economics,
- Electrics,
- Gastronomy,
- Land development,
- Mining,
- Commerce,
- Communication,
- Forestry,
- Mechanics,
- Clothing,
- Gardening,
- Agriculture,
- Veterinary,
- Textile industry.

As it can be easily noticed, the name of the direction in education is in many cases, especially in vocational and high schools strictly connected with the very name of the educational unit in question (for example, "Basic Construction-related Vocational School", "Technical School of Chemistry"). In the case of individuals with higher education (both completed and not completed), the provided name shall be strictly connected with the faculty, for example:

- Architecture,
- Sociology,
- Psychology,
- History of art,
- Physics, etc.

While providing the name, both the adjectival form ("mechanical") and the noun-based one ("veterinary") may be utilized.

In the case of individuals that have attended a high school (and that completed or not completed it), the name of the direction in education shall be specified as "general".

Vocation-related specialization obtained by attending courses that are not connected with proper education shall not be included while answering this question, even if the specialization in question is in line with the already performed job or with the education attainment.

For all the remaining individuals, so those classified as attending primary schools (both those who have completed and not completed them), as well as those who have not attended any school, a straight line ("___") shall be indicated as the answer for this question.

43 School attendance (please circle relevant) (Question 13) [p.59]

For the individuals who already attend a school (in a full-time, part-time, or by taking advantage of night schools), the "1. Yes" answer shall be encircled. If it is it otherwise, the "0. No" answer shall be encircled for such surveyed individuals. The same answer shall be provided for all the children below 7, who have not yet been attending primary schools.

44 Is he (she) , for the reason of his (her) disability or disease, wholly or to a high degree limited in main activities relevant to his (her) age (professional activities, studies, household keeping, etc. ; in the case of small children: playing games, etc.) ? (Question 14) [p.59]

The necessity to gather such pieces of information is caused by the willingness of the government to adjust the social policy of the country to the needs of its inhabitants. Therefore, the question concerns disabilities or diseases which may wholly or to a high degree limit the possibility to perform the main activities relevant to the respondent's age (professional activities, studies, household keeping, etc. ; in the case of small children: playing games, etc.). The aforementioned shall not be equaled with disability (understood in legal terms), which is predominantly based on justification that the given individual is a holder of a proper notification issued by the Employment Agency (KIZ) and specifying a given disability level. This question is mainly focused on the factual condition of the said individual.

Therefore, the question shall also concern the individuals who are not disabled in legal terms- both children and adults (especially private agricultural holding owners), who have not received the notification specified above. What is more, a person disabled in the legal sense may consider himself or herself to be wholly capable of performing the activities relevant to his or her age. For example, a given person, being an accountant may be able to perform his or her most basic vocation-related activities, even though certain body damages make him or her a disabled person in the legal sense. Unemployed individual may, for example, find it undemanding to manage the household, etc.

Gathering data for Question 14 shall be made easier for the census enumerator thanks to the pre-census round and especially the content of the "Appeal to the people" given to the individuals during the said round. The surveyed individuals would, therefore, have been at least partially prepared for the necessity to answer such a question. The main responsibility of the enumerator is to clarify certain discrepancies that may occur in certain cases. To make it easier for the aforementioned expert, in point 3 of this section, there are basic regulation and criteria provided, facilitating answering the question concerning whole or notable limitation in the possibility to perform main tasks relevant for the individual's age. However, it shall be taken into account that the provided recommendations may not solve all the encountered problems and that in some cases a subjective assessment will be needed.

Due to the fact that asking this question may be considered problematic and disturbing for the surveyed individuals, it is highly recommended to ask all the household members the question, but in an altered form, buy prior asking them to listen carefully:
"Are here any individuals, who, for the reason of their disability or disease, are wholly or to a high degree limited in main activities relevant to their age that is they cannot properly execute their basic vocation-related chores, manage their household, engage in entertainment-related undertakings or care for themselves, especially in an older age?"
If such people have been identified, then the proper task performance limitation level shall be encircled ("1. Yes, wholly", or "2. Yes, to a high degree"). For the remaining individuals, the "0. Not" answer shall be indicated and the question shall not be asked ever again.

There are two main levels of task performance limitation identifiable within the scope of the form:

- Whole limitation,
- Limitation to a high degree, being not a whole limitation, but still significantly limiting the said individual from performing the basic tasks crucial for his or her age. Negligible levels of limitation shall be omitted.

In both cases, only chronic cases caused by a specific disability or disease shall be taken into account (those lasting for longer than 6 months). All the identifiable pregnancy stages shall not be taken into account.

Main tasks relevant for the given age shall be understood as:

a) For children in the pre-school age (0-6 year old) ability to fully engage in all forms of entertainment and games, and in the case of the youngest children (those around 1 year old) ability to properly reply to both internal and external stimuli (crying, smiling, performing proper gestures, etc.)

Whole limitation the said limitation level shall be indicated for severely disabled individual and for those with nervous system significantly damaged. Limitation to a high degree if the general health condition makes it impossible for the said individual to perform the abovementioned tasks.

b) Children in the school and pre-reproduction age (7-17 year old) attending school in a normal manner and ability to take active part in all the lessons (excluding PE).

Whole limitation the said level shall be indicated if the given individual is unable to attend any school, even a special one.

Limitation to a high degree if the said individual attends special school (or class), special education facility (for example, for bling or mentally disabled children), as well as if he or she attends a traditional school, but due to acute disability or disease - he or she is unable to fully engage in the organized non-sport activities.

Note: In the case of some children with certain task performance limitations, especially in the case of those provided for by parents working in socialized agricultural companies, there is the 500 PLN family allowance provided. Such children shall be considered to be limited (wholly or to a high degree).

c) Individuals in the production age (men 18-64 year old, women 18-59 year old) professional work, managing the household by women (especially those above 25), attending a high school or a university.

Whole limitation such inability shall be indicated if the said person is completely unable to perform the activities mentioned before or had to stop them due to the disability and now cannot return to performing the aforementioned tasks.

Limitation to a high degree shall be understood as ability to perform certain basic tasks at the workplace that have always been executed as the part of the job, as well as capability to partially manage the household. This answer shall be also indicated if the surveyed individual has had to limit the time of performing the said activities (working part-time or having to take a leave), completely stop their performance by changing the scope of responsibilities (for example, by changing the workplace, changing a school for a special one, abandoning certain house chores, etc.), or take advantage of special tools and equipment making the execution of the said tasks notably easier.

d) Individuals in the post-production age (men 65 year old and more, women 60 year old and more) ability to care about oneself by, for example, preparing basic meals, making shopping, cleaning the premises, taking a bath.

Whole limitation shall be indicated for the individuals who, due to a severe illness or disability, had to abandon the performance of the abovementioned tasks or have to be constantly supervised by other individuals in order to make it possible for them to do so.

Limitation to a high degree concerns the individuals who must be supervised or supported while executing certain of the abovementioned tasks, as well as those who had to abandon the performance of only some of the tasks enumerated above.

45 Is he (she) recognized by the KIZ (a body consisting of physicians) as disabled person? (Question 15) [p.62]
As an answer to the question, one of the following shall be encircled:

[] 0. Not,
[] 1. Yes I disability group,
[] 2. Yes II disability group,
[] 3. Yes III disability group

A legally disabled person is the one, for whom the notification has been issued by the representatives of the KIZ. The said notification must clearly indicate at least one disability group to be considered valid.

The basic intention of the census is to consider the answers provided to question 15 to be treated as supplementary to the answers to question 14, rather than the other way round. The answer to this question shall be encircled after prior gathering of relevant data concerning the task performance limitations (as mentioned before, lack of legally indicated disability may not be equivalent to lack of any limitations, as well as the issuing of the notification may not be equal to inability to perform any relevant tasks).

In fact, even in the case of question 1, the census enumerator will come across certain statements directly indicating the disability group of a given individual (for example, "Yes, I have the second disability group). In such a case, the provided pieces of information shall be included in the answer to question 15, but in the same time not treated as proper answers to question 14.
46 General rules concerning answers to the questions on sources of maintenance [p.63]
1. Questions from 16 to 24 have been designed in such a way to make it possible for the surveyed individuals to provide data concerning their source of maintenance. Every individual has at least one, so every respondent shall have answers to questions 16-24 indicated.

There are three basic sources of maintenance:

a. Maintenance from work,
b. Maintenance not from work,
c. Being maintained .

2. The following shall be considered to have a maintenance from work:

a. Individuals obtaining a given salary or wage,
b. Individuals supporting their family members in managing the agricultural holding without receiving payment for their work.

For every employed person, his or her job is in the same time his or her source of maintenance.

Receiving a payment from work may not equal being employed at the moment. Therefore, the said answer shall be also indicated for the individuals, who have not worked at the moment of the census, but only if:

They are on a free leave lasting less than months,
They state that they still provide for themselves and their family thanks to the incomes from the previous job they have not been performing (for example to a seasonal break in operation of the company);
They are in the process of changing the workplace they are not anymore employed in the previous workplace, but in the same time they have not started working in their current one.
Note: The above mentioned are not sufficient if they concern working and especially supporting a family member in the agricultural holding. Detailed recommendations relating to proper classification of such individuals are provided in question 59, point on page 89.

"The maintenance from work" option shall not be chosen for the individuals, who:

work as apprentices in various workplaces (and which have concluded the traineeship agreement with the owner of the workplace) and are considered minors (below 18 year old), or have started their work as minors and have been continuing it on the same basis. Such a state of affairs concerns, among others, students of vocational schools, who work in a given workplace for few days and for the rest of the week they learn in school (their payment shall be therefore considered to be maintenance not from work see: question 56)
do social works for which no payment is granted (for example, in a neighbor association or in a volunteer fire brigade),
work in their own agricultural holding performing such activities for themselves and the rest of their family as preparing meals, cleaning, cooking, etc. and additionally execute all the house chores.

Individuals, who have only one source of maintenance shall have answers for questions 17-20 provided, concerning main employment.

Individuals who have more than one source of maintenance (for example, they work as conductors and also support the family members in execution of the house chores, or work in a hospital and also make arrangements with patients at home) shall have a main employment identified (basic one), for which questions 17-20 will be answered, as well as second employment (auxiliary), for which questions 21-22 shall be answered.

Main employment is the one that is permanent. If two jobs are permanent, then the one that takes more time shall be indicated as main employment.

If the surveyed individual has more than two sources of maintenance, only two most important ones shall be taken into account (especially, those taking most time).

The "maintenance not from work" shall be indicated for the individuals, who receive pension, allowance (for example disability or family one), scholarships, or are patients in healthcare facilities. Maintenance not from work shall be specified by answering questions 23 and 24 (for more detailed recommendations see: 56 on page 79).

If the individuals who receive maintenance not from work also have a typical source of maintenance, the later shall be identified by means of answering questions 17-20, and the former by indicating proper answers in questions 23 and 24. What is more, in question 16, the main source of maintenance (from or not from work) shall be specified (see: question 47 on page 66)
Being maintained are those, who are supported by relatives or family members having their own source of maintenance, as well as those who receive money from other sources, while in the same time not working by themselves. (If they do work, then the main source of maintenance shall be specified and the fact of being supported by others shall not at all be taken into account see 47 point 4 on page 66).

Being maintained are also those surveyed individuals who have stated that they are supported by their relatives or people they are not related to, while in the same having a source of maintenance not from work (for example, a scholarship see 47 point 5 on page 66).

Prisoners sentenced for life shall also be included in this category. In their case, the organization providing for them shall be considered their supporter.

For individuals who are supported by other and also do not work, the name of the supporter shall be provided in question 16. Further details depend on the fact whether the supporter and the person being supported are included in the same A (Az) form or not (see 47 point 6 on page 67).
There are certain categories of surveyed individuals who shall be registered basing on different recommendations. Therefore:

a) Soldiers stationing in barracks:
- Serving in the army in a regular basis,
- Undergoing a training course for students,
- Undergoing military training for professional soldiers in military schools and units alike,
- Serving in the army on similar basis or being the representatives of the law enforcement forces.
The source of maintenance before joining the army shall be provided in the census form.
b) Individuals staying in arrests and penitentiary facilities shall have the source of maintenance before being arrested indicated.

47 Main source of maintenance (Question 16) [p.66]
1. In question 16, for every single registered individual, the main source of maintenance shall be specified and afterwards one of the possible answers shall be encircled.

Regardless of the specified source of maintenance, the census officer shall also ask about additional sources of income.

2. If, after a proper interview, it turns out that the individual has only one source of maintenance of a given type that is:

- Only work (on one or more positions) the A answer shall be indicated,
- Only maintenance not from work the B answer shall be indicated,
- Only support from other individuals the C answer shall be indicated.

3. Nevertheless, if the given person has more than one source of maintenance, for example:

- Maintenance from work and not from work,
- Maintenance not from work and being supported by a family member,

The main source of maintenance shall be specified on the basis of the information provided by the registered individual.

4. A person having maintenance from work may seem that the obtained incomes are negligible as they are not sufficient to provide for the entire family and he or she is therefore supported by other members of the family. In the case of occurrence of both maintenance from work and family support, only the maintenance from work shall be considered as main source of income, and the fact of being supported shall be neglected.

5. It must also be remembered that a scholarship may not always be the main source of maintenance of an individual especially for minors, who may be supported by other members of the family. In such a case, answer C shall be encircled in question 16. What is more, information about receiving scholarship shall be indicated in questions 23 and 24.

6. The supporter is the person who provides a given individual with the majority of resources necessary to survive. If two people, for example parents, provide for a given person, then the main supporter shall be specified.
In the case of encircling the "C. Number of breadwinner" answer, the supporter shall be indicated in the following manner:

a) If the supporter has been registered using the same A (Az) form, the number of the supporter provided in questions 1 and 2 shall be additionally written down.
b) If the supporter has been registered using a different form (or lives somewhere else), then:
- Additional annotation concerning the supporter shall be provided, for example : "mother", "father", etc.
- In question 17 ,the "further information concerning the mother/father" shall be written down,
- In questions 18-20 or 23-24 provide the main source of maintenance of the supporter that is his or her main source of maintenance or (in the case of pensioners ) maintenance not from work.
- In questions 23 and 24, the fact of receiving a negligible scholarship or other form of payment shall not be indicated, as it does not constitute the main source of maintenance.

48 Definition of a workplace [p.67]

1. Within the scope of this guidebook, a workplace is, for example:

- Production facility, for example coal mine, power supply facility, coke mine, gas supply facility, ironworks (big stoves), metal processing facility (in an ironworks), processing machinery production factory, shipyard, quarry, brick production facility, sawmill, glass production facility, paper factory, tannery, slaughterhouse, mill, bakery, etc.
- Manufacture-oriented workshop, for example blacksmith, shoemaking workshop, carpentry, stonemasonry, watchmaker's workshop, bookbinder's workshop, photography studio, etc.
- Construction, construction and assembly, as well as construction and cost estimation companies,
- Communication-oriented companies, such as Polish Railroads, Polish Automobile Communication company, local transport companies, sailing associations and organizations, "LOT" Polish Airlines, etc.
- Commercial unit, for example a wholesale, mall, retail store, kiosk, stall, etc.
- Gastronomy unit, for example a bar, buffet, restaurant, canteen, tavern, inn, etc.

The following shall be also considered workplaces:

- Theater, cinema, library, etc.
- Hospital, sanatorium, dispensary, etc.
- Primary school, vocational school, university, etc.
- Hotel, hostel, holiday resort, etc.
- District court, law firm, etc.
- Bank, savings bank, etc.
- Ministry, association, etc.

Agricultural holding is also a workplace basing on the regulations set forth in this guidebook. (The holding may be managed in both individual manner or collectively by certain associations or organizations who may mutually take advantage of machinery or share certain responsibilities, as in the case of communal or municipal holdings.)

.2 In the case of manufacturers working at home, the company, for which the goods are produced shall be considered the employing party.

3. If a given workplace is a part of a whole complex of employment-related facilities, then the proper workplace shall be the one, in which the registered individual factually works. Therefore, such companies as "Countrymen Self-Help" shall not be included in their entirety, as the aforementioned operates in various branches, such as managing retail shops, purchase points, bakeries, and butcheries. In such a case, the exact bakery, butchery, purchase point, or retail shop shall be considered to be the person's workplace rather than the whole "Countrymen Self-Help" company. In the Automotive Company, the individual may work in the Chassis Production Section, in Division no. 7 (casting facility), etc.

49 Information concerning employment included in the auxiliary form [p.68]
1. During the pre-census round, the census enumerator equipped all the registered individuals with auxiliary forms. Individuals working in communal companies and workplaces have been asked to fill them in.

"Information on employment" included at the back of the auxiliary form shall be utilized to fill in the A form while writing down information on employment: name and address of the workplace, position, and nature of employment.

It must be remembered, however, that the said pieces of information are provided by the registered individuals themselves. They may not be able to fill in the auxiliary form properly (or may even left it completely blank). Any misunderstandings and problems shall be solved by following the instructions included in this guidebook.

2. Individuals working in governmental and administrative agencies do not need to fill in the "Information on employment" in the auxiliary form provided. They shall be registered basing on the recommendations specified in 55 on page 79.

50 Address of working site (e.g. of building site and not that of headquarter or enterprise) (Question 17) [p.69]
1. The answer to this question shall be provided by almost all individuals that have a main source of maintenance.

Nevertheless, for some surveyed individuals the said pieces of information are not gathered. They are, for example:

- Individuals working in agricultural holdings, both individually and together with others within the scope of a collective agricultural holding,
- Manufacturers working at home,
- Individuals working on their own expense outside typical working sites (taxi drivers, private lecturers, private tutors, etc.),
- Agents, but only those who are not employed in a given company or workplace (a stationary one), for example: milk deliverers, insurance agents, gas and water tax collectors, etc.

For all the above mentioned individuals a straight line ("___") shall be written down in question 17.

2. For all the other individuals, the address of the working place, to which the registered person walks or commutes on everyday basis or to which the said person would walk or commute if it was not for an illness or leave. If the stated person works:

In a working site being a part of a bigger company, then the address of the former shall be provided (the address of the bakery, slaughterhouse, brewery, not the address of the company managing it),
In a branch of a company which is not a working site in itself (on a railway station, on a construction site), then the address of such a place shall be provided.

3. The address of the working site shall be written down as follows:

- If the registered person is employed in a working site which is located within the borders of a town or city, then in the a field the name of the town or city shall be indicated. In the b field, the street (square, circus, etc.) shall be written down together with the number of the site. In the c field, a straight line ("___") shall be written down.
- If the registered person is employed in a working site which is located within the borders of a village, then in the field the name of such a village shall be provided. In the b field the name of the street (if applicable), as well as the number of the site shall be written down. In the c field, the name of the community to which the village belongs to shall be specified.

4. If the surveyed individual has managed to fill in the auxiliary form, then the data provided therein shall be transferred to the A form. In some cases, the individuals will be unable to specify the exact address of the working site. Then, the name of the street or at least the name of the village or town where the site is located shall be determined.

51. Name of working establishment (Question 18)

1. For every person the name of the working site shall be provided in question 18, in accordance with the rules specified in question 48 as well as with those provided below.
The name of the working establishment shall be provided in its entirety, without using any abbreviations if possible. Even the commonly understood expressions and abbreviations may be completely unknown for the census supervisors.

2. If a given person works in an establishment being a part of a bigger company , the name of both shall be written down while providing the answer, so for example "Countrymen Self-Help Company Bakery no. 4", "National Agricultural Holding Brewery", "Local Working Association Knitting Workshop".

3. In the case of some bigger enterprises, the consecutive working establishments are additionally numbered, for example Chemistry Factory in Oswiecim owns the establishment which are numbered 1 and 2. While encountering such a situation, the additional information concerning the specificity of operation is needed, for example chemistry factory, power supply station, mechanical workshop, sandpaper production company.

4. If the surveyed individual works in an establishment owned by himself or herself, as well as if he or she is a wage-earning worker, then the name and surname of the owner of the place (tenant) shall be provided, for example "Car Repairing Company owned by Rudnicki Tadeusz".
The abovementioned rule does not concern individuals working in their own agricultural holdings, as well as those working on their own expense outside any company.

5. Detailed recommendations concerning providing the answer to question 18 and other questions relating to sources of maintenance (main and second) for:

- Individuals working in their own agricultural holdings or collective agricultural allotments together with other employers,
- Representatives of so-called independent professions,
- Individuals working on their own expense outside working establishments,
- Working as help,
- Performing religious tasks (priests and monks of all religions),
- Working in the units managed by the Ministry of Defense and in the Central Board of
Penitentiary Facilities managed by the Ministry of Justice

Are to be found in 55 of this guidebook.

52. Type of employment (please write in one of the types given in footnote xxxx) (Question 19) [p.71]

1. Each of the surveyed individuals shall have a type of employment indicated, basing on the terms provided at the bottom of third page of the A form.

2. "Employee" shall be indicated for all the individuals who are employed (hired) on the basis of an employment agreement, designation, or choosing and receive a set wage.

3. "Commissioner" or "Commission-worker" shall be written down for:

The individuals obtaining payment from a commission fund that is for those who have commission agreements concluded, in the case of which the wage depends of the amount of sold goods or provided services, for example: vendors in the "Ruch" kiosks, milk deliverers, cattle supervisors, etc.
The individuals working on the basis of flat-rate commission that is for those who are not employed by communal companies, but by a company with which the flat-rate commission agreement has been concluded for retail commerce, managing a gastronomy-related unit, etc.

4. "Home-worker" shall be indicated for all the individuals processing given raw materials transforming them into ready-made products in their own houses. It shall be checked if they sell the goods on their own or send them back to the company hiring them.

5. "Member of productive cooperative" shall be indicated for all the members of agricultural productive cooperatives. Commissioners employed in such cooperatives shall be referred to as "workers".

6. "User of farm" shall be indicated for individuals, who:
- Manage their own agricultural holding, in agriculture, horticulture, etc.
- Are the members of collective agricultural allotments and work together with other countrymen or share machinery and equipment.

7. "Worker on own account" shall be indicated for:
Individuals operating their own workshop, manufacture (for example, knitting, hairdressing), shop, stall ,etc.

- Individuals who fish on their own account as professional anglers,
- Individuals who are engaged in private tutoring or lecturing,
- Individuals driving their own taxi, cab, hackney, etc.
- Individuals selling goods on their own account, also on the streets and by means of stalls,
- Individuals being the representatives of so-called independent professions, for example writers, musicians, artists, practitioners (working on own account). For practitioners specifying employment in communal healthcare, as their main source of maintenance shall have working on their own account specified as their second source of maintenance.

8. "Aiding in work of…" shall be indicated for the individuals helping other members of the family in a regular basis and without set payment. Additionally, the number of the person being supported shall also be specified, for example: "Aiding in work of no. 01".
Nevertheless, if the said individual does not work without payment but there is a set wage for his or her support specified, then he or she shall not be considered a supported but a worker.

The fact of not receiving separate payment for the work in the same time points to the said supporting person being provided for by other members of the household and therefore, the supporters and the supported individuals shall be registered in the same household.

Therefore, a person who supports the family members without payment but lives in a different household shall not be considered a supporter but rather a hired worker, as he or she does not belong to the same household, the supported individual is the member of.

9. "Clergyman" shall be indicated for priests and monks of all religions.

53 Write in the name of working post describing precisely type of performed activities or duties (Question 20) [p.73]

1. The post shall be understood as the execution of tasks or performance of chores connected with the received payment or source of income. Therefore, executing managerial tasks (for example, being a head of a company, manager of a technical section, equipment supervisor), performing monitoring and inspection-related duties ( for example, being a commercial expert, financial control inspector, investment, coordinator), as well as performing executive works only, regardless whether they are office, technical ,physical, or service-related ones (accountant, designer, vendor, washer, hairdresser, gamekeeper, construction worker, etc.) are all considered to be posts.

2. For all the workers of communal companies, the name of the post specified in the employment agreement or proceeding documentation shall be written down.
The name of the post shall be in line with the auxiliary form, given to the census enumerator by the individuals working in communal companies. Nevertheless, due to the fact that the said form is filled In by the surveyed individuals themselves, the provided pieces of information shall not be transferred thoughtlessly. If the name seems to be too short, then the enumerator shall ask for the full name of the post.

3. While answering question 20, such general terms as "physical worker" , "railroad worker", "inspector", "manager", "official" shall not be used. In order for the descriptions to be correct, they must be accurate and detailed in character.

[The examples is omitted here]

4. While answering question 20 in the case of individuals working on managerial or non-physical positions , it shall be remembered not to equal the position with the learned profession.The aforementioned mainly refers to such terms as "lawyer", "engineer", "technician", "economist". It shall be checked whether the provided job description is accurate.

5. In the case of individuals working as foremen, the specificity of performed tasks shall be provided, for example "foreman ironworker", "foreman knitter", "foreman mechanic", etc.

6. If the person registered is unable to provide an accurate answer to the question concerning the post, then the description of the performed tasks shall be provided, for example: "fills jars with fruit and vegetable paste", "cleans ditches", "provides bricklayers with bricks", "greases machinery", etc.

7. Individuals, who are above 20 and undergo their traineeship shall have the name of the post that may be taken after finishing the training provided, for example:

"Intern - Health and Safety Technician",
"Intern Norm Calculator",
"Intern Planner",
"Intern Mechanic", etc.

8. In the case of home-workers, the description of the post or the detailed pieces of information concerning the executed tasks shall be provided, for example:

- Home-worker while knitting sweaters "knitter" , while making dresses "dressmaker", while making shoes "shoemaker", or: "assembles toys", "glues together parts of paper bags", "produces industrial nets", etc.
- Agent if the individual is responsible for managing and supervising the executed work only while managing a café "café manager" , while managing a petrol station "petrol station manager", etc.
- If the individual is also responsible for the execution of basic tasks, so while he or she prepares meals "chef", while he or she collects orders "waiter", while he or she is a vendor in a kiosk "vendor in a kiosk", etc.

9. Hired workers employed in agricultural holdings shall have their post performed within the scope of employment provided, for example : "car mechanic", "shoemaker" , "confectionery seller", "gardener" , "school worker", etc.

In the case of individuals working on their own account and the family members supporting them, the following answers shall be provided in question 20:

- If the said individual is the owner of the workshop or company and is mainly responsible for managing and supervising the work, then he or she shall have "electro-magnetic workshop owner", "knitting workshop owner", "metalworking company owner", "upholstery manufacture owner", etc.
- Company or workshop owners who also engage in the performance of given tasks in their firms shall have such descriptions provided as: "electro-mechanic", "car ironworker", "dressmaker", "upholsterer", etc.

For the supporting family members, the description based on the factually performed tasks shall be provided, for example: if he or she performs ironworking-related tasks "ironworker", if he or she makes dresses "dressmaker", if he or she covers certain areas with varnish "refinisher".

54 Second employment (Questions 21 and 22) [p.76]

1. In the case of individuals having two sources of maintenance, according to 46 point 2, the work which takes less time shall be specified as second employment in questions 21 and 22.

2. In question 21, the name of working establishment shall be provided while complying with the regulations specified in 48 and 51.

3. In question 22, the type of employment shall be provided while complying with the regulations specified in 52 of this guidebook.

4. Census enumerator shall approach the following situations with proper care:

1) Combination of two sources of maintenance is most frequent in the case of individuals being the representatives of agricultural households. They are frequently employed in various branches of industry, such as construction, communication, etc., as well as the perform their tasks while managing the agricultural holding. Therefore, various levels of engagement in the performed tasks may be observed both in the case of the owner of the holding and his or her family members. Such issues are rather complex but shall be settled down in an equivocal manner. The following indications shall be taken into account in such situation:
a) Any kind of work outside agriculture is often performed on a full-time basis. While additionally considering commutation, then it must be stated that such work takes more time. Then, work in agriculture shall be considered to be second employment.
b) Working outside agriculture may also result in minimal engagement in the management of the agricultural holding (less than 2 months spent on such activities, see: question 58, point on page 83). Then, working in agriculture shall not be considered to be a source of maintenance at all.
c) If the owner of the holding also works outside agriculture on full-time basis, then managing the agricultural holding shall be considered to be his second employment. However, a problem arises as in such a case it is difficult to specify whether the individual shall be treated as a holding owner (Question 22), if, for example, one of his or her family members (wife) works in the said holding on full-time basis. The issue shall be settled down with the members of the household. If the supporting person spends more time managing the holding (wife), then the said person shall be considered to be a holding owner, and the lawful owner shall be then considered to be only a supporting party. In this case, the time spent and engagement in the work shall not only relate to physical effort but also to all the undertakings that must be executed in order to manage the holding properly.
2) Owners of agricultural holding frequently receive additional income for providing transportation-related services (for example, transporting wood from the forest, milk from the creamery, as well as in the case of near-urban areas, transporting bricks, debris, snow, etc.) or executing agricultural tasks in other holdings while in the same time utilizing their own equipment. Such type of work, even it has been seasonal in character and has lasted no longer than 3 months in a year, shall be classified as second employment (goods transporters shall have "transporter" written down in question 21 and in question 22 "works on his own account" or "supports no. …). In some specific cases, the said tasks make take more time than managing own agricultural holding of such an individual. Then they must be included as main employment, and management of the individual agricultural holding shall be classified as second employment.
3) Village mayors are frequently individual farmers. Due to the fact that some task performed by them are connected with receiving income, they shall be treated as sources of maintenance. Nevertheless, as performance of such tasks takes less time than managing the individual agricultural holding, the former shall be classified as second employment (such individuals shall have "village mayor" written down in question 21 and in question 22 "commissioner"). If the given person is only the village mayor, then his work shall be considered to be the major employment.

55 Method of registering of some categories of workers (specified in 51 point 5 on page 71) [p.78]

[The table presents the methods of providing the answers for the questions concerning main employment (17-20) for certain categories of workers. is omitted here]

If a given employment has been classified as the second one, then question 21 shall be answered analogously to question 18, and question 22 analogously to question 19.

56 Maintenance not from work (Questions 23 and 24) [p.79]

1. The following shall be considered to have a source of maintenance not from work:

- Pensioners and annuitants (with disability, illness, or family allowance, allowances for transferred agricultural holding, etc.)
- Individuals staying in healthcare facilities,
- Receiving alimony from their ex-partners or children (due to a court judgment or of their own will),
- Individuals receiving scholarships (school and university students),
- Students of, among others, basic vocational schools, who receive additional payment for their education,
- Individuals receiving welfare allowances,
- People generating income by leasing a part of their agricultural holding, house, or provided with support from abroad,
- Fortunetellers, beggars, etc.

2. Such individuals shall have the type of income not from work provided in question 23, for example: "pension" , "disability allowance", "family pension" (for widows, orphans, etc.), etc.

Note: It is not allowed to write in the "allowance" term alone, as the type of allowance must be provided as well.

- "supported by child's home", "supported by a welfare facility",
- "alimony",
- "scholarship", "education payment",
- "house leasing",
- "monk" ("nun"),

3. There are certain types of allowances (for example family benefit) or alimonies that are provided to single mother by the government. For the purpose of the census, they shall be understood as sources of maintenance of mother, not of the child. In such a case, children shall be considered as supported by their mothers and the latter shall have the source of maintenance not from work specified. Child shall be considered to be directly supported by alimony or family benefit only if he or she is registered outside the family house and stays, for example, in a dormitory or hostel.

4. All the individuals, who have had an answer to question 23 provided shall also have their social group indicated in question 24 in accordance with the following classification:

- "Physical employee",
- "White collar employee",
- "Commissioner (commission-worker)"
- "Home-worker"
- "Member of productive cooperative"
- "User of farm"
- "Worker on own account"
- "Clergyman"

The classification is almost similar to the one provided for the individuals answering question 19 or 22, with the main difference being the division between "Physical employee" and "White collar employee".

5. In the case of pensioners and individuals receiving benefits, the social group they have belonged to while they have been working shall be specified and provided

6. Individuals, who receive scholarship and allowances, but they have recently worked, shall have the social group in accordance with the specificity of the last job specified. In the case of individuals, who have never worked, the social group of the family member supporting such individuals shall be specified, for example for a person receiving scholarship social group of the father, for a widow the social group of late husband, etc.)

7. Working individuals, who also have a maintenance not from work:

- In the form of pension or disability benefit (when disability is connected with the effects of previously performed job) shall have the social group they have belonged to before they have started obtaining pension or benefit provided.
- In the form of family benefit, alimony, payment for leased house shall have the social group based on the currently performed work provided (as for individuals answering question 19, but with the necessity to remember about the division between physical and white collar employees).

57 For professionally not working persons, if he (she) was born in the period 1914 -1960, the cause of his (her) inactivity should be specified (Question 25) [p.81]

1. Professionally inactive individuals born between 1914 and 1960, the cause of such inactivity shall be specified in the answer to question 25. The following: What is the cause of your professional inactivity?" question shall be asked during the census.

2. While providing answer to the question, only the statements of the individuals in question shall be taken into account. It must be remembered that the answer to this question may be only seemingly the one provided to one of the previous questions of the form. In the case of disabled individuals "lack of proper work" instead of "disability" shall be specified.

3. The following are the examples of answers that may be provided while answering question 25:

- "Education" (in school, on courses),
- "Disability", "Inability to work" , "Serious illness",
- "Pensioner" , "Obtaining allowance",
- "Lack of job offers"
- "Lack of proper work" (if the available job offers do not match the qualifications of such a registered individual),
- "Maternity leave" (paid leave caused by the necessity to care for a 3-4 year old child),
- "Caring for children" (if the mother is not on a leave, but claims that caring for children makes it impossible for her to work),
- "Managing household" (if it makes it impossible for such a person to work),
- "Serving in the army" (if the said individual has not worked before joining the army),
- "Arrested" (if the said individual has not worked before being arrested),
- "Monk/nun staying in a monastery" (write in for all the clergymen),
- "No financial need to work", etc.

4. For other individuals, that is:

- Working persons,
- Not working persons born before 1914 and after 1960,

A straight line ("___") shall be written down in question 25.

58 Basic principles of registering households with user of farm (Questions 26-28 signed with "R") [p.82]

1. The said questions only concern households, to which a user of farm belongs regardless if the user work on his or her own account or together with other farmers. In the case of members of other households, no answer shall be provided to those questions.

2. Presence of a user of farm in a household has been indicated in question 10 in N-obw form. What is more, for the majority of such household, the type of performed work has been already specified, with provision of main (primary) or second (auxiliary) source of maintenance. Nevertheless, due to the fact that the N-obw is filled in basing on data stored in the official database, the provided pieces of information may not always be up-to-date, on rural areas, for every household the question if there is any user of household shall be asked for informative purposes.

3. In the case of households managing their own agricultural holdings, almost every adult person is to some extent engaged in the performance of certain type of work on farm. During the census, it shall be specified to what extent the engagement in working on farm makes it a source of maintenance (main or second) and then answer questions 17-22 and 27 or 27 alone. The following criteria shall be followed:

a) If the person works on a farm for at least 3 months a year, then such a work shall be specified in questions 17-20, 21-22 and 27,
b) If the person works on a farm for less than 3 months, then only an answer to question 27 shall be provided.

59 Total area of farm (the item relate to users of farm only) (Question 26) [p.83]

1. A separate farm shall be understood as an agricultural holding, the acreage of which is equal of higher than 0.50 ha and at least a part of it is used for agricultural purposes (orchard, garden, meadow, etc.), as well as is used individually, regardless of ownership rights and localization.

However, if a person working on a farm, the acreage of which is lower than 0.50 ha considers the work there to be his or her source of maintenance (main or second with engagement in work equal or higher than 3 month a year) then, such a unit shall also be considered a separate farm.

Separate holdings are also those managed by:

- Teachers,
- Woodsmen,
- Railroad company workers,
- Priests and church maintenance team members,
- Farmers members of communal agricultural holdings.

In the same time, the following shall not be considered to be separate farms:

- Holdings managed by collective farmers,
- Holdings owned by members of productive cooperatives,
- Holdings used by monks or nuns,
- Private gardens (used by workers),

If all parts of a given holding have been leased, then such a person is no longer a user of farm.

2. In question 26 the user of farm shall have the total area of farm provided (in acres and hectares). If the said area differs from the one specified in N-obw form, then the right one shall be specified and written down. The census supervisor shall be also informed about such discrepancies. The question concerns the total area of factually used farm regardless if the farm is owned or leased and if the formal matters have been settled down or not. Farms located in other communities and provinces shall as well be indicated if the said person factually manages them.

3. Members of agricultural collective shall consider both the area of their own farms as well as those managed collectively to be the total area of farm. Nevertheless, they shall not consider those granted to them by the National Land Fund.

60 Work contribution to farming (please encircle the relevant contribution) [p.84]

1. User of farm and all the members of his or her household who were born before 1963 and before (are aged at least 15), regardless if they indicated working on farm in questions 17-22 or not, shall have the question about work contribution to farming in 1978 asked. According to the provided answer, the following shall be done:
Encircle answers "1. Works whole year on farm" and "3.Not working on farm",
Encircle answer "2. Number of months per year worked on farm" and specify the number of months.

Children aged 14 and below (born between 1964-1978) shall have the "3. Not working on farm" answer provided, even if they may help the adults to manage the agricultural holding.

2. The engagement in the work shall be left for the assessment of the surveyed individuals and write down what they have said. In the case of any doubts, the census enumerator shall clarify that the question concerns the number of full months (in 1978) during which the work on farm has factually been performed.

In the case of individuals working elsewhere, for example in a factory, but his or her leisure time is spent to manage the household, then even if the engagement in the agricultural holding is equal to 2-3 hours per day, the "1. Works whole year on farm" answer shall be provided.

If a given person have been studying and returned to the farm to help the other members of the household on occasional basis, then the exact number of months that have been spent working shall be specified, for example 1 or 2.

61 For the person concerned write in the year during which he (she) commenced work outside farm, or encircle "nie dotyczy" what means "it does not relate to the person concerned" (Question 28) [p.85]

1. The answer shall be provided for all the individuals who have been working on a farm (individual, collective, or communal one) but have started to work outside it. Therefore, the question concerns both the individuals who have no longer work on a farm and those who work in two different place, regardless of the answers provided to questions 17-22.

The exact year of starting work outside farm shall be specified. Therefore, the year shall not be connected with the change of a workplace or the work specified in questions concerning main and second sources of maintenance.

The following shall be specified:

- For the individuals, who have never worked on a farm, but have started a different job, then, the year of starting the latter shall be written down,
- For the individuals, who have worked on a farm and then changed the workplace, the year of the latter shall be written down.

It may happen that a given person used to work outside the farm and then, due to some personal reasons, he or she started managing the agricultural holding once again. In such a case, the year of starting the first job shall be provided, regardless if such an individual managed a farm at least partially then or not.

2. Individuals who are not working outside the farm as well as children shall have the "nie dotyczy" answer indicated in question 28.

Part V: Principles of Filling in Page 4 of the a Form

Information on Building Where the Enumerated Dwelling Is

1. This part of page 4 of the A form is used to gather information concerning the building where the enumerated dwelling is located. Questions 1-4 shall be answered for the first dwelling in the building. For the rest of them, those questions shall be crossed out.

If the first dwelling to be registered shall not be enumerated using the A form, for example it is not occupied, then the "Information on building" part shall be filled in for the dwelling with the next lowest number, so for dwelling no. 2 or, if the one is also not occupied for dwelling no. 3.

The number of filled in 4 pages of the A forms shall be equal to the number of the last building in the census area. So, for example, if the census enumerator registered household occupying 40 dwelling in 15 buildings, then there shall be 15 A forms with 4 page filled in.

In some cases, there may be some differences. It may, for example, happen that there will be necessity to cross out the data about the whole building which has received a separate census number. In such a case, the numbers of other buildings shall not be changed, but a gap in numeration shall be made. The highest number of the filled in 4 page of the A form will then be different than the number of the buildings in the area (the number will increase by the number of gaps made).

No data for mobile units and provisional premises shall be written down (that is for those units for which answer 2 or 3 has been provided in question 1). In their case, the whole "Information on building" shall be crossed out.

63 Type of building (Question I) [p. 88]

1. There are 4 main types of buildings in which the enumerated dwellings may be located: residential, mixed type, collective housing units, and non-residential ones.

2. A residential building shall be understood as:

- Each building located on a rural or urban area, which is in its entirety used for occupational purposes,
- Each building located on a rural or urban area, which is at least in half used for occupational purposes, and the rest is used for offices, shops, workshops, schools, dormitory, hostel, etc. This rule does not apply to the buildings located on rural areas, in the case of which dwellings are used for both economic and residential purposes (see: point 3 below),

If it is difficult to specify how much of the building is used for residential purposes, but it is certain that it is at least a half of it, then such a building shall be considered a residential one. For such buildings, the 1 symbol shall be encircled.

3. A mixed type building shall be considered as the one located on a rural or urban area, in the case of which a part of it is utilized for residential purposes (there are separate dwellings there), as well as there are economic facilities (barn, shed, etc.) or agricultural ones bused for managing farm. In such a case it does not matter what part is taken by what type of facilities.

Before encircling the answer, the census enumerator shall check if the registered building is factually a single entity with two connected parts or two separate buildings. In the latter case, it shall be considered that the dwelling is located in a residential building, not a mixed type one.
It shall be assumed that the dwelling is located in a mixed type dwelling if both parts of the object are made of the same material and there is no significant difference between their age or height. In the said event, the 2 answer shall be encircled.

In other cases, so if the walls are built form various materials or there is a significant difference between the age and height of the consecutive parts of the building, then it shall be assumed that the registered dwelling is located in a residential building and encircle answer 1.

4. A collective housing unit shall be understood as a building, in which at least few rooms or dwellings are occupied by the personnel and at least half of the building is used as a collective housing units, so as a hostel, hotel, sanatorium, hospital, or holiday resort. Only in the case, if the collective housing facilities take exactly the half of the building, the dwelling registered in such a building shall be considered as located in a residential building, not in a collective housing unit.
For collective housing units the 3 answer shall be indicated.

5. A non-residential building shall be understood as a building in which one or few dwellings are located but it is in more than half used as a non-residential facility, so as a factory, workshop, school, office, shop. For such buildings the 4 answer shall be specified.

64 Period (year) of construction (Question II) [p. 89]

1. For the buildings constructed up to 1970, the period of construction is only required and shall be specified as follows:

- For the buildings constructed before 1918 that is before the end of the First World War, the x symbol shall be encircled,
- The 9 symbol shall be encircled for all the buildings constructed during the interwar period, that is 1918-1944,
- The 0 symbol shall be encircled for buildings constructed between 1945-1970 that is after the Second World War and up to the last census.

2. For the buildings constructed after 1970, the exact year of construction shall be provided.

3. If the building was constructed in parts, then the date of construction of the last part of the building shall be specified.

4. If during the census the building is not yet completed but some parts of it are occupied (one part of the building is used and the others are constructed), then the symbol of the current year (78) shall be provided.

If the construction has been canceled and only a part of the building is completed, then the year of construction of the said part shall be indicated.

5. If the building has been reconstructed after the war-related damages (with the utilization of the original walls), then the year of its construction rather than that of the said renovation shall be specified in the form.

6. If the building has been reconstructed in its entirety, then the year of such a reconstruction shall be specified (the case may concern whole cities as well).
65 Form of ownership (Question III) [p. 90]

1. The owner of the building is the person or organization having the right of ownership to it, regardless of the fact if the building is used for personal purposes or leased to other entities or organizations.

2. There are certain buildings, both collective and communal ones, that are not managed by a single owner but by a specialized unit (housing administrative). In such a case, the rightful owner rather than the manager shall be specified while answering question 3.

3. Question 3 has two tables, but only one of them shall be filled in while filling in the given form:

- Left table shall be filled in for buildings owned by organizations,
- Right table shall be filled in for buildings owned by individual persons (single ones and collectives),

If a part of the building is owned by an institution and the remaining part by an individual person, then the owner is the entity managing the majority of the building.

4. If the building is owned by a multi-plant company but only a given branch of the company manages it, then the name of the branch shall not be provided alone, but also preceded by the name of the company in question. The case concerns especially agricultural firms. The names "Agricultural workshop", "Ranch", "Gardening workshop", or "Production workshop" are not sufficient. The gardening workshop may be owned by the Local Gardening Company, and in such a case, in question number 3, the, for example "Provincial Beekeeping and Horticulture Company in Slupsk Sierpowo Orchard" or "Industrial and Agricultural Complex in Czluchowo Wyczechy Agricultural Workshop" shall be provided.

5. In the case of buildings owned by the Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and Ministry of Material Management, then it shall be considered to be a "governmental building".

6. If the building is owned by an individual person, then, aside from his or her name and first name, it shall be also specified if the building is at the disposal of local state administration body. Such information shall be provided only for regions, where local state administration bodies grant permits to occupy a given building or dwelling.

During the professional training, the census enumerators will be informed in what areas the said permits are granted by the aforementioned bodies.
In the case of the regions, to which the rule does not apply, the "NO" answer shall be provided to that question.

7. There may be some difficulties in specifying the personal data of the entity managing the building. The situation especially concerns buildings which have been sold without issuing a notarial act in any form. If there is a justified assumption that a given person is the owner of the building, than his or her personal data shall be provided ,with an additional annotation that the answer shall not be lawfully binding.

8. If a farmer given away the agricultural facilities in return for an allowance, but basing on the free lodging act he occupies the part with habitable spaces, the institution having he right of ownership shall be considered the owner of the building rather than the farmer himself.

9. In the case of buildings managed by churches and religious organizations the left part concerning ownership by companies shall be filled in.

66 Height of building (number of floors) (Question IV) [p. 92]

1. The height of the building is specified by its number of floors. If various parts of the building have various heights, then the higher one shall be taken into account (if the front part has 3 floors and the back only 2, then the 3 number shall be provided). In the case of buildings located on the hill, the height shall be calculated from the slope side.

2. In buildings without basements, the floors are considered to be all the sets of spaces from the very bottom and in the case of buildings in basements from the first but one from the bottom.

3. Attics and ground floors are not considered factual floors.

Attic is frequently the part of the building directly covered with the roof. In the case of mountain houses, when there are two or more spaces covered by the roof, it may be difficult to state which of them are in fact floors. It shall be assumed that it at least half of all the floor is surrounded by walls from all four sides, then the set of rooms shall be considered a floor. Otherwise, it shall be considered an attic.

67 Outer walls' material (Question V) [p. 92]

1. It shall be specified if the outer walls are made out of combustible or non-combustible material.

2. Non-combustible materials are:

- All types of bricks,
- Concrete,
- All types of stones (granite, sandstone, etc.),
- Blocks, hollow bricks, concrete blocks, foam blocks, mixed plates,
- Clay, Heraclitus, marl, supreme, sinter, grid, etc.

Buildings based on steel or concrete framework shall be also considered to have non-combustible walls.

3. Combustible materials are:

- Wooden sticks, logs, and blocks,
- Wooden walls with bricks and stone inside,
- Reed, straw, etc.

If the building has been made out of wooden logs, boards, or similar material and then covered with pontiff or plaster it shall still be considered to have combustible walls.

4. If the walls of the building are made out of various combustible and non-combustible materials, then the prevailing one shall be chosen. If the distribution between all the utilized materials is equal, then the building shall be considered to have combustible walls.

5. While answering the question, only the material of walls shall be considered, without additional constructional elements attached to the building.

Information on Households in Dwelling Enumerated

68 General remarks [p. 93]
1. The bottom of 4th page of the A form is designed to gather additional prices of information concerning the households in the dwelling and includes two main questions.
Those are:

- Question I - right of household to occupying the dwelling,
- Question II main source of incomes of households.

2. In the case of both questions, there is enough space to enumerate 3 households. If there are more than three households in the dwelling, then the next A form shall be used to register the remaining individuals.

3. If a moveable unit or provisional premises is being registered (answer 2 or 3 indicated in question 1) then:

- Question I the whole table shall be crossed out,
- Question II answer shall be provided in compliance with question 70

69 Right of household to occupy the dwelling (or part of dwelling) [p. 94]

1. In the first line of the table the individuals, who, basing on the answer in question 7 have been specified to be "heads of households".

2. Answer to the question is provided by encircling the proper answer visible in the table of the A form.

3. Symbol 1 shall be indicated for all the individuals who have the right of ownership to the dwelling, that is:

- They are owner or co-owners of the whole building, in which the dwellings are registered, even if they are the representatives of the housing administrative,
- They are the owners of a floor (segment) of the building which is in its entirety owned by a productive collective or other entity.

Dwellings owned by the individuals in the buildings which are managed by collectives are the result of allowing the citizens to purchase dwellings from the state.

4. Symbol 2 shall be indicated for the individuals occupying the dwelling while being members of housing cooperative and have the owner's right to it as it has been acquired by purchasing the said dwelling, inheriting it, or acquired in any other case in the same becoming the owner's dwelling.

5. Symbol 3 shall be indicated for the members of housing cooperatives to which the inhabitants have the tenant's right as the dwelling had been granted to the head of household by the cooperative.

6. Symbol 4 shall be indicated for all the individuals, for whom the dwelling has been allocated by a local authority or administrative body. The allocation might have took place on the basis of:

- Administrative allocation, regardless if the dwelling is located in the building owned by a private entity or by the state and if it has additional allocation rights ascribed to it,
- Tenure agreement concluded with a socialized economy unit which owns the building or the dwelling. Such agreements are concluded in the habitable units where no administrative decisions concerning allocation and occupation apply.
- Allocation by the company employing the individual, if the allocation took place before 1st VIII 1974.

7. Symbol 5 shall be indicated for all the individuals who have concluded a tenure contract with:

- Individual owner of the building or the dwelling,
- Housing cooperative managing the dwelling.

Tenure agreement shall not only be understood as a document made in a written but also concluded in an oral form in the case of which the payment method for the dwelling has been agreed upon. Those may include typical payments, as well as other, non-material help or services provided by the individual occupying the dwelling.

8. Symbol 6 shall be indicated for sub-tenure of part or whole of allocated dwelling, meaning that the household tenured a part or entirety of the dwelling from the main lodger who is the dwelling leaser himself. Such a case will be rather observable in the dwellings, for which the 4 symbol has been indicated, so in those allocated by administrative decision or socialized economy unit. The following does not concern tenured dwellings. Nevertheless, it may happen that a household leases a part of the dwelling from the owner of the said dwelling (so such a household is a leaser and shall have the 5 symbol encircled), but the said household additionally sub-tenured a part of the dwelling in question. In the said event 5 symbol may be encircled together with 6. However, in the majority of situations, 4 and 6 symbol combinations are more frequent.

Tenure agreement shall not only be understood as a document made in a written but also concluded in an oral form in the case of which the payment method for the dwelling has been agreed upon.

9. Symbol 7 or 8 shall be indicated for all the individuals being related with dwelling owner or main tenant or if any other type of kinship or close connection between the individuals in question arises, as it must be indicated during the census as well.

The household living with its family may fully or partially pay the rent for the occupied dwelling or part of the dwelling, as well as all the other costs connected with the maintenance of the habitable space in question.

Answer 7 or 8 shall be encircled after the specification of the type of relation between the individuals being the representatives of the household and the dwelling owner or main tenant.

10. Symbol 9 shall be indicated if the household occupies the dwelling for a reason that has not been specified above. The said symbol shall be, for example used, in the following cases:

- For household occupying a dwelling for life,
- For former agricultural holding owners, who exchanged their farm for the rent granted to them by the state,
- For priests and other clergymen occupying vicarage or other building run by the church.

All the cases of indicating the 9 symbol shall be additionally justified by providing a proper explanation, for example "living for life", "holding exchanged for dwelling" or "occupying vicarage".

70 Main source of incomes of households (Question II) [p. 97]
1. For each household registered by means of page 2 and 3 of the A form, there is also the need to encircle one of nine symbols in this question in order to specify the main source of incomes. Information on households shall be provided in the same order as they have been registered using the form (and according with the numeration specified in question I)

2. Main source of incomes being one of nine provided in the table is the result of specifying all the sources of maintenance of household members, and afterwards summing them up and combining together.

If, in a given household:

- Only one person has a source of income, for example due to being employed in a shipyard (which is the main source of maintenance ) then the "1. Work outside agriculture in socialized economy" shall be encircled.
- More than one individual has a source of maintenance but they all belong to the same group then the same symbol shall be encircled for all those individuals for example, for husband working in the harbor and wife in a retail shop.

In the aforementioned cases, the "1. Work outside agriculture in socialized economy" answer shall be encircled as it is the most suitable one.

Nevertheless, if the sources of income of the household belong to various groups, for example, the husband works in an agricultural holding (answer 6), wife is a teacher (answer 1), and there is also the allowance of father-in-law (answer 8), then the dominant source of income shall be specified and the proper answer shall be encircled.

The source of income of the head of household may not always be the dominant one. In some cases, the summed up incomes of other members may turn out to be notably higher and the said state of affairs may be properly presented in the form.

3. Below, the main categories of sources of income with explanations are provided:

Symbol 1 Work outside agriculture in socialized economy shall be indicated for all the employees, home-workers, and commissioners, working in national, communal or state companies, workshops, and organizations.

Symbol 2 Work outside agriculture in non-socialized economy on own account shall be indicated for all the individuals obtaining income thanks to their work on their own account, for example, in their own companies, workshops, shops, stalls, as well as for tutors, lecturers, cab drivers, and or the representatives of the liberal professions, such as painters, writers, private practitioners, etc.

Symbol 3 Work outside agriculture in non-socialized economy employment shall be indicated for all the individuals working in non-agricultural companies owned by private owners or religious organizations.

Symbol 4 Work in agriculture in socialized economy in agricultural productive cooperative shall be indicated for all the individuals working in agricultural productive cooperatives or their branches, regardless of the type of employment.

Symbol 5 - Work in agriculture in socialized economy in State Farms, agricultural services, etc. shall be indicated for all the individuals employed in such socialized companies as: state farms and agricultural allotments, machine production companies, farmer associations, seed cleaning companies, storage centers, livestock breeding organizations, etc. The said answer shall be also indicated for the individuals employed by local authorities in the companies owned by them, so, for example: agricultural specialists, land developers, zoology technicians, etc.

Symbol 6 - Work in agriculture in non-socialized economy in own farm shall be indicated for all the individuals who work in their own agricultural allotment or agricultural holding (as well as in an orchard, garden), even if the farm is the part of a collective of individual farmers.
Symbol 7 - Work in agriculture in non-socialized economy employment shall be indicated for all the individuals who are employed by other entities to work on their agricultural allotments or agricultural holdings. It concerns private owners, communal agricultural holdings and holdings owned by religious organizations.

Symbol 8 Source other than work old age pension and other pensions shall be indicated for all the individuals obtaining pension or any other type of pension or allowance (family, disability, for exchanged agricultural holding, and other ones).

Symbol 9 Source other than work others shall be indicated for all the individuals which have a source of income not from work, but also not specified in answer 8, so for example: alimony, scholarship, welfare benefit, rent for leased dwelling etc.

4. If there are no individuals having a source of income in the household, so if all its representatives are supported by other persons (living somewhere else), then the answer to question II depends on the source of maintenance of main provider of the household. For example, if the household is supported by a farm owner, then the 6 symbol shall be encircled for the household.

Part VI: Principles Concerning the Az Form Filling

71 "Collective housing unit" term [p. 100]

1. A collective housing unit shall be understood as the place of collective occupation (inhabitation) in which a number of individuals live permanently or temporarily.

Collective housing units are:

a) Hostels, dormitories, student's houses, child's houses, teenager support houses, small child care facilities, pensioner houses, facilities for severely and permanently ill individuals, facilities for blind people, care centers for disabled or mentally ill patients, professional car facilities, monasteries, convents, and other collective housing units as such in which the occupants live (from few months to few years) for a longer time or permanently
b) Hotels, holiday resorts tourist shelters, temporary caretaking facilities, hospitals, and sanatoriums, in the case of which the stay is typically temporal in character.

2. Collective housing units shall be registered by using the Az form for this purpose. Only in the case if a standard hostel is registered (see question 17 on page 7), then the A form shall be utilized for registration.

The principles provided below concern the registration of collective housing units only.

72 General principles concerning the registration of collective housing units [p. 100]
1. For the whole collective housing unit, a single Az form shall be filled in that is only one number of form shall be used. The rule applies even if the unit consists of more than one buildings and more than one form will be used to register all the individuals therein.

If there are two or more collective units in a given building, for example a hostel and a dormitory for students, then two separate Az forms shall be used and two different numbers shall be written down (for example, 901 and 902).

2. Each form shall have its proper, consecutive number written down, starting from number 1 (if 20 or less individuals have been registered in a given unit, then only the 1 number will be used and written down).

Each of the forms shall have the address data field filled in it can be found on the left side of the first page of the form. While filling the said field in, the question 13 point 1 shall be complied with. The number of census area shall also be provided on all of the forms.

3. The first page of the form is entitled "Information on household" and aims at registration of the buildings and dwellings the enlisted individuals live in. This part shall be filled only once, for the first Az form. This part shall be filled in only for specific households, see: question 73

4. In the form number one, the name of the unit shall be provided in its entirety and without abbreviations, so for example: "Hanka Sawicka's Child's House", "Railroad Workers Hostel number 7", "Matysiak's Pensioner House", "Franciscans Monastery", "Local Hospital for Mentally Disabled".

If the name of the unit does not specify its function, then the latter shall be additionally provided.

If a hostel is registered, then the census enumerator shall specify if it is permanent (located in a building) or temporal (provisional, seasonal), as some hostels may be located in shacks, huts, provisional premises, and objects alike.

Information on Household

73 Households for which the "Information on household" part shall be filled in [p. 101]

1. The part entitled "Information on household" and including questions from I to XI shall be filled in for the following types of households:

- Hostels,
- Dormitories,
- Student's houses,
- Permanent hostels for workers,
- Child's houses and caretaking facilities alike,
- Educational facilities for:
- Blind people and individuals with sight impairment,
- Deaf people and individuals with hearing impairment,
- Disabled people,
- Individuals with mental disabilities,
- Individuals requiring additional professional help
- Small child's houses,
- Professional rehabilitation centers,
- Pensioner houses, to which the former workers caretaking facilities also belong, veteran's houses, nursing homes,
- Caretaking facilities for adults:
- With severe illnesses,
- With sight impairment,
- With severe disability,
- Caretaking facilities for children (including those for disabled children)

2. For all the other types of collective housing units, the said rubric shall be crossed out in its entirety. The said other collective housing units are as follows:

- Temporary hostels for workers,
- Monasteries and convents,
- Hotels (communal, commercial, and collective) and pensions,
- Tourist facilities and holiday resorts,
- Hospitals (including clinical, professional, disability treatment ones, as well as research institutes),
- Professional caretaking facilities for children and adults,
- Sanatoriums and facilities alike,
- Rehab facilities,
- Temporary caretaking centers,
- Labor wards,
- Local rehabilitation centers, and other rehabilitation-oriented facilities.

3. If it is difficult to specify a function of the said collective housing unit, then the period of stay in such a facility shall be predominantly taken into account by the census enumerator. If the stay in such a place typically lasts more than 2 months, then the "Information on household" rubric shall be by all means filled in.

74 Number of rooms (Question I) [p. 103]

1. This question requires the specification of three basic pieces of information:

- Number of rooms in the entire collective housing unit,
- Floor space of such rooms,
- Number of individuals occupying the rooms.

2. In the case of collective housing unit, a room shall be understood as a habitable space, having a permanent lighting and the useful floor space of no less than 4m2 . Additionally, walls shall be connected directly to the floor and ceiling. Nevertheless, the latter condition may not always be met in all types of such units. In some cases, separate rooms are divided by means of artificial walls, which are glazed, made out of terracotta, and materials alike. Such a system is utilized to provide better care for the patient. While encountering such a system in the unit, the enumerator shall consider all such spaces to be separate rooms.

In the said units, rooms serve mainly for sleep and relaxation, but may be used for a number of other purposes, such as work, education, cooking, storage of personal belongings, etc.

A single room may be occupied by one or more individuals. In the latter case, they may not be related to one another in any way. In some types of collective housing units, however, there are relations that may be encountered, especially in hostels for workers, student's houses, and pensioner houses (for example wife and husband may live together in the same room).

3. All the rooms that are designed for the occupants' sleep and relaxation shall be enumerated, even if they are not currently used (for example, due to their renovation).
Other rooms, especially those used for entertainment, cantinas, as well as the rooms occupied by the personnel (manager, coal stove operator), shall not be included while registering the collective housing unit (those rooms shall be enumerated on a separate A form, see - question 17 point 6).

4. After the provision of number of rooms and their useful floor space, the number of individuals living there shall be also provided. If the number of occupants is not equivalent to the number of people that should live in a given room, then the factual state of affairs shall be taken into account and registered. For example, if there is an additional bed in a room designed for 4 individuals, it shall be considered as "room for 5-9 people".
If, during the census, the room is not occupied or lower number of individuals live in it, then it should be registered, but complying with other principles concerning such rooms specified in this guidebook.

5. If there are niches in the rooms (which are covered with wardrobes and other items of furniture), then such niches shall be included in the total useful space of the room.

In some units, the rooms are connected with the main hall by means of smaller halls. In higher class rooms, they may be even bathrooms being separated from the mutually occupied rooms. In such a case, those additional spaces shall be also included while calculating the total useful floor space.

75 Rooms with sanitary appliances (Question II) [p. 104]

1. Sanitary appliances shall be understood as the appliances connected to water treatment system and sewer installed in the very room or the space connected to it, so in the bathroom, kitchen, etc. Only the inhabitants of the room shall have the possibility to use those appliances.

2. Bathroom shall be understood as a space, where a tub or a shower is located.

3. Toilet shall be understood as a space, where a flushed toilet is located.

4. There are five main categories to be indicated in this questions, depending on the number and type of sanitary appliances installed in the room.

In the first two lines of the question, all the rooms equipped with bathroom shall be indicated by the census enumerator, whether or not they are equipped with toilet.

Two consecutive fields address rooms that are not equipped with a bathroom but have a flushed toiled installed in the space connecting the habitable room. Within the scope of this category, the rooms with sink installed (in the same space as toilet or in a different, separate room) and those without it shall be identified.

The last field addresses all the rooms in the case of which only the sink is installed, which is additionally located in the hall or any other collective room.

5. In the case of each category, rooms for 1 and 2 people shall be identified additionally, basing on the factual conditions of occupation thereof.

6. It is recommended to specify the number of rooms in the unit (Question I) and the number of rooms equipped with sanitary appliances (Question II) on a separate piece of paper and after making all the required corrections transfer the data to the Az form.

76 Number of buildings (Question III) [p. 105]

1. In the case of this question, all the buildings that are utilized by the occupants on regular basis shall be identified. However, buildings used entirely as offices shall not be included in this category. The same applies to the entertainment buildings, caretaking facilities, cantinas, and social buildings alike. Additionally all the unoccupied buildings shall not be taken into account as well.

77 General principles concerning filling in questions IV XI concerning the nature of building utilized collectively as a collective housing unit [p. 106]
1. For each building that has been classified as utilized object in question III, one rubric in questions IV-XI shall be filled in.

2. There is the space to register three buildings in a single form. If the inhabitants of the unit occupy more than three object, then the remaining ones shall be registered by utilizing form number 2 for the said purpose. The number of columns for the said questions shall be equal to the number of buildings specified in question III.

78 Total useful floor space in the enumerated buildings (Question IV) [p. 106]
The total useful floor space of the rooms utilized for rest and relaxation in the enumerated buildings shall be specified in this question. The sum of all the useful total spaces enumerated in the consecutive buildings shall be equal to the one specified in "In total" field in question number one of the form.
79 Facilities in the buildings (Questions V IX) [p. 106]

1. Questions V to IX concern all the facilities installed in the building, which are factually utilized by the occupants of the collective housing unit. Therefore, installations that are present in a given building, but are utilized only by the personnel of members of a single household, for example in the case of caretaking facilities, shall not be included in this category.

2. Facilities connected to the public network, those connected to a local one, as well as the facilities that have not been connected yet shall be all enumerated. Nevertheless, the ones that are inactive for at least a year shall be neglected.

3. Answers to questions V IX is done by encircling the right answer that can be found in the proper table of the Az form.

Types of facilities
4. Piped water (Question V) shall be considered to be present in a given building, if there is a sink installed in the building (one or more of them) and is accessible for all the occupants of the given building, living in the rooms serving the rest and relaxation-related purposes, as well as if it is installed in a sanitary room or common room.

5. Flush toilet (Question VI) shall be considered to be present in a given building, if there is a flushed toilet, sink, tub, or shower installed in the building (one or more of them) and is accessible for all the occupants of the given building, living in the rooms serving the rest and relaxation-related purposes, as well as if it is installed in a sanitary room or common room.

6. Sink or washbasin (Question VII) shall be considered to be present in a given building, if there is a sink or washbasin installed in the building (one or more of them), connected to the local or public network, and accessible for all the occupants of the given building, living in the rooms serving the rest and relaxation-related purposes, as well as if it is installed in a sanitary room or common room.

7. Hot water supplies (Question VIII) shall be considered to be present in a given building, if there is a sink supplying hot water installed in the building (one or more of them) and is accessible for all the occupants of the given building, living in the rooms serving the rest and relaxation-related purposes, as well as if it is installed in a sanitary room or common room.

8. Heating (Question IX) shall be considered to be present in a given building, if there is a central heating system installed in the building and supplies all the rooms occupied by the inhabitants with heat thanks to being connected to a heat supplying network or local power station.

80 Period of construction (Question X) and outer walls' material (Question XI) [p. 107]

While specifying the answers to those questions, the recommendations provided in question 64 and question 67 of this guidebook shall be followed.

81 Rules concerning enumeration of individuals in collective housing units [p. 108]

1. All the individuals occupying a given dwelling shall be enumerated, so both those living there permanently and those staying temporarily in such an object. In the note in the Az form ,there are the representatives of the households that shall answer all the questions in the form enumerated. Those are as the occupants of:

- Hostels,
- Dormitories,
- Student's houses,
- Permanent hostels for workers (including those for the members of Voluntary Labor Center),
- Child's houses and caretaking facilities alike,
- Educational facilities,
- Small child's houses,
- Professional rehabilitation centers,
- Pensioner houses, to which the former workers caretaking facilities also belong, veteran's houses, nursing homes,
- Caretaking facilities for adults:
- Monasteries and convents,

In the case of other households, such as hotels (communal and commercial), tourist houses, tourist shelters, hospitals, sanatoriums, dispensaries, etc., all the answers shall be provided only by the individuals staying there for more than 2 months. Other individuals shall answer questions 1-9 only.

2. Questions concerning occupants that are incorporated in the Az form are only slightly different from those in the A form. Census shall also be performed on the same basis. While asking and providing questions to the answers, the same rules as for the typical census in traditional household apply. Nevertheless, there are certain questions that must be additionally commented on.

Question 7
If there is a family living in the collective housing unit (family with or without children, as well as siblings), as such issue may be encountered in some units (especially hostels for workers, dormitories, and child's houses). For the said individuals, the type of relation between them shall be indicated in question 7, as well as the number under which they have been registered in the Az form shall be provided. Therefore, all the families shall be registered using the same Az form.

All other individuals, not being related to other people in the unit, shall have a straight line ("__") indicated in question 7.

Questions 16-24 Sources of maintenance

1) Individuals registered in child's houses and special caretaking facilities (for blind, deaf, disabled, and severely ill individuals), welfare facilities, sanatoriums, dispensaries for children and adults (for blind, deaf, disabled, and severely ill individuals), the "B. maintenance not from work" answer shall be provided in question 16, and the following shall be done in questions 23 and 24:

- In question 23, the "living in a child's house", "staying in a healthcare facility" annotation shall be made,
- In question 24, the proper social group shall be indicated:
- For individuals who have been professionally active, the social group shall be based on the last employment,
- For the individuals who have never worked, the name of the facility shall be considered to be the name of the supporter,
- In some cases (orphans in child's houses) the "not specified" social group may be indicated.

If the enumerated person still works, then answers shall be provided to questions 17-20 as well.

2) Individuals registered in hostels, dormitories, and student's houses tend to be supported by their families. Therefore, the following answers shall be provided for them:

- In question 16, the "C. supported by" shall be indicated with the specification of the relation to the supporter, for example: "brother", "mother", "father",
- In question 17, the "Further information concerns …" ("brother", "mother", "father") shall be written down,
- In questions 18,19, and 20, the name of the workplace shall be specified as the name of the supporter,
- In questions 23 and 24, sources of maintenance not from work shall be provided for certain individuals.

Students, who have claimed that the "scholarship" or "payment for education" is their main source of maintenance, in question 16 shall have "B. Maintenance not from work" indicated and in question 23 "scholarship" or "payment for education" indicated. In question 24, the social group of such individuals must be provided.

3) Monks and nuns shall have main sources of maintenance specified so:

- From work if they are professionally active,
- Pension or allowance if they have been awarded with one (for example, due to their disability),
- Other nuns and monks shall have "nun" or "monk" term provided in the case of question 23 , and in question 24 the "clergymen" annotation.

4) Individuals working in the Voluntary Labor Center have work or payment for education, depending if they work for a communal company with which the Center has concluded an agreement (the it is work). For them, questions 17-20 shall be answered ("employee " in question 19 and in question 20 the type of work performed so, for example: "ditch digger"). In the case of individuals receiving payment for education, questions 23 and 24 shall be answered. In the latter, the social group of such individuals must be specified.

Question 25
The reason of professional inactivity is mainly connected with the character of the stay in the facility, so "education" for individuals staying in dormitories or "serious illness" for patients in all types of healthcare centers. Nevertheless, there may be such cases as "caring about the partner" for wives living with their husbands in hostels for workers.

Question 26
The answer to this question shall be only provided if for a given household the "Information on household" rubric has been filled in and in the same time the household takes at least two buildings (2 or more buildings specified in Question III in "Information on household" rubric).
In other cases, the question shall be left unanswered.
Note : Building 1 = I, 2 = II, 3 = III, etc.

Part VII: Principles Concerning Filling In The B Form

82. General rules of filling in the B form [p. 111]

1. B form is used to gather additional pieces of information concerning certain individuals enumerated during the census, and shall be considered as an auxiliary one. One B form shall be used to register a single person. It will be filled in for all the people living in a given dwelling (room) and for all the households. See - question 11 on page 18).

2. The said form will be processed by means of modern data processing technique and due to the fact the enumerator must exercise care to fill in the form properly, as well as to comply with the following recommendations:

a) The part of the form consisting of questions shall be filled in by encircling or writing down proper answers in accordance with the principles specified in the recommendations provided herein. In the case of making a mistake, it shall be crossed out and the proper answer shall be written down next to the field designed for the answer.
b) In questions with fields for answer that is, in questions 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, and 12, the answer shall be provided by writing down a diagonal line ("/"). Those fields shall be filled in using black pen only. If an improper answer has been provided, then the X symbol shall be written down in such a field and the answer in a proper form shall be indicated in an appropriate field.
c) Care shall be exercised not to make creases and not to stain the B form in any place.

83 Filling in address data in the B form [p. 111]

1. Address data framed with black lines shall be filled in while exercising proper care. Such activity will make it possible to eliminate any doubts while processing the data from the A (Az) form.

2. Fields entitles "Province", "Locality", and "Commune" shall be filled in basing on the rules provided in question 13, points a, b, and c in this guidebook.

3. The following shall also be written down in the table on the left:

- Number of census area,
- Number of the A form, for which the B form of Az form has been additionally made
- Number of the Az form in which the individuals has been indicated (a straight line shall be written down for individuals, for whom only the A form has been filled in),

4. B forms shall be properly numbered and ordered after the performance of the census round as only then will it be properly possible and will limit the risk of making a mistake.
Numeration shall be in line with the numeration of the consecutive A (Az) forms. Therefore, the B form for the individual having number 01 in the A form shall be 1. Individuals with 02 number shall be labeled with 2 and so on. The last number shall be equal to the number of B forms in the census area.

84 Data from the A (Az) form [p. 112]

Data from the B form concerning:

- Number, name and surname of a person (below question 1),
- Relation to the head of household or for Az forms type of the collective housing unit (question 1)
- Sex (question 2 be writing in the "/" symbol),
- And year of birth (question 3)

Shall be transferred from the A form.
[After provision of the said answers, the filling in of the B form shall end for all the individuals staying temporary in a dwelling as well as for foreigners staying in the country for more than 2 months. For such individuals, the rest of the form starting from question 4 shall be crossed out]

85 Place of birth (Question 4) [p. 113]

1. This question has been incorporated to gather demographic and social information about the registered individuals, as well as to check their past and future migrations. For the reasons of the census, not always the factual place of birth shall be provided, but the place of living with the family of the said individual. Due to the advanced technologies making it possible to deliver birth in hospitals on properly prepared wards, the data concerning place of birth provided in the documentation is not in line with the factual state of affairs. The latter concerns mainly individuals from towns and rural areas, who were born in big cities due to the necessity of medical treatment of the mother beforehand or afterwards.

This question shall be therefore understood as the question about the place of stay of the mother while giving birth to the child.

The census enumerator shall always check if the question was understood properly. Therefore, after being provided with the answer, it shall be additionally controlled and checked, for example, by asking :

- "Did your mother live there while giving birth?",
- "Did you live in the place where your son (daughter) was born?"

If the specified answer is not in line with the answer initially provided, then the census enumerator has to clarify the principles governing answering question 4. Only after the clarification of the answer can the proper data be written down in the B form.

The specified control method shall not apply to individuals, who:

a) Were born in 1918 and earlier,
b) Were born during the war (September 1939 May 1945),
c) Were born abroad,

In such cases, the provided answer shall be immediately transferred to the B form.

2. For the individuals who were born in the place where the census is being carried out shall have answer "here" provided, as well as straight lines in questions b and c.

3. For the individuals who were born in a different place:

- In question a the name of the place of birth shall be provided,
- In question b the name of the former province shall be provided. It concerns the province, to which the place specified in answer belonged before 1st July 1975, that is before the reform which caused the transformation of the structure of the provinces. The name is required to properly specify the demographical and geographical concerning the place of birth as they may vary in accordance with the administrational documentation available. What is more, all the individuals born before 1975, so almost all the enumerated individuals, shall have the name of the former province specified in their personal documents (but it shall not be used if the place of birth is different than the place of stay of mother while delivering birth).
For the individuals born after the date, the former province may be specified after specification of the commune in which the said person was born. But in order to avoid confusion, the former province shall be crossed out and replaced with the "commune" annotation, so for example "Nadarzyn Commune". For the individuals born after the said date in cities, a straight line shall be written down in question b.
- In question the name of the current province to which the place of birth belongs shall be provided. It is important to provide the name of the province from after the reform (so applicable from 1st July 1975). If the enumerated person is unable to specify the name of the province to which the place in question belongs, he or she should provide the name from before 1st July 1975.

For the individuals born abroad, the name of the country of birth shall be provided.

86. Born in the family (Question 5) [p. 115]

1. This question mainly concerns the social identity of the enumerated individual. In other words, the main assumption is to specify the social position of the family at the moment of the birth of the surveyed individual.

Specification of the position working class, countrymen class, or intelligentsia shall not be problematic, as in the majority of cases the members of the family are fully aware of its position and provide it in various documentation.

2. Only the "Born in a different family" shall be commented on:
This term shall be written down for the individuals, whose parents were the owners or co-owners of agricultural, industrial or commercial companies or worked on their own account, so for example: drove their own cab, were lawyers, private practitioners, or were engaged in liberated professions, so were writers, painters, musicians, etc. If the liberated professions were performed by the intelligentsia, then the said social position shall be written down for the enumerated individual.

3. It may happen that the enumerated individual will be unable to unequivocally provide the social identity, as at the moment of his or her birth, they were the representatives of different social classes, for example father was a worker, and mother a teacher. Then, the social position shall be specified by writing down the social position of the father, so "the working class".

4. It must be remembered that there are also so-called working class countrymen, who manage their agricultural holdings and also work outside agriculture (in a different branch of industry).
If a given person has difficulties with specifying the social position, then the data shall be consulted with the filled in A form and if the parents of such a person:

a) Have not been enumerated with the said individual using the same form, as they do not live in the same household, then the "countrymen class" shall be indicated,
b) Have been enumerated with the said individual using the same A form, then the content of the 17-22 questions shall be checked and if managing of farm:
- Has been indicated in questions 17-20 (concerning main source of maintenance) then, the "countrymen class" shall be indicated,
- Has been indicated in questions 21-22 (concerning second employment) then, the "working class" shall be indicated.

87. Duration of stay in the census area (Question 6) [p. 116]

1. While answering the question the duration of the stay in the census area shall be specified by indicating the year of arrival. If the person has been living in the said area since birth, the "since birth" option shall be chosen.

2. For the individuals who have not been living in the area since birth, the factual year of arrival shall be provided rather than the year of settling all the occupation-related legal matters. For example, if the person arrived to the area in 1965, and afterwards he or she was temporarily employed in a different place, staying in a hostel for workers, and after going back the registration for permanent stay was made in 1971, then the factual date of arrival shall be specified as 1965, not 1971.

3. While specifying the duration of the say in the census area, the temporary absences caused by the following shall not be taken into account:

a) Serving in the army (both professionally and due to military training),
b) Undergoing military training to become a professional soldier, like cadet or ensign,
c) Studying in schools run by law enforcement organizations,
d) Staying in prison or in a penitentiary facility.
e) Staying in a penitentiary facility for juvenile delinquents
f) Staying, even for a longer period of time, abroad, while serving in a diplomatic post, engaging in commercial activities, studying, working for Polish or foreign commercial organizations and companies if the stay was not permanent and the necessity to return to the census area was caused by legal reason (repatriation, reunion with the family). In such a case, those individuals shall be considered to be living abroad.
g) Soldiers taking part in military undertaking on all battlefronts in national and foreign armies,
h) Individuals forced to leave the country to work in concentration and work camps within the borders of Germany.

The individuals listed above shall be considered living and staying in the area of census, even if they stay in a different place at the moment.

Such individuals shall have the year, starting from which they have been staying in the census area specified, without indicating the absences caused by the above mentioned factors.

4. Individuals, who returned to the census area after a longer period of education, professional work or longer stays in welfare facilities, shall have the year of return specified in question 6, rather than the year of leaving to start studying or working.

5. In the case of individuals staying temporarily (for more than 2 months) in hostels, dormitories, welfare facilities, caretaking centers, and helped other households as home-workers of professional helps, shall have the initial year of stay in the census area specified in question 6, without taking into account breaks caused by leaves of visiting the family in the case of which the registered individual was absent in the area of census.

The following cases shall be taken into consideration:

- If the "since birth" answer has been provided to question 6 , then "here" shall be the answer to question 4 (as, if the individual was born in the area, he or she shall live in the said are since birth),
- If there is a year of arrival provided in question 6 and in question 4 "here" answer has been provided, it may mean that the registered individual returned to the census area after some time of staying somewhere else, for example due to professional work and studying. In all other cases, such a combination shall be considered invalid.

88. Former place of stay (Question 7) [p. 118]

1. For the individuals, who have not been living in the census area since birth:

- In question a the name of the former place of stay shall be provided,
- In question b the name of the former province the place belonged to shall be provided,
- In question c name of the province the place currently belongs to.

The said questions shall be answered analogously to those specified in question 85.

2. For individuals staying temporarily (for more than 2 months) in a given place, the former place of stay shall be the one from which they have arrived in order to live here.

3. For the individuals, who returned home (the area of census) after graduating from school, finishing professional work or stay in a welfare facility, the place where they studied, worked, or were treated shall be indicated.

4. It shall be remembered that the individuals staying in a different place due to the reasons specified in question 87 point 3 on page 116 shall be treated as the ones who have lived there without any breaks and have not left it.

The said individuals shall not have the place of former stay indicated while answering this question.

5. Individuals living in the area of census since birth shall have a straight line ("___") indicated in question 7.

89. Reason of permanent living or temporary stay for more than 2 months in the census area (Question 8) [p. 119]

1. All the individuals who have not been living in the area of census since birth that is - they have a year of arrival specified, shall have the reason of permanent living or temporary stay for more than 2 months in the census area specified. If there was more than one reason for such a decision, the main and most crucial motif shall be indicated.

The most common reasons have been identified and provided at the end of the form.

The said groups of reasons are two-level, so they consist of the more general and more detailed answers. The first group includes such terms as: studying, working, treatment, and the second one: environment, health condition, social security. While discussing the issue with the respondent, the more general answer shall be specified at first and then proceeded by the more detailed one.

2. In some cases the registered individuals may provide the willingness to live closer to the workplace (05) as the reason, as well as the possibility to grant their children better education-related conditions (16). Then, the main motif must be specified and provided as the answer.

Individuals who were minors at the time and had no real say in the change of place of living matter shall have "accompanying family member" (12) answer chosen.

3. While specifying the answer to the question, the census enumerator shall encircle the right answer in the table.

[Table showing types of reasons of changing the place of stay have been grouped is omitted here]

90. Please specify if the enumerated person was user of farm or head of household in the former place of stay (Question 9) [p. 121]

Question 9 touches upon the issue of individuals leaving individual agricultural holdings. Therefore, it must be specified whether the individuals stay in in the area of census for more than 2 month were users of farm or heads of household in their previous place of stay.

For all the individuals, who have not been living in the area of census since birth it shall be specified, by means of a detailed interview, whether or not they were users of farm or heads of household in their previous place of stay and:

- If so, the "Yes" answer shall be provided by writing down the "/" symbol next to the proper field,
- If no, the "No" answer shall be provided by writing down the "/" symbol next to the proper field.
[Question 9 is the last one that shall be asked to the individuals staying permanently in the area of census who are temporarily absent. They shall have the rest of the questions, starting from question 10 crossed out.]

91. Does the enumerated individual is willing, in the nearest future (up to 1985) change the place of stay or return to the former place of stay? (Question 10) [p. 121]

1. Answering question 10 shall concern both mature individuals and children. By using the "/" symbol the "Yes", "No" , or "Hard to tell" answer shall be chosen. Individuals staying in the area of census temporarily may provide various answers as they may plan to stay in the said area, change it for a different one or finally return to the former place of stay.

2. For mature individuals born in 1960 and earlier, the question shall be asked separately, aside from other questions concerning family members.
If the members of the family provide different answers to the question, so the wife have replied "Yes" and husband "Hard to specify" , then the enumerator shall tactfully try to specify the right, equivocal answer to the question.

3. In the case of minors born between 1961-1978 the following procedure shall be used:

a) For young children up to 10 (born between 1968 and 1978) shall have the answer that his or her family members or caretakers provided while answering the question,
b) For individuals older than 10 (born between 1961-1967) and in the case the parents or caretakers answered "No" or "Hard to specify", those individuals shall be asked whether or not they want to leave the census area after finishing the compulsory education and:
- If so, then the "/" symbol shall be used to indicate "Yes" answer,
- If no, they) shall have the answer that his or her family members or caretakers provided while answering the question, so they shall be treated as minors below 10.

92. Does the enumerated individual commute to work or school? (Question 11) [p. 122]

1. Commuting individuals are those, who in order to reach their workplace or school, must use a given means of communication in order to reach the said unit, or walk by foot in order to start working or studying on regular basis, regardless whether the workplace or school are located within the borders of the census area or in a different area.

2. It shall be taken into account that in some cases, the individuals may not commute to work every single day, as after working 12 hours they have 24 hours of break. Nevertheless, in such a situation, those individuals shall be considered as commuting or walking by foot to the workplace on daily basis and the affirmative answer shall be provided by them in question 11.

3. The workplace of the employees changing their place of work so all workers employed in the transportation or delivery-related branches of industry is the place where they have been employed and from which they receive their payment for the services.

4. All the registered individuals shall answer this question. By using the "/" symbol the "Yes to work" , "Yes to school", or "No" answer shall be indicated.

5. If a given person has two sources of maintenance, the "Yes to work" shall consider the answer to the question relating to the main source of employment (the one specified in questions 17-20 of the A form). In such a case, the individual must also answer 12-15 questions in the B form.

6. If a given individual commutes to work and to school, then the "Yes to work" answer shall be indicated and the fact of commuting to school shall be neglected completely.

7. Individuals studying in vocational schools may in some cases be also obliged to commute to their workplace where they have their internship. In such a case, the focus shall be put on education, and the said individuals shall have the "Yes to work" answer provided in question 11.

8.The "No" answer shall be indicated:

- For all the individuals who do not work or study especially, for children below 7 (providing they have not started their education earlier),
- Users of farms and individuals supporting them,
- For the individuals, in the case of which the place of stay and the place of working, studying is located in the same building (or within the same object). The said situation concerns janitors, private practitioners living in the dwelling where their office also is, drivers of their own cab, etc.

93. Means of transport (Question 13) [p. 124]

1. If a given person has been specified to commute or go by foot to the workplace or school, then the utilized mode of transport shall be specified in this question. It must be noted that if a person uses more than one means of communication, then all of them shall be indicated in this question.

2. After specifying the fact of commutation, the proper mode of communication shall be chosen, by taking advantage of the following recommendations:

-Public transport concerns buses, tramways, and trolleys driving on fixed tracks and owned by MZK, PZK, Local Public Transport Association, or Public Transport Company,
- Polish railways,
- Buses driving on open (changeable) tracks,
- Company, intercompany, or school mode of transport, as well as the means of transport leased by a company or institution, concerns also the public transport buses driving on fixed tracks.
- Own car,
- Own motor, motorbike, scooter,
- Bike
- Other mode of transport

3. In order to make the census significantly easier for the enumerator, the enlisted modes of transport are also specified in the B form. After being provided with the answer, the said enumerator shall indicate the right answer by using the "/" symbol to tick it.

If a given person uses only public transportation to commute to work or school, the "/" symbol shall be used to indicate "Public communication" field. If two modes of transportation are used, for example public communication and Polish railways, then the "/" shall be used to indicate both "Public communication" and "Polish railroad" fields.

If a student commutes to school at first by bike, used to reach the railroad station and then the train, the "/" symbol shall be utilized to mark both "Bike" and "Polish railways" fields.

If the said student walks by foot to the railway station and then commutes to school using a train, the "/" symbol shall be only used to indicate the "Polish railway" field. The fact of walking by foot to the railway station shall be neglected.

4. For the individuals, the commutation of whom depends on various features, such as weather conditions and therefore they use few modes of transportation (motorbike or train), the mode of transport that is utilized more frequently shall be indicated while answering the question.

5. Individuals who do not use any mode of transportation and walk to school or workplace by foot, shall have the "No only by foot" answer indicated in the question.
The aforementioned annotation cannot be combined with any other option as it concerns only the individuals who only walk to work or school by foot, not using any means of transport.

94 Duration of commutation or walking one way (Question 13) [p. 125]

1. For the individuals who commute or walk to work or school, in question 13 the duration of such an activity shall be specified in hours and minutes. The time shall include one-way commutation or walking, considering also the amount of time required to reach a place of commutation from home and to reach the workplace or school finally.

2. For a person commuting to work by tram, the provided answer will be the sum of walking from home to tram station, travelling by means of the said vehicle, and reaching the workplace or school from the tram station being the destination.

For the individuals, who do not use any mode of transport to reach school or workplace and they only walk to those places, shall have the estimated time of walk to the destination specified while answering this question.

3. It should be also remembered that the answer is provided for one-way commutation in typical conditions, so no additional limitations, obstacles, and delays in communication or any other factors shall be taken into account here.

95 Destination of commutation (Question 14) [p. 126]

1. For the individuals commuting to work, the following shall be indicated in question 14:

- In question a locality in which the workplace or school is located,
- In question B name of the street on which the workplace or school is located (if applicable),
- In question C number of the building.

In the case of rural areas, a straight line ("___") shall be indicated in question b and no number shall be provided in question c.

2. Individuals working in "administrative positions" as specified in the A form, shall only provide the locality in which the workplace is located by answering question a.

96 Beginning work (hour) (Question 15) [p. 126]

1. For all the individuals commuting or walking to work, the hour in which the individual shall start the work or would start the work it if was not for illness, leave, etc. shall be specified in this question.

Note: No hour of starting education shall be provided.

2. If there is no fixed time schedule in the workplace of the examined individual, then the hour which is typical for starting the work or the most frequent one shall be specified.

3. Individuals working in the day-and-night manner, shall specify the hour of starting work as of midnight between 6th and 7th December.

Part VIII: Principles Concerning Filling in the C Form
[This part is omitted here]

Part IX: Principles Concerning Filling in the D-Obw Form
[This part is omitted here]