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National Statistical Office
2000 Census
Interviewer's Manual
Population and Social Statistics Division
National Statistical Office
Port Moresby

[Pages 2-4: Tables of contents omitted.]

[P. 5]

Chapter 1


All over the world countries count their people in some way. A census is one way of doing this. Information on a wide range of topics is collected from each person, such as their age, their education, and the type of work they do. The important details give the Government a better understanding of the people and how to plan for their needs.

National and provincial government planners need this information to plan for schools, hospitals, health centers and roads. They need to know the number of people, where they live and what these people do.

The census is concerned only with the total numbers of people in each category. Information on a single individual is never made available.

The success of the census depends on the skills of the interviewers. You are the key person in the census exercise. Your team will collect census information by interviewing people in every household in the area assigned to you. It is essential that you have a clear understanding of the census form and all other tasks an interviewer needs to carry out.

General information about the census

1.1 What is a census?
The census is a complete count of every man, woman, boy and girl in our country, and even babies. It is called the National Population Census. All governments, all over the world, conduct censuses to provide the information they need to govern their countries.

The census is not a new thing. The Bible tells us that the romans were the first to count their people regularly. Joseph and Mary were in Bethlehem to register for the census because joseph was born there, and that was where Jesus was born. In those days people had to go back to their birthplace to be counted. This study can be read in Luke 1:2 in your Bible.

1.2 How often do censuses take place in PNG?
Papua New Guinea conducts a census every ten years. The last census of our country was in 1990, and before that, in 1980. The next one will probably be in 2010. The 2000 census will be carried out from 9 to 15 July, 2000.

[P. 6]

1.3 What is the aim of 2000 census?
To count every man, woman, boy and girl in Papua New Guinea and to cover the whole country using the same census form for every household.

1.4 Who should be counted?
Everyone living in Papua New Guinea at the time of 2000 Census will be counted. This includes Papua New Guineans and people from other countries living here. They will be counted where they slept on the night of 9 July, 2000. A Sunday night 9 July is the Census night.

1.5 Why is the census needed now?
Populations are constantly growing and changing. A census is needed now to tell us what the population is like now, and how it has changed since the last census held in 1990. Our Government, under the Organic Law, needs up-to-date information to plan for development and proper allocation of money for roads, aid posts, schools, housing and other community needs.

1.6 Census preparations
During the preparation stage, census preparation workers have visited every village and town to:

--Locate and list information on how many census units there are
--List all heads of houses, households, and services
--Make a sketch map of all census units
--Distribute Household Record Cards (HRC) to every household in rural areas
--Collect census unit information using the Social and Economic Conditions Study (SECS) form.

1.7 How will the counting be done?

--Interviewers visiting every household and interviewing the head of household do most of the counting.
--Where every household cannot be visited, councilors or elders will ask the people to come together in one central point so interviews can take place.
--People living in hostels, dormitories, guesthouses, hospitals, barracks and single quarters on plantations and mines will be visited and interviewed individually.

[p. 7]


1.8 What power do interviewers have to get information from the people?
A law, the Statistical Services Act, of 1980, governs the census. As interviewers you will be acting under the instructions of the National Statistician, who is given the responsibility to conduct the census for the Government of Papua New Guinea.

1.9 Will the information given be kept as private or as secret?
The same law, the Statistical Services Act of 1980, protects everyone.

- Interviewers must keep everything they learn from the people very private
- They must promise at the end of the training never to tell anybody else about what people say during the interview
- The must sign an Oath or Declaration of Secrecy Form (see attachment 1 of this chapter) which forbids every census worker from giving information about people.
- Interviewers may discuss problems with their supervisor or other interviewers and census workers but with nobody else
- People can be confident that only people working on the census will ever know what they said during the interview
- The census form are then destroyed under strict supervision

Uses of census data

1.10 What will happen to the information people give during the census?
During the census, all information is recorded on the census forms. After every census form is completed for a particular area, these forms are packed and sent to the census headquarters in Port Moresby, where the information is entered into computers.

Only the National Statistical Office (NSO) staff deals with the information collected, and the forms are destroyed. The information is then put on computers so it can be tallied and analyzed. No individual person's name is entered into the computer files.

1.11 Who uses the results of the census?
The main users of the results of the census are the provincial, district and local level governments (LLGs), as well as the national government departments. The census results help to determine how money and resources will be distributed to LLGs and wards.

[P. 8]
The census results will show how many children will need to go to school in the next 10 years and how many hospital beds will be needed. Departments of Education and Health can use these results to plan how many new schools and aid posts to open and where they are needed, and how many teachers, nurses and doctors need to be trained.

1.12 The census also tells us many other things, including:
How the population has changed over the last ten years.

- Are there more people today than ten years ago?
- How many children have been born since the last census in 1990?
- Where has the population increased slowly and where has it increased rapidly?

It also gives information about the number of people who:

--are employed and the types of work they do
--are unemployed
--are still in school
--are old and retired
--are not working because they are disabled
--are literate or illiterate
--and lots of other information as well.

1.13 Census information will not be used for:

-Electoral rolls
-Taxation purposes
-Getting land titles for customary land, or
-Any religious beliefs, or
-Giving information to the banks or other organizations, or harming people in any
All census information collected is strictly confidential

[Page 9-10: Attachment 1 and Exercises for Chapter 1 omitted.]
[Page 11: Chapter 2: Provincial census coordination omitted.]

[P. 13]

Chapter 3

The interviewer's job - before the interview
Interviewer's job is very important. The census operation will succeed only if you know and do your job well.

You are the only contact with the people who provide the information. You are the eyes and ears of the census in the field.

Your work is not just to conduct interviews. You have tasks to do before, during and after the interviews.

This chapter is about your tasks before the interview. The success of the interviews depends, to a considerable extent, on how well you do the tasks before the interview.

3.1 Public relations
An important part of the census is public relations and the publicity campaign. Publicity in the media has prepared the people for the census. You must continue this work by maintaining at all times a good working relationship with the people you contact.

You are now a census interviewer so you must abide by the Public Service Regulations.

-You must dress neatly and smartly at all times
-You must be polite and respectful at all times
-You must speak slowly and clearly in a language the people understand
-You must not drink alcohol when you are a census worker
-You must not smoke inside people's houses or during the interview
-You must not become involved in conversations about other matters
-If you are asked about political issues, you must explain that as an employee of the National Statistical Office, your job is only to count the people
-If you make an appointment to visit a household at a certain time, you must keep it and you must be on time
-You must make any return visits to households within the interview fieldwork period, or you will not be able to complete your work on time

[Sections 3.2 Training; 3.3 Interviewer workload; and 3.4 Getting to know your workload area are omitted here]

[P. 15]

3.5 Workload folders for rural and urban areas
Rural areas
The rural workload folder contains:

-Indicative information on the cover of the folder
-A statistical area map (i.e., a map of the LLG)
-Listing forms
-Sketch maps

Check your workload folder as soon as you receive it. If any of these items is missing inform your supervisor immediately.

Urban areas
The urban area workload folder contains:

-Indicative information
-CU map
-Listing forms
-Sketch maps
-Aerial photos for larger settlements and villages

Check your folder as soon as you receive it. If any of these items is missing inform your supervisor.

Problems of out of date maps and lack of cooperation are common in urban areas.

Establishing a good relationship at first contact and checking maps and lists must be done with extra care in urban areas.

Non-private dwellings (NPDs) workload folders

-NPDs are special dwellings such as barracks, educational institutions, hostels, hotels, guesthouses, hospital wards, police cells and prisons.
-In the larger towns of Port Moresby, Lae, Mt Hagen, Goroka, Madang and Wewak, NPDs with more than thirty (30) tenants will be considered a workload and allocated to an interviewer who will be part of a special NPD team.
-In other towns, larger NPDs will be allocated to an NPD interviewer, while smaller NPDs will be included as part of the original CU or workload.
-There are special folders for NPDs. If there is a small NPD in your workload area, there will be an NPD folder inside your workload folder.
-NPD folders contain the:
-Indicative information
-NPD listing forms and
-NPD information sheet
and sketch maps

Check your folder as soon as you receive it. If any of these items is missing inform your supervisor.

3.6 Summary

- Preparations before the actual interview are very important, and must be done very carefully to ensure that the interview is successful.
- Remember that first impressions are very important, so you should be at your best in dress, appearance and attitude
- Coverage and counting of every person is essential in our census, and the checking process is essential to ensure complete coverage

Careful checking of the lists of households and the sketch maps is essential to ensure the success of the census.

[Page 18: Exercises for Chapter 3 is omitted.]

[p. 19]

Chapter 4

Household definitions, interviewing and related issues

4.1 Definition - household and head of household

For the census a household and the head of household have special meanings. It is important that all interviewers understand these definitions and apply them in the same way.

A household is defined as a person or group of persons living and eating together and sharing the arrangements for cooking and the other necessities of living (It is commonly said that they eat from the same cooking pot).

The household members may be related or unrelated. Married children of a head of household, who are separate families, are included as members of the same household is they live and eat together with their father and mother. The household will most often live in one dwelling or house, but can be spread for example over several huts in some rural areas. Generally if they eat together they form one household.

A particular problem arises with men with more than one wife. If they do not all eat together which often occurs, the head should be included with the wife with whom he spent census night. The other wives will form separate households without the husband for census purposes. Discuss any unusual cases with your supervisor.

The head of household is generally taken as the person who other household members regard as the head of their household. It could be a husband, wife or an older people in the household.

If in doubt the person who owns the dwelling in which the household is situated should be taken as the head. If the dwelling is rented then the person whose name the lease is in, should be the head.

In more complex cases (that mostly occur in urban areas), the person with the highest income should be takes as head. For one-person households, that person is the head of that household.
Remember that household listing and head of household lists were done several months before the census and there are likely to be changes. We rely on you to identify these changes and record correctly by the above definitions and explanation.

4.2 Multiple households
It is possible and not unusual to have more than one household within the one house or dwelling, particularly in the major towns. This occurs when the occupants cook separately and generally keep their housekeeping arrangements separate. These are called multiple households (multiple means more than one).

[P. 20]

The household lists may show such cases or quite often you will only identify them during the census interview. Arrangements may also have changed since the census listing.

In all cases, separate households are to be interviewed on a separate census form.You should add any new multiple households to your household list as explained in Chapter 5 and continue preparations.

Any multiple households on the listing which no longer exist should have a census form completed for them but write across it "No longer exist" and give a Response Code of "5" in that box at the top of the form.

Bring all cases of new or changed multiple households to the attention of your supervisor and make a note on your CU folder.

4.3 Before you start interviewing
Before you start interviewing you will have attended the training course and have read this manual. Make sure you attend all training sessions and do all the exercises in this manual.

Work out a plan to cover your area. Which household to start with and which route you will follow. This should generally be the listing order in the workload folder, but you may find some changes necessary.

It is often best to make appointments with households, but if you do this make sure you keep the appointments. You will find that you are a bit slow on the first day of interviewing but then you speed up rapidly. Do always give yourself time to check your work well.

Field supplies
Make sure you have the following before you go into the field:

- A workload folder for your area with lists as explained in Chapter 3
- A pad of census forms
- An interviewers' manual
- A notable events book
- An identification letter to each household (in urban areas)
- Two biros (blue)
- An interviewers' sachel
-Stickers to put on completed households - in settlement areas and some villages
-A marker pen

[P. 21]

4.4 Who to interview
The census for is designed as though you are interviewing the head of household for most of the questions. This is the most common situation.

If necessary you should call back at the household if the head of household is not available, and particularly if any other responsible adult is worried about completing the census form without the head present. Some men have been known to be very annoyed if their wife gives the census information for the household.

In general even if you are interviewing the head of the household for most questions, it is best to ask or confirm answers for other adults with the persons themselves. Often the head does not know the work details, for example, of the wife's brother or similar information.

Note in particular that Q20 to Q23 are to be asked directly to the female members of the household wherever possible.

It has been proven that women themselves always give the most reliable information of their births and the deaths of their children. This will often require some care but most husbands will agree to their wives answering such questions themselves.

-The person you must contact at NPDs is a senior person who knows about the other residents, such as the headmaster, principal, the manager or the owner.
-People living in NPDs are often very busy or out much of the time, so it is important to make an appointment to interview them.

[Page 21-24: Sections 4.5 Interviewing techniques and Exercises in Chapter 4 omitted.]
[Page 25-43: Chapter 5 Checking and updating the household listing and sketch maps omitted.]


Chapter 6

Basic coverage
The key and basic aim of the census is to count everyone and you must always keep this in mind.

6.1 Household coverage
The household listing, sketch maps and list of household heads (rural only) are all designed to ensure you do not miss any dwellings or households in your allocated area.
You must mark off each household on your household listing as you census it. Your supervisor will check carefully to ensure that you have covered every household in your assigned area (CU or CUs).
Three additional methods will be used in some areas to ensure you cover every household:

-Aerial photos - In the major urban areas aerial photos have been taken of most settlement areas. These will help you and your supervisor to be clear about the boundary for your CU and in most areas give a good guide to the location of all the households.
-They will particularly help if your sketch map is not good. Note however that most of the aerial photography was done at least six months ago as was the sketch map, and some changes are likely.
-Stickers - In most settlement areas and in some villages we will put a sticker on a household after the census is complete for it. These are white plastic rectangles on which you write the CU number (including Workload number A, B, C, etc. if necessary) and the household number.
-These stickers will help you and your supervisor to locate, which households are done and which are not done in your area. It will also help to locate when there are boundary problems between CUs.
-The CU Summary form as explained in Chapter 10 will help to identify areas of poor coverage.

6.2 Person coverage
You must record everyone who slept at each household on the night of 9th July, 2000.
Remember always to be alert and ask questions about anyone you think may not be recorded.

6.3 Common problems in the field
In tests it was noted that heads of households in both rural and urban areas only tell interviewers about their own family (example: their spouse and children only). However, we know it is very common for families to have other relatives (example: a brother and his wife and family) or non-related persons staying with them or visiting.

If these other persons slept at the household on census night they are to be recorded with that household.

Some people will be working on census night (examples: security guards, police on night duty) and not sleep anywhere on census night. Such persons are to be recorded at their usual residence of the place they return to the next day to sleep. Usually respondents will tell you about these people (example: "Tau was on night duty on Sunday".)

Some people may be travelling by road or out fishing in a boat on census night. As for the previous point, record those people at their usual residence or the place where they return/go to the next day to sleep (if they have no usual residence).

A particular problem might occur with garden and fishing huts. These are usually lived in for a few days or one day, and then the person returns to his/her usual residence. In most cases these huts or shacks will not have been listed and the person will not have a chance to be recorded these for the census. They must be recorded at their usual residence.

Remember not to miss these people noted above. If they will not be counted somewhere else, they should be counted in the house where you are interviewing.
Babies and old people are two groups of people often forgotten and you must be sure to include them. Very young babies are often left out before they are named.

As explained earlier, we are handing out Household Record cards (HRCs) in most villages as part of census preparations. You should always ask for these cards if they are available. However, more that these cards give the usual members of the household but we want to record only those people who slept in the household on census night.

Some of the usual residents may be missing and there may be new members of visitors. Do use the card to check where the usual residents are, but your list for the census is a different/independent one of these people sleeping there on census night. Do not undercount or over count.

We will have special teams covering hospitals, hotels, prisons and similar institutions. Thus persons staying in these institutions on census night are not to be recorded at their usual residence.


We will also try to cover homeless people and people sleeping at markets. However, our coverage of these people is difficult. If in doubt include such persons at their usual residence when you are told about them.

Always discuss unusual and problem cases with you supervisor. Some of the other common situations are discussed in Chapter 11.

6.4 Cooperation
We might lose coverage of some people if they refuse to cooperate or make it very difficult for us to contact them. We rely on you through your explanation of the census and its value to make sure that no one in your areas refuses to cooperate.

We do have legal powers and it is compulsory for people to cooperate. However we rarely use these legal powers as you can only really get good information from people if they cooperate willingly.

We will help you with as much publicity as possible to make people aware of the census and its value.

People who are difficult to contact are a big problem in some areas. During the training we will try and help interviewers working in particularly difficult areas. These issues are also discussed in Chapter 11.

The "Collection authority", the right to "Privacy" and basic "Coverage" are explained in brief in notes on the top of each census form.

Note: One special rule, census staff only, should be recorded where they usually live even though they may not sleep there on census night due to census duties. Tell your families to include you.

[Page 47: Exercises for Chapter 6 omitted.]
[Page 48-50: Chapter 7 discussing the census pad and pad cover omitted.]
[Page 51-59: Chapter 8 discussing the census form omitted.]

[p. 60]

Chapter 9

The Census Questions

House Types
The box for "House type" is at the top of the census form with the Indicative Information.

For each household you must decide on the correct code from the list below and the pictures in Appendix 6. Then check that this matches the code on the listing information in your workload folder. Update the listing form if necessary.

Who to ask: Use your own judgment to decide the house type. Do not ask respondents to answer this question.

Get this information for: All households in your listing as part of your workload.

How to record:
Record the correct code from the list of 10 house types below, which are shown as pictures in Appendix 3. Enter the numbers as two digits. For example as 01 or 02, NOT 1 or 2.

Brief description of house types:

01. High cost: Large well-built usually fibro, timber, brick or weatherboard construction metals roofs.
02. Low cost: Small well-built house usually fibro or wood construction.
03. Flats: Flats are units of more than two living quarters in the one block.
04. Duplex: This covers two houses joined together by a common wall. They can be different sizes. A house with a flat underneath or attached is a duplex.
05. Domestic or workers' quarters: Domestic quarters are mostly in high covenant areas but are also common behind shops where they are often workers' quarters. The only workers' quarters to be included here are small married quarters behind shops or factories which are really very much the same as the domestic quarters behind high covenant houses. They are made of fibro or wood.
06. Dormitories: Large building with cubicles, usually found in the grounds of schools and colleges.
07. Makeshift: This type of house can be made of pieces of wood, roofing iron, tins and even cardboard, generally scrap materials used.
08. Traditional: These are usually in traditional villages. The materials used are predominantly traditional (grass, bamboo, pitpit, wood)
09. Self-help house: (High cost) This is a very well-built house of commercial materials, which is very similar to those in urban areas. It has well-built steps, roof, and stumps.
10. Self-help house: (Low cost) This type of house is not as well-built as the high cost one but it has similarities. It should have food supports and reasonably well-built walls and roof.


Questions on Personal Characteristics
Questions 1 to 7 provide information on personal characteristics such as age, sex, marital status and religion. They help us to plan for the needs of communities.

Question 1. Names of person(s)
The names of persons in every household must be recorded on the form so that we can ensure that everybody gets counted in the census. Names are not kept after the census is completed and are never published with the results.

Question 2. Relationship to head household
How each person is related to the head of the household?

Questions 1 and 2 must be asked together

Q1. What is the name of each person including the visitors who slept here on the night of Sunday 9th July?
(Start with the Head of the Household)

Q2. What is the person's relationship to the head of the household?

[] 1. Head of household
[] 2. Husband/wife
[] 3. Own son/daughter
[] 4. Step/adopted child
[] 5. Other relatives
[] 6. Non-relatives
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: For all persons who slept in the household on Sunday
9th July 2000.

[p. 63]

How to ask:
Ask the head of the household or the person responding: "Please tell me your name and the names of every person who stayed here on the night of Sunday 9th July, including visitors"
As the head of household or the person responding says each name, ask "How is he (or she) related to the head of this household?"(Unless they tell you when they say the name)

-The Head of the Household is the best person to decide who should be included. Make sure they include babies, children, old people, and disabled people as well as other adults. Make sure they include any relatives or other visitors who stayed at night.
-Every person who slept in that household on census night must be recorded on the form. Include any usual resident who might have been out on census night, for example, fishing; and was not counted as a visitor anywhere else.
-Make sure that none of these people have been counted at another place.
How to record:
-Write the names of each person, starting with the head of the household.
-Write names as they are used every day, including given names and surnames.
-For infants without any name, write "baby"

If you refer to the Household Record Card (HRC), it may show people who usually live there but were not there on census night. Do not list these persons! Use the HRC as a guide.

[p. 64]

Recording Names on the census form:The order of recording names in each household is:

1. The head of household. (See definitions on chapter 4)
This is usually the most senior man (husband/father) or woman if the man is dead or away. Some heads of household will be women, if the husband is dead, away from home or not available.
2. Husband/wife (usually wife) of the head. In some cases it may be the husband if the wife is automatically head for some reason.
3. The own sons and daughters of the head and wife (or husband), if they are unmarried, oldest first.
4. Married sons or daughters if they sleep and eat in the same house as their parents.
5. Wives/husbands of married children (in-laws of head) their children (grandchildren of head), oldest first.
6. Other Relatives such as nieces and nephews by blood or marriage.
7. Any non relatives or visitors who spent the census night with the household

Remember: The names of own sons and daughters who are single should be recorded first, followed by married sons and daughters and their wives and children if they share common cooking and eating.

[p. 65]

Question 3: Sex.
In every community, the population is made up of males and females. This is important information that shows distribution of population by sex.

Q3. Is there person a male or female?

[] 1. Male
[] 2. Female
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household, or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person listed in Question 1.

How to ask: You only need to ask this if you cannot tell from a name that the person is male is female. Politely ask the respondents "Can you tell me if this person is a male or female?".

How to record: Write in code 1 for Male or code 2 if the person is a Female. Only one code is to be entered in the box provided.

[Page 66- 67: Exercises omitted]


Question 4: Date of birth or Age
Every community has people of different ages, ranging from very young to very old.
Peoples' needs change according to their age. Policy makers and planners need to know the number of people of each age group in every community, so they can plan for enough schools, aid posts and other community needs. Here are examples of how information on age is used.

-Identify the balance between people who can work and people who are too young or too old to work. This helps to identify people who are likely to be dependent on other people.
-Identify certain proportion of the population who are likely to be in need of immediate attention to the authorities. 1990 census information tells us that about 43 percent of the population in New Ireland were less than 15 years old.
-Certain age groups are most likely to move around within the country. According to the 1990 Census findings in East Sepik Province, about 6, 000 persons in the age group 20-24 moved to other provinces. This information helped the national government policy makers and planners to address the issues related to internal migration.

When answering the question, make sure that the age of every person is recorded.

Q4. What is the person's date of birth or age in years?
(Write date of birth in the Boxes provided day / month / year. If not known write age in completed years)
_ _ _ _ _ _
Age in years: _ _

Who to ask: Ask for all persons in the Household.

Get this information for: Every person listed in Question 1.

Remember: Date of birth is the most useful information. Try to get date of birth if possible. If you cannot get the date of birth, ask for the age.

How to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding: "When did your mother give birth to you? Can you also give the date of birth of all members of your household that I just listed?"

It is important that you ask firstly for the person's full date of birth.
If the person does not know the full date of birth, then ask for his/her month and year of birth.
If month is not known, ask for the year of birth
If year of birth is unknown, ask for age in completed years.
For small children, if full date of birth is unknown, ask if any of the following records are available:
Baby Clinic Books,
Baptism/Communal/Parish Membership Cards
and School Records
Use this information to record correct dates of birth.

How to record:

-If the full date of birth is known, enter the figures in the six boxes provided.
If the person knows his/her month and year of birth, record the month and year in the boxes provided, leaving two boxes blank
-If month is not known and only the year of birth is known, record year of birth in the two boxes provided, leaving two boxes blank.
-If month is not known and only the year of birth is known, record year of birth in the two boxes provided, leaving four boxes blank.
-If year of birth is unknown, ask for age in completed years, and record age into the two boxes for age in years.
-For babies who have not reached one (1) year, record the full date of birth, this can be obtained from the records such as the clinic cards and other church documents such as baptismal cards.
-If a person does not know the date of birth or age, leave date of birth blank and estimate the age using methods that are discussed in the next section
1. Clinic and other records:
Begin by asking if the household has any records, which show exact age, such as Baby's Clinic Book (MCH Clinic Book), Baptism/Communion/Parish Membership Cards or school records. Ask if you can see them. Copy the date of birth or age from these records into the code boxes provided.

[p. 70]

2. Household Record Card (HRC)
HRCs will be available in some CUs in the Rural areas, the Rural Non Villages (RNV) and in some urban areas, like settlements.

Check the date of birth and ages shown on the HRC.
If the date of birth is in the HRC, copy it on the boxes provided.
The HRC is usually a few years old, so you will have to add on the years since the HRC was filled out.

Ways of estimation age when date of birth is not known
Many people in PNG do not know their exact date of birth or age. It is very important that every persons' age must be recorded or estimated as accurately as possible.
Age can be estimated using the following methods:

1. Look at the Physical Characteristics of persons.
2. Look at the age of the children against the parents.
3. Work out age by use of Notable Events
4. Determine age by comparing the respondent with someone whose age is known
5. Use the Age Conversion Table.
1. Physical characteristics developed by persons at certain ages
When the date of birth or age is not known, one way to work out their age is by referring to certain changes that occur to each person physically. Some of the physical evidences are:

--Age at puberty: Many boys grow beard at 15 years while girls commence menstruation at 11, 12 or 13 years old and breasts also begin to grow around the same age.
--Age at first marriage: men tend to get married around 21 years old, while girls get married at 16-19 years.
--Age at first birth of child: most women nowadays give birth to their first child at age 21 years, although in the past it was earlier, about 16 years.
--Age at first entry into school: most children begin school at age 7.
--Physical changes among children: some babies still breast-feed till age 2; young children start losing first teeth at about 6 years of age.

Add the age at the time to the number of years that have elapsed since the event. If age is reported, enter just that in the box provided.

[P. 71]

[The first paragraph contains an example and is omitted here.]

2. Look at the age of the children against the parents.
Another way is to look at the age structure of family and check that the ages look right and make sense. For example, check if person is married and work out the number of children in order to determine his/her age. Usually men get married at 21 years and are 2 to 3 years older than their wives. They become parents at age 21.

Other physical features to check the age difference between family members are:

--If the person is married, the age must be 15 years and above.
--If the person has own child/children, then the age difference with the head (father) and mother must be at least 15 years or more. The minimum age difference between a child and mother should be 15 years.
--If a person is a full time student, then age is usually between 5 and 25 years.
3. Work out age by use of Notable Events:
Another way to work out age is by using Notable Events Books:

i. Find out the province and district where the person was living when he/she was young.
ii. Read out the lists in order of the events for that particular district to the person until he/she remembers one of the events.
iii. Find out the year in which the event occurred. (You can use the province by district list in appendix 4).
iv. Work out how old the person was at the time of that event.
v. Subtracting the year of the past even that the person remembers from the present year.
vi. Add the results to the above point (iv) and (v).

Some major events that person can easily remember are: world war 2, flood, earthquake, Independence, change in political leadership which are regarded as notable events.

[p. 72]

[The first paragraph contains an example and is omitted.]

4. Determine age by comparing the respondent with someone whose age is known

This method should be used only when all other methods have failed. Ask the respondent to identify another person(s) within the household or the community, who is about the same age. Find out if they know their exact date of birth. If they do, use their age to estimate the age of the respondent.

[The next paragraph contains an example and is omitted.]
[Pages 73-76 contain a conversion table and examples are omitted.]

[P. 77]

Question 5: Marital Status
This question asks if the person is never married, married, separated, divorced, or widowed. This is called the person's marital status.

Q5. What is the person's present marital status?

[] 1. Never married
[] 2. Married
[] 3. Separated
[] 4. Divorced
[] 5. Widowed
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons. If is not necessary to ask the question for young children who are obviously not married. Use your judgment and ask only about those people who could be married.

Be very careful not to offend respondents. If they say someone is married or that someone is divorced, accept whatever they tell you. Do not try to find out whether they have a legal marriage or are just living together, or whether they have a legal divorce or not.

How to ask: You should simply ask "Are you/ is he/she single, married, divorced, separated, or widowed?

How to record: Write in the box the correct code, 1-5, from the census form. For example, if a person says he is currently widowed, Code 5 should be written in the box.

--A woman or a man is widowed (Code 5) if the spouse has died.
--If a widow has remarried, record her/him as Married (Code 2).
--If a man has remarried - Record him as Married (Code 2).
--Remember to record Code 1 for children, or anyone obviously never married.
--If a couple is apart for a long time, or if one is far away, (e.g. working in another province), they are still married (Code 2) unless they have decided that their marriage has ended. Separated in the codes does not mean separated by distances.

[P. 78]

Question 6: Religion
Religion affects the way people chose to live. We need to know how many people in each religion or church.

Q6. What Church/Religion does the person belong to? ____

Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person in each household.

How to ask:
"What church or religion does the person belong to? "There are cases where members of households belong to different church/religious groups. You may have to ask every member of the household. Never assume that everybody in the household belongs to the same church as the head of household.

Also, do not assume that everyone in the village belongs to same religious group or church. There are pockets of households and individuals in some areas who may have different religious beliefs. These are quite common in urban areas where increases in numbers of other religions have occurred in recent times.

How to record:
In the space provided write the name of the church/religion, which the person says he/she belongs to. For example a lady says she's a Lutheran, you write Lutheran Church and not L.C. for short.

-If the person does not belong to a church or religion, write None.
-Christian is not clear. Ask which church the person belongs to (Anglicans, Catholics, Baptist or other )
-Do not write in the boxes.

[P. 79]

Question 7: Survival of own mother.
This question is used to find out how long people live. The information needed is about the natural mother, not the adopted mother. The Mother's Person number is needed so we can work out the mother's age. This information is important to find out health and social needs.

Q7. Is the person's mother still alive?
(If "Yes" and mother in this house, enter mother's person number in the boxes. Enter "00" if mother not in this household)

Mother's Person number _ _
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person in each household.

How to ask:
"Is your/his/her own mother still alive?" Remember, this question is about the person's own biological or natural mother, not their adopted mother. You must ask if the person's own mother is alive, and whether or not the mother is in the same household.
If the answer is "yes", ask "Is your/his/her own mother living in this household?"

How to record:
Write the code 1 "Yes" (alive) or 2 "No" (not alive) in the first box.

-If the response is Yes (Code 1), and the mother lives in the household, fill in the mother's person number in the two boxes below.
-If the mother is alive but does not live in the household, enter 00 in the two boxes.
-If the response is "No" (Code 2, not alive), do not write in the mothers person number in the two boxes provided.

[P. 80]

Questions on Migration
The next set of questions (Question 8-10) give information on movement of people from one place to another. Information on movement of people is useful to plan for people's needs such as health, education, and employment.

Question 8. Place of Birth

Q8. Where was the person born?

(Give country if born outside PNG)

Province / Country ____
District ____
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person in each household.

How to ask: Can you tell me where you were born, he/she was born?

-Some people will not be able to name the district where they were born. List of provinces divided by districts is in appendix 4. If the respondent does not know his/her district of birth, you go to the person's province of birth and read the names of districts to the person.
-If districts cannot be determined, give best information available.
-Write the country, if born outside PNG. Leave District blank.
How to record:
Make sure you record the names of the province and district in which the person's mother was living at the time of his/her birth.
If the person was born outside PNG, write the name of the country of birth in the space marked for Province, and leave District blank.
Do not write in the two boxes, as they are needed later for office use.

Note: The space for you to write names of province/district/country is limited so please write clearly and neatly.

[P. 81]

Question 9: Duration of residence

Q9. How long has the person lived in this district/town?

(If "Other", give number of years lived here. If less than one year, enter 00 in the boxes.)

1. Continuously since birth _
2. Other:
Number of years lived _ _
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person in each household.

How to ask: Ask "How many years have you lived here?"

How to record: If the person was born here and has always lived here, enter Code 1 (continuously since birth)

-If the person was not born in here, enter Code 2 (other).
-Then enter the number of years the person has lived here.
-If less than 1 year write 00 into the two boxes for year/
-If other number less than 10, put a zero in the first box and the number in the second box. For example, for 5 years, write "05".
-For persons born where you are interviewing but who have been away, record the period since they last returned until the day of interviewing.
-Some people move often. We only want to know about the most recent move to this place.
-Short visits to other people, to give birth, to enroll a child in a school, for a holiday, or a family visit should be ignored in calculation of the number of years. These are not migrants.

[P. 82]

Question 10. Citizenship
This question is to tell us how many PNG citizens and how many non-citizens there are in PNG.

Q10. What is the person's citizenship? _ _

Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: Every person in each household.

How to ask: If the person is obviously a PNG citizen by appearance and/or place of residence (rural), it may not be necessary to actually ask this question.

-Non-citizens are more common in urban areas and some border provinces such as Sandaun, Western and Bouganville. In such places you need to ask the question on citizenship. You simply ask "What is the person's citizenship?" (not "Where were you born?"), or you can ask, "What passport do you/he/she carry?".
-Ask all people who seem to be expatriates "What passport do you/he/she carry? ".
How to record:
-Write down the name of the country the person tells you.
-Write PNG for PNG citizens.
-If any person is a citizen of two countries, record the citizenship the person chooses.

[Pages 83-85 containing examples and exercises are omitted.]

Questions on Education
The next four questions are on education and literacy. Information on education and literacy is important because it tells us how many people have attended school and helps us plan for the education needs of the community in the future.

Question 11: School attendance
This question is about the number of persons over the age of 5 years who are currently attending school and those who are not at school.

Q11. Is the person attending any formal schooling now?

[] 1. Yes.
[] 2. No, attended in past.
[] 3. Never attended.
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 5 years and older. That is, all persons born before 9 July 1995. If date of birth is not recorded, use age given in years.

How to ask: "Are you/ Is he/she attending any formal schooling now?"

How to record:

Write a code number in the box beside the answer.
Code 1 is for persons who are attending formal school full-time.
Code 1 is also for persons who are enrolled in school but are not attending because of illness, school holidays or other reasons.
Code 2 is for persons who have attended a school in the past.
Code 3 is for those who have never attended school.
-This question is only about attendance at a formal school. Formal education grades are Grade 01 to Grade 12.
-Do not record attendance at Vocational, Tokples, Bible School, or Correspondence courses.
-The census is being conducted during the school holidays; so many students will not be in school. If they usually attend school, record them as Code 1 (Yes).

[P. 87]

Question 12: Educational Attainment
This question is about the level of education people have completed.

Q12. What is the highest formal educational grade completed?
____ _ _

Who to ask: As the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for:
All persons 5 years and older. That is, all persons born before 9 July 1995. If date of birth is not recorded, use age given in years.
Person who were given code 1 and 2 in Q11.

How to ask: "What is the highest grade/level of education that the person has completed?"

How to record: Write the highest grade completed in the two boxes, Formal education grades are Grade 01 to Grade 2. For example, for Grade 5 write "05".

-Write "00" for no schooling, or no grades completed.
-Record only the grades completed. If they are still at school, do not include the grade the person is in now. For example: Ila is in Grade 9 this year. He completed Grade 8 last year, so write "08" in the code boxes.
-In most cases you will not need to write anything in the space provided before the boxes.
-If the person was educated overseas, write the highest level achieved in the blank space provided (e.g., high school).
-Then write the number of years of schooling in the two boxes.
-Write "00" for persons who have never attended school and those who are in their first year of formal school, attending pre-schools, elementary or Tok Ples schools.
-Only write the highest grade completed in the formal school system. Do not include education after leaving high school. For example, if a person completed Grade 10 before completing a computer correspondence course, write 10 in the box.

Note: Record the grade completed and not the grade he/she doing now.

Question 13. Training and Qualification
This question is about skills, training and qualifications received after leaving school.

Q13. Has the person completed a certificate, diploma or university degree or any other educational qualification since leaving school?
(If yes, specify level and subject of qualification, in the space provided.)

[] 1. Yes ____
[] 2. No
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years and older. That is, all persons born before 9 July 1990. If date of birth is not recorded, use age given in years.

How to ask: "Have you/ has he/she completed a certificate, diploma or a university degree or any other educational qualification since leaving school?"

How to record:

Write in the space the name of the training/qualification the person completed since leaving school. For Example: Certificate in Carpentry; Diploma in Accounting.
Do not write in the boxes, these are for office use.

Some people might confuse Certificate with a Grade 6, 8, 10 or 12 Certificate. Do not include Grade certificates here. This question is only about qualifications after leaving school.

Note: The training period should be at least three (3) months full time or more to be recorded. Any training which lasted less than three months should not be recorded.

[P. 89]

Question 14: Literacy.
This question is about whether or not people can read and write with understanding.

Q14. Which languages can the person read and write with understanding?

[] English: 1. Yes; 2. No
[] Pidgin: 1. Yes; 2. No
[] Motu: 1. Yes; 2. No
[] Tokples: 1. Yes; 2. No
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years and older. That is, all persons born before 9 July 1990. If date of birth is not recorded, use age in given years.

How to ask: "Which of the following can you/he/she read and write with understanding?"

-This question is not about spoken language but about reading and writing with understanding.
-That is, not just saying or copying the words, but understanding what is written and able to write.
How to record: Write "1" for "Yes", or "2" for "No" in the box beside each language.

-If the person reads and write English with understanding, write 1 in the box beside English.
-If the person speaks Tok Ples but does not read or write it, write 2 for "No".
-Write the correct codes beside each language, English, Pidgin, Motu and Tok Ples.
-Tokples is same as mother tounge. For example, if Motu or French is spoken, it must be recorded as Tokples.

Note: A person is considered to be able to read and write a language only if he or she can both read and write with understanding, a short simple letter or message in that language. A person who can only read and write figures or his name, or memorize a phrase should not be considered as able to read and write with understanding.

People may be sensitive about this, so after explaining what the question means, the interviewer should accept the person's word without further questioning.

[Pages 90-92 containing examples and exercises are omitted.]

[P. 93]

Economic questions

The economic questions are an important part of the census form. The economic questions for each person over 10 years are in Question 15 to 19.
The census provides the chance for us to find out what kind of work people do. Work that earns some income or helps to support the family, such as growing food, is called "economic activity". Some people are not economically active. On the information collected, community needs can be identified. Better plans can be in place.

Question 15: Economic activity

Q15. In the last seven days, has the person done any of the following?

(If more than one answer is given, record main activity
If code 7 "None": go to question 18.)

[] 1. Gardening/Fishing for money
[] 2. Gardening/Fishing for own use
[] 3. Business (any type) with paid help
[] 4. Business (any type) with no paid help
[] 5. Help in family business with no pay
[] 6. Wage job (include temporary absence)
[] 7. None (Go to Q18).
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years and older. That is, all persons born before 9 July 1990. If date of birth is not recorded, use age given in years.

How to ask: "In the last seven days, has the person done any of the following?"

-You must then read out all of the 6 categories, explaining each category if necessary.
-If the person did more than 1 to 6, then you ask which was the main activity in the last 7 days.
How to record: Write one code only in the box provided.

-If the person did not do any of activities 1 to 6, write code 7 in the box.
-When Code 7 is recorded, do not ask Q16a, Q16b, and Q17 but skip straight to Q18.
[P. 94]

What each code means:
Code 1: Gardening/fishing for money.

Use Code 1 if the person did any gardening/agricultural, hunting or fishing activity in the last 7 days and sold some or all of the produce. The activities include growing cash crops such as coffee, tea, cocoa, rubber and oil palm and also producing other things for sale. This includes growing any vegetables, making sago, gathering food, fishing, keeping livestock or hunting wild pigs or other animals for sale.

Code 2: Gardening/fishing for own use only.
Use Code 2 for a person doing any gardening/agricultural, hunting or fishing activities in the last 7 days for their own or family use but not for sale. This is called subsistence.

Code 3: Business (any type) with paid help
Use Code 3 for persons who have a business of any type at all, big or small, which has some paid workers (in pidgin, wokman). The person gets Code 3 if they own the business or partly own it and get a share of the profit. (e.g PMV, trade store, professional practice, or a farm run as a business with paid workers).
Do not use Code 3 if he/she is paid a regular wage by the business. Wage earners are Code 6. Code 3 is used only for people who take all or part of the profit from a business.
A Code 3 business includes professional practices (e.g. private doctor, lawyer) as well as very informal activities such as selling crops or betel nut, as long as they employ one or more workers.

Code 4: Business (any type) with unpaid help
Use Code 4 is for the owner or part-owner of any type of business which does not have any paid workers. Family members may help without payment.
The difference between Code 3 and Code 4 is that a Code 3 business has paid workers but a Code 4 business does not.

Code 5: Helping in family business without pay
Use Code 5 for persons who work in a family business without pay. It is quite common for family members to help businesses such as trade stores. Women and school children often do this activity without pay.
Gardening is not counted as business unless there are also wage workers. Women and children who help in gardens, which are not businesses, get Code 1 or Code 2.

Code 6: Wage job (includes temporary absence)
Use Code 6 for all persons who are employed in a wage or salary job of any kind, including part-time, temporary, or casual work.
Include persons who are temporarily absent from their work due to ill ness, lay-offs, labor disputes, strikes, or were on leave or holiday, even if they did not do to work during the last 7 days.

-All economic activity is to be recorded, even if part-time or only one hour during the week. You should stress to respondents that we want to record all economic activity, even if only for an hour during the week.
-Be alert and ask carefully. If rural households have a garden or a canoe, it is very likely that all active adults will do some economic activity.
-Women are counted as economically active if they do any work, which earns income or helps support the family, such as gardening or helping in the family shop. If they do only household duties, they are not counted as economically active
-Make a special effort to find out if women do any work that could be counted as economic activity.
-Students often do some economic activity, even if they spend most of their time at school. They might work after school and on week-ends in a garden, caring for animals, fishing or helping in a trade store. If they do any economic activity, this must be recorded.
-For persons on leave (or other temporary absence from work), their usual job should be taken as their main activity. For example, a man work at OK Tedi might be visiting his family for a week holiday. He is counted as having a wage job (Code 6).
-Make sure you understand the meaning of all the Codes 1 to 6. Think about what you would write for the people you know.

Notes: Be alert and be sure to skip to question 18 if the person is not economically active (Code 7). You will look silly if you ask people about their occupation (Q16) if they have just told you they do not do any of activities 1 to 6.

[P. 96]

Question 16: Occupation
A person's occupation is what the person does for their economic activity. It is the kind of work they do.
There are two parts to this question. Q16 (a) is for the name or description of the occupation and Q16 (b) says what duties the person actually does. It is important to fill out both parts of the question.

Q16 (a). What kind of work did the person do in last 7 days ____

(Describe the kind of activity, work e.g., plumber, street seller, kaukau farmer, car mechanic)

Q16 (b). What was the main task/duties done in that work? ____

(Describe the kind of tasks or duties Done in the work stated in Q16 (a), e.g. Mending taps, selling betel nut, weeding garden, fixing car engines).

Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years and older who said they were economically active in the past 7 days, i.e. Code 1 to 6 in Q15.

How to ask: "What kind of work did you(he/she) do in the last 7 days?"
Write the answer to this question and then follow up with Q16 (b).
"What is the main task/duty you (he/she) do in that work?"

[P. 97]

How to record: Give a brief answer for both parts. At least two words are neccesary to give a job description.

-Do not write in the code boxes for this question.
-Be specific, describe job and task or duty clearly. For example, do not just write "clerk" but give details of the type of clerk and type of work, as follows:
Q16a: (job) bank clerk, Q16b: (task) deposits and withdrawals.
Q16a: (job) payroll clerk, Q16b: (task) preparing wages.
Q16a: (job) accounts teller, Q16b: (task) bookkeeping.
For our purposes, task means main duty.
-It is very important to record different levels of skill. A Dentist is very different from a Dental Technician and a Mechanical Engineer from an Engineering Technician.
-Most of rural people are engaged in agricultural activities and these are easy to record. For subsistence farmers, simply record as "subsistence farmer". For cash farming, record the name of the main crops or livestock in part (a). In part (b), give main activity in the seven days, e.g. weeding crops, repairing fences, planting, clearing ground, harvesting or some similar jobs.
-It does not matter whether a person is experienced or inexperienced, if they are doing the same work. Apprentices, trainees, and foremen are coded the same if they do the same work.
-For Government Departments or other large organizations, try to give the person's job title or Grade/Classification for Q16a, e.g. Senior Statistician, Police Superintendent, or Inspector. In Q16(b), briefly describe their duties.
-A person is only classified as a manager if they supervise at least one person. A person running his own trade with no full-time help should be recorded in Q16a as a shop assistant and not a manager. His actual duties (tasks) e.g. serving customers, in Q16b, would make clear he is not a manager.
-If the person being interviewed is on leave, record his regular job when he is at work.

Note: In Q16a, the description should usually be two words. In Q16b, give duties or tasks briefly to help give an accurate code.

[Page 98 containing examples is omitted.]

[P. 99]

Question 17: Industry
Industry is about what activity occurs at the person's place of work. It is not about the person's own activity, which was asked in Q16.

In Q17, we ask about what the Company, Government Department, or business does, e.g. Mining, Immigration Office, Retail shop.

You must make sure you understand the difference between Q16, which is about what the person does, and Q17, which is about the place where they work.

Q17. What kind of business is done at the place where the person works? ____

(Describe the business by activity, e.g. transport, selling betel nut, repairing cars)
(Go to Q20)

Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years of age or more who said they were economically active in the past 7 days, i.e. Code 1 to 6 in Q15.

How to ask: "What kind of business or activity is done at the place where the person works?"

How to record: Describe what is done at their place of work, e.g.

-Agricultural Industries have a description similar to the Occupation e.g. a coffee grower is in the Coffee Growing industry. A subsistence farmer is in the Subsistence Farming industry.
-Describe the industry as fully as possible. At least two words are necessary to give clear industry description. Be specific, describe the industry clearly. Example: House Construction not just construction, Road Maintenance not just maintenance, Medical Doctor not just Doctor. Do not enter anything in the code boxes for this question.
-For Government Departments or Organizations, describe what the actual place or branch where the person work does. Schools should be described by type, e.g. Secondary School, Nursery School.
-Health locations should be described by activity, e.g. Aid post, Hospital.
-Provincial administration officers should be "Government Administration"
-If at all in doubt, give the name of the Company or Department.
-Market or Roadside Selling should simply be described as Market or Roadside Selling.
-If the person being interviewed is on leave, record the kind of activity at their usual place of work.
-Most large Companies are coded according to their main activity e.g. Mining Companies as Mining Industry, Air Niugini as Air Transport. However some big Companies may have big branches with different names and different activities. Then the activity of the branch should be recorded e.g. Steamships -- Stop and Shop is Retail Trade but there is also Steamships Wholesale which is Wholesale Trade.
-Two words are usually needed to give a good industry description.

[The next paragraph containing examples of good and bad answers is omitted here.]

-For Q17, write the activity and not the name of the business, if possible.
-If you cannot record a suitable description of the main business activity, the business name is better than no answer at all. Some business places have many things going on at one time.

All persons answering Q17 had an economic activity so after answering Q17 skip to Q20 for those who are citizen women 15 years or more. The rest should stop. If the person is head continue to Q24 - 28.
Do not ask them whether they were looking for work (Q18) or about their non-work activities (Q19).

[P. 101]

Question 18: Looking for work
This question is only for people who said they did not have an economic activity. We want to know whether they looked for any kind of work in the last four weeks. This tells us if there are people who do not have jobs but would like to be employed.

Q18. Has the person actively sought any kind of work in the last four weeks?

1. Yes
2. No
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.

Get this information for: All persons 10 years or more who had Code 7 (None) in Q15. That is, people who did not report an economic activity.

How to ask: "Has this person looked for any kind of work in the last four weeks?"
Stress "any kind of work" and give examples, as explained below. Explain that the government must know about unemployment if they are to help people find jobs.

How to record: Enter only one code, Code 1 or 2 in the correct box given.

-Be clear in your question. The person must have answered an advertisement, or asked friends or employers if they have jobs available, or enquired at offices or companies, or tried to start a small business or a farm/garden.
-We have deliberately taken the longer period of four weeks for this question to include persons who may not look for work every week.
Note: Continue to Q19 for these persons.

[P. 102]

Question 19. Non-economic activity
This question tells us what those who do not have jobs are doing.

Q19. What was the person doing most of the time in the last seven days?

01. Housework
02. Studying
03. Waiting to start work
04. Looking for work
Not working because
05. Too young
06. Too Old/Retired
07. Sick
08. Permanently Disabled
09. Other (describe)
Who to ask: Ask the head of the household or the person responding.
Get this information for: All persons 10 years or more who had Code 7 (None) in Q15. This question is asked after Q18.

How to ask: "What was the person doing most of the time in the last seven days?"
How to record:
Enter one code only in the box provided.
If the person answers "other" (Code 9), write beside the box exactly what they did.

-All persons answering this question are not working, so their main activity will be a non-work activity. For the census, not working means not employed or not producing anything.
Codes 1 to 4 are non-work activities.
Codes 5 to 8 are reasons why the person was not economically active (Not working because...)
[]Housework includes cleaning, washing, cooking and child minding around the home for the family without pay. (So it is not an economic activity).
[] Cleaning, washing, cooking or child minding for someone else for pay would be counted in Q15 as a wage job. People who do a wage job should not be asked Q19.
[]Studying includes any type of formal or informal studying or training, provided it is the main activity. If the person is paid for studying by their employer they should be recorded as a wage job in Q15, and their usual job recorded in Q16 and Q17. People who are paid for studying should be asked Q19.
[] Waiting to start a job only includes the persons with a definite, arranged job to go to. Do not include persons who are only hoping to find a job.
-Some of the people who were looking for work (Code 1 in Q18) could have a different answer in Q19 because the period is shorter here (7 days). For example, some women may have looked for work in the last 4 weeks but their main activity in the last 7 days was Housework.
-Only use "looking for work" (Code 4) if the person actively tried to find a job -- i.e. answering advertisements, writing letters, asking people if they have work.
-Accept what the respondent says for Q19. For example, if they say a sixteen-year old is too young to work, we accept that.
[] Also, for "too old/tired", accept what the person says.
-It is important to find out if people are not working because they are sick as this tells us about health needs.
-Note again that only permanently disabled persons who do not have an economic activity are asked this question and recorded answers.
[] Only write "other" (Code 9) if you cannot put the person into one of the other categories.
-Give each person a code. Do not leave the code blank.
-For students home on holiday and not doing any economic activity, record their usual activity, which is student or studying.

[Pages 104-108 containing examples and exercises are omitted.]

[P. 109]

Records of births and deaths of children
The next four questions are about the number of children women have had, and the number of children who have died. This is important information to help us estimate how many people PNG will have in the future, and to help us plan for maternal and child health services.

Question 20. Total children ever born

Q20. How many children have you given birth to?

Who to ask: Ask all PNG citizen women born before 9 July 1985, who are aged 15 years or more. If date of birth is not recorded, use age given in years.

Get this information for: All PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more.

How to ask: "How many children have you given birth to?"

-This means all children born alive, even if they died soon after they were born.
-When the respondent tells you the number of children, ask "How many of these babies were boys and how many were girls?"
How to record: Record the total number of boys in the box for boys, and the total number of girls in the box for girls.

If the woman has never given birth, write "0" in each box. Do not leave blank spaces for this question.

Do not ask any more questions if the woman has never given birth.

[P. 110]
Note: Record all of the respondent's natural births, i.e. the total number of children she has given birth to,

-even if the child no longer lives in the household, and
-even if the child is no longer alive.

Include any birth which showed signs of life (by crying, breathing or moving), even if the baby died soon after birth.

This question is also used to check against the total number of children Questions 21, 22 and 23.

--Do not include stillbirths, (i.e. giving birth to a dead child)
--Do not include adopted children (i.e. children the woman did not give birth to herself).
--Do not include step-children (children of the husband who have a different mother), or foster children.
--Question 20-23 are sensitive issues. You must remember this, and be careful not to upset or offend the respondent.
--Explain the questions clearly and remind them politely that they should include children who have died.
--If possible, ask each woman herself, separately. Explain to the head of household that the woman, or mother is the best person to give accurate information about her children.
--Try to avoid having other people answer for the woman.
--Ask all women 15 years or older, even if they are not married.

If the woman says she has never given birth, do not ask her any more questions. Move on to the next respondent.

[P. 111]

Question 21: Number of own children at home

Q21. How many of your own children are living in this household?

Who to ask: Ask all PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who said in Q20 that they have given birth to a child.

Get this information for: All PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who have given birth to at least one child.

How to ask: Ask "How many of your own children live with you?". When a number is given, Ask "How many of these children are boys and how many are girls?".

How to record: Write the number of male children in the box for Boys, and female children in the box for Girls.

Question 22: Number of own children living elsewhere.

Q22. How many of your own children are living elsewhere?

Who to ask: Ask all PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who said in Q20 that they have given birth to a child.

Get this information for: All PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who have given birth to at least one child.

How to ask: Ask "How many of your children live elsewhere?"
The children may have married, moved out of the village, or been adopted. They may be living on their own or with another household.
When a number is given, ask "How many of these children are boys and how many are girls.

How to record: Record the number of male children in the box for Boys, and the female children in the box for Girls.

[P. 112]

Question 23: Number of Own Children Dead

Q23. How many of your own children are dead?

Who to ask: Ask all PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who said in Q20 that they have given birth to a child.

Get this information for: All PNG citizen women aged 15 years or more who have given birth to at least one child.

How to ask:
"Have any of your own children have died?"
It may be difficult to get a good response because some women don't like to talk about dead children. Be kind and considerate when you ask.
The question is important and must be asked.
Even if the answer is No, ask "Did you ever have any babies who cried or showed signs of life but survived only a few minutes/days/weeks?"
When a number is given, ask "How many of these dead children were boys and how many were girls?"

How to record: Record the number of dead male children in the box for Boys, and the number of dead female children in the box for Girls.
Note: Do not record still births (that is, giving birth to a dead child), adopted/foster children, step-children.

The figures in Q21, Q22 and Q23 for each woman MUST add up to the figures in Q20. Check these totals as you go. If the numbers don't add up to the number in Q20, ask the respondent to clarify.

[Pages 113-114: Examples and exercises are omitted.]

[P. 115]

Household Economic Activity
Q24 give us important information on which foods and cash crops households grow and raise. These are the produce for the household that they get cash for or for their own use.

Q24. Does this household grow/raise any of the following?

1. Cash
2. Own use
3. None
01. Cocoa
02. Coffee
03. Rubber
04. Oil palm
05. Coconut
06. Betel nut
07. Livestock (cattle, pigs, goats, sheep)
08. Poultry
09. Food crops/Vegetables/Root crops
10. Fishing (e.g. fish, crabs, sea shells)
Other (Any major crop or livestock) ____
Who to ask: Ask every head of household

Get this information for: All households. The activities here must include activities of all listed persons who are not visitors in Question 1 of the census form. Also, the activities took place during a period of one year.

How to ask: "Does your household grow or raise any of the following?"

-Remember the household is a group of people
-The read the list to them (Code 1 to Code 10)

Each time they say "yes", ask "Is this for cash, or only for your own use?"

[P. 116]

How to record: For each item on the list:

Write Code 1 if they say 'yes, for cash'
Write Code 2 if they say 'yes, only for home use'
Write Code 3 if they say 'no'.
If they grow or raise any crops or animal which are not
in the list 1 to 10, record main one under 'other', and use
Code 1 'Yes, for cash' or
Code 2 'Yes, only for home use'.
If there is no other main activity, write Code 3.

[P. 117]

Question 25: Household income generating activities
This question is about the source of income that the whole household is involved in, this may be the business activity of the whole household. Source must be the activity that any one of the household members who were listed in Question 1 excluding visitors.

Q25. Does this household get any money from the following?

1. Yes
2. No
01. Selling food crops and cooked food at market/roadside
02. Selling fish (e.g. crabs, shell fish) at market/roadside
03. Selling meat (e.g. pig, magani) at market/roadside
04. Selling things they make, e.g. carvings, bilums
05. Selling bettelnut/mustard/lime
06. Running a PMV
07. Hiring boats
09. Running a trade store
Other (Any major income generating activity) _____
Who to ask: Ask every head of household.

Get this information for: All households.

How to ask: "Does this household get any money from the following?"
Then read the list to them (Code 1 to Code 8)

How to record: For each item on the list:

Write Code 1 if they say "yes"
Write Code 2 if they say "no"
If they get money from any activities which are not in the list 1 to 8, write one main activity under "other".
Write code 1 for if they say there is another activity.
Write code 2 if there are no other main activity.

[P. 118]

Housing question
Questions on housing are needed for planning and to develop housing policies for PNG.

Question 26. Housing ownership

Q26. Do you own this house
(If Yes record 1 and Go to Q28)

[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No
Who to ask: In urban areas, you must ask this question of all heads of household.
In some rural areas you may not need to ask this question of a villager who lives in a thatched roofed, traditional-style house, if you are sure he owns the house.

Get this information for: All households.

How to ask: Do you own this house?

How to record:

Write 1 (Yes) if owned.
Write 2 (No) if not owned.
If the answer is Code 1 (Yes) skip to Q28.
If the answer is Code 2 (No) go on to Q27

Note: Households in non-private dwellings (NPDs) should not be asked these questions.

[P. 119]

Question 27: Rented House

Q27. If rented, who does the person rent the house from?

(If rented, record on code from the list below)

[] 1. National Housing Corporation
[] 2. Semi Government (PNGBC, ELCOM, Telikom)
[] 3. Other Govts, Provincial, District, LLGs, etc.
[] 4. Other private, e.g. TST, Real Estates, Wantoks
[] 5. Not rented
Who to ask: The head of all households which answered Code 2 (No) for Q26.

Get this information for: All household which answered Code 2 (No) for Q26.

How to ask: Who do you rent this house from?

How to record: Write the correct code in the box:

Code 1 is for houses rented from the National Housing Corporation.
Code 2 is for houses rented from semi-government business like PNGBC, ELCOM, and Telicom.
Code 3 is for Provincial, local, and district governments.
Code 4 is for houses rented from other businesses, Real Estate companies, the church, private landlords, wantoks and others.
Code 5 is when no rent is paid. For example, a family who is looking after a relative's house while the relative is away on holidays.

[P. 120]

Question 28: Number of rooms

28. How many rooms are there in this house? ____

Enter a figure for number of rooms. Exclude kitchen, bathroom and store rooms.

Who to ask: All heads of households

Get this information for: All households.

How to ask: "How many rooms does your house have?"

How to record: Count only main rooms (e.g. living room, family room, dining room, lounge) and rooms used for sleeping.

-Do not count separate kitchens, bathrooms, toilets, hallways, verandahs or storerooms.
-Bedrooms which are used as store rooms are counted as rooms.
-A room does not have to have permanent walls. If matting or cloth is hung to divide up an area so that people cannot see into it, then the parts should be taken as separate rooms.

[Pages 121-123: Examples and exercises are omitted.]
[Pages 124- 157: Chapter 10-11 and Appendix 1-7 containing administrative information and examples are omitted.]