Census of Population: 1995
Republic of the Philippines
September 1, 1995 has been designated as Census Day for the POPCEN. More specifically, a person is included in the population count if he is alive at 12:01 a.m. of September 1, 1995.
The POPCEN involves the listing of buildings, housing units or institutional living quarters and households and the enumeration of household and institutional populations. This chapter describes the basic units of listing and enumeration in the POPCEN. It also provides guidelines on how to identify these units during the field enumeration of the census.
This chapter also discusses the concepts pertaining to the data items included in the POPCEN, particularly those on disability, highest grade completed, trade skills, and economic activity.
You should refer to this chapter as often as may be necessary for you to fully understand the concepts, terms used and data requirements for the census.
A household is a social unit consisting of a person living alone or a group of persons who sleep in the same housing unit and have a common arrangement in the preparation and consumption of food.
In most cases, a household consists of persons who are related by kinship ties, like parents and their children. In some instances, several generations of familial ties are represented in one household while, still in others, even more distant relatives are members of the household.
Household helpers, boarders, and non-relatives are considered as members of the household provided they sleep in the same housing unit and have common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food and do not usually go home to their family at least once a week.
A group of unrelated individuals, as in the case of a group of students or workers, who decide to rent a place and make common arrangements for the preparation and consumption of their food constitutes one household.
Usually, a household is the entire group of persons who customarily live in the same housing unit. However, there are cases when two or more distinct family groups or groups of unrelated persons maintain separate food arrangements even though they share one housing unit. Each of these two or more distinct groups constitutes a household.
A person who shares a housing unit with a household but separately cooks his meals or consumes his food elsewhere is not considered a member of the household with whom he shares the housing unit. That person should be listed as a separate household.
As a rule, if two groups of individuals prepare and consume their meals together but sleep in separate housing units: then the two groups constitute two different households. An exception is that of children who are still economically dependent on. their parents but live in separate but adjacent housing units for convenience; they are considered member of their parents' household. However, if the children are economically independent, they should be listed as a separate household.
A housing unit is a structurally separate and independent place of abode which, by the way it has been constructed, converted, or arranged, is intended for habitation by a household.
Structures or part of structures which are not intended for habitation such as commercial, industrial, and agricultural buildings, or man-made shelters such as caves, boats, abandoned trucks, culverts, etc., but which are used as living quarters by households, are also considered as housing units. The place of abode of an institutional population is not called a housing unit; it is referred to as institutional living quarters.
A building is defined as any structure built, designed or intended for the enclosure, shelter or protection of any person, animal or property. It consists of one or more rooms and/or other spaces, covered by a roof and
usually enclosed within external walls or with common dividing walls with adjacent buildings, which usually extend from the foundation to the roof.
Residential buildings are buildings which, by the way they have been designed or constructed, are intended for abode such as single houses, multiunit residential buildings, etc.
Non-residential buildings are buildings which have been designed or constructed for purposes other than for abode. These include commercial, industrial and agricultural buildings such as offices, rice mills, bams, etc.; and other non-residential buildings such as churches, etc.
Institutional population comprises persons who are found living in institutional living quarters. They may have their own families or households elsewhere but at the time of the census they are committed or confined in institutions, or they live in institutional living quarters and are usually subject to a common authority or management, or are bound by either a common public objective or a common personal interest.
The following are considered as institutional living quarters
2. Hospitals and Nurses' Homes
3. Welfare Institutions
4. Corrective and Penal Institutions
5. Convents, Nunneries, Seminaries and Boarding Schools
6. Military Camps and Stations
7. Logging, Mining and Construction/Public Works Camps
8. Ocean-going and Inter island/Coastal Vessels
9. Refugee Camps
For purposes of POPCEN, only those buildings which contain living quarters, whether occupied or vacant, are to be listed and assigned a building serial number.
Living quarters are structurally separate and independent places of abode. They may:
2. actually being used at the time of POPCEN, although not intended for habitation.
More specifically, the buildings to be listed are the following:
2. Vacant residential buildings except those which are open to elements; that is, the roof, walls, windows, and/or doors no longer protect the interior from wind and rain as a result of fire, deterioration or vandalism.
3. Vacant deteriorated residential buildings which show some signs that deterioration is being prevented to some extent such as when windows and/or doors are covered with wood, metal, or other materials to keep them from being destroyed or to prevent entry into the building or secondary posts are added to prevent it from collapsing.
4. New residential buildings which are still not occupied or still under construction, if at the time of the visit, the roof and walls are already in place.
5. Residential buildings which are presently not occupied by a household but are used for purposes other than as residence, provided they still have one or more vacant housing units.
Example: An apartment building with 3 units, two of which are used as business offices and the other one is vacant.
7. Non-residential buildings presently occupied by a household.
8. Non-residential buildings which have one or more vacant housing units with complete facilities for cooking, dining, sleeping, with or without inner partitions.
9. Other structures not intended for human habitation but are presently occupied by a household such as caves, old railroad cars, old buses, culverts, trailers* barges, boats, etc.
Normally, a housing unit is intended for habitation by one household. However, in some cases, two or more households share the same housing unit as their place of habitation. The building may have more than one housing unit, but from its physical layout the other housing units may not be discernible.
A portion of a building (a room or a group of rooms) qualifies as a separate housing unit if it meets two criteria, namely:
2. Direct access -- the portion of the building can be accessed directly from the outside of the building (the occupants enter from the street, pathway, alley, callejon, road, yard, catwalk, etc.) or through a common hall; i.e., one can enter the portion of the building without passing through anybody else's premises.
Figure 2 shows two examples of the direct access criterion.
Figure 2. Illustrations of direct access
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Illustrations of housing units are given below for a better understanding of the guidelines on how to identify them in a building.
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3. A house has two levels. The first floor of the house is subdivided into two units, each having a separate entrance from the outside: The access to the second floor is the stairs in the living room of one of the units on the first floor.
This house has two (2) housing units, one is the unit on the ground floor covering only the area which has a bedroom, a kitchen and a toilet and bath, and the other one is the unit covering the rest of the ground floor and the entire second floor. Note that in this case, the second floor cannot be considered as a separate housing unit even
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The POPCEN will list the following housing units:
2. Occupied or vacant housing units in multi-unit residential buildings such as duplex, accessoria, row houses, condominiums, tenement houses, townhouses, etc.
3. Occupied barong-barong or shanties.
4. Vacant housing units in residential buildings used for purposes other than residential.
5. Housing units which are still under construction, but the roof and walls are already in place.
6. Occupied housing units in institutional living quarters such as hotels, motels, dormitories, lodging houses, seminaries, mental hospitals, etc.
7. Occupied housing units in non-residential buildings such as offices, rice mills, barns, churches, etc.
8. Vacant housing units with complete facilities for cooking, dining, and sleeping, in institutional living quarters and non-residential buildings.
10. Occupied improvised housing units in structures such as culverts, abandoned trucks, caves, container vans, tents, railroad cars.
The following are to be excluded from the POPCEN listing of housing units:
2. Vacant housing units which are open to elements; that is, when the roof and the walls no longer provide protection from the wind and rain and there are no signs that deterioration is being prevented.
3. Vacant housing units which are being demolished.
4. Vacant housing units in institutional living quarters and non-residential buildings without complete facilities for cooking, dining and sleeping.
5. Vacant mobile housing units such as boats, trailers.
6. Structures such as culverts, abandoned trucks, caves, container vans, tents, railroad cars, etc. which had been used as improvised housing unit or place of abode in the past but are vacant at the time of visit.
In delineating household membership, a basic criterion is the usual place of residence or the place where the person usually resides. This may be the same or different from the place where he is found at the time of the census. As a rule, it is the place where he usually sleeps.
The following individuals are to be included as members of a household:
2. Family members who are overseas workers and who are away at the time of the census are considered members of the household.
b) on vacation, business/pleasure trip or study/training abroad and are expected to be back within a year from time of departure;
c) working or attending school in some other place but comes home at least once a week;
d) confined in hospitals for a period of not more than six (6) months at the time of enumeration; except when they are confined as inmates of mental hospitals, leprosaria or leper colonies, drug rehabilitation centers, etc.;
e) detained in national/provincial/city/municipal jails or in military camps for a period of not more than six (6) months at the time of enumeration;
f) training with the Armed Forces of the Philippines if training is not more than 6 months;
g) on board coastal, inter-island or fishing vessels within Philippine territories; or
h) on board ocean-going vessels but are expected to come home.
5) Citizens of foreign countries, excluding members of diplomatic missions and non-Filipino members of international organizations, but including Filipino Bahkbayans who have resided or are expected to reside in the Philippines for more than a year from their arrival.
6) Persons temporarily staying with the household who have no usual place of residence or who are not certain to be enumerated elsewhere.
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The following persons are considered members of the institutional population:
2. Dormitory residents who do not go home at least once a week
3. Hotel residents who have stayed more than 6 months at the time of the census
4. Boarders in residential houses, provided that their number is ten (10) or more. (Note: If the number of boarders in a household is less than 10, they will be considered members of that household and not of an institutional population)
5. Patients in hospitals who are confined for more than 6 months
6. Wards in orphanages
7. Inmates of penal colonies or prison cells
8. Priests and seminarians in seminaries, nuns in convents
9. Soldiers residing in military camps
10. Workers in mining and similar camps
The following persons are not considered as members of the institutional population and should be included in the households to which they belong:
2. Managers (and members of their households) of refugee camps, dormitories, hotels, hospitals, etc., who occupy and regularly use as their place of abode living quarters in the institutions that they manage.
3. Priests who, together with their relatives and/or household help, occupy and regularly use as their place of abode a living quarter in the church or seminary.
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The POPCEN will enumerate all living persons as of 12:01 a.m. September 1, 1995 and who are:
2. Filipino nationals who are on board coastal, interisland, fishing or ocean-going vessels or are temporarily abroad as of census date;
3. Filipino overseas workers as of census date;
4. Philippine government officials, both military and civilian, including Philippine diplomatic personnel and their families, assigned abroad; and
5. Civilian citizens of foreign countries having their usual residence in the Philippines or foreign visitors who have stayed or are expected to stay for at least a year from the time of their arrival in this country.
Boundary cases should be treated as follows:
The enumerator interviewed the Reyes household on September 10, 1995 and he was told that Mario died on September 4, 1995. The enumerator should include Mario along with other members of the household because he was still alive on September 1, 1995, which is the reference day of the census.
2. A person who died before or at exactly 12:01 A.M. on September 1, 1995, should be excluded from the enumeration. Example: Anselmo Gaspar died from a heart attack at midnight (12:00 P.M.) of August 31, 1995. The enumerator should not include Anselmo as a household member of the Gaspar household. He was no longer
3. A baby born before or at exactly 12:01 A.M. of September 1, 1995 should be included in the enumeration.
4. A baby born after 12:01 A.M., September 1, 1995 should be excluded from the enumeration.
The following persons are excluded from enumeration even though they happen to be within the territorial jurisdiction of the Philippines at the time of the POPCEN enumeration:
2. Citizens of foreign countries living within the premises of an embassy, legation, chancellery or consulate;
3. Citizens of foreign countries who are chiefs or officials of international organizations like United Nations (UN), International Labor Organization (ILO), Asian Development Bank (ADB), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the US Agency for International Development (USAID) who are subject to reassignment to other countries after their tour of duty in the Philippines, and members of their families;
4. Citizens of foreign countries together with non-Filipino members of their households, who are students or who are employed, or have business in the Philippines but who are expected to stay in the country for less than a year from arrival;
5. Citizens of foreign countries and Filipinos with usual place of residence in a foreign country who are visiting the Philippines and who have stayed or are expected to stay in the country for less than a year from arrival;
7. Residents of the Philippines on vacation, pleasure or business trip, study or training, etc. abroad who have been away or are expected to be away from the Philippines for more than a year from departure.
Important note: Although the persons listed above are not to be enumerated, persons working for them or living with them may be among those who should be included according to the rules of enumeration. Watch out for such cases and be sure to enumerate them.
The head of the household is an adult person, male or female, who is responsible for the organization and care of the household or who is regarded as such by the members of the household.
Each member of the household has a specific relationship to the head by virtue of his presence in the household. Such relationship may or may not be based on kinship. In the interpretation of relationship, "children* of the head are the sons/daughters of the head, regardless of age or marital status. A married son, who together with the members of his family, is a member of his father's household and should be reported as "son" and his wife and children, "daughter-in-law", and "grandson/granddaughter" of the household head, respectively. "Other relatives" include such relatives as parents-in-law, cousins, grandparents, sisters/brothers-in-law, etc. Members of the household who are related to the head by blood or affinity but who are boarders, or household helpers should be considered as boarders or domestic helpers, as the case may be.
Disability refers to any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being.
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Impairments associated with disabilities may be physical, mental or sensory motor impairment such as partial or total blindness and deafness, muteness, speech defect, orthopedic handicaps, and mental retardation.
In the POPCEN, ethnicity of an individual is synonymous to the mother tongue or the language/dialect spoken at home at earliest childhood.
Highest grade completed refers to the highest grade or year completed in school, college or university as of September 1, 1995. Data on highest grade completed furnish material for a comparison of the present educational levels of the adult population with the present and anticipated future requirements of manpower for various types of economic activities.
A person's highest grade completed may be:
- None - did not undergo formal schooling
- Elementary - grade 1 to grade 7
- High School - 1st year to 4th year
- High School Graduate
- Postsecondary - 1 or 2 years
- College Undergraduate - 1st year to 6th year
- College Graduate
A trade skilll refers to an acquired and practical ability to competently carry out a task or job, usually manual in nature, in any industrial craft or artisan occupation which is officially and traditionally recognized as requiring special qualifications which can only be acquired through lengthy experience, practical and/or theoretical instructions.
One of the major objectives of the POPCEN is to gather information that can serve as a basis for constructing a statistical frame for the conduct of data collection activities regarding the informal sector. Towards this end, data on economic activity by industry classification and class of worker are obtained. ,
Economic activity refers to the production of goods and provision of services primarily to generate income or as a means of livelihood. A person is said to be economically active if he/she is engaged in the following:
2. production of goods and services which are not normally sold at a price intended to cover their cost of production such as government service, private non-profit services to households, domestic services rendered by one household to another; and
3. types of production for own consumption and fixed capital formation for own use including:
- production of primary products (from agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying) for own consumption
- processing of primary commodities by their/producers to make goods for their own use
- production for own consumption provided they are also produced for the market
- own-account construction of dwelling units, buildings, and similar works and fabrication of tools, instruments, containers which have an expected life of use of at least one year (fixed assets)
A person who works for pay either in cash or in kind, for pay or profit in own business, farm or enterprise or without pay on own family farm or business is said to be economically active. For the POPCEN, he/she is said to be engaged in an economic activity if he/she worked for at least one hour in any week in the past twelve months.
An individual engaged in an economic activity can be classified according to employer-employee relationships or for whom or where he/she works, as follows:
2. Worked for private business/enterprise/farm. If a person works in a private business/enterprise/farm for pay, in cash or in kind. This class includes not only persons working for a private firm but also those working for a religious group, missionary, unions, and non-profit organizations.
3. Worked for government/government corporation. If a person works for the government or a government corporation or any of its instrumentalities.
4. Self-employed without any paid employee. If a person works for profit or fees in own business, farm, profession or trade without any paid employee. This includes workers who work purely on commission basis and who may not have regular working hours.
5. Employer in own farm or business. If a person, working in his own business, farm, profession or trade has one or more regular paid employees, including paid family members. Domestic helpers, family drivers and other household helpers who assist in the family operated business, regardless of time spent in this activity, are NOT hired employees in the enterprises/business; hence a farm or business proprietor who is assisted purely by such domestic help is not considered an employer and would be classified in category 4 above.
6. Worked with pay on own family-operated farm or business. If a person works in family-operated farm or business and receives cash or a fixed share of the produce as payments for his service.
7. Worked without any pay on own family operated farm or business. If a member of the family works without pay in a farm or business operated by another member living in the same household. The room
Industry refers to the nature or character of the business or enterprise or the place wherein the person works.
The industry classifications utilized in the POPCEN are consistent with those defined in the Philippine Standard Industry Classification of all Economic Activities (PSIC). Examples of industries are palay farming, poultry raising, metallic ore mining, food and beverage manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, government services, and domestic services.
How to accomplish CP Form 2 --
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Name (P1), Relationship to HH Head (P2) and Overseas Worker (P3)
Data on the relationship to head of household identify the different types of family groups and their structures within a household. They provide an indication of the typical relationships among household members.
Write the names of the members of the household in column P1 and the codes corresponding to their relationship to the head of the household in P3. Be guided by the following:
2. Next, ask the names of the other members of the household by asking, "Who are the persons usually residing here as of September 1, 1995?". Inform the respondent that you want to list the members in the
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Write down the names of all household members in the order mentioned above.
Also inform the respondent that you need to list all household members who are overseas workers. An overseas worker is a household member who is currently out of the country due to overseas employment. He or she may or may not have a specific work contract or may be presently at home on vacation but has an existing overseas
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Take note that boarders are members of a household if they do not usually go to their respective homes weekly. However, if there are 10 or more such persons in the household, do not include them as members of the household with whom they board. These boarders will all be considered as institutional population and will be enumerated separately from the household.
You may sometimes encounter respondents who will insist that you include as member of the household a person who does not qualify as per our census concepts. To avoid antagonizing your respondent, include the person but write the necessary remarks. However, when you leave the household, line out the entries for that person and correct the line numbers. Example of persons whom your respondent would likely insist to be included in their household are students who attend school in Manila or another province or municipality and go home only at least once a month and therefore should be enumerated in the place where he/she is boarding and not in their parents' household.
When you are in doubt as to whether to include a person as member of a household or not, include but enter the necessary remarks/explanation at the back of the questionnaire.
3. In writing the names of the members of the household, enter the surname first, followed by a comma and then the first or given name and middle initial, if given. If the surname of a member is the same as the one immediately preceding him/her, just draw a horizontal line and a comma (__________,) in place of his surname and write the first name of the person as illustrated in the following example.
_______, Rodora A.
De la Fuente, Jose
4. As the respondent names the household members, ask the member's relationship to the household head and if the member is an overseas worker.
Write down the appropriate code for Relationship to HH Head in column P2. The code should be one of the 22 codes listed in the Codes Sheet.
If the member is an overseas worker, encircle " 1 " in column P3. Otherwise, encircle "2".
5. If a household has more than eight (8) members, you will need to use additional sheets of CP Form 2. To cue you on this, the shaded question "are there more than 8 members in this household?" found at the bottom of the page of CP Form 2 is addressed to you and should not to be asked of the respondent. If there are more than 8 members in the household, encircle 1 -- YES, and get another sheet for the household; otherwise, encircle 2 -- No. If two sheets of CP Form 2 are used, line-out the pre-printed line numbers on the second sheet and write on top the new line numbers. Thus, for the second sheet replace line number "01" with "09", "02" with "10" and so on until you list the last member in the household.
6. After listing all members of the household in P1, ask the shaded question "Are there any other persons such as small children or infants that we have not listed?" Check appropriate box. If the answer is yes, add his name on the list. If 2 sheets of questionnaires are being used, check the appropriate box on the second sheet only. Verify further by asking "Are there anyone who is usually a member of this
7. Draw a horizontal line across P1 after the name of the last household member and affix your initials above this line; afterwards draw an X-mark down to line number 8.
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The information to be asked for all persons in this column is the specific month and year when the person was born.
Ask the respondent for the month and year of birth of each person. Code the month using two-digit numerals, as shown below, and write the codes in the boxes provided for that purpose.
February -- 02 August -- 08
March -- 03 September -- 09
April -- 04 October -- 10
May -- 05 November -- 11
June -- 06 December -- 12
Record the year of birth by using only the last two digits of the year and enter this in the boxes provided for the purpose. For example, 1954 will be encoded as "54".
After exhaustive probing and the respondent still does not know the month and/or year of birth, write DK for Don't Know outside the code boxes. For persons born before 1900, code the year of birth as follows:
1891 -- X1 1896-- X6
1892 -- X2 1897-- X7
1893 -- X3 1898-- X8
1894 -- X4 1899-- X9
A person born on March 7, 1947 will have the following entry in P4.
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Age as of Last Birthday and Birth Registration (P5)
Age, sex and marital status are essential for inclusion in a census for purposes of analyzing factors of population changes and preparing population estimates and forecasts. For the POPCEN, age as of last birthday refers to the interval of time between the date of birth and before September 1, 1995, expressed in completed year. Thus, ages are recorded as whole numbers, counting the whole years completed on or prior to September 1, 1995.
Determine the age of each household member by asking the respondent "What is 's age as of his/her last birthday?". Always ask the age of the person even if the date of birth is already given. Do not compute for the person's age from the reported date of birth. Enter the age on the first line provided.
After recording the person's age, ask if his/her birth was registered with the Local Civil Registrar (LCR). If the answer is yes, enter a check on the line provided. If the birth was not registered or the respondent does not know, put an X mark on the second line.
Here are some basic guidelines for your reference:
101-- Yl 106 --Y6
102 --Y2 107 --Y7
103 --Y3 108 --Y8
104 --Y4 109 and over-- Y9
2. Check for inconsistencies in the ages of husband, wife and children. The respondent may have given incorrect information for one reason or another. Probe and verify further, as needed. An example is when the mother is only 15 years older than the eldest child.
3. If the exact age is not known, ask for an estimate. It may also help to ask an aged person to recall some well-known local, national or world event in the past by which his age may be associated, or if he is older or younger than some prominent persons. If all possible means have been exhausted and the respondent is unable to give the correct information, enter his best estimate.
4. There must be a report of age in P5 for every household member.
Age as of Last Birthday Conversion Table (Appendix 9) will help you check the reported age of a person against his date of birth. Refer to this table when checking your entries on age for consistency.
Gender-disaggregated data is of prime importance in demographic and socio-economic studies. Separate data for males and females are important for the analysis of other types of data, and for the evaluation of the completeness and accuracy of the census counts of population.
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The sex of each household member can usually be determined by his/her name or relationship to the head; hence, in most cases there would be no need to ask the respondent whether the person is male or female. However, some names such as Chito, Cielito, Loreto, Trinidad, Dakila, Ressureccion, Rosario, Joey, Regine, Gene (Jean), etc., could be those of male or female persons. When the name is common to both sexes, ask: "Is ____________ male or female?"
Enter code " 1 " for male and "2" for female.
Civil Status (P7)
Civil status refers to the personal status of each individual in reference to the marriage laws or customs of the country. In the POPCEN, the person's civil status shall be as of the date of visit.
For persons below 10 years old, enter "1" (Single) without asking the question. For persons 10 years old and over ask: "What is ____________'s civil status?" Record the appropriate numerical code for the person's civil status reported by the respondent as defined below. These codes are also reproduced in the Codes Sheet.
2 Legally married a person married in a civil or religious
3 Widowed a married person whose spouse has died and
4 Separated/divorced a person who is permanently
5 Common-law/Live-in person cohabiting or living consensually
6 Unknown person whose civil status is unknown
A Word of Caution: Some respondents may find this question too personal or a sensitive issue. Avoid antagonizing the respondent. Do not refute the reported civil status of any person. Disregard any knowledge you may have about the person and record only whatever is reported by the respondent.
Disability (P8 and P9)
To identify household members who may have disabilities, a "screening" question is asked in column P8. For each household member, ask the respondent "Does _________ have any impairment of his/her eyes, ear, speech, communication, legs, arms, or any combination of these?" If the answer is YES, encircle " 1 " in P8 and ask the question in column P9: "What type of disability does ________ have?". If the answer in P8 is NO, encircle "2" and place a dash (--) in P9.
For the POPCEN, the specific types of disabilities and their respective codes are found in the Codes Sheet. Be sure to use this list as your guide in probing for information and for coding the responses in column P9. Descriptions of the disabilities are given below. Use the key words (in bold type capital letters after each type of disability) as the write-in entries.
02 - Absence of one eye with low vision in the other eye. [Refer to a person with no vision in one eye whether with or without an eyeball but low vision in the other eye (partially blind).] PART-BLIND
03 - Can see form or movement but not details of objects (color, surface, lines). LOW VISION
04 - Cannot hear with both ears. [Refers to a person with total deafness.]
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05 - Cannot hear with one ear but with moderate hearing loss on the other ear. [Refers to a person with one ear totally deaf while the other ear can still react or recognize sounds (partially deaf).] PART-DEAF1
06 - Can hear speech but cannot discriminate the words. [Refers to a person whose both ears can recognize sounds but cannot determine the words (partially deaf).] PART-DEAF2
07 - Cannot say words. [Refers to a person who cannot talk (e.g. mute -- this is because of lack of training on speech development or caused by accident or sickness that damage the vocal cord or tongue.] MUTE
08 - Can say words but stammers (includes cleft-palate and hare-lip with speech defect). SPEECH DEFECT
09 - Loss of one or both arms/hands. [Refers to a person without one or both arms/hands either acquired from birth or amputated as a result of accident or sickness] NO ARM
10 - Loss of one or both legs/feet. [Refers to a person with one or both legs or feet missing, either congenital or amputated as a result of accident or sickness.]
11 - Paralysis of one or both upper extremities. [Refers to a person who cannot use his/her arms and hands either one or both (e.g. stroke victim) and the paralysis is permanent).] PARA-ARMS
12 - Paralysis of one or both lower extremities. [Refers to a person who cannot move either one or both feet and the paralysis is permanent.] PARA-LEGS
13 - Paralysis of one arm and one leg. PARA-COM
14 - Paralysis of all four limbs. [Refers to a person who is a quadriplegic.]
15 - Can learn simple communication, elementary health and safety habit and simple manual skills, but does not progress in functional reading or arithmetic. [Refers to people with severe mental retardation.] RETARDED
16 - Mentally insane. [Refers to a person who is suffering from nervous breakdown/mental illness or one who is insane.] INSANE
17 - Others, specify. [Refers to disabilities other than the above, including multiple disabilities and other combination of other arm-leg impairment/paralysis.]
In the POPCEN, ethnicity of an individual is generally synonymous to the mother tongue or the language/dialect spoken at home at earliest childhood. Data on ethnicity will be obtained only for Filipino citizens. Filipinos who have acquired foreign citizenship will be considered foreign nationals and their ethnicity will not be recorded. Ethnicity of Filipinos with dual citizenship will, however, be recorded.
There are 82 possible responses for this item as listed in the Codes Sheet. Usually, all that you may need to know is the predominant language or dialect in the area. However, because of migration there may be individuals whose ethnicity differs from the predominant one and you should be aware of this possibility.
The operational definition of ethnicity, because of the blurring of ethnic identities and ethnic intermixture, is through SELF-ASCRIPTION. Ordinarily, an individual acquires the culture of the community in which he lives, thus, he learns to speak the language of his community (becoming bilingual if the community language is not his mother tongue), but by self-ascription he may claim another ethnicity.
To determine an individual's citizenship, ask the respondent "What is ________'s citizenship?" If the person is not a Filipino citizen, enter code 97 -- Alien. If Filipino, ask: "What was ________'s dialect or language spoken at home at earliest childhood?" Use one of the 82 codes for this item.
For children (of Filipino parents) speaking English at earliest childhood, the child's ethnicity would be that of the parent with whom he/she has more association. However, for children who do not talk yet at the time of the census, their dialect would be that of the mother.
It is possible for siblings to have different ethnicity. For example, suppose a child who grew up with his grandparents in a province where the predominant language is different from the language in the province where his siblings live with their parents. In this case, the child's ethnicity would be different from his siblings as well as from his parents.
NOTE: Items P11 to P16 are to be accomplished only for household members who are at least five years old. If a household member is younger than five years of age, draw a horizontal line across columns P11 to P16.
Highest Grade Completed (P11)
Highest grade completed refers to the highest grade or year completed in school, college or university as of September 1, 1995. This may be any one of the specific grades or years in elementary, high school, postsecondary school, college, and post-baccalaureate levels of schooling. It also includes pre-school education.
Ask the question in P11, "What is the highest grade/year completed by ___? " for all persons 5 years old and over. Enter in P11 the two-digit code corresponding to the highest grade completed which are given in the Codes Sheet.
If the answer given by the respondent is in terms of the level of schooling only (e.g., elementary, high school, college) and not the specific grade or year completed, determine the specific grade or year by asking the respondent additional questions. The answer "Elementary", "High School" or "College" is insufficient.
2. If the person has not completed any grade at all, enter "00".
3. The code for pre-school is "01".
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Postsecondary 1 year is the highest grade completed by a person who has taken a postsecondary course for at least a year but has not yet completed the course at the time of the POPCEN. Consider, for example, a person who at the time of census is a 2nd year student of a 2-year course in Automotive Technology. Since he has finished his 1st year in Automotive Technology, he is considered under this category and the correct code is "31".
Postsecondary 2 years is the highest grade completed by a person who has successfully completed his postsecondary education. The appropriate code for this is "32".
In order to determine whether the vocational/technical course reported by the respondent is under postsecondary education (formal education) the following probing questions should be asked:
2. Is completion of high school course a requirement for admission? If yes, the course is considered formal, hence, postsecondary. If the person is a college undergraduate, i.e., he has not earned a degree, enter the code for the year of his completed education as "41" for 1st year college, "44" for 4th year college, etc. Note that code "46" stands for 6th or higher year in college. If he has graduated from college but has never been enrolled in any post-baccalaureate course, the appropriate code will be 47.
Post-baccalaureate refers to any course for which an undergraduate degree is required. Masters and doctoral degree students and graduates fall under this category. In addition, law or medical students who have earned a degree, e.g., BS Political Science, BS Zoology, BS Med Tech, etc. but are still in law or medical school should also be considered under this category. The appropriate code for this educational level is "51". The same rule applies to graduate students who are still working for their master's degree and for [p.97] persons who have completed master's or doctoral degree. For both cases, enter "51".
If an unusually high 'highest grade completed' is reported in relation to the age of the person, verify the report from the respondent. For example: 3rd year high school for a boy who is 13 years old or college graduate for a person who is 17 years old.
Before proceeding with the last six data items on CP Form 2, let us look at the following example on how to complete P1 to P11.
Illustration 7.1 shows items PI to P11for the household of Ismael Santiago, a Tagalog, aged 49 who lives with wife, Rodora, an Ilocana, who is 47 yrs. old, daughters Marissa, 22 yrs. old, and Karmela, 30 yrs. old and her husband Jose Reyes who is 31 yrs. old and hailed from Batangas. Jose is a contract worker in Saudi Arabia. Karmela and Jose have two children, Carlito, who is 7 yrs. old, and Anna, who is only 6 months old. Ismael's children cannot speak Ilocano and consider themselves Tagalog. Ismael is an architecture graduate, while her wife, Rodora is a nursing graduate. Karmela is a 4 year secretarial course graduate while her husband Jose is an electronics engineering graduate. Their son, Carlito is in Grade 1. Marissa, on the other hand, quit schooling after she totally lost her hearing in a car accident. She was then in the middle of her 3rd year in college. Another member of this household is a Waray helper Alma Cruz, who is 39 yrs. old and single. She has not completed any grade at all but can read and write. All the members of this household, except Alma, have been registered with the LCR.
The household members were born on the following dates:
Rodora - January 6, 1948 Carlito - December 29,1987
Marissa - August 15, 1973 Anna - March 15, 1995
Jose - October 6, 1963 Alma - April 4, 1956
Illustration 7.1 How to record items P1 to P11
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Specific Trade Skill (P12) and Manner Acquired (P13)
Trade skills refer to technical/vocational ability or knowledge developed or acquired which will enable an individual to generate income to meet at least their basic needs (e.g., at least food needs).
Trade skills further means an acquired and practiced ability to competently carry out a task or job, usually of a manual nature in any industrial, craft or artisan occupation which is officially or traditionally recognized as requiring special qualifications which can only be acquired through lengthy training, experience, and practical or theoretical instructions.
In the POPCEN, trade skills include vocational skills, agricultural skills, technical skills, food trades, and fishery art.
The basic criterion to consider an ability or knowledge as skill is that such ability or knowledge should have been actually harnessed to earn a living. Thus, a person who has gained knowledge about a craft by observation but was not able to harness it or to acquire competence by getting employed will not be considered as having skill.
Take note of the following cases:
2. Basketball playing, artistic ability and similar talents are not considered as skills unless they are or have been actually utilized for income generation.
3. Housekeeping, cooking, waitering, bar tendering can be considered as skills only if the person has been employed in institutions and earned income from such activity. Thus, housekeeping and cooking in own home or in private households are not considered skills.
The Codes Sheet (CP Form 2A) lists 41 different trade skills and their two-digit codes which you should use in recording the responses to this item.
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For all household members listed who are at least five years old, ask the respondent the question, "What trade skill does _________ possess?" If the respondent names more than one skill, ask for the major skill which is the skill that would be most useful for making a livelihood. Enter the appropriate two-digit code in column P12 and GO TO P13. If a member has no trade skill, enter "00" and SKIP TO P14.
For each household member with a reported trade skill ask "How was the trade skill acquired?" There are three pre-printed choices possible, namely:
3. Others (self-study, special tutoring of relatives)
Livelihood skills acquired through schooling refer to skills derived through formal attendance in any vocational, technical, agricultural or rural, commercial or secretarial school, usually lasting for about 6 months to 3 years.
Skills acquired through training refer to skills learned through attendance in non-formal short-term course in manipulative skills. The training is essentially aimed at providing the skills, knowledge and attitudes required for employment in any occupation or field of economic activity.
Livelihood skills acquired through experience refer to skills gained through a long practice of trade without the benefit of formal schooling or training.
Skills acquired through apprenticeship refer to skills gained by undergoing some sort of training in a factory, shop, office, etc. where a person applied for a job or for practical training to develop his competence in his chosen trade. This may include the pre-service training and service training. Pre-service training refers to the training usually given to applicants by establishments or offices for certain jobs or types of work. After training, some immediately get a job, depending on the number of vacant positions. Others who are not absorbed or employed, serve as pool/reserve of manpower from which the company draws trained persons to fill vacancies in the future. Service training refers to training given to newly employed person
or to an old employee assuming a new position along the work he/she will perform in a company or office.
A person who has already acquired his skills through experience before he/she underwent formal training shall be reported under code 2 -- Experience/ Apprenticeship.
Use code 3 -- Others for skills acquired through observation but harnessed through employment as the basic source of knowledge and not 2 -- Experience/apprenticeship.
Enter the appropriate code in column P13.
Economic Activity (P14)
For each household member at least five, years old, ask "Is/Was ________ engaged in any economic activity currently/at any time in the past twelve months?". Encircle " 1 " , if YES, and ask the questions in columns P15 and P16. Otherwise, encircle "2" for NO, place a dash (--) in columns P15 and P16, and go to the next household member or END THE INTERVIEW if information for all members have been completed.
Enter code 1 if the household member worked for at least one hour in any week in the past 12 months.
Class of Worker (P15) and Kind of Business or Industry (P16)
The question P15 is to be asked for those who were engaged in an economic activity in the past 12 months: "For whom or where does/did _________ work?"
The response to this question should refer to the current economic activity/ies, if any, or the most recent activity/ies if not currently economically active. If the person has more than one activity, this question should be answered in relation to that activity in which he/she spends longer hours. If she/he spends an equal number of hours in these activities, the activity to be reported should be that one which yields the highest income.
Possible responses are categorized into seven (7) classes of workers:
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Other examples of this class of workers are:
5. Employer in own farm or business. If a person, working in his own business, farm, profession or trade had one or more regular paid employees, including paid family members (code 6 below). Some cases worth noting:
7. Worked without pay on own family operated farm or business. If a member of the family worked without pay in a farm or business operated by another member living in the same household.
Enter the appropriate one-digit code in column P15.
Item P16, "In what kind of business or industry is/was _______'s current/last employer engaged in?" refers to the economic activity reported in item P15.
Write the specific industry in which a self-employed person is currently/last engaged in or in which the person's employer is engaged in and enter appropriate code. Use the Codes Sheet which lists the 37 industry codes that you should use to classify the responses. Refer also to Appendix 11 for the specific industry under the major groups.
Below are some examples on the kind of business or industry to be reported in column P16:
2. For a person doing clerical work in a tobacco manufacturing company, report him/her as engaged in tobacco manufacturing.
To complete the example given earlier about the Santiago household, let us look at the following information and the corresponding items in CP Form 2 as shown in Illustration 7.2.
Rodora attended training in sewing baby dresses when she was in her early thirties but has never applied her sewing ability to earn a living. Rodora, however, served as a nurse for 20 years at the Philippine General Hospital, Manila. Last April 1995, she decided to quit working and be a plain housewife. Ismael Santiago works as an architect in a private enterprise dealing with building construction. Karmela is a secretary in the same enterprise where her father is working. Her husband, Jose, is working in steel manufacturing.
After completing the interview for all members of the household, review the questionnaire thoroughly to check that the entries are complete, consistent and correct. Verify any doubtful entry and make the necessary changes/corrections. Record the time the interview ended and complete the other items such as final result of visit and the population items in the Interview Record. Then sign the Certification portion. Before leaving the household, thank the respondent for his/her cooperation.
Illustration 7.2 How to record items P12 to P16
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Enumeration of institutional population
This chapter discusses the detailed instructions on how to accomplish CP Form 3 -- Institutional Population Questionnaire. This questionnaire which is a one-page sheet gathers information about persons considered part of the institutional population.
You will be able to determine how and who will enumerate the institutional population as soon as you have accomplished CP Form 1 for a particular institution.
Three situations to consider in the enumeration of institutional population are the following:
Case 2. For hotels, dormitories, lodging houses, and boarding houses with more than 20 members and for other institutional living quarters, do the following:
- Contact the manager/head/in-charge of the institution. Explain to him/her the objectives and methodology of the census.
- Request him/her to ask his/her staff to fill in CP Form 3 with the aid of their records and based on the instructions provided in CP Form 3A. However, if the institution's manager requests that residents be individually interviewed, you should do the interview and follow the procedure as in Case 1 above.
- Leave as many CP Form 3 as may be required, depending on the number of residents of the institution.
- Inform him/her that the accomplished CP Form 3 will be collected by your TS (give his/her name) exactly a week after your visit.
If you encounter an institutional living quarter in your EA and you do not have with you a CP Form 3, proceed to enumerate the members of that institutional living quarter using CP Form 2 as an improvised CP Form 3. The information will be transcribed to the appropriate form by your team supervisor at a later date.
In this case, be sure to:
2. Fill up geographic identification portion. Add a box under the boxes for household serial number and write-in the code for type of institution.
3. Cancel the column for Overseas Worker by drawing a spiralling line downward to the end of the column.
4. Record residence status of the members in column P2 instead of relationship to household head.
5. Fill up columns P4 to P16 of CP Form 2 to record the characteristics of the residents of the institutional living quarter.
6. Bundle these improvised forms separately from CP Form 2 when submitting all the accomplished forms to your team supervisor.
The following are to be included as members of an institution for each type of institutional living quarters:
2. Permanent lodgers/boarders (those who have stayed or are expected to stay for one year or longer) and those temporary lodgers/boarders who have stayed for six months or longer as of September 1, 1995, or have been away from their own families for the same period. However, exclude those who usually go home at least once a week.
3. Lodgers/boarders who are not residents of the Philippines and who have been in the Philippines for one year or longer as of September 1, 1995, or are expected to stay in the Philippines for one year or longer. However, exclude those who have a temporary place of residence elsewhere in the Philippines to where they usually go home. Exclude also diplomatic representatives or UN, ILO, USAID officials who, like diplomatic representatives, are subject to reassignment to other countries after their tour of duty in the Philippines, and members of their families.
2. Patients who have been confined for six months or longer as of September 1, 1995 in other kinds of hospitals and in wards for temporary confinement in tuberculosis sanitaria.
3. Nurses in nurses' homes who do not usually go home at least once a week.
2. Staff members and employees living in the institutions, except those living therein with their families and those who usually go home at least once a week.
2. Prisoners and detainees in provincial or city/municipal jails who have been continuously confined for six months or longer, including confinement in another jail elsewhere, as of September 1, 1995, or those whose sentence is for six months or longer even if the sentence is on appeal.
3. Staff members and employees living in these institutions except those living therein with their own families and those who usually go home at least once a week.
2. Students in boarding schools (schools where students are required to stay in the school campus).
3. Staff members, employees and helpers living in the premises, except those living therein with their own families and those who usually go home at least once a week.
2. PMA cadets and trainees whose training will last for six months or longer.
3. Detainees who have been continuously confined for six months or longer, including confinement in another camp or station elsewhere, as of September 1, 1995.
4. Civilian employees living in the camp or station, except those living therein with their own families and those who usually go home at least once a week,
2. Any crew member of inter island/coastal vessel or deep-sea fishing vessel at port on any day during the enumeration, if the crew member has no home other than the vessel.
You can list a maximum often (10) persons on a sheet of CP Form 3.
The Identification and Control Panel of the questionnaire contains the geographic identification and the certification portion while the Questionnaire Items Panel consists of items P1 to P11 to be gathered from the institutional population.
In order to properly account for all the CP Form 3 s that you used for an institutional population, you must fill in the blanks in the Page .......... of ........ pages found on the upper right-hand side of the top panel.
Fill out this item as soon as you finish interviewing a household.
If an institution has no more than 10 members then you will use only one sheet of CP Form 3. Then, the correct entry should be:
Page _1__ of __1_ pages
If you used two sheets for an institution, then you should fill in the blanks for the first sheet as follows:
Page _1__ of __2_ pages
The second sheet should have the following entry:
Page _2__ of __2_ pages
Transcribe the province, city/municipality, barangay, enumeration area and their corresponding codes from CP Form 1. Copy the institutional living quarter's serial number from column 6 of the listing sheet.
Type of Institutional Living Quarters
Identify the institutional living quarter as to its type and enter the code in accordance with the following coding scheme.
2. Hospitals, and Nurses' Home -- These are institutions where the needy, aged, young or where the sick or injured are given medical or surgical care.
3. Welfare Institutions -- These are institutions intended for promoting or improving the welfare of disadvantaged social groups.
4. Corrective and Penal Institutions -- These are living quarters intended for housing the prisoners and detainees.
5. Convents, Nunneries, Seminaries and Boarding Schools -- These are institutional living quarters intended for the housing of nuns, seminarians and other religious entities, and students.
6. Military Camps and Stations -- These are camps established for the temporary accommodations of military men.
7. Logging, Mining and Construction/Public Works Camps -- These are camps established for the housing of workers in mining, agriculture, public works or other types of enterprises.
8. Ocean-going and Interisland/Coastal Vessels -- These are vessels that are used as living quarters of the crew members.
9. Refugee Camps -- These are camps established for the housing of refugees.
0. Others -- These are institutional living quarters not mentioned above.
Note: The codes for types of institutional living quarters are found in CP Form 3A.
Enter here the house number and name of the street where the institutional living quarters is located.
Every questionnaire consists of 10 lines or rows for recording names and characteristics of members of the institutional living quarter. Each line has a precoded number printed at the leftmost column. This is the line number. This number automatically identifies each member of the institutional living quarter. Thus, the first member is entered on the first row with line number 01; the second member will be on the second row with line number 02; and so on.
Ask the respondent the question "How many persons are residing in this institutional living quarter as of September 1, 1995? ". If the respondent answers 10, check line number 10. This will guide you later in determining whether or not you have listed all the members of the institutional living quarters in P1. As you ask this question, be sure to explain to the respondent whom to include.
The question "Are there more than 10 members in this institutional living quarter?" found at the bottom of CP Form 3 is addressed to you and should not be asked of the respondent. Since the enumeration of institutional living quarters with more than 20 members will be done by the manager/head of the institution, the TS will complete this portion only after he/she has collected the questionnaires. If the institution has more than 10 members, change the line numbers in the second and succeeding pages of CP Form 3 accordingly.
Write the names of the members, family name first, followed by the given name. List the names of the members of the institutional population in the order as listed in the coding scheme in P2.
P2 Residence Status
Identify the residence status of the member by entering the code in accordance with the following coding scheme:
2. Staff member/employee, including physicians and nurses
3. Officer or enlisted man, trainee
4. Officer or crew member in merchant vessel
7. Patient (Hospital, sanitarium, etc.)
8. Inmate/ward (Home for the aged, orphanage, etc.)
Note that in a particular type of institutional living quarters, only one or two or a few of the codes are applicable. For instance, the proprietor (manager) of a hotel and his employees who qualify as member of the institutional population will be coded, respectively, 1 -- manager/director/ in-charge and 2 -- staff member, employee, etc.
For items in columns P3 to P11, follow the instructions given for the same items in CP Form 2. Refer to Sec. 7.4 of this manual.
Refer to Illustration 8.1 for an example of the correct way of filling up the institutional population questionnaire.