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Population Census Pakistan 1972

Instructions for the
Housing, Economic, Demographic Characteristics Survey (H.E.D)

January, 1973

Population Census Organization
Ministry of Interior,
Kashmir and Frontier Region, Islamabad

[Pg. 3]

PREFACE

The Population Census is the only source of personal characteristics of inhabitants of a country. Population Census is generally undertaken decennially. Therefore, the information gathered in connection with the census not only serves the purpose of economic planning, but with facilitates understanding of local, provincial and National problems and aids in finding out solutions. National and Provincial Assembly seats are determined on the basis of population. In view of the importance of the Population Census it is necessary that accurate data are collected.

Enumeration of the 1972 Population Census, which is the third decennial census of Pakistan, has been divided in two phases. In the first phase, general enumeration of the population and its important characteristics are collected. This work was completed in September of 1972. Now, in the second phase, the housing, economic and demographic characteristics are being analyzed. The Housing, Economic, and Demographic Survey (HED) is very important and its purpose is to collect information. Detailed instructions for survey collection have been compiled and translated in order to facilitate enumerator training. It is hoped that the detailed instructions will be quite helpful in the survey and that enumerators will be able to comfortably complete their jobs.

Although general words have been used in this instruction manual to give this survey a practical status and for the sake of uniformity, particular concepts have been determined. It is, therefore, necessary to provide explanation of specific terminologies and concepts. It is important that these terms and concepts are clear to enumerators before they actually embark upon this job. For example, there is a particular place for cooking in every house, but in this survey it will be called a kitchen. Likewise, many additional terms have specific meanings for the purpose of the survey and its enumeration. Therefore, this important responsibility can be fulfilled satisfactorily only after clearly understanding these terminologies.

Brig. Latif,
Census Commissioner
Islamabad

[Pg. 4]
Chapter-1

101. Introduction: The Population Census is the only source through which pressure of increasing population of a country can be estimated. The third decennial population and housing Census has been divided into two phases. The first phase was the "Big Count" or "General Enumeration" which was completed in September of 1972, and the second phase is the Housing, Economic and Demographic (HED) survey which will take place in 1973.

Phase I, Big count or general enumeration

In the first phase, the entire population counted was present in Pakistan on September 16, 1972, and this phase was treated as the big count or general enumeration. In this phase, not only was every person living in Pakistan counted but information about seven questions pertaining to individuals was also provided (i.e., name, relationship to the head of household, sex, age, marital status, religion and literacy). Provision of these characteristics was comparatively easier than what is to be undertaken in phase 2.

Two population censuses have been undertaken in Pakistan since independence, first in 1951 and second in 1961. In both of these censuses, sufficient information about population and housing characteristics was provided in a single phase. But when analysis of the information obtained in the last population census was done, it was found that there were deficiencies of various types. The most important reason for this was that the enumerators who collected this information were neither suitable nor properly trained. More than one hundred thousand persons were honorary appointees to population census work, and all of them were selected from local areas. In most of the cases, they could not collect correct answers to complex or sensitive questions (e.g., on occupation, industry, level of education, etc.). It was not possible to provide a huge field force of honorary and volunteer workers for all of Pakistan.
[Pg. 5]

Phase II, Housing, Economic and Demographic Survey (HED)

Given this background, it was decided for the present population census that complicated characteristics about the population would be collected after general enumeration in a separate sample survey. This sample survey will include housing, educational, economic, and demographic characteristics of Pakistan's third Population Census. This sample survey has been given the name of Housing, Economic and Demographic Survey and will be abbreviation in English as the HED survey. About three hundred thousands households of West Pakistan will be covered in this survey and about one thousand suitable enumerators will be appointed for three months on pay/salary. They will be trained properly so that they can better understand the concepts and definitions which are being used in this survey.
102. Objective:
The basic purpose of this Housing, Economic and Demographic Survey is to carry out a survey of the difficult or complicated characteristics of population regarding this sample portion of the total population so that correct information about complicated and difficult characteristics can be collected. The main objectives of the survey are as follow:

1) To collect information about the nature of sample houses, education, economics and selected demographic characteristics.

2) To verify the population found in survey with the estimates of population census of the general enumeration.

3) To determine the birth rate and death rate.

4) To prepare estimates of the urban/rural population for distinct provinces of Pakistan separately.
103. Sample household.
There are about seventy-five thousand blocks of population census of Pakistan out of which twenty-four thousands blocks will be selected for this survey. These blocks of population census are spread all over Pakistan and located in both urban/rural areas. One population census block consist of two hundred households but all the household of this census block will not be selected for this survey. The detail of identification of selected areas (i.e., blocks) will [Pg. 6] be provided to enumerators by their supervisors. About 0.3 million households will be selected for this survey, which will consist of two-percent and five-percent of the total urban and rural households respectively. Details of sampling, in the form of specified instructions, will be provided separately in which necessary explanations will also be given.

[Pg. 7]

Chapter-2

Source of information and identification of selected sample household

2.01 Importance.
The identification of sample households is very important, because any mistake or carelessness will adversely influence the results. Therefore, correct enumeration will only be possible after correct identification of households, and correct results will only be produced with correct counting. To facilitate the enumeration work, detailed explanation has been presented. To minimize the chance of error, enumerators must be sure they clearly understand the identification technique.

2.02
It is necessary for the enumerator to complete the household identification before filling in the questionnaire, whose details have been provided in the second part.

2.03 Code of the selected area:
The code of the selected area is that code number that will be given to the selected area. In fact, it refers to that code number which has been given to population census blocks during the big count. It is an eight digit code and it will be provided to the enumerator in the beginning. The enumerator will have to enter this code number on every questionnaire which he is canvassing in the block. The code number of all such blocks will be written on the title page of the register of questionnaires for which questionnaires will be provided.

2.04 Structure number. Definition of structure.
Structure refers to every house, building, hut, boat, mosque, temple, shed, tent or any such place in which humans reside. There should be a unique and identifiable entity of every structure, and every structure should also have one or more separate doors. In rural areas residents of one household often live in more than one hut, shed or separately built rooms, etc., which, although they are in close proximity to one another sometimes share no compound wall between them. Such a living arrangement will be considered as one structure. Although this structure will be entered once, the number of [Pg. 8] this structure will be written on every separately built hut, shed, and room, etc., so that there is no confusion. The selected building will have a three-digit code, which will have to be written (e.g., if the number of a building is 19, then it will be written in the digit as 019). Three boxes have been made for the building number. These should be filled in according to these instructions.

2.05 Housing unit and household.
"Housing unit" and "household" are two important terms which are basis of the survey, and both terms are frequently used in the questionnaire. Therefore each term is explained below.
a) Housing Unit:
Housing unit refers to those vacant places or residential places where a household can reside. A housing unit may consist of one room or there may be a few rooms which can be used for residential purpose or are being used for residential purpose. But it must have a separate door whether it opens outside the building or opens inside the building. Places under bridges, empty bogies of a train or boat can be these types of residences. Structure, which has been defined above, refers to residential units which are partly or fully being used for residential purpose or which may be full time or part time business centers or used for other purposes as well, where somebody resides or it is vacant. It can be mobile or can be a temporary place of residence or any place which is being used as a residence of some households at the time of the survey. These types of residences consist of buildings, houses, huts, sheds, big buildings, flats, bungalows, or servant quarters.
In some cases it may be possible that a housing unit is built for only one household, but at the time of survey one or more than one household resides in it or only a part of a household resides there. More often, it may also be possible that places not constructed for residential purpose are being used for residential purpose (e.g., trade buildings which are under construction, completed or incomplete, and which are actually being used for residential purpose, like the cattle forms, garage, or godowns [warehouses]).

b) Household.
A household may be a person living in [housing units mentioned] above and also comprise a few such persons who live and eat together. They may include members of household relatives, friends, servants and other non-relatives. Eating together means having common cooking arrangements at a place.
[Pg. 9]

2.06 Household Members.

a. Who will be enumerated. The following persons will be included as members of a particular household.

1. All those persons who usually reside along with a household and are present there at the time of the survey.

2. All those persons who usually reside along with a household but are temporarily not present there at the time of survey.

3. All those residents, servants and non relatives who are residing here because of having a job or getting education here although permanent residence of their own household is same where else.

4. Those temporary passengers or guests who have no usual residence and are residing within this household at the time of survey.

5. Armed forces personnel who are directly related to the household irrespective of where they are presently posted.
b. Who will not be enumerated: The following persons will not be included in a particular household as family members.

1. Those people, who, although related to the head of household, spend most of their time somewhere else in connection with job or study. These people will be enumerated at the institution or households where they work or study.

2. Those people who are temporarily present in this household (e.g., guests or other visitors whose residence is some where else and there is somebody to get them registered).

3. All those people who are related to the household but at the moment present in some institutional residence (e.g., mental hospital, sanitarium, jail, etc.).
Note:The enumerators will have to cite the serial number of the selected household under the selected census block in three boxes which have been provided in the questionnaire for this purpose. This household number will, in fact, be the number which was entered in [Pg. 10] the fifth column of the list of housing census carried out during general enumeration for this household. If it is known that a new household has come in the selected building and was not entered during general enumeration, then that household will be entered at the end after the last household serial number of the following list and it will also be entered in the list of houses accordingly. It can be explained like this, "a new household came into house no. 066 which was not entered during the general enumeration." If the last household serial number of the list of housing census is 167, then the new household will be given the number 168. The number will be written in three digits, so that if 3 is the serial number of a household it will be written as 003.

2.07 Name of head of the household:

Write the names of heads of those households whose details are being entered. The head can be anyone, male or female.

Definition of head of household: If a person lives alone then he himself will be considered head of the household. If a few persons live and eat together then the person who is considered head by that family will be the head. Head of household can be the oldest male or female or a particular bread winner.

2.08 Name of father/husband

If the head of household is male then write there the name of his father. If head of the household is female then the name of her husband will be written here.

Sources of getting information

2.09 Name of respondent:
Since the information about the household which is being provided has to be collected by the enumerator personally, it will, therefore, be better that these are obtained from every related person, particularly all adult males, but it will not be possible in all cases. In most of the cases the head of the household, or some adult male, will provide information about the household. Hence his identity is necessary for the [Pg. 11] future reference. Efforts should be made that the information about household conversation is made with such a person who has all the information about household members which are being asked in this questionnaire. However, there is a possibility that sometimes no member of the household could be contacted. In such a case, several visits to that place are necessary to get concerned information. If it is not possible to contact a responsible person of the house, or well informed person, then particulars can be taken from such a responsible person and informative neighbor who has all the information about the concerned household, and the name of that man or woman should be clearly written here.

2.10 The respondent's relationship with head of the household

Write here the name of the respondent (i.e., of that person from whom the information is being obtained), and the relation he/she has with the head of the household (this relation should be with respect to the head, e.g., head himself, wife, son, uncle neighbors, etc.).

2.11 Detail of identification of (e.g., code of selected area)

Though building and household number has been entered in the first part but these things should necessarily be entered in second part and enumerators should not work carelessly.

2.12 Date of enumeration:

Enter here the date on which the questionnaire of any household is completed.

[Pg. 12]

CHAPTER 3

Part-I Housing Characteristics

3.01.1 Introduction:

Housing characteristics and housing facilities are the part of the Housing, Economic and Demographic (HED) survey which will be collected on a sample basis in the second phase of 1972 Population Census. The structure numbering and list of houses prepared for general enumeration will serve as a basic tool in the HED Survey so that detailed information could be provided. The purpose of this part is to provide detailed information about those residential accommodations in which the people reside so that the housing capacity of the country can be known, the geographical distribution by constructed houses with nature of construction can be prepared, and conditions of the basic facilities of modern living standard available to various households can be known. This part of the questionnaire consists of thirteen questions. The question Nos. 1 to 11 shall be asked from every household irrespective of the urban or rural areas. However, question Nos. 12 and 13 will be asked from the households living in urban areas. There is no need to ask these two questions in rural areas.

Some instructions are given in detail for the enumerators and supervisors in the following paragraphs so that accurate information can be entered against every part of the question.

3.02 Question No. 1 and 2. Basic material used in construction of the walls and roof of this house.

These questions are asked to find out which construction materials have been used in the construction of the walls and roof of the house. Generally walls and roofs are constructed with different types of construction materials, which are categorized into six types. Details of every type are given below and the answer to these questions should consist [Pg. 13] of these six types. The enumerator will put a cross in front of whichever type the respondent tells the enumerator (e.g., if the reply is dry grass or reed, the cross should be put in front of code five).

1. Cemented (concrete or baked bricks or stones). This refers to walls and roofs which are constructed with concrete, sand and cement, or walls and roofs for which cement has been used in binding the baked bricks and stones in construction.

2. Clay or mud used with baked bricks and stones. This type it refers to walls and roofs in construction of which baked bricks with clay or mud have been used (i.e., bricks have been bound with clay or mud).

3. Built with clay or sun-dried bricks. This type refers to walls and roofs which have been built with only clay or unbaked bricks, or for which mud has been used for binding unbaked bricks.

4. G.I./C.I./Asbestos/plastic
G.I. means Iron (Pewter) sheet.
C.I. means corrugated sheets made of tin or sheets made of asbestos or plastic which are used in construction of walls and roofs of most of the houses.

5. Thatch/wood and bamboo
This refers to walls and roofs made of dry grass, straw, thatch.
These types of walls and roofs are constructed with different things (e.g., leaves, stems of dates, bamboo, palm leaves, grass straw, crops straw, thatch and reeds, etc.).

6. Other material (give detail)
If material other than above given five types has been used in construction of walls and roofs, then put a cross against it. If walls and roofs are built of one or more than one type of material, enter the material which has been used the most and put a cross in the relevant space.

[Pg. 14]

3.03 Question No. 3. Period of Construction.

The purpose of this question is to determine the age of the building in which the household is living and, thereby, the nature of the house in which the members of the household reside. It is doubtful whether all the respondents can answer this question, (i.e., when or the year of construction of this house). However, they can tell the tentative period passed since its construction or how old this building may be. Therefore, in order to know the possible age of all houses, the period of construction has been divided into four major categories. In most of cases the residents of the houses would be able to reply in these major categories. In certain cases a wise guess can be made. Such a situation may also come across in which a building has been extended or changes or major repairs have been done from time to time. In such cases the period of construction will be counted from that date when old walls were reconstructed after demolishing or from the date when new walls were constructed. Put a mark on any one of the above mentioned four types according to the reply of the respondent

3.04 Question No. 4. Nature of Tenure of the household.

By tenure we mean the residential status in which this household is residing. There are three possible types of occupational status of a house: owner occupied, rent free, or rent paid. Generally these three types of tenure are prevalent. The nature of tenure will be treated as owned when head of the household or any member of the household is the owner of the house in which the household is residing, irrespective of whether or not he is the owner of the land on which the house has been constructed. If all the cost of that house has been paid or purchased on installments or its price is deducted from the rent or is on mortgage with the household, then in all such types of tenure of the house will be treated as "owned".

The tenure of a household in which the occupants neither own the house nor pay rent for the house will be "rent free". The enumerators will find such types in the rural areas where landlords allow their tenant farmer to reside in the house constructed on their [Pg. 15] lands during the period of their employment and do not take rent from them. In some cases, the owner of the house gave their house or a part of the house to their relatives or friends without rent. In some cases the owners gave their houses for residential purpose and do not demand rent. In some governmental and private organizations, institutions or employers provide residences to their employees and do not take rent from their employees. The servant quarters of bungalows in urban areas also come under this category where the servant lives along with his family and cooks separately. The housing units of all such households are treated as rent free. If any household is paying rent as an actual occupant of the house or an occupant of any part of the house, it will be treated as a "rented house". The cross against any of the three types of tenure should be marked according to the answer of the respondent.

When the housing unit of any household comes under the category of "Rent paid" and the cross marked on code three, then the question will be asked him, "what is the monthly rent?" The amount of rent will be entered at the specified place. The expenses on electricity or water charges shall not be included in the rent. However, in such cases where a lump sum amount has been paid to the landlord as rent, and it is not possible to bifurcate the expenses on electricity and water, then it will be treated as rent.

3.05 Question No. 5. How many rooms are in use by the household (passage, verandahs, balconies, corridors, kitchen, bath rooms and latrines shall not be included in rooms).

By room we mean such residential space which has walls from floor to roof and where a person can sleep on a bed. Hence the total number of rooms in a house will consist of bedrooms, study room, drawing room, lounge/sitting rooms, servants' room, and kitchen, and such rooms which are used for business or professional purposes. Certain other places, which are used for residential purpose, or for which there is a chance of using these places for residential purpose provided they come under the definition of room (i.e., it has walls and roof and there is a space for a bed) can also be treated as rooms. Verandahs, corridors, bath rooms, and toilets do not come under the definition of room in spite of the fact that these meet the conditions of room. However, stores having walls all [Pg. 16] around which are being used for storing households or crops/food grains, etc., if these come under he above mentioned definition of room, will be included in the number of rooms. The garage, if being used for parking of a car or vehicle, will not be treated as a room. However, if the garage is being used for a residential purpose or bed room, then it will be considered as room. The enumerators therefore have to ask the respondents about the number of rooms, keeping in view the definition of room, and the answer of the respondent will be written in front of number of rooms against question No. 5. Although there is a separate question about kitchen (Question No. 6) that has not been asked yet, if there is a kitchen in a house it should be included in total number of rooms in question No. 5.

3.06 Question No. 6. Is there a kitchen in this house?

A kitchen is a room where special cooking arrangements for the household are made and which is used for cooking purposes except for such households who go on hotling regularly and eat there. There is space for cooking in every house; some households use a part or corner of a room or some other place in the house for this purpose. Since the condition of rooms do not imply whether some space is used for cooking, any place meeting the description above will be treated as kitchen in this survey. The enumerators should ask this question very carefully and the answer they get should be marked as 'yes,' 'no,' or 'shared' at the relevant space against the question. If a kitchen is used by more than one household then the response category of 'shared' has to be marked and should be marked at the questionnaires of all such households who use the shared kitchen.

307 Question No. 7. Is there is a bath room in this house?

Bath room means a place which is either a special room or such a place which has walls all around and is used only for bathing. This is to be enquired whether there is some special room in the house which is used as bath room. The answer of this question as 'yes,' 'no,' or 'shared,' whichever may be marked as has been explained for question No. 5 (i.e., if there is bath room in a house it will not be included in total number [Pg. 17] of rooms). In some buildings, toilet and bath are together at one place in such a case the answer will be treated as 'yes' for bath room.

3.08 Question 8. Which facilities of toilet are available to the household?

By toilet we mean such a place where the arrangement of defecation is available. It is to be enquired whether there is a special place for the residents of this house inside the house or outside the house or inside the compound wall of the building which can be used as toilet. The facilities of toilet have been divided into five types for this survey, specific use of residents, distance, and principal of health care have been kept in view in making these types of facilities. The detail of every type is given as follows:

1. Flush system inside house (which is connected with the municipal sewerage system).
By this we mean toilets are inside the house or situated inside the boundary walls of the building where modern flush systems exist and copro/biological waste is disposed of through the municipal sewerage system. This type of toilet facility will be included in type 1.

2. Flush system inside house but connected with septic tank.
By this we mean that a flush system is available inside the compound walls of the building from which the biological wastes are disposed of to a connected/covered pit which is not connected to the municipal system. Such toilets come under type .

3. Toilet inside without flush system.
All the facilities of toilets (e.g., cramp, etc.) which are available in the housing unit or inside the compound walls of the building but where no flush system of any type is available come under type 3.

4. Outside toilet.
By this we mean any facility of toilet, with or without flush, which is available to the household but is not inside the house or is not inside the boundary walls of the house. This will be treated as an outside toilet and entered as type. 4.
[Pg. 18]
5. None/open field.
If none of the above mentioned four facilities is available and the members of the household go outside for defecation in open field or farms, the facility will be marked as type. 5

3.09 Source of drinking water for residents of the house.
People get drinking water from different sources. Some of the sources are safe while others are not from a health point of view. Moreover some sources of water are available inside houses or inside the compound walls of the building and some sources are outside. Different sources of drinking water have been divided into six types according to health care, distance, etc. Every type of source has been explained as below:

1. Tap which is available inside the housing unit.
It means that this source (tap) is available to members of the household either inside the house unit or inside the boundary walls of the building irrespective of that the whether the water is provided through a tap from the municipal committee or through a tap of a private tube well.

2. Tap outside the housing unit.
It means that the household gets water through tap, but it is available outside the house or outside the compound walls of the building.

3. Hand pump inside housing unit hand pump is a source of getting water.
It means that a pipe is put into a deep hole in the earth and water is pumped up. If this pump is available inside the house or inside the compound walls, it will be treated as hand pump inside.

4. Hand pump outside the house.
If the water is obtained through such a hand pump which has been provided outside the building to facilitate the public then it will be treated as "hand pump outside". Sometimes the enumerators will come across such a situation when the hand pump has been fixed on a well in such a case the mark should be made against "well."

5. Well.
The well metalled or unmetalled (open or covered). The water could be taken out of it in different ways. The source of getting water underneath [Pg. 19] the earth by digging it deep down is called "well" whether the well is inside or the outside the house and compound walls of the building.

6. Pond, tank, river, spring etc, (specify).
Other sources of drinking water (e.g., tank, pond, river, spring, canals) will be entered under type 6. The enumerator has to specify in writing from which source the water is taken and then put a mark against type 6 (e.g., if the answer is that drinking water is taken from river, first write 'River' in the specified space and then put a mark in code 6).

3.10 Question No. 10. Which fuel is mainly used by this housing unit for cooking?

Different fuels are used for cooking. These types of fuel have been divided into seven types for this survey.

1. Wood: By wood we mean that type of wood which is used as fuel.

2. Coal: Coal means soft coal or hard coal which is made of specially burnt wood and is used as fuel.

3. Kerosene oil: Kerosene oil is used in different burners for cooking (e.g., stoves, such as a burner with air pressure, etc).

4. Gas: Gas as fuel is used in two ways. One way is through a pipe provided inside the housing unit, or another is gas sold in cylinders (like barchans gas). Burners are required for both types of gases.

5. Electricity: Electricity is also used as cooking fuel. Electric heaters or other such things (i.e., special burners) are necessary for this.

6. Cow dung: Coprolite made with dung of cows and buffalo are dried and generally used as fuel in rural areas.
If a household uses more than one type of fuel, then the type of fuel which is most commonly used should be entered. For example, if a household uses coal for making bread but uses kerosene oil for the rest of the cooking, then kerosene oil shall be considered main source of fuels of this household and that would be entered against code 6.
[Pg. 20]

7. Others (specify).
If none of the first six types of fuel are being used, then it would be enquired from the respondent which fuel is being used and that will be written in the specified space against 'other' and a cross will be marked on code 7. Dry leaves, husky, and core are included in such type of fuel.

3.11. Question No. 11. What does this housing unit mainly use for the lighting purpose?
Lighting arrangements have been divided in three types: (1) Electricity, (2) Kerosene oil, and (3) Other. If electricity or kerosene oil is used by some household, the corresponding one relevant code should be marked. If two sources are being used, then the source used most frequently should be marked. If a source other than these two is being used (e.g., tallow, mustard oil, candle, etc.), then the enumerator enters the source given by the respondent against question No. 11 and marks the "other" category.

Question No. 12 and 13 will be asked from the urban household.

3.12 Question No. 12. How is the garbage of this housing unit disposed of?

In rural and urban areas if the garbage is not disposed of properly it creates a problem of dirt. Therefore municipal and town committees make arrangements for disposal of garbage. In some parts of urban and suburban areas or town committees, therefore, the system for disposal of garbage has been divided in the following three types.

1. Regular municipal collection from the housing unit structure.
If there is an arrangement for collection of garbage from the main front door or back door of the housing unit by municipal committee, then a cross will be marked on code 1 of this question.

2. Garbage dumped at a filth depot from where the municipality collects it.
If the respondent replies that garbage is dumped at a filth depot outside the housing unit and employees of the municipality collect it from there, then code 2 of this question will marked.
[Pg. 21]

3. No arrangement for regular municipal collection (dumped out side house on the street, etc.)
If the answer is given that there is no arrangement for regular municipal collection but the garbage is dumped inside or outside the housing unit on the corner of road or street or thrown somewhere, then a cross will be marked on code 3 of the question.
3.13 Question No. 13. What is the type of surface of the street from where there is access to this housing unit?
Generally the housing units are built around the roads of municipal or town committees. These roads are either metalled, semi-metalled, unmetalled, or it is also possible that the municipality or town committee has given approval for the construction of roads but has not completed construction as yet and the regular road is not available up to the housing unit or the housing unit is situated at some distance where the road has not yet been built. These possibilities are included in five different categories.

1. Metalled Road (Road build with concrete or pitch.) . If the enumerator finds that the housing unit is situated at the bank of a metalled road [Pucca], then he should put a cross mark at the relevant code for 'metalled road.'

2. Semi-metalled. (Road built with stone or bricks). If it seems that housing unit in question is situated on a bank of the road built with stone or bricks, and cement or pitch has not been spread over it, then it will be treated as a semi-metalled road and the relevant box of the question will be marked.

3. Un-metalled road. The housing unit which is not situated on metalled or semi-metalled road, and where road has been built with clay will be treated as an un-metalled road [Kutcha]. In such a situation box No. 3 will be marked.

4. No regular street at all. When the housing unit is not situated on regular road and there is no regular street to reach the housing unit, then box No. 4 will be marked.

[Pg. 22]

5. Any other way (specify). If some housing unit is located at ways other then the above mentioned four types, then it will be written on the blank line and a cross will be marked on the box for type.

[Pg. 23]

Chapter-4

PARTICULARS OF THE HOUSEHOLD MEMBER (COLUMN-1 TO 7)

INTRODUCTION

401. The objective of Part-II of the questionnaire is to collect detailed information about every person pertaining to demographic, social and economic characteristics that further elaborate information regarding sex, marital status, physical disability, internal migration, educational level, economic characteristics and fertility. There are 28 columns in this part. Responses to some categories of information have been pre-coded, meaning that possible responses have been categorized and assigned special codes. The enumerator will have to write special code number in front of each entered member in the form of English digit in each column. The columns, which have not been pre-coded, will be filled in with words or digits in whatever form will be written. This should be written clearly so that no difficulty arises during securitization of the filled questionnaire/forms for further processing. There should be no entry in shaded or lined places, which will be used for entering code later.

402. Household and its Members

As has been narrated in paragraph No. 2.5, a household may either comprise a single person or a group of persons living together who have collective arrangement for taking meal. It may include relatives, friends and servant and other relatives. The collective residence (e.g., boarding house, restaurant/hotel, or other institutional places) will also be included in it, the detail of such persons considered as members of a specified household and will be entered as such and the persons who will not be treated as members of this household is given below.
[Pg. 24]

The people who will be included?

1. All persons who usually live with the household and are found present there at the time of survey.

2. All persons who usually live in the household but are temporarily not present at the time of enumeration.

3. All resident persons, servants and non relatives who live here because they work or are getting education although their permanent residence is somewhere else.

4. All such temporary guests or visitors who have no usual residence but they are found present and residing in the house at the time of the survey.

5. The Armed forces personnel will be counted at their actual residence regardless of where they live at present. The actual households mean the housing unit where they live with their spouse, children, or parents and relatives when they are not on duty.
The people who will not be included?
1. Those persons who have relationship with the head of household but their most of time is spent on some other place in connection with employment or study whether they are present there at time of survey due to leaves.

2. All those persons who are temporarily present in this household (guests/visitors etc) whose usual residence is somewhere else and there is someone to get them entered.

3. All those persons who are related to this household but who are at present residing in a mental hospital, sanatorium, jail, etc.

[Pg. 25]
4.3 Line No-1(Column-1)
There are ten lines in this part of questionnaire. One line is for every person. As such, if a household consists of ten persons they will be entered on one page. The number is already printed on each line while the 0 is printed on tenth line. The enumerator will have to write the digit 1 before 0 so that this digit on the last line becomes a 10. If the members of a household number more than ten the entry will be made on next page with continuous serial number (as 11, 12, 13, and so on) and the numbers on the line should be arranged in correct sequence. If more than one page is required for a household page No.1 will be written on first page and page No.2 will be written on the second page. The lines of next page will be numbered as 11, 12, 13 to 20, increasing by 1 digit with each written digit. (For example No.1 is written on first line of next page it has to be made 11, similarly other number will be changed simultaneously. No line will be left blank and entries of two persons will not be made on one line. If some lines are left after making entries of household then blank lines should be crossed out with a sign of (X).

4.4 Name (Column-2)
The name of every person who is considered a member of the household will be written in this column. The full name of every person should be written. If a person has short or nickname then for specifying write it also in bracket. [For example: Abduljabbar Khan (Pehalwan/wrestler)]. For uniformity in enumeration process, the same method should be adopted. The name of head of household will be written in first line for every household. Explanation of head has been given in Para 2.7. After that the name of the spouse/husband will come (provided they are alive and staying there), children of the head of household will be counted next beginning with un-married boys and girls, then married boys and girls and their [Pg. 26] husbands/wives and their children, and after that the name of other relatives, friends, resident persons and servants who live along with the household will be written respectively. It will be better for convenience that the names of all persons of the household are enquired first. It may be ensured no body has been missed. But before writing the name, it should be ascertained whether he/she is a member of the household or not according to Para 4.2. The purpose of writing the name is to see that all entries are complete and no body is being entered again. If any child is not yet named then the son/daughter of so and so should be written. If someone hesitates to tell the name of his or her women then the enumerator should not insist on asking names rather he should write as the wife/daughter of so and so. Similarly if the respondent is a women and she avoids telling the name of her husband or any other relative due to tradition and custom, then don't insist on it (mother or husband of so and so should be written).
However, for the name or nickname whichever is written it should be ascertained that his name has been written and no wrong person has been entered and no body has been entered again and record.
Note: (If a head has two wives and they live together as one household, the name of senior wife will come first, and her unmarried child and married children, thereafter his second/junior wife and her children will be written respectively.)

[Table from original document re-summarizing codes for this column omitted here.]

[Pg. 27]

4.5 Relationship to the head of household (Column-3)
Actually it is also the part of recognition of that person whose name is written in second column. The definition of head of household has been written in Para 2.7. A person lives alone will be considered head of household. If some persons live together the person declared head by them would be considered the head of the household.
The word head of household has already been entered on first line of the third column. It means the name of the person entered first will be head of the household as explained in para-4.4. Besides head, other members of the household will be entered in subsequent lines. The purpose of third column is to show that what relation they have with the head of household and this information will be inquired about every person. It will be asked to the respondent that what relation (Mr./Ms./Mrs. written in column-2) has with the (Mr./Mrs. by name head of household). After inquiring the question of relation about other members besides the head of household, whatever answer is given, the response will be entered in column-3 in front of each name (which is entered in column-2).
For example wife, husband, son, daughter, daughter in-law, sister/brother in law, nieces, grandson, friends, servant, guests and other residents, etc.)

The relationship with head of household should not be written in the shaded place of that column.

[Pg. 28]

[Table from original document re-summarizing codes for this column omitted here.]

4.6 Sex (Column-4)
Write the relevant code number. Code "1" for Male and "2" for Female. This code will be written for each person of household and every person of household will be either a male or female, the sex of effeminate will be treated as male and code-1 to will be written for him in column-4.

[Table from original document re-summarizing codes for this column omitted here.]

4.7 Age (Column-5)
The age of every person will be written in this column. It may be inquired, "what is the age of that person?" (by asking his name.) Age is the interval, which is estimated or calculated in completed years between the period of birth of person and the time of survey.

For children who are less than one year, 0 (zero) will be entered for their age. The age of every person will be counted from the starting date of survey. The child who has not attained the age of one year, his age will be written [Pg. 29] zero (0) in that column. For the person whose age cannot be known, the enumerator should try to estimate correct age of the member while reminding him memorable past historical events, these can be both local and national. For example, the date of creation of Pakistan in 14th August, 1947, Indian attack on Pakistan in September 1965, a starvation in Bengal in 1943, and an earthquake in Quetta in 1934, etc. In most of cases the correct estimate of age can be guessed with reference to the age of the different members of the household. Estimation of age is a very important task, so the enumerators will have to do hard work and use their wisdom in this connection. Sometimes it is better to guess the age of the members of household. The relation between them should be kept in view for it. It has to start from the youngest child and finish on the oldest person of the household. The age of wife/husband can be estimated from age at which they got married. The age of first child can be calculated/known by the difference of age between his parents at the time of marriage and the time of birth of first baby. The age of other children can be guessed by the intermediate interval of their birth.

4.8 Marital status (Col-No.6)
(Persons of ten years age or above)

The question should be asked about them (by entered name) whether he/she is married, unmarried, widowed or divorced. The answer of this question will be written in column-6. If a person is unmarried, code "1" will [Pg. 30] be entered for him/her, for married person code "2", for widowed code "3", and for divorced code"4" will be written in column-6. This question should not be asked of people below ten years old, and code "1" will be entered for them. "Un-married person means those who have never been married," "married are those persons who are married at that time and living like wife/husband." This includes separated persons if their wife/husband is alive and they are not divorced. The widowed are those whose wife/husband is dead and still they have not married second time. Divorced means both individuals, which have been divorced or who gave divorce and have not again married. The entry of marital status will be done in regard of present status.

[Table from original document re-summarizing codes for this column omitted here.]

4.9 Disability (Column-7)
The following questions of column-7 related to every person of household will be asked.

a. Does any person in the household (By entered names) suffer from any type of disability? If the answer is 'Yes' then ask
b. Which type of disability? Enter the relevant code of disability. Codes of disabilities are given below.
1 - Blind

2 - Deaf and dumb

3 - Crippled

4 - Others, the disability other than above mentioned disabilities

5 - None (If not find in above category
[Pg. 31]

Different types of disabilities are explained as below. If the first question of disability is NO there is a need to ask other questions about that person and code '"5" (None) will be entered in the line in which his/her name is written.

Disability means a person who has physical or organ impairment whether it is natural or due to any accident, illness, a part of his/her body became non-functional or become weaker.

According to the report of H.E.D., the disability has been divided into four categories.

1. Blindness
A person will be considered blind if he/she could not count the fingers of enumerator before him/her with or without spectacles at the distance of one foot.
2. Deaf and dumb
A person who could not speak and hear will be deaf and dumb. A man who is deaf but can speak or is dumb but can hear will also be included in this category.
3. Crippled
A person who is not able to use/move one or both hands, one or both legs permanently will be known as Crippled/lame
4. Other handicapped
First type is hindrance, Second type means that a person is not a blind, deaf and dumb but he is suffering from another type of disability for example mentally retarded, physically impaired etc. through which his normal life is disturbed

[Pg. 32]

[Table from original document re-summarizing codes for this column omitted here.]

[Pg. 33]

CHAPTER-5

Internal Migration of the Population (Column 8 to 10)

5.1 Introduction. Place of birth, duration of residing in sample areas and details of stay since Sept, 1965 will be asked in seriatim in Col 8 to 10. The purpose of enquiring it is to know the rural to urban migration stream within the country. If this information is tabulated in a meaningful manner, then it will be known what the trend of migration between rural to urban or urban to rural areas in the country was during the last eight years.

5.2 Place of birth. (District, Country) (Col 8)

This question may be asked (by entered name of respondent) in which district or country the person was born. If a person is born in any area of Pakistan then enter the name of district or agency where he was born. If he is born out of Pakistan then write only the name of the country.

Place of birth means that place where a person was born. For the purpose of this survey it can be a country or some geographic unit. If a person was born in Pakistan then the name of its administrative district or agency will be written. If a person was born in Azad Jammu and Kashmir then the name of district along with Azad Jammu and Kashmir Mirpur will also be written. Similarly the person who was born in occupied Kashmir, write name of district along with occupied Kashmir. If a person was born out of Pakistan in some other country then in such a case write only the name of the country (e.g., Iran, Turkey, U.S.A., etc.).

[Pg. 34]

5.3 Duration of continuous residence in this locality. (Sample area Col. 9)
The question will be asked of how long this member of household (by entered name) has been residing in this area (sample area). This period will be counted since that person used to live in this locality regularly and period spent till this survey. By area means present in that village, town or city in which his housing unit is situated. If he has gone out from this area on leave, business tour, for medical treatment, to see someone, etc for a few days, even then it will be considered that his stay in this area is continuous. The enumerators will write duration of residence of every member of the household in completed years. If the duration of residence is less than one year then write less than one year.

5.4 Place of residence at the time of Indian attack on Pakistan in September, 1965

Ask the question (by entered name) of where was his usual residence when India attacked Pakistan in September, 1965?
Usual residence means that geographic unit (village, town, or city) where the members of this household usually reside. By residence means living and eating together like family and usual residence means that place which is occupied by them where they can come and go at their free will without any check. If an owner of the house rents out his house or housing unit to someone on rent or without rent and as long as it is occupied by the other person that will not be treated as owner housing unit. This question will be asked about the residential status of every member of the household when India attacked Pakistan in first week of Sept, 1965. The present residence could be same as that at the time of survey and also be different. If this area is situated within the boundary of Pakistan, then enumerators will write the name of administrative district or agency where that person resided. The same will be the case for area of Azad Kashmir, Northern areas, and occupied Kashmir. The enumerator will have to indicate whether it is situated in an urban area or rural area. For urban area 'U' and for rural area 'R' will be written. If

[Pg. 35]

Multan before the Sept 1965 attack, then 'U' will be written along with Multan. Similarly, if some body was residing in rural area of Sukkur, then 'R' will be written with Sukkur.
If some person has gone out from his usual residence temporarily to see someone or for business even then this house will be considered as his place of residence and place of travel or place of business will not be entered as his usual residence.

[Pg. 36]

CHAPTER-6

Educational characteristics (for persons 5 years of age and above)

Introduction. The education of a child usually starts at the age of five years. In urban areas, particularly big cities, some children of less than 5 years age start going to school or K.G and model school. Although such children start going to school, it will be considered that they have not started their education. Hence questions on the nature of the school or college attendance or general and special education or passing high level class and special education shall be asked of those members of the household whose age is five years and above. These questions will not be asked about the children under 5 and a cross mark will be put on question 11 to 13 for them.

6.2 Literacy. Those persons who are able to read and write with understanding in any language will be considered literate. Some people learn reading/writing through education in school, code number 1 will be given to such person. However, in Pakistan quite a big number of people, without going to school or Madarsah, with their efforts, can read and write, code No. 2 will be given to such persons. Such people who can not read or write at all or can read but not write will be considered illiterate in this survey and code No. 3 will be given to such people.

6.3 School or college attendance (Code 12)
To get answer for column 12, the following questions in seriatim will have to be asked from every member of the household of ages five and above.

1. Ask (by entered name) whether the person is going to school or college.

If the answer to Question number 1 [whether attending school or college] is yes then enquire,

2. Which type of the school or college (ask by entered name) is the person attending?
a) General
b) Specialized
c) Eastern type Madarsah
[Pg. 37]
The answer to this question will be any one of the above three categories and relevant code No. 1, 2, or 3 will be entered against this person.

If the answer to Question Number 1 [whether attending school or college] is 'No' then ask the following questions.

3. Whether (ask by enter name) has left the school or college.

If the answer is 'yes' then code No. 4 will be written against the name of this person.

If the answer of this question [whether the person has left school or college] is also 'No' then ask next question.

4. Did (ask by entered name) never go to school or college for education?

If the respondent rightly gave answers to the three questions as 'No' then answer to the question should be 'yes' and in Column 12 code No. 5 should be written.

If someone gives an answer as "No" then ask the initial three questions again to get correct information.

The concept and definitions used in these columns are explained as below. These should be followed strictly.

Educational characteristics (for persons of five years and above)

School or college attendance means that a person has been going to an educational institution, Government or private, for attaining regular education. A private school or college, registered or not, where education is given under educational system and students are prepared for examination as private candidates for any level of education of educational board or university. The attendance in these schools or college will also be considered similar, provided the persons who are studying in such institutions are full time students. The attendance in any class of such schools and Madarsah will be treated as attendance of the schools where regular classes or levels under educational system are taken.

Attendance at such institutions which provide training before employment (e.g., technical training centre, P. T. (physical training teachers), C.T. (teaching certificate), J.V. (junior vernacular), S.V. (senior vernacular), B.T., B.Ed, etc.) will be treated as attendance in [Pg. 38] special educational institutions provided the duration of the full time course. The people who are attending such intuitions is six months or equivalent to it a part time course, all such persons will be considered as admitted in the institutions.

Different professional education which is not the part of any authentic educational system of the country (e.g., education given during job in-staff, college, or training centers) will not be considered equivalent to attendance in school or college for this survey. Similarly, attending a short time class, evening coaching centre, business examinations, languages and class of hobbies will also not be treated as attendance in school or college. The following institutions where there is no arrangement of education according to classes or levels will not come under the definitions of school or college.

1. Below primary, Kindergarten, Montessori, etc.
2. Adult education
3. Institution of laborers education
4. Schools of physical, mental or social education for disabled

The institutions which give on the job training will also be considered as school or college (e.g., training centre of nurses, railways training centre, training centre of post offices, National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA), government sector training institute, staff college, etc. and similar armed or semi armed intuitions).

Apprenticeships will also not be treated as attendance in a school or college. Infect attendance means that some body attending an institution with a purpose that he will attain regular education of a course under a syllabus of educational system. Although there may be some temporary break in attendance due to illness or leave. The school or college attendance has been divided into three types.

1. General
2. Specialized education
3. Madrasah education
[Pg. 39]

1. General Education. General education means primary (first to fifth class), middle (Sixth to eight class), secondary school (ninth and tenth class) and arts course and science degree, including eleventh to fourteenth class. If such students are studying in intermediate or degree colleges they will be considered as studying general education. Those students who have passed B.A. or B.S. courses (i.e., studying in thirteen and fourteen classes) of the universities, they will be considered as attaining general education.

2. Specialized education. The definition of general education given above, education besides arts, commerce ,and science given in universities will be considered as specialized education. Professional arts (technical) and Masters of every type and every level are included in it such as B.Sc. engineering, B.com. (pass honors), MBBS, or B.Ed., etc.). Moreover, higher education of arts, commerce and science in B.A. honors and B.Sc. (honor) and Masters of every subject will be treated as specialized education.

Apprenticeship before employment: Technical or professional education will also be treated as specialized education, but on job training (e.g., technical training or some other training obtained during employment) will not included in it. Degree or higher professional education (e.g., education in agricultural, veterinary, engineering, law, etc.) will also be considered specialized education.

3. Education in Madarsah. Madarsah is that place where "Imam," "Molvi," or some other teacher of the Holy Quran, and at some other places in urban or local languages give education. Madarsah is such an institution where regular education according to the Eastern system or religious education is given.

Although Madarsahs and schools are considered as educational institutions in Pakistan, they are not treated equivalent to general education special education as primary or middle or high school. Due to this reason, it is not a part of special education, but this fact cannot be ignored that education of Madarsah is also a step [Pg. 40] towards different grades of education. It requires four years initial class admission 4 to 6 years. Alam 4 or 3 complete 2 years total (16 years in total). Therefore, it is considered a different type. All students who got education in Madarsahs or school they will be kept under education in Madarsah. The people who are not getting education in any institution are of two types.

1. The people who got admission in a school or college some time earlier and studied but now has before the school or college. They will be kept under category "Left the school."

2. The people who have never attended any educational institutions for education they will be included in the category "Not attended any school."
General, specialized or the highest class/level completed through education in Madarsah Col. 13.

Information about every person of five years or above in Col. 13 will be asked. The following questions will be asked in this connection which highest grade level (ask by name of entered household member) in general, specialized or education of madarsah has completed. The people who never attended any educational institution for studies and code No. 5 has been entered in column 12 a dash may be put for such people in this box. The highest grade/class passed will be entered for them in the following way.

The highest grade/level will be entered under general education like primary, middle, metric Inter and B.A. the student who are studying in ninth or tenth class. Middle will be entered for them. The students who are studying in intermediate have passed metric, therefore metric will be entered against their names. Similarly other classes will be entered. However no name of class before completion of primary will be entered such as class II, class III or class IV (the one who has passed class V, primary will be entered for him)

[Pg. 41]

As far as specialized education is concerned, for the education level below M. A the highest grades/level will be entered along with general education provided the level of general education is highest than that is necessary for admission in specialized education (e.g., Metric, PT, Metric, J.V, Inter arts, CT, BA, S.V., Inter Science, Diploma in Engineering, MA LLB, etc.). As regards the level of general education compulsory for specialized education, there is no need for its explanation (e.g., (BA Hon) BSc (Hon) B.E, BSc (Agriculture), MBBS, etc.).

As regards the Madarssah education the completed level/grade will also be entered under it (e.g., initial, entry, Alam, Fazal, Kamal). If these levels are different in different areas than these, they may be entered as equivalent to the above mentioned level/grades. The duration of the level may be kept in view which is necessary for completion of the grade.

6.4 Field of Specialized Education (Col. 14)

The question that will be asked to be entered in col. 14 (ask by name of household member entered) is which field of specialized education the person has completed. This question will be asked from only those persons against whose name the highest level or grade of specialized education has been entered. This question will not be asked highest level or grade in "general education." A dash will be put against the names of such persons.

The details of different fields of education as these will be entered in Col. 14 are given as described below:

The enumerators will have to ask more details from the persons against whose names specialized education has been entered in Col 13 (i.e., in which specialized field or sub field of specialized education they have completed). The details of specialized fields or subfields are explained as below.

[Pg. 42]

1. Arts and Social Science.
Refers to B.A. ( Hon) or M.A. or archeology, economics, humanities, history, international relation, political science, journalism, library science, philosophy, sociology, statistics, Islamite and all other subjects which are offered under arts by the universities, the highest degrees including population, journalism, international affairs, diploma and certificate are included which are offered by the universities under fields of arts.

2. Natural Science.
Refers to B.Sc ( Hon), M.Sc, the higher degree in astrology, chemistry, biology, botany, physics, geography, gerontology, biochemistry, entomologies, geology, physics and all such other subjects which are offered under natural science by the universities.

3. Teaching and education.
Refers to B.Ed, Diploma in Physical Training, Certificate of Junior Vernacular (J.V.), Certificate in Senior Vernacular (S.V.), Certificate in teaching such courses which are offered by the teacher training colleges, universities, institutions of education and research and teacher training normal schools.

4. Law.
Refers to LLB, of that this education is attained from a Law College or some arts college.

5. Commerce and Administration.
Refers to B.Com (Hon) irrespective of that it is done from special commerce college or degree colleges of arts, commerce colleges or institutes of business administration where other degree courses are offered or such diploma or certificates in public administration, labor administration are offered which are taught in other commerce training institutes, government, or private. Besides, such subjects as accounting, banking, commerce, management and secretariat assistance and secretariats science, etc.

6. Craft Technology and Engineering.
Refers to such degree courses of engineering which are offered in engineering universities and engineering colleges. Different technique fields, technical subjects and [Pg. 43] all diploma and certificates of various handicrafts which are offered in technical training institutes for different levels.

7. Medical
Refers to MBBS or Dentist. Bachelor of dentists science ( B.D.S) and all such higher degrees or diplomas which are offered in medical colleges, pharmacy, midwifery nursing and different subjects of allopathic medicine are included, the training of which is given in the lower level training institutes. Unum Tib, I Vedic homeopathic course which are offered at related colleges come under this.

8. Agriculture, forestry and fishery.
Refers to such degree courses which are offered at agricultural universities or colleges, veterinary colleges. Institutions which give education related to forestry, including the agricultural training institute and agricultural extension institutes, schools of fisheries, forestry, or related training institutes.

9. Other special education:
Refers to other degrees, diploma, certificates of special education e.g., construction, drawing, music, calligraphy, sculpture and other arts the education of which is given arts colleges and schools colleges of social welfare education/social work. The courses of Home economics or defense science (i.e., the courses which are offered at staff college or education given in other defense colleges) are included in this category.

The enumerator will have to write the special subject of specialized education and its other rule types wherever applicable (e.g., engineering, mechanical, engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, meteorology, mining, schools of georgic agriculture and forestry, etc.). Where there is no subtype enter in col. 13 the name of subject (e.g., philosophy, history economics, political science).

[Pg. 44]

CHAPTER 7
Part-I

7.1 Introduction
Economic Characteristics ( Col 15-21)

The subject of economic characteristics plays important role in economic planning of every country. The information which will be produced in this part of the survey, its right analysis will be helpful in economic development of the country's labour force.

7.2 The purpose of questions framed in this part of the survey is to know whether the persons whose ages have been entered in Col. 2 as ten years or above are included in labor force or not, employed or unemployed. If employed, in which occupation and industries they are engaged, their employment status, and how many hours they work in a week; and if they are unemployed, for how long they had been unemployed etc., etc. will be enquired.

7.3 The details of types of economic characteristics which population of ten years and above may consist is given in the sketch as below:

Population After 10 years and above

Not in labour force:
-Other pensioner/Rent receiver
-Student
-Housekeeper
-Disabled
Labour Force
Unemployed:
-Work ensured but not started as yet expected to start with in thirty days
-Temporarily laid off not more than thirty days
-Able to work and looking for work
Employed:
-Employed but not working
-Working

[Pg. 45]

The different terminologies mentioned in the sketch, its details are given in following paragraphs. It is necessary for the enumerators that they understand various definitions before collecting information in Col. 15-21.

7.4 Labor force (employed-unemployed).
Labor force means, those persons ten years and above who were employed during the last week or they were unemployed.

7.5 Employed:
Employed means those persons of ten year or above age who have been working for cash or kind doing the last week.

a) The unpaid family helpers who worked for more than fifteen hours during the week will also be included.
b) Although they are employed but could not work during the last week due to sickness, injury, industrial dispute, leave or bad weather or because of closure of industry due to mechanical faults or this type of other reasons.

7.6 Working: was working means, a person remained busy in some kind of work for pay or profit. This includes all those persons who last week:

a) Was working in a firm or institution on wage or salary. The wage may be in cash or kind ( i.e., as food, place for residence or provision of other things) or in the shape of commission or TIP. There is no time/hours limit on it.
b) Work on his own agricultural land or work for his business or occupation for pay and profit and have also have time or hours limit.
c) Work on his family's agriculture farm, shop or business without any wage provided he worked for fifteen hours or more during the last week.
[Pg. 46]

The following persons will not be included in it.

a) Who were unemployed

b) Who were busy in House keeping

c) Who were studying

d) Who were not able to work

e) Other persons e.g., pensioner or rent receiver, agricultural land owner , unpaid family helper who worked for less than fifteen hours during the last week, those persons who work honorary out of family business, persons engaged in unlawful and unethical professions and armed forces personnel, etc

7.7 Employed but did not work

Employed but did not work means that the person concerned had job during the last week but he did not work due to sickness, due to injury, industrial dispute, leave or bad weather or temporary closure of the factory due to mechanical faults.

7.8 Occupation, industry and employment status of the employed persons

All those persons who were employed or who were on job during last week but they did not work due to some temporary reasons. The details of their occupation industry and employment status is given in sections 7.9-7.15. The entries will be done according to these details.

7.9 Occupation.

By occupation in fact means the nature of work in which that person was busy during the last week. Those persons who were employed but they did not work last week. The last work will be treated as their occupation.

[Pg. 47]

7. 10 Industry

By this means that business or industry in which that person was working. The industry represent the work in which that thing is prepared. Any type of service is being provided or some business is being done e.g., wholesale/retail shop, insurance, mining or railway.

7. 11 Employment status

By employment status means the status in which a person was working Generally there are four types of employment status which are as below:

1. Employer
2. Self employed
3. Employee
4. Unpaid family helpers

7.12 Employer

Employer means that person who work for his own business or his own agricultural land and who has employed one or more persons for help at his business agricultural land or his occupation during the last week.

7.13 Own business or self employed

By own business or self employed means that person who work for his own business/agricultural land or occupation and who has not hired somebody for help at his own business/agricultural land or occupation on cash or kind

7.14 Employee

Employee means that person who works for somebody on salary, wages, tip or commission which may be in cash or kind.

7.15 Unpaid family helpers

Unpaid family worker is that person who worked for fifteen hours or more on some family agricultural land or business without pay or profit.

[Pg. 48]

7.16 Un-employed

Unemployed are those persons whose ages are ten years or above:

a) who were able to work during the last week and worked for pay and profit
b) Were suspended temporarily but duration of suspension was less than thirty days
c) Assured a job but has not started work as yet and waiting for going to work at new place within thirty days

7.17 Able to work and looking for work

It means that a person was able to work during last week and was looking for work or was trying to run his own business or occupation or waiting for results of the following efforts.

a) Got registration in some employment exchange
b) Personally applied to some expected employer
c) Searching for a job through applying in response of advertisement
d) Applied for different jobs
e) On job apprenticeship
f) Making some other efforts in search of job

Experience is not necessary for searchers of work, experienced and in experienced are included in it (i.e., those who are searching job for the first time).

[Pg. 49]

7.18 Temporarily suspended for less than thirty days

It means that a person was not working during last week because he was temporarily suspended and he was hopeful that he will return to his earlier job with in thirty days.

7.19 He was assured a job but has not started it as yet

It means that a person has been assured a job he did not start the work but he is hopeful that he will get the work within thirty days.

7.20 Not in labour force

Those people will not be considered in the labour force who are of ten years and above and they neither worked during the last week for pay or profit nor worked for a family business or form without wage as unpaid family helper for fifteen years or more. They were also not looking for work. They are the following types of people.

a) Not able to work
b) House keeping
c) Studying
d) Others e.g., those who work as unpaid family helper for less than fifteen hours, did not work altogether. Not looking for work because they did not expect that they will get a job. Working in some other than family business. Pensioner, owner of agriculture land, landlord people engaged in unlawful/unethical occupations (e.g., beggars thieves, etc.).

7.21 Not Able to work

It means such a person who being aged or due to physical or mental disability or prolonged illness has permanently become disabled to work.

[Pg. 50]

7.22 Housekeeping

By house keeper means such a person whose most of the time was spent in house keeping during the last week. It does not means that the person remained physically busy in cooking, washing clothes or other house work rather a women who spent her most of the time in looking after the children during the last week should be entered as house keeper. It is to be remembered that there could be many housekeepers in a family, e.g., mother and daughter both may be responsible for different works of a house and ( a male of the house can also be house keeper). Private servants who work in house will not be considered as housekeeper but they will be treated as worker because they are paid wages for this work.

If a woman, in addition to housekeeping worked for pay or profit during the last week, there is no limit of hours or fifteen hours or more worked for some family business as unpaid family helper . She will be treated as worker and will not be entered as housekeeper.

7.23 Studying

By standing means that person who was studying in some Govt. or private educational institution, professional or technical institution during the last week and he did not earn any pay or profit.

Fellow ship or educational stipend will not be treated as salary or wage.
Those persons who are studying but were not attending their institutions due to sickness, leave, or holidays will also be considered as studying. Those persons who are employed and during employment are getting some training and they get some salary or part of salary in cash or kind for this work will be considered as worker. Similarly the teachers and other employee who are getting salary or wages will not be treated as studying rather they will be considered as worker.

[Pg. 51]

CHAPTER-7
(PART-2(


INSTRUCTION FOR ENUMERATORS

7.24 Prior to making entries related to column-15-22, it is imperative for enumerator to keep in mind the definitions that are explained in Para 7.3 to 7.23.

7.25 For every person (10 years of age and above) of the household whose name has been entered in column-2, it may be asked, did he work during the last week for pay or wages or did he have work, but did not work during last week, or did he work for 15 or more hours as an unpaid family helper, or did he work as an unpaid family helper. Working and had a job but did not work has been defined in Para No.7.6 and 7.7. If responses to these questions are affirmative, then write code-1 in column-15 and get the information about the columns 16-18. If the response is negative, write code-2 and then make an entry in column-17.

[Pg. 52]

7.26 The economic status of household members who are temporarily absent may be determined through responses of respondents and examples are given below.

1) If a person of the household has gone out on official tour or business, then it will be considered that he had been working since last week and code-1 will be written in that column. His common profession, industry, business level and weekly working timing will be entered in column 16, 17, 18 and 19.

2) If a person of the household has gone to see his relatives, or on trip or participating in the marriage ceremony and before going there he was working, then he will be considered on work even he did not work last week, the code-1 will be written in that column. His general profession, industry, occupational status will be entered in column 16, 17, 18 but the working hours will be written "NIL" in column 19.

3) If an outgoing person was in search of work before going out then he will not be considered as worker, rather treated as looking for work and code-2 will be entered in that column and code-1 will be entered in column 20.

4) If a person of the household went out for other purpose besides looking for work and before going out he was not working and not in search of work, either he was family helper or under studying then he will neither be considered as worker and nor as looking for work. Code-2 will be entered in that column and in front of him code-5 will be entered in column-20.

7.27 Question No.16
This question will be asked from those persons of the household who are working or had the job but did not work and from those respondents against whom code-1 has been entered in column 15.

The respondent may be asked that what type of work he had been doing last week. If he had work but he did not work last week then it will be enquired that what type of work he had but did not work.

If the respondent tells that more than one type of work is done and inform his actual [Pg. 53] profession, the work will be written on which most of time was spent. The answer to this question may acquire in such a way that his profession/job may be explained fully.

The doubtful and common answers may not be entered. Sometime a worker does not know about name of his job but he can explain that what type of work he is doing. The enumerator has to enter correct nature of job or profession. By writing generally some words (for work) or the name of instruments he is using in job. This goal can be achieved.

The ambiguous entries (e.g., employment, labour, driver, conductor, etc.) will not be entered. The following examples will explain how the entries should be made:

"Agent" Tell whether he is a premium agent, commission agent, customer agent or agent of advertisements.
"Engineer" Tell whether he is Civil engineer, Mining engineer, Electrical engineer, Chemical engineer, Mechanical engineer, Ship engineer, aeronautical engineer, etc.
"Clerk" It may be written whether he is stenographer, typist, cashier, bookkeeper, postman, calculating machine operator, electronic computer operator, train dispatcher, radio, telephone operator, correspondent clerk, insurance clerk, store room clerk, statistical clerk, travel agency clerk, library clerk, proof reader, card and tap punching machine operator, etc.
"Manager" It may be written whether he is a restaurant manager, hotel manager, cinema manager, wholesale manager, munshi of lawyer, retailer manager, farm manager, sales manager, and transport manager, etc.
"Salesman" Tell whether he is an insurance salesperson, advertising salesperson, wholesale salesperson, retailer salesperson, hawker, or newspaper seller, etc. and also ask whether the laborer of factory is related to spinner, dying worker, cigar /cigarette maker, electro platter or machine maker etc.
"Driver" Tell whether he is railway driver, tram driver, taxi driver, bus driver, tonga driver, sailor, driver of unmoved engine, crane operator, lifter, etc.
[Pg. 54]
"Mechanic" Tell whether he is motor truck driver or cycle motorcycle mechanic; textile mechanic; watch maker; or radio, television, telephone, and telegraph mechanic, etc.
"Laborer" Tell whether he is the laborer of train, seaport, sweeper or dry port.
"Inspector" Tell whether he is the inspector of health, excise, income tax, police, food or electricity, etc.

7.28 Industry
The nature of industry or business is determined by the manufacturing or making of products, which are made in any establishment (i.e., firm, mining, and field) where a man worked, or if he did not work during last week, but he did earlier.

If a firm or establishment has more than [Pg. 55] one composition, the nature of industry will be determined by its major produce of its mostly working level. The difference between industry and occupation will be clarified in the following examples.

Example 1
Occupation (Column 16): Agriculture Farmer or Cultivator
Nature of Job: Sugar-cane crop, grain crop, fruits and vegetables crop and wheat, rice maize sugar cane, edible/oil seeds etc., also cultivation of fruit and vegetables are included in it.
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Agriculture

Example 2
Occupation (Column 16): Rearing the Live-stock
Nature of Job: The breeding and progeny of cattle whether it is for meet or for wool, fur, etc., and milk and its product will also be included in it.
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Breeding and look after of cattle

Example 3
Occupation (Column 16): Carpenter
Nature of Job: Wooden Furniture
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Furniture and artificer in wood work

Example 4
Occupation (Column 16): Carpenter
Nature of Job: Artifice /making of railway carriage
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Railway Transportation

Example 5
Occupation (Column 16): Truck Driver
Nature of Job: Goods carrier
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Transportation, Truck

Example 6
Occupation (Column 16): Porter(Coli) (Unskilled laborer who works in food market)
Nature of Job: Carrier of goods in wholesale trade of food
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Whole sale and retail trade

Example 7
Occupation (Column 16): Porter(Coli) (Unskilled laborer who works at a bus stop)
Nature of Job: Road Transportation
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Transportation

Example 8
Occupation (Column 16): Laborer (Mason) (Unskilled laborer who works in construction)
Nature of Job: Construction of building
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Construction

Example 9
Occupation (Column 16): Carpenter (power loomed)
Nature of Job: Carpet/machine manufacturing
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Carpet/machine manufacturing

Example 10
Occupation (Column 16): Carpenter (Maker of agricultural tools)
Nature of Job: Manufacturer of agricultural tools
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Manufacturing of agricultural tools

Example 11
Occupation (Column 16): Salesman
Nature of Job: Cloth market, shoes market sweet, departmental store
Industry (entry to be made in Col. 17): Wholesale and retail business

[Pg. 56]

Write the occupation and industry in detail so that it could be recognized correctly.

7.29 Enquire from respondent the status of his employment. The definition of employment is given in sections 7.11 to 7.15. Write code 1 in this column in case of employer, if he/she is employee the code 2, and for self employed code 3 will be entered. If he/she is an unpaid family helper, then code 4 may be written. If a person had work but he did not work last week then enquire from him what was the status of employment when he had work and write the code according to that status.

Column 18
Did he/she work as :

1. Employer
2. Employee
3. Self employed
4. Unpaid family helper?
7.30 For instance if a man keeps/hires employees A and B for wages/pay or for their aid farming a cash crop in his own land and his sons C and D worked unpaid in his land and [the man] himself worked then his status will be as employer. The position of A and B will be as employee and C and D will be as unpaid family helper provided both worked more than fifteen hours in last week.

If a man works in his own land and he has not hired any employee then his employment status will be self-employed as though his family members are unpaid family helpers for him without any reward. Sometime the enumerator can face difficulty determining [Pg. 57] the level of employment of the people who are working under different employers. However, it should be kept in mind that [if] the employers determine the timing of work of employees then their [the employees] position will be as employee otherwise they will be considered as self-employed.

It has been further elaborated in below.

Occupation: Unskilled laborer who works in food market
Industry: Trade
Nature of job: He works in food market for fixed hours and timing of work is determined by employer
Status of Employment: Employee

Occupation: Unskilled laborer who works in food market
Industry: Transportation
Nature of job: The people give him wages for the service of carrying the goods from one place to other or he loads and unloads the goods and his timing has not be determined by anyone he works own his way
Status of Employment: Self-employed

Occupation: Laborer (Mason) (Unskilled laborer who work in construction)
Industry: Construction
Nature of job: He works on contract basis and gets wages proportion to work without fixed time
Status of Employment: Self-employed

Occupation: Laborer (Mason) (Unskilled laborer who work in construction)
Industry: Construction
Nature of job: His timing of work is fixed by the employer and he has to work within fixed time
Status of Employment: Employee

Occupation: Porter (Coli) (Unskilled laborer who work in Bus stop)
Industry: Transportation
Nature of job: He loads/unloads and looks after the luggage of passengers and his timing of laboring is not fixed
Status of Employment: Self-employed

Occupation: A water carrier (Unskilled laborer who provide water in the houses and shops)
Industry: Self-service
Nature of job: He provides the water at different houses and shops and he gets laboring according to quantity of water his timing of laboring is not fixed
Status of Employment: Self-employed

Occupation: A Water carrier (Unskilled laborer who works in construction)
Industry: Construction
Nature of job: He is employed for providing water in a construction company and his timing of laboring is fixed and he works daily and his work time is compulsory.
Status of Employment: Employee

[Pg. 58]

7.31 Enter the hours here as the respondent worked last week. If a man spent time on more than one jobs, the spending hours as whole on profession/sub-profession will be written here. If a man had job but he did not work last week, the enumerator will has to enter 'NIL' in that case.

7.32 Generally, exaggeration is made in telling the timing of work during the last week while the respondent is working in agriculture or doing his own business, in this case, general response is that he/she has been working from morning to evening. In such case the enumerator should judge the correct time spent by the respondent on his job. The time spent on eating, rest and others matters should not be included in this case (in working time).

7.33 This question will be asked to those persons for whom code-2 is entered in col-15, it mean that they were neither working nor had the job during last week.

1 Able to work and looking for work If he/she was able to work and looking for work/job
2 Temporarily suspended for 30 days If he/she was suspended for less than 30 days on temporary basis
3 Job assured but work not started If he/she has been assured the job but he did not start the work as yet, provided the interval between assurance and starting work should not be more than 30 days.
4 Unable to work If he/she is unable to work
[Pg. 59]
5 Others If he/she is not included in above four categories, rather he/she is house wife/husband, under education, aged, disable, pensioner, property owner, proprietor of agricultural land and doesn't work him/herself. Unpaid family helper who did work for less than 15 hours and assured to get job or performing the duty honorary basis besides his family business elsewhere. Here such people will be entered who are involved in unethical or illegal occupation for instance thief, prostitute, etc.

The different terminologies that are used here, have been interpreted/elaborated in sections 7.15 to 7.23 .

[Pg. 60]

7.34 This question will be enquired to those people who told that they were able to work and looking for job and code 1 was entered in column 20. The man who is unemployed for days and looking for job, his total unemployment tenure will be written in months and years in column 21. This period (of unemployment) will be counted from that time when he was actually in search of a job until the date of survey. If an interval arises during the job searching period, then the latest tenure in which he has been searching for a job should be entered. For instance, [if] a man had a job for more than 14 days or stopped searching for a job and an interval is created between total periods [of unemployment], then in such case the period after the interval until the survey will be entered. It can be explained with an example that A and B are two persons who were employed in same factory and discharged themselves from the job since August 31, 1966. Thereafter they got a job on September 16, 1966 but again their jobs ended/expired on September 26 and September 30, 1966 respectively. In such condition, the period of unemployment of B since October 1, 1966 and of A since September 1, 1966 will be counted. Because A had got the job for less than 29 days this period is not considered unemployment interval. Therefore, counting of his [A's] unemployment period will be considered since September 1, 1966 instead of September 27, 1966 (although he was unemployed on September 27, 1966).

[Pg. 61]

CHAPTER-8

Children Born ( for ever married women) Col 22-28

Introduction. The questions which are being asked in part II of the questionnaire from Col 22-28 have been copied below. Their purpose is to estimate facility level which plays important role in rapidly increasing population of Pakistan.

[Image of the "Children Born" section (columns 22 through 28) of the enumeration form from original document omitted here.]

Entries in columns 22 to 28 will be for women who are currently married or who are ever married. In other words, the information will be provided about those women for whom, in Col. 6, married (code 2), widow (code 3) or divorced (code 4) has been entered.

[Pg. 62]

8.2 Age at first marriage (Col 22)

For a woman who has been entered as married in Col. 6, it will generally be her first marriage, but such a situation may also come up that this marriage is the second, third or more. Similarly the women for whom "widow" or "divorced" has been entered in Col. 6, it could be after her first marriage or she might have married many times before being divorced and now she is "widow" or "divorced" but in Col. 4 the age at which she married the first time will be entered. If some woman had married more than once the ages at other marriages will not be entered.
Since it is a touchy and sensitive question, in order to get an accurate answer the enumerators should be polite and humble in asking the question and be careful that the respondent may not get offended due to his minor mistake. The enumerator should adopt the following ways for obtaining this information.

If the marital status of a women has been shown, in Col 6, as married then the enumerator (in a proper way) should determine whether this is her only marriage and after it ask this question

1) What was age of Mrs. X/Y when she got married?

If the enumerator observes that the present marriage is not her first marriage then the question may be asked,

2) What was the age of Mrs. X/Y when she got married first? (which occurred somewhere else).

Similarly if the women is presently entered as widow or divorced then enumerator should try to know that whether it was her only marriage before being widowed or divorced. If it is not the case then the above mentioned question 2 may be asked. The enumerator should try to assess the accurate age which is given by the respondent. According to the existing law since 1960, a woman of less than 14 years age can not be married but sometimes the women get married at age less than fourteen years. Therefore if a [Pg. 63] woman says that she got married at age less than fourteen years then the enumerator should assess the accurate age by asking the related questions.

8.3 Children ever born

Col 23. The following questions must be asked, the answer of which shall be entered in this column. "How many (total) boys were born to Mr. X/Y?"
Total boys means the boys which were born to a women during reproductive age (until the time of enumeration) the still births are not included in this question. The number which is written is this Col. will be only boys born alive irrespective of whether the boys were born during the current marriage or earlier marriages, whether they are alive at present or dead, and whether they were somewhere else at the time the entries were made.

8.4 Number of children who are still living (Col 24)

The following questions will be asked in order to know the number of children still living. How many children, out of those born alive, are still living?

The boys still living, this will include all laps, who are either member of this household or live far away or nearby this household. The boys from the earlier marriages of women will also be included.

8.5 How many girls were born (Col 25)

The following questions will be asked to get information in this connection. How many girl born means, all those girls which were born to the woman concerned during her reproductive age until the date of enumeration. Tthis does not include still born girls. The number written in this column will be of girls born alive. They may be from present marriage or from earlier marriages, alive or dead and they might be present or somewhere else on the date entries were made on the questionnaire.

[Pg. 64]

8.6 Number of girls still living (Col 26)

The following questions will be asked to get this number. How many girls out of total girls born to Mrs. X/Y are still living? The girls still living will include all the girls who are members of this household or who have married and they live with their husbands somewhere else. The girls born from the earlier marriages of the women will also be included.
The entries in columns 23 to 26 will be made in digits. If there is no entry in any column put dash for it in the relevant column.

8.7 Duration since last live birth (Col 27-28)

The reason for asking the duration since occurrence of last live birth is to determine the duration spent by a married women after last live birth. This question will be asked from all the women who are married at the moment or widowed or divorced. This question will be asked in such a way.

"What is the duration since last live birth of Mrs. X/Y?"

This duration actually consists of the period when a last live birth boy or girl occurred to a married women and period will be counted up to the date of enumeration, irrespective of whether he [the child] is alive at the time of enumeration or not and he [the child] is living as a member of the household or living somewhere else. If after the last live birth the women became pregnant and miscarried then this period will not be counted and the duration will be counted from occurrence of last live birth. Intervening duration will be written in completed years or months. If, at the date of enumeration, the age of last live born baby was 5 years and 6 months then this duration will be 5 years seven months. Five will be written in the years box and 7 will be written in the months box. If the age of the baby is less than one year (e.g., 8 months and 10 days), then his age will be considered as 8 months. A dash will be filled in Col. 27 and the digit 8 will be entered in Col. 28. If no baby has ever been born to that woman then a dash will be put in Col. 23-28.