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Papua New Guinea
National Population Census

Interviewer's Manual
Long Form

Population and Social Statistics Division
National Statistical Office
Port Moresby

[Tables of contents are omitted here.]

[pg.1]

Welcome to our Census Team
Section 1
Introduction
This manual will provide you with all the information you need to know to carry out your job as an interviewer during the census.
You will play a major part in the Census operation, as an interviewer. We rely on your ability to ask all the questions properly and to get the right answers. By doing this well, you will help greatly to make the Census a success.
[pg.2]
We also expect that you will respect the confidential (private) nature of the work you will do, and now discuss the answers you get with anyone outside of the Official Census Organization.
Make sure that you read this manual carefully. If you do not understand any part of the manual, ask your trainer or your supervisor to explain it to you.
Remember. Carry this manual with you during the census because it will help you especially for calculating ages, and working out language groups.

[pg. 3]

Section 2

The job of the interviewer
You have been recruited to work as an interviewer and your main job is to ask the census questions of the people in Papua New Guinea using the census questionnaire. However, the way in which you do this varies depending on whether you are working in a rural village, a rural non village, or an urban area.

[pg.4]

When doing census work you will not be working on your own. Instead you will be part of a team of 4 or 5 interviewers and you will have a supervisor who will be in charge of your team.

(i) Urban areas: These are the towns of PNG. Each urban area or town has been divided up into smaller areas of land called census units (CUs), each one containing about 50 dwellings. You the interviewers walk around the CUs assigned to you locating the housed in each CU from the maps provided to you and knock on the door of each house and ask the census questions of everyone who is staying in the house. This is called house to house interviewing.

(ii) Rural Non Villages: these are places such as plantations, government stations, saw mills, etc. Rural non villages (called RNVs, for short) are mostly censuses using the house to house interviewing method. Your supervisor will have a sketch map showing the houses and other buildings at the RNV. He will allocate a few houses to each interviewer to do. Sometimes a line up method will be used. This will be the same as the line up method used to census villages. One interviewer will have a list of the names of all of the people at the RNV. He will have to check the name off the list of each person who comes to census.

(iii) Rural villages: In villages the census questions are not asked using the house to house method, instead the line up method is used. In this method each interviewer in the team sits on a log or a chair and the village people come up to each interviewer and then he or she asks the census question of them. As you probably know each village has a village book and it is the job of one of the interviewers to update the village book. Your supervisor will tell you which interviewer is to update the village book and which one of you are to ask the census questions of the people.

[pg.5]

Asking people questions
When conducting you interviews there are three things you must do.
1. Gain peoples co-operation
2. Ask the census questions properly
3. Accurately and neatly record the answers to the questions on the census questionnaire.

Sections of the manual
Although the same census form is used in urban areas, Rural Non-Villages and in some traditional villages, there are some special census rules and procedures that are different. Section 4 and the front part of 6 have been divided up.

A Urban areas
B Rural Non-Villages
C Rural Villages

Thus for Section 4 and 6 only read the section which applies to the area you are working in.

[pg. 6]

Section 3

Structure and organization
There are two slightly different ways of organizing census work; one is used in urban areas and another one for villages and rural non-villages.

A. Urban Organization

[Figure omitted]

In the urban area you will be working during the mid-morning and evening for a two week period. Your supervisor will collect your pad of Census Forms at the end of each day's work. He gives these pads to the Quality Controller who checks that each Census Form is properly filled in. If the Quality Controller finds anything wrong, he tells your Supervisor, who in turn tells you and helps you put it right. Your Supervisor gives you back your pad of Census Forms each morning and collects them again each evening. This goes on until you have filled out Census Forms for all the houses shown on your maps and lists.
Don't let mistakes worry you, everybody makes them and your supervisor is there to help you put them right. This is his job. He will arrange for you to get out to your interview area and will make sure you are picked up again each evening. He will watch you do some of your interviews and will help you with any difficulties you may have or if you are not certain about anything.

[pg.7]

Your Supervisor is your immediate census boss and he is responsible for all your team's activities. His boss is called the Town Supervisor.

B. Rural area organization (Villages and RNVs)

[Figure omitted.]

When you work as an Interviewer in villages and RNVs, you will do so as part of a patrol team and some of the time you will be stopping overnight in these places.
In RNVs, that is large Missions, government stations and plantations etc., your Supervisor will make all census arrangements before you start work. He will give you a house, or a small group of houses and you will go into these and fill out census forms for each one.
In villages you will be working the old Kiap style of line-up. Here all the people are called together, each family is identified on the village Annual Census Book and each family is sent to an interviewer who then fills out the Census Form.
When the census is completed in a village or an RNV, your Supervisor will check each Census Form to find any mistakes. He will tell you how any mistakes made can be put right. Your Supervisor totals up the number of people on each page and then pins all the pads used in each place, together. When your team gets back to the District Office, he will hand all the pads to the District Census Officer who checks that your team has censused every place that it was told to go to. The Quality Controller then looks through the completed Census Forms to make sure that your supervisor has found out about any mistakes that your team may have made.

In villages and RNVs, your Supervisor is your immediate boss. His boss is the District Census Officer.
[pg. 8]

Section 4a - The census in urban areas

[Text omitted, Introduction and Workload]

[pg.9]

Dwelling Types
A dwelling is simply a place where people live. There are two main types of dwellings. These are (a) private dwellings and (b) special dwellings.
Private dwellings (PDs) are places such as flats; duplexes; domestic quarters and ordinary houses. Each house and each flat in a block of flats is a separate private dwelling.
Special dwellings include places such as hostels; workers quarters for single men, hospitals; corrective institutions and so forth. These places mostly have single people living in them. (See section 8 on Special Dwellings).

The Listing Sheets
For each Census Unit there will be a listing sheet showing the type and location of each dwelling. The following lists the information given in the listing sheet.
(See example of listing sheet at the end of this section)

(i) Street and area - this has the name of the street that each dwelling is in.
(ii) Section and Lot - where the Section and Lot number is known this is entered in this column.
(iii) BLDG NO. (Building Number) - Each separate building is allocated a number. The first building has number 01; the second 02 and so on.
(iv) No. of PDs (No. of Private Dwellings)- The only entries in this column are
'1'- this indicates one private dwelling.
'S.D' - indicates a special dwelling.
'__' or blank - indicates a building with no people living there at the time of listing.
[pg.10]
(v) Further Identification - This column is used to record the type of house and any numbers which may be on the house, or any features of the dwelling which stand out and make identification easier.
(vi) Int. Use Only (check) if completed- When you have finished the interview dwelling then put a tick in this column.
How are dwellings listed
(i) Each building in the CU is written down on the list.
(ii) Each dwelling in a building is written down on a separate line. For example if there is a block of 10 flats, each flat will be written on a separate line.
(iii) Sketch maps are sometimes drawn of parts of CUs. Numbers given in the Further Identification column will refer to the number given on the sketch map.
Similarly -
(iv) Sketch maps are sometimes drawn of particular buildings. For example -- for a block of flats sketch maps are drawn to show exactly when· each flat is.
If there are no door numbers on each flat a coded letter e.g. A, B, C, is given to each on the sketch map.
These letters are also written in the further identification column of the listing sheet.
This listing sheet together with your CU map and an aerial photograph will help you to find each dwelling in your CU. If you find any new dwellings, you must write this on the end of your list then interview the people who live there, and tell your Supervisor about it.

[Text omitted, Maps, routes and instruction for the enumerator regarding his/her kit, who to talk to, and how to handle different situations]

[pg.26]
Section 4b - Rural non villages (RNVs)
Note: 500 numbered RNVs only. For small RNVs done by village patrol teams, see section 4C.
A. Examples of 500 RNVs

- Plantations
- Government stations
- Large mission complexes
- Rural hospitals
- Resettlement schemes
- Agricultural stations
- Cattle stations
- Sawmills
B. Arrangements for Censuring An RNV
Your supervisor will see the person in charge of the RNV and make all arrangements for you to do the census.

C. Who do you census?
You census all the people who stayed at the RNV last night. This includes all wantoks and visitors and squatters and others who stayed there last night. It is most important that all these people are counted if everyone in Papua New Guinea is going to be counted.
You do not census workers who go home at the end of each day to sleep at their village or in town or somewhere else besides at the RNV .
If you are not sure whether or not to census someone, census him. This will make sure the person has been counted.

D. How is the census organized at an RNV?
There are 3 main ways of censusing an RNV and your supervisor will tell you the way he wants it done at each RN\ you come to. The 3 ways are:

( i ) House to house using a sketch map: Your supervisor will g1ve you 3 or 4 houses to do at a time.
[pg.27]
If a house has a number painted on it, you should write "NO....." in "further identification" ........ in the top right hand corner of the census form. If each house has a number written for it on your supervisor's sketch map, this number should be written in "building number"
When you have finished your 3 or 4 houses, you should go to your supervisor and he will cross them off on his map.
Things to remember: At most houses at RNVs there are wantoks staying with the family or single people who officially live there. Sometimes in a small house, there will be as many as 3 families. You must ask who all the wantoks are who are staying there. If you have a large single quarters to do, take extra care to make sure you census everyone. Ask your supervisor for help if necessary.
( ii ) House to house using stickers: In censusing bush material or makeshift housing settlements, sketch maps may not be available. In such cases, your supervisor will still give you a few houses to do at a time. The difference is that as soon as you finish censusing a house, place a sticker on it in a prominent place so that your supervisor and other interviewers will know it has been done.
( iii ) Line up: This is organized according to the following diagram:

[Figure omitted]

[pg.28]

Either all the people at the RNV, or all the people working in a particular section of the RNV, will assemble. Your supervisor will have a list of either

(i) all people living at the RNV or, more commonly,
(ii) a copy of the pay list of all workers at the RNV.

The "list man" will be one of the interviewers who will sit between the assembled people and the other interviewers, as in the diagram. He will call out each name on the list and

(i) Ask each person who comes forward if he stayed at the RNV last night.
If NO, the list man should tell him that he should be censused where he lives so he can go away now because he does not need to be interviewed any further.
If YES, the list man should direct· the man to go to one of the interviewers and tell him to take with him his wife and any wantoks who are present who are staying with him.
(ii) if no one comes forward, find out where the person is. If he is away from the RNV and did not sleep there last night, his name can be crossed off. If he is nearby, someone should fetch him. If he cannot be found or cannot come, the list man should ask a wantok to supply the information for the missing man.
(iii) if there are people still left, when all names have been called, report this to your supervisor.

Things to remember: In a line up at a plantation most of the men are usually single. You must not assume all the men are single. You must ask every man if he has a wife and children and any wantoks staying with him. Wantoks may not want to be censused because they may be frightened that they will be asked to leave by the manager. You will have to reassure any workers or wantoks with these fears.

[pg.29]

E. How do you do your interview?
You ask each question the same way as you are told in Section 9.
(i) House to house interviews: Interview the head of the house or an informant. Write down the details for that person and for the rest of his family and anyone else who slept in the house last night. Do not start a new page for each family group. Put everyone who slept in the house on the one page and if you fill a page continue on to the next page.

(ii) Line up interviews: Single people - Do not start a new page for each single person. Try and fill up a page with single people. This will mean that in a line up you may interview a single person then a married group then another single person. You should go back to the earlier page with the first single person on it and write in the details for the second one.
Married people - Start a new page for each family (plus visitors) group. Put everyone in the group on the page unless there are too many. Then fill up the page and go on to the next page.

F. Question 3
Question 3 is very simple for non-villages.
If the person slept at the non-village last, night- write 'in'. If the person slept anywhere else, e.g. a neighboring village or a town - write 'out'.
It is usually better in non-villages to ask the question, "Did ....... (person's name) sleep here last night?" If the answer is:
Yes, write 'in'. If the answer is No, write 'out'.

G. Your map
You may find some bush houses, squatter houses or other houses in the RNV which have not been drawn on your map. Report these to your supervisor.

[pg.30]

[Text summary about rural non villages omitted. ]

[pg.31]

Section 4c - The village census book

Introduction
The Village Census Books have recently been reintroduced in all provinces. They are simply a list of all the families who belong to a particular village.
This listing is a very valuable basic record for the National Census. It helps us to check that we are not missing people.
The Village Census Book will usually not have been up-dated for about a year when the National Census takes place. In this year, changes will have occurred, - families will have moved out, babies will have been born, people will have died and people will have married.
It is important that all changes to the village census book for each family are recorded first and then the National Census is done.
Each interviewer must know how to record changes on the village census book as he may have to do this job at least in some villages.

A. The PDS man's job
As noted earlier, the person who completes the village census book is called the PDS man. PDS are simply the initials of the Provincial Data System, that is, the name of the system of keeping village books.
The PDS man will sit at a special table usually with the village councilor in front of the village people.
The PDS man will call out the name of the head of a family. This family will then come to his table. If the family is absent someone who knows the family well should come in his place.
The PDS man then records any changes for this family in the village census book.
When he has finished this he will fill in a Family Record Card for that family, and convert the ages of people as well, for you.
This card is then given to the head of the family to take with his family to one of the census interviewers.

[pg.32]

B. The annual census form
The pages of the Village Census Books are called 'Annual Census Forms'.
An example of a completed form is given below.
[Figure omitted]
Column 1 and 2: Name and father's name.
Column 3: Each line has a number to identify each person when giving the relationship.
Column 4 and 5: These show the relationships within each family.
Column 4: The following abbreviations are normally used

H for Head of the family
W for a Wife
S for Son
D for Daughter
A/S for an Adopted Son
A/D for an Adopted Daughter
WIDOW is written for Widow.
[pg.33]

Column 5 simply gives the line number of that person is related to. (e.g. S of 02 -son of person 02). Children are normally written as related to their mother.
Columns 6 and 7: The date of birth or year of birth is written in one of these columns. Column 6 is for males only. Column 7 is for females only.
Columns 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12: These columns do not concern you. Do not write anything in them. This information will be recorded during the next Kiap census.
Columns 13 and 14: These column contains the information that was collected in the 1977/78 and/or 1979 Kiap censuses.
Column 15: This is where the updated information is recorded during this census. If you look at the top of the form above columns 13, 14 and 15, there is a guide to what you must write in column 15. This will be explained in detail in Section C, (Updating the Annual Census Form).

C. Updating the annual census form
(i) Residents and absentees

The two most important definitions are those of a resident and an absentee.
Resident is a person who has lived in the village at some time in the last six months.
An absentee is a person who has been away for six months or more.
Thus your first job for each family is to decide if each person listed is a resident or an absentee.
If the person is standing in front of you put a (check mark) in column 15
If they are not in front of you, you must ask ''Where is he/she now?"
If the answer is that he or she is nearby or at least has not been away for longer than 6 months, then also put a (check mark).
If you are told he/she has gone to live or work somewhere else and has been gone, or is expected to be away for at least six months, he or she is then an absentee.
Write the name of the place where he or she has gone in column 14.
[pg.34]

(ii) Births

You must ask each family about any new births.
If there is a new baby, record the name in column 1.
In column 2 put the father's name.
In column 4 and 5' write down the relationship to the mother, (S) for son, (D) for daughter.
The birthday is put in column 6, if the child is a boy.
The birthday is put in column 7' if the child is a girl.
Try to find out the exact date of birth. Most mothers will know this or can show you an Aid Post or Birth card.
Resident birth If the family are residents write the word "birth" in column 15.
Absentee birth If the family are absentees, put where the baby is in column 15 as you do for other absentees.
Where to write the names?
A firstborn child belongs 3 lines below his mother.
A second or more children belongs below the last child his mother gave birth to.

[Figure omitted, Example]

[pg.35]

(iii) Deaths

If a person had died write down the word "death" in column 15.
Then cross out all of the person's line.

(iv) Marriages
Marriages in the village

- If a man has married, write his wife's first name in column 1 and her father's name in column 2. Write her name on the line below her husband. Write W for Wife in column 4. Write her husband's line no. in column 5.
- Do not write anything in columns 8 to 14.
- If the wife has moved in from another village or place write M/I in column 15.
[Figure omitted]
- If she has her name in the same village book and it is listed under her parents, then cross her out. Then write her name again under her new husband's name, after that put a tick in column 15.
- Note: Do not write anything down in column 8, 9 10, 11, 12. This information will be recorded by the Kiap when he next comes.
Marriages out of the village
- If a woman has become married and moved out of the village write M/0 in column 15 and cross out her name.

[Figure omitted]

[pg.36]

(v) Checking for people missed

At the end of each family check and ask 'Is there anyone else?' You may find out about someone missed during the previous census. If so, add them on.

[Text omitted, how to take total in each page]

D. On completion of the book
When you have finished the last family in the village, check and ask if there is anyone else. This is very important. We must try to get anyone from the village whose name was missed off the book.

At the end of the Village Census, your Supervisor will add up the Totals of residents and births on each page to get a Village Total. This is cross checked with the numbers recorded on the National Census Form.

[pg.37]

E. The family record card
When you finish each family group in the village book, you must complete a family record card for that family. An example Family Record Card is shown below.
Simply copy the following information for each person in the family from the village book- their names (first names only), relationship; sex and dates of birth.
For relationship simply use the abbreviations given in section D; that is H for Head; W for Wife etc. Don't put the line number from the Village Census Book.
If a man has more than one wife, under the husband first write wife number one and her unmarried children, then wife number two and her unmarried children and so forth.
If everybody in a family is absent (that is they have been away for six months) you do not have to write out a Family Record Card for that family.
If only some people in a family are absent but the rest are still in the village - fill out the Family Record Card for the whole family (that is, include the names "of the people who are absent).

For people who have not come to the census but who have stayed in the village you must still do a Family Record Card. Give the card to a friend of the family and send him on to the interviewer to talk for that family.

You must do a separate Family Record Card for each household or family group see next section for a definition of a family group.

[Figure omitted]

[pg.38]

F. The village household definition a family group
When you study the National Census Form you will see the word household. In villages a household is simply a family group. A family group usually includes a man, his wife (wives) and their unmarried children.

[Figure omitted]

If any of the children are married, they form a separate family. Unmarried adopted children should be included with their foster parents.
The only exception is for very old people where husband or wife has died. They can be added to the card for one of their married children.

Finding family group on the annual census form
One of the jobs of the PDS man is to pick out the family group from the Village Book.
The names of the village people are written down in "extended" family group. We only want the census interviewers to ask questions of little family groups, otherwise there would be too many people on a census form.

[Figure omitted]

[pg.40]

G. Converting ages on the family record card

- This is the PDS man's job.
- If you are the PDS man, you must convert the date of birth on the Family Record Card to age in years.
- This is done by using the table given on the back of this manual.
- Simply look up the year of birth on the table and look across to the corresponding age. Write this age on the family record card.

When you do this conversion; look carefully at the person concerned and see if the age looks about right. If it doesn't, then you must try to find out the person's age. First ask the person how old he is. If the age that he gives seems right to you, write both the current year of and age on the family record card in the current spaces. If the person doesn't know his age, which is more usual, you use some notable or famous events to try and work it out.

- When you change an age, always change both the date of birth and the age on the family record card.
- The procedure for using the Notable Events Book is given in the front of notable events book. You will be shown how to use these lists during training.
- For easy reference, copy the notable events for the District you are working in, onto the inside of the back cover in the space supplied. Other events that people in the District know well may be added by your Supervisor.
- Sometimes the PDS book will only have 'aged' for old people. In these cases you will have to use the notable events book to determine the persons age and date of birth.
- Where possible estimate both the month and year of birth. This is particularly important for children. Independence -- September is a good reference point. Was the child born before or after Independence - September.
H. No village census books
In most cases, when no books have been made out for a Census Division or a particular village, you will have to use earlier older records. These are similar to the village census book and you should follow the same procedure. Your Supervisor will explain any differences to you.

In extreme cases no earlier records of any type will be available. In these cases the people will go directly to the Census interviewers and there will be no village census book to act as a check.

There will be no Family Record Card and interviewers will have to find out all the details from the people and in many cases estimate ages. It is hoped that some form of old records can be found as the procedure, without records to check, will not be as accurate.

[pg.42]

Section 5 - The structure of the form
At the back of the manual you will find a copy of the census form.
This is the form you will be using when you do your interviews.

1. Descriptive information
First of all there is what we call "descriptive information" at the top right hand corner of the form.

a. In rural areas you only have to complete the left hand side of the descriptive information.

________Province
________District/town
________Census division
________Census unit number
________Census unit name

b. In urban areas you have to fill in all of the descriptive information.

________ Province
________ Section
________ District/town
________ Lot number
________ Census division
________ Building number
________ Census unit number
________ Type of house
________ Census unit name
________ Further identification

This descriptive information comes from the CU Listing Sheet.
This descriptive information is extremely important. Copy the descriptive information for each house exactly as it is on the listing sheet onto the census questionnaire.

2. Person numbers
The next thing on the form is the person numbers at the top of the form. Each person has their own column. There are 10 columns on the form. Columns 01 to 07 are for the people who usually live in the house. Columns 08 to 10 are for visitors.

3. The census questions
The next thing the form has got is all the Census questions. If you look down the left hand side of the form you will see all the Census questions - each question has a number. There are 25 questions altogether.
Example - Question 4

What is your date of birth?

[pg. 43]

4. Coverage
The first 3 questions on the Census form are where you write down the names of all the people who live- in each house.
In question 3 you must ask for each person in the house, "Did that person stay in the house last night?"

If the answer is 'yes', then write 'in' in Q3 for that person - and ask the person all the Census questions. If the answer is 'no', then write 'out' for that person - and the person does not get asked any of the Census questions.

Question 3 is called the coverage question.

5. Sequence guides
Some of the Census questions are not asked of everyone. For example, men don't get asked how many babies they have had.
So, we use sequence guides to tell you who to ask the Census questions of.
There are 4 main sequence guides on the Census form.

I. If 'out' in Q3, end of question for this person.
II. For all females 15 years of age and older (born in 1965 or before).
[pg.44]
II. For all persons 10 years of age and older (born in 1970 or before.
IV. If code 01, 02, 03 or 04 ask Q20, 21 and 22.

6. Instructions to you
The next thing about the Census forms is all the instructions to you, the interviewer.
Nearly every question has instructions under the question in small print.

Example - Question 4

What is your date of birth?

There are 2 instructions to you the interviewer

i. Ask for Health Record Cards.
ii. If date of birth unknown, estimate age in years.

There are two questions on the form that are not really questions but are instructions to you. They are question 2 and question 14B.

Question 2 - is all an instruction to you

Write down the relationship of each person to the head of the household.

Question 14B - is all an instruction to you

A. Is your own mother still alive?

Make sure you pay careful attention to all these instructions that are with each question.

7. Coding boxes -green shading
The next thing about the form is the processing of the information in the form.

[pg.45]

Notice that there is a lot of blue color on the form. Wherever there's green color the answer in that space is going to go onto the computer in Port Moresby.
Okay, look a bit more closely at this green color.

Look at the difference between Ql3 and Ql4. Ql3 has little coding boxes that are colored blue. But in Ql4 the whole space is colored

Never write anything over those little green boxes.

8. Tally boxes
Look now at the bottom right hand corner of the form.
There are 2 sets of tally boxes there.

a. The first tally boxes say 'This is page number, of, total pages for this household'.
[Figure omitted]

These boxes just tell us how many forms you've had to use at each house. You have to fill these boxes in.

b. The second tally box is in the bottom right hand corner of the form.
[Figure omitted]

All you have to do is to get the number of males and the number of females from Question 5 and enter the numbers in the boxes.

[pg.46]

9. The back of the census form
The back of the Census form is used only in urban areas.

10. Who to ask the questions of
There's one more thing about the form. Who should you ask the question of?
Do you have to ask the questions of each person personally or can you ask the husband or wife the questions for everyone in the household?
The answer is that you can ask the Census questions for a whole family of any responsible adult member of that family. That is you do not have to ask the Census questions personally for each person.

[pg.47]

Section 6 - The census questions

General
When asking the Census question you must make sure that the questions are asked in the same way of all persons that you interview. If you don't do this then the Census results will be no good.
Usually the information for questions 1-5 can be obtained from the head of the household. Then ask questions 6-22 of each person individually. (Parents will usually answer for young children). After the questions for each individual have been asked get the household together and ask questions 23-26 of the household as a whole.

Urban, RNVs, Villages
As explained earlier the procedure is different from Urban and RNVs to villages. In urban areas and RNVs you go to each house and put the whole household on the one form. In rural villages, the PDS man divides the list for the village into family groups and you interview only one family group at a time. Thus the procedure for Questions 1 to 5 on the form is different in these two cases.
This section for Questions 1 to 5 only has been split into two parts

A and B - Urban and RNVs
C - Rural villages only.
Urban interviewers - read A and B only
Rural interviewers - read A and B and C
(you have to cover RNVs and villages).

Question 6 onwards is the same for urban and rural.

[pg.48]

Parts A and B - Urban and RNVs - Questions 1 to 5
Your job as an interviewer to find out and write down on the census form the names of

(i) All people who usually live at the dwelling. Make sure you probe for any old people living in the dwelling (grandparents etc.), any young babies, any adopted children.
(ii) Any people who are visiting the dwelling. This could be people who are only staying a few days; on the other hand they may have been there a few months already.
Note: For the census we do not wish to define a visitor. If a person says he is a visitor, put him/her in the visitors section.
(iii) Any people who slept at the dwelling the night before you are interviewing there

You write down the names of these people in the answer boxes for Ql.

Question 1

A. What are the names of the people who are living here?
B. Did you have any visitors who stayed here last night?

The people at the houses you will interview at can be divided into two groups. These two groups are residents and visitors.
Question one has been divided into two parts to make sure that you get the names of these people from both of these groups.
Ql.A is for writing in the names of the residents using person numbers. 01-07 Ql.B is for writing in the names of the visitors using person numbers 08-10.

[pg.49]

When you write down the name of the residents, you must write down the head of the household first, then his wife, and then the children who are not married starting from the oldest.

How to ask the introduction and questions 1, 2, and 3.
Your introduction should be something along these lines
"Good (morning/ afternoon/ evening) my name is ..........I'm an interviewer for the National Census and I'd like to ask you the Census questions. First of all, what are the names of the people living here?" You then write down the names and the relationship, remembering to start with the head, then his wife and then the children. Then ask QlB "Did you have any visitors who stayed here last night?" Write down their names.
Now you must ask Question 3. Ask for each person "Did you stay here last night?" Just as a last check you should then ask "Is there anyone else, whose name is not written down on the form who stayed here last night?" You must do this because the census questions are asked of everyone who stayed in the house the night before not just the people in each family.

Question 1 - Name - Other points
Give one name only. We really don't need the name and we are not worried about the spelling. If people object to giving their name, simply write "man etc." or "Mr. x."

If a man has more than one wife, list the first wife and her unmarried children and then the second wife and her unmarried children.

Question 2

What is your relationship to the head of this household?

Give the relationship of children living in the household back to the mother.
Give the relationship of adults in the household back to the head of the household.

[pg.50]

Use the following abbreviations

Wife= W
Son = S
Daughter= D
Adopted son=A/S
Adopted daughter= A/D
Mother = M
Father= F
Brother = B
Sister= SIS
Relative= REL
Friend or any non-relative= FR

We are trying to tell the difference between related and unrelated members of the house. If a person is not related to the head simply put 'friend' (FR). If he is a true brother put brother.
If you have a large family or a large number of visitors you will have to go to a second page. This is explained in Section 7 on page

Question 3

Ask for each person
Did you stay here last night?

Question 3 has two instructions, one for non-village interviewers and one for village interviews. When you are interviewing in urban areas or RNVs you only use the non-village instruction.
The non-village instruction is very simple. If a person stayed in the house last night, write 'in'. If the person stayed anywhere else, write 'out'.
Ask this question in urban areas and RNVs as 'Did you stay here last night?'.
This question is asked to make sure people are counted once and once only - where they stayed last night. Assure people we are not trying to ask personal questions about their movements.

[pg.51]

People who work at night, should be counted where they sleep the next day.
Note that urban villages are treated the same as other urban areas.

[Figure and example omitted]

Visitors
The visitors rule in Urban and RNV's is very simple. If a visitor slept in the house last night include them. Ignore the instruction for village interviews.

Instruction
If 'out' in Q. 3, end of questions for this person.
This instruction is very important, if a person is 'out' ask no more question for that person.

[pg.52]

Question 4

What is your date of birth?

In this question you must use probing and the notable events book to work out people's ages.

Quite often parents have health record cards for young children. So always ask if the health record cards are available.

Always try to obtain the day, month and year of birth. If this is not available then try your best to get the month and year. Sometimes you will be able to get an estimate of the month and in these cases you must give the estimate of the month.

Example
A father knows his son is definitely 5 years old and not yet 6 because he was born just a few weeks before Independence in 1975. In this case the month of birth is probably August and you write 8/75 on the census form.

Age conversion chart
The back page of this manual has an age conversion table. Always use this table. That is you must always enter both the age in years and the year of birth in the boxes in question 4. When the month is known or you can estimate it then enter month as well. When day of birth is known then enter this also.

How to use the notable events book
The procedure for using the Notable Events Book is given in the front of the Notable Events Book. You will be shown how to use this book during training.
For easy reference copy the notable events for the District or area you are working in onto the inside of the back of this manual.

[pg.53]

Don't suggest ages to people
There is a strong temptation to suggest ages to people, particularly to someone who is taking a long time to work out their age or to someone who has got no idea of their age. Don't do this. Use the Notable Events Book.

Check ages with rest of family structure
You can do a rough check to see if someone's age looks about right by checking it against the family structure and the ages of other people in the family.

Example
A woman tells you she is 28, but later on during the interview it turns out that she has a 17 year old son. That would make her 11 when she gave birth. In this case either the son's or the mother's age is incorrect.

Question 5 - Sex
Write 'M' for male, 'F' for female.
Usually there is no need to ask this question. It is usually obvious whether someone is male or female.
Do not complete this question until you have asked question 4.
Do not fill out question 5 as you ask Question 1 and Question 2.

[pg.54]

Part C - Rural Villages

Questions 1 to 5

Question lA

What are the names of the people who are living here?

When the Head of a Household hands you his Family Record Card you check that his name is written at the top of the card.
Write down the other names from the Family Record Card onto the Census Form. The names should only be written in columns 01 to 07.
Read out the names as you write them down to make sure that you have the right people for that Household.
You must always ask if any names have been missed out on the Family Record Card.
Only write down each person's first name. You do not have to write down their father's name.
The name of the Head always goes below number 01; his wife below 02, and then unmarried children in age order from the eldest to the youngest are listed across the page. This instruction is written on the census form, below the word 'residents'.
If the Head has more than one wife, list the first wife and her unmarried children, and then the second wife and her unmarried children, etc.
Note the instruction - Start a new page for each household.

Remember: In Villages, a Household is a 'Head', his wife and unmarried children (any visitors from a town or Rural Non-Village). Any married children go on a separate census form with their family.

Sometimes one or two lapun parents of the Head of his wife will have their names written down with the rest of the Household. In this case it is O.K. to write down their names on the Census Form after the names of any children

[pg.55]

Question 1B

A. What are the names of the people who are living here?
B. Did you have any visitors who stayed here last night?

The names of visitors will not be on the Family Record Card. You must ask the Head of each Household - 'Did you have any visitors who stayed with you (or slept at your place) last night?' If the Head says that some visitors did stay last night you must find out where these visitors have come from.
Note the special instruction for village interviews. It says exclude those from other villages.
This means:

You do not write down a visitor who comes from another village because that person will be enumerated in their home village.
You do write down any visitors from towns and non-villages. All the questions on the census form should be answered for these people.

You only write the names of visitors in columns 08, 09, 10.

[pg.56]

Question 2

What is your relationship to the head of this household?

[Figure omitted]

You will usually copy down relationships from the Family Record Card.
You must always check that the relationships written on the Family Record Card are correct. e.g. 'Is Mary your daughter?'

01 is always the Head. This has already been printed on each Census Form.
Every Household must have a Head. If there is no man or husband you must choose someone to be the Head of the Household.
For example, a widow living with her unmarried children can be the Head of the Household.
The people in a household are related to each other by using their person numbers and the abbreviations listed below.
02 is usually the Wife of the Head. This is written as W of 01.
Children should always be related to their mother. Their relationships will usually be written as S of 02 or D or 02.
Always ask if any of the children in a Household are adopted.
If one parent is dead or is living somewhere else the children are related only to the living or present parent.
If a man has more than one wife you must relate the children to their correct mother.
If you have problems giving relationship to the head give relationship to another member of the household. For example, sons or daughter of a visitor can be given as son of the visitors i.e. S of 08, etc.
If you have a large family you will have to continue on a second page. There is a special way to show how the people on the second page are related to the people on the first page. This is explained in detail in Section 7 on page number 1.
57

Use the following abbreviations

Wife= W
Son= S
Daughter= D
Adopted son= A/S
Adopted daughter= A/D
Mother= M
Father= F
Brother= B
Sister= SIS
Relative= REL
Friend or any non-relative= FR

Question 3

Did you stay here last night?

Question 3 has two instructions- the left hand one is for non-village Interviews. The right hand one is for village interviews. So when you are interviewing in Villages you follow the rule that is written on the right hand side.

Question 3 is very important. It is asked to make sure that people are counted only once.
If someone from the village that you are interviewing has gone to a Town or Rural Non Village they will be counted there. We do not want to count them in the village as well. If we counted them in Town and in the Village they would be counted twice. If someone from the village that you are interviewing has gone to other village you count him in the village where you are interviewing. The person does not belong to the other village and will not be on the other Village Book. So we count him in the village that he is from.
You always ask where each person on the Census Form stayed 'Last Night I.

When to write 'in'.

(i) Write 'in' if the person stayed in the village last night.
[pg.58]
(ii) Write 'in' if the person stayed in a garden house or was at back of the beach fishing last night.
(iii) Write 'in' if the person stayed in a different village last night.
(iv) Note: If any of the children from the village have gone to a community school and normally stay there during the week, you must also write IN. This is a special rule. Remember if some parents in a village tell you these children are staying at a community school which is in another village or at an outstation you must -Write IN.

When to write 'out'.

(i) Write 'out if a person stayed in a town last night.
(ii) Write 'out if a person stayed in a Rural Non Village last night. (e.g. Mission, Plantation).
(iii) Write 'out if a person has been away from a village for a long time and no one knows where he or she is.
(iv) Write 'out if a person usually sleeps at secondary boarding school. Even if this person may be present at the Census you will write 'out because the person will be counted at the boarding school. We do not want to count this person twice.
(vi) Write 'out if a person usually stays in a Town or Non Village and only comes home to the village on the weekend.

Instruction
If 'out' in q. 3, end of questions for this person
This instruction comes after question 3, on the census form. Simply it tells you that - if a person is listed as 'out, no more information is needed. This is because the person will be censused where he or she is staying.

Question 4

What is your date of birth?
[pg.59]

The PDS Man will do most of the work on ages. He will work out the age of each person on the Family Record Card
Interviewers copy down the Date of Birth and the Age in Years onto the Census Form.
If a Household has some visitors, the Interviewer must work out their ages because visitors will not be written on the Family Record Card.
Where possible, Health Cards or Clinic Cards should be used to find out the exact date of birth of children. Most mother will have these cards.

Working out ages
The PDS Man is to convert 'Year of Birth' to 'Age in Years', by using the 'Age Conversion Table' on the back of this Manual.
The PDS Man must check these ages. Look to see if the person appears to be the age that is written down.
Also look for 'Impossible Ages' i.e. when a woman has a child that is almost as old as she is.
If you think that the age written on the Family Record Card is wrong you must change it. You must work out how old that person really is.
The way to work out how old that person's age is by using the Notable Events Book.
Whenever possible you should write down the month of birth as well as the year. This is especially important for young people under 10 years old. If the mother does not know the month, you can guess by asking if the child was born before or after the Independence Month (September).
Interviewers must ask visitors if they know how old they are. If they are not sure of their age you must work it out by using the Notable Events Book.

Writing ages onto the census form
You must fill in the date of birth and the age in years. You should write down the Month as well as year of birth if at all possible.

[pg.60]

Question 5 - Sex
Write 'M' for male, 'F' for female.
Copy Sex from the Family Record Card.
However, check by looking at the people and the relationship given for them. It is sometimes written wrongly on the Family Record Card,
Do not ask older people, you can see, though you may need to ask the sex of babies and small children.

[pg.61]

Urban RNVs and rural villages

Question 6

What is your citizenship?

You should be able to decide whether a person is PNG citizen or not by simply looking at him or her. For each Papua New Guinea citizen simply write PNG on the census form.
You must ask the question if you are in doubt about a person.
You must keep in mind that some people from Indonesia who look like Papua New Guineans are actually Indonesian citizens. You should also look out for people from other Pacific Countries like Solomon Islands and Fiji.
You must ask the question when interviewing Europeans and Chinese. The answer they give will be a name of a country. You should write the name of this country on the census form.
You can abbreviate. For example:

Papua New Guinea= PNG
Australia= Aust.
New Zealand= N.Z.

Question 7

Are you married now?

To complete this question you ask the person whether he is married now. If he says YES write M (for married). If he has never married write NM (never married).
If a person is divorced, separated or the wife or husband is dead, you write 0 (for others.).
We do not want to embarrass people with this question. You can often complete it from Question 2, the relationship question. For example a man, wife and their small children. In this case simply put M for the man and his wife and NM for the children.
You should ask the question when in doubt for example, older children, brothers, sisters who don't have a husband or wife on the form.
However, always be careful. We don't want to offend people.

Question 8

How long have you lived in this town?

When you read out the question you must say the name of the place you are interviewing in.

In urban areas - Say the name of the town.

Example 'How long have you lived in Lae Town'.

In RNVs - Give name of RNV.

Example. 'How long have you lived in Misima Elantation'
or 'How long have you lived in Higaturu Oil Palm settlement'
or 'How long have you lived in Mt. Diamond Mission'.

In rural village only - Give name of District.

Example 'How long have you lived in Mumeng District'.

If the person was born here in the place where you are interviewing write B/H.

"Here" in urban areas means - this town
"Here" in RNVs means - this RNV
"Here" in Rural Villages means - this District.

If the person has come from somewhere else write down the number of years that the person has been living in that town or village.

Absences: If the person has been away from the place where they have been living for a long period then only count from when they come back again.

If the person has been away for a short period. E.g. like going on leave or going back to the village for a few weeks then do not worry about these absences.

Example
Assume a person was living at a place for 5 years then went home for 3 years and has come back and been here for another 2 years. In this case we only write down the last period i.e. 2 years.

Only if the period is less than 1 year do we record months.
Otherwise leave the months space blank.
Always round the time the person lived here downwards. Thus a period of 1 year and 8 months becomes 1 year.
Persons in the place less than 1 month put 0 months. e.g. 1 weeks = 0 months.

[pg.63]

Question 9

Where were you usually living in 1975 at the time of independence?

Independence was 16 September 1975.
We want to know where people were usually living at the time of Independence. Ignore movements such as into a town or back to the village just for Independence celebrations.
For people not in PNG write 'o'seas' -(overseas).
As for Question 10 give the Province and District wherever possible.

Question 10

In which province and district (sub-province) were you born?

In all cases give the Province and District of birth. If the person was born here give this province and district. If the person was born elsewhere give that province and district.
If born outside Papua New Guinea give the country of birth only in the space for Province.

[pg.64]

C.G. stands for Community Governments. These are established in East New Britain and North Solomons Provinces only.

If people come from these provinces, ask them in which Community Government area they were born in, instead of the District (Sub-Province). If they don't know this ask for the old District's name. They may know this. These are:

East New Britain
North Solomons
Rabaul
Kieta
Kokopo
Buin
Pomio
Buka

A list of provinces and districts is given in the front of the Notable Events Books. Use this if you are not clear on a District or in which District a patrol post is situated.
If a mother went to another town or to a district and gave birth to a baby and returned soon after the birth to her own place where she had been living permanently, write that the child was born in the mother's permanent town or District. We ignore this short visit to hospital.

Question 11

What is the highest grade you finished at school?

Grades one to six are primary school level grades seven to twelve are high school level.
Write down the last grade fully completed e.g. If someone is in grade five now, this means he has fully completed grade four. So write G4.
Primary schools were standards 1 to 6.
Secondary schools were forms 1 to 4.
If you get an answer form 2 then write F2.
If you get an answer Standard 6 then write S6.
Include any correspondence study. If a person has passed grade 10 fully by correspondence then write grade 10.

[pg.65]

University preliminary year is equivalent to grade 12.
Ask this question for any person in the family.
If a person is now doing tertiary education, you must still ask this question as you cannot take it for granted that he has necessarily completed grade twelve.
For people with overseas schooling write down the highest level they finished at a school overseas.
Be careful not to embarrass old people.
Bible schools and Tok Ples schools are a problem. In most cases these do not have an official grade and thus if someone only went to one of these write 'NIL'. We are looking for recognized schooling for the purposes of getting a job.
Vocational schools do not count as a grade unless they actually obtain a certificate saying that they have passed grade 8 or grade 10. Some vocational schools do the correspondence course.

Question 12

Do you go to community or high school now?

Do not ask this question of most people who you wrote 'NIL' for in Question 11.
The only exception is a child now in grade 1. He would be 'NIL' in Question 11 but 'yes' for Question 12.
Note that we only want recognized community and high schools. Do not include bible schools or tok ples schools.
It does not include teachers colleges, universities, vocational schools or other non-school training.
Do not ask old people or small children when the answer is obviously 'no'.
Students at community or high schools on school holidays should answer 'yes'.

Question 13

Except for school, have you done any training or course that took more than 3 months?

The course must be of at least 3 months duration. Do not include short one week or one month courses.
This course does include schooling in Primary and Secondary schools.
It does include Vocational school courses. Give type of course at the Vocational school.
If the person completed at least a year of a course then write this in. e.g. 1st year Law UPNG, 1st year nursing course.
Try to describe the course well e.g. Aid Post Orderlies course. Telephone Technicians Apprenticeship.
People tend to overestimate their qualifications. For example an aid post orderly may say he did a doctors course. Try to ask more questions and get an accurate description of the course.
When a person has done two or more courses write only the one that they think is the most important one.
Don't ask this question with old, illiterate village people who have not been to school. It will embarrass them. Simply write 'NIL'.

Recording the names of courses.
When recording the names of courses it is not good enough to just write down the general name of the course. E.g. University course. You must say exactly what the course is. E.g. Economic degree.

[Text omitted, Examples]

[pg.67]

Question 14 A and B
This question consists of two parts, A and B.

A. Is your own mother still alive?
B. If yes in 14A is she on the form for this house hold?
Question 14a
Note that we mean a person's own mother (e.g. natural or true mother), not an adopted mother. In other words the mother who gave birth to the person.
For children you can often write the answer in from the relationship given in Question 2 without asking.

In most cases, particularly for adults, you will have to ask the question as the mother usually will not be part of the household.

Question 14B
You only have to fill in Part B if the answer is 'yes' in Part A.
This part of the question refers to the own or true mother as in A, the first part.
If the true mother lives with this household just copy her person number from the top of the form and write this number in the space provided for each of her own children,
If the true mother lives elsewhere just write 'no'. Adopted children usually have their own mother living elsewhere and thus should answer 'no'.
If the answer to Question 14A is "Dead" (the mother is not alive) then leave part B blank.

[pg.68]

Question 15
This question has 4 parts, A, B, C and D.
For all females 15 years of age and older (born in 1965 or before)

A. How many children have you given birth?
B. Have any of your children died?
C. Do any live somewhere else?
D. How many live here with you?

Part A

-This question refers to all children born alive. We are trying to find the total number of "live born" children that a woman has had. We want to exclude still births, that is, children born dead.

Part B

'Have any of your children died', is probably the most difficult question to get a good answer to. People forget or don't like remembering their dead children.
However, the question is important and you should try to get an answer to it.

Part C

'Do any live somewhere else' must be asked, because children may have married, moved out of the village, been adopted out or may be living on their own or with another household.

Part D

'How many live here with you' can be completed from other entries on the form (e.g. question 2 and 3).
'The total of Part B plus C plus D should equal the figure given in Part A. Sometimes the figures won 1 t agree. In this case you will have to discuss this with the woman and find out which figure is wrong and change it.
These questions are often difficult with old people and large families. It will help if you list on a piece of paper all the children as you get the totals for the questionnaire. Ask older children to help with their aged mothers.
Put "0" when there are no children. Do not leave blank spaces for women 15 years old and over.

[pg.69]

Question 16A and B

A. What is the date of birth of your last born child?
B. Is the child still alive?

Note the child may be in this household, may be elsewhere or may be dead.
If the child is in "this household" then you should write in Question 16A the date of birth as given in Question 4.
If the child is living elsewhere or is dead you must establish the date of birth for Question 16A. You may have to use your notable events book. If the child was born during the last few years try to get the month of birth if at all possible.
As the "last born child" may not be living at this moment you must always ask if this child is still alive.

Question 17A and B
For all persons 10 years of age and older (born in 1970 or before)

A. In your house what language do you speak most?
B. When buying at the market what language do you speak most?

Question 17 is divided into two parts; A and B.
Ask part A first for each person.
Then ask part B for each person.
You must ask these questions to each person_ over 10 years old on the Census Form because they may have different answers.
Note the word most. People may speak many languages in their house or when buying at the market but you must only write down the language that they speak most.
Only write down one language.
There are many languages spoken in PNG but we only want to find out about the most common languages.
At the back of this Manual is a list of languages
Only write down onto the census form the name of the language spoken most in the house, or when buying at the market, if it is one of the languages on the list at the back of this manual.
All other languages should be recorded as "other".
Make sure that you are familiar with these language names and the areas in which they are spoken.

[pg.70]

Question 18

Do you belong to a church?

Ask if a person belongs to a Church. If no, write down 'no'.
If a person does belong to a Church write down the name of the Church that the person belongs to.

Question 19

Last week. What did you do most of the time?

Codes for question 11

01. Worked at a wage job
02. On leave or temporarily absent from work
03. Big or small-scale business (including unpaid helper) e.g. PMV betel nut seller
04. Farming or fishing for food and money
05. Farming or fishing, subsistence only
06. Full-time student (incl. student on holiday)
07. Working in the house (e.g. housewife)
08. Too old or too young to work, or handicapped
09. Other activities and looking for work
10. Other activities and not looking for work

In this question we want to find out what sort of work, if any. People were doing over the last week.
The key words in this question are last week and most of the time. You must stress this when you ask the question.
When a person answers, you must look at the list of activities and decide which one is the right one for that person. You then write in the code number of that activity

[pg.71]

When you ask this question some people will tell you that they did more than one of the activities listed. You have to find out which they did most. To find out you may have to ask how many days or hours they spent on each activity.
You must only give one code for each person.

Summary of activity codes

N.B. last week

01 Wage Earner a person with any type of job for which he is paid.
02 On leave or temporarily absent person on recreation leave or sick leave from a wage job.
03 Big or small-scale business any type of business from PMVs to selling vegetables. Include unpaid people helping in a business.
04 Farming or fishing for food or money for people who sell some of the things they grow in the garden or fish they catch.
05 Farming or fishing subsistence only for people who do not normally sell anything from the gardens or any of the fish they catch.
06 Full-time student at school or university or on school holidays.
07 Working in the house must actually be working as a housewife not in the garden. Mostly applies in non-village areas.
08 Too old or too young or handicapped described as this by the person themselves.
09 Other activities and looking for work must have taken some active step to look for work.
10 Other activities and not looking for work things not included above e.g. House or boat buildings in a village not for .a wage or for sale
[pg.72]

The codes

01. Worked at a wage job. If a person was working in a job for which he is getting paid you should give him code 01. For example the person could be a public servant, or working for a private company which pays him every fortnight, or he might be a road worker, who gets paid every day.
In villages, if a pastor, missionary or village court magistrate says this is his major activity in the last week then he should go in 01 as these activities are usually paid a wage. However village councilors or committee men who say this was their major activity last week, should go in 03. They are not paid a wage.
02 On Leave or temporarily absent from wage job. This is the same as the first code wage earner (01) except that the person says he was not doing his job last week because he was on sick leave or recreation leave.
03 Big or Small scale business (including unpaid helper), e.g. P.M.V., betel nut seller

- If a person says he worked most of the time in his own business like a Trade store or P.M. V. etc then you will give them code 03.
- If a person helped a relative or wantok in a business but didn't get a regular pay for it you should give them code 03. For example a wife might help her husband in a Trade store but not get paid. You should give her code 03.
- The business may be big or small. - If a person owns a large plantation or a large supermarket or a car sales yard, these are big businesses.
- If a person collects bottles and sells them or sells betel nut or has a small grass cutting business, these are types of small businesses.
- If someone spent most of the time selling food crops or fish at the market, you should also give them code 03.
- Many businesses are owned by village groups or cooperatives. Usually people working in these businesses are paid a wage and should be code 01 not 03. The members of the co-operative usually have other major activities.
Codes 04 and 05
Codes 04 and 05 mostly apply to rural areas. There are some farmers on the edges of towns who could get these codes too.
Most people living in the villages of Papua New Guinea work in their gardens for food. Sometimes village people also have crops like coffee or tea or copra which they sell for money. Sometimes too they sell food in the market.
If the people you interview are farmers or gardeners or fishermen you have to find out if they sometimes get money from selling food from the garden or other crops or if they just grow or catch food for themselves to eat.
Code 04 is for all those people who sometimes sell things that they have grown or caught.
Code 05 is for those people who only grow things for themselves to eat. That is, they do not sell their food from the garden or the fish that they catch.
If people are working on oil palm blocks or on settlement blocks and sell some of the things from their block you should give them code 04.
In brief

04 Cash Croppers
05 Subsistence only.
06 - Full-time students (including students on holidays)
- If a person was attending school or college or University during the past week, or spent most of the time studying he should be given code 06.
- Students on school holidays should also get this code.
- If a person is doing a course which is sponsored by the department or company he works for he should at get code 06. (He should be given code 02, because he is temporarily absent from his job).
For example a person working for PNG Banking Corporation doing a bank clerks course or a apprentice electrician working for ELCOM should get code 02. They are really wage earners. Person at Admin. College, POM-T.T.C. or nurses who receive a regular wage are also wage earners and not students.
07 - Working in the house (e.g. Housewife).
Normally this code applies for women looking after the house (washing clothes. cooking food, looking after the children).
Women in rural areas will not normally get this code because spend most of the time working in the gardens (04 or 05).
08 - Too old or too young to work or handicapped.
This code is for anyone who says he is not working because he is too young or too old to work.
Don't give this code just by looking at the person. Sometimes young children and very old people do work. They may be growing food in the garden or making carvings. Ask them if they do any work.
If a person cannot work because he is "long long" or physically handicapped (that is, he has damaged arms or legs) then he should be given this code.
09 Other activities and looking for work.
If a person is not included in any of the categories 01 to 08 but says he has been looking for work then he should get code 09.
Any type of activity to look for work is included here, for example:

Asked wantoks or friends for work
Walked around to some business asking for work
Written some letters to employers
Gone to the labor office.

If the person is not doing any of codes 1 to 8 and has made any attempt to look for work you should give him code 09.
10 Other activities and not looking for work.

This code is only for those people who cannot be given one of the other codes. It is for people who are not covered by any of the codes 01 to 08 and is not looking for work.
In rural areas, people preparing for a Singsing, or building themselves a new house or building a canoe and not looking for work would be given this code.
Teenagers or young men sitting around the village who say they are not too young to work and they are not looking for work are given this code.

75

Questions 20 to 22
Questions 20 to 22 are only for people who are involved in money raising activities. That is they are either usually wage earners (codes 01 or 02) involved in a business (code 03) or get money from farming or fishing (code 04). Simply you do not have to ask these questions to anyone with codes OS to 10.
All three of these questions must relate to the same particular job or business for that person.

Question 20

What kind of work do you do?

In this question you will describe the person's occupation (what he did) during last week. If a person worked at more than one job you describe the one at which he worked the most hours.
Notice the examples given below-- "shop assistant"; "farm helper"; "loads gravel into trucks"; "farm laborer".

[Figure omitted]

As you see, these are specific descriptions and that is, the kind of description you must give. The best short description you must give. The best short description is usually the title of the job, such as "receiving clerk". Remember, however, that one-word descriptions are rarely adequate. For example, the word "clerk" alone is inadequate as there are many kinds of clerks - coding clerks file clerks, stock clerks, bank clerks receiving clerks, etc., but by specifying "receiving clerk" as in the example, the kind of occupation is clearly described.
''Laborer" alone is another example of a not specific description. But "farm laborer" or "road laborer" are specific and clear descriptions.
Important reminders for Q20 are:

- It is very important that you give a good description of the type of work. In most cases you should use at least two words to describe the work.
- Many one word answers are too general. Examples of bad answers are clerk, mechanic, laborer, manager, and farmer. These need more description. Examples of good answers are bank clerk, insurance clerk, car mechanic, factory mechanic, road laborer, coffee laborer trade store manager, plantation manager, coffee farmer, cocoa farmer.
- If a person says he is a clerk or mechanic or laborer ask more questions to find out exactly what type of clerk or mechanic or laborer he is.
- Watch out for trainee or apprentice workers. In such cases you should write apprentice auto-electrician; trainee teacher; or plumber trainee.
- The answer 'Subsistence Farmer' is not okay for Q20.

Question 21

Who do you work for?

Write clearly the name of company or government department.
If the person is self-employed (that is has his own business) simply write "self".
For farmers and fishermen (code 04) you should also write "self".
If a person works as a hausboi or haus meri, you do not have to write the name of the employee, e.g. "Mr Smith" just write "private".
Try to give the actual branch or section of the company or department, e.g. Steamships wholesales BPs plantations, Department of Works and Supply - refrigeration section.

[pg.77]

Question 22

What does (name of company) make or do where you work?

Remember questions 20 to 21 must all relate to the same job. The entry to question 22 must agree with the person's occupation (question 20). For example, the occupation of "PMV driver" in question 20 would not agree with an entry of "retail bakery" in question 22.
In question 22 you must clearly and specifically describe the kind of business or industry of the company or government department in which the person works.
Your entry must give a specific activity for the company or government department.
For example you must specify "coffee plantation", "copper mine", "road construction", instead of just "plantation", "mine", or "construction".

[Figure omitted, examples of good and bad specific descriptions]

Points to remember are:

Use two or more words to describe what the government department or company does.
Again as in Question 20 one word answers are too general. Examples of bad answers here include: agency, club, mine office, repair shop, school, Department of Transport. Examples of good answers are advertising agency insurance agency, social club, tennis club, golf club, copper mine, gold mine, dentists office, steamship office headquarters, shoe repair shop, radio repair shop, auto repair shop, community school, high school, University of PNG (UPNG) Head Office, road construction, airport maintenance, shipping control.
Do not give what the Government Department or Company does in general e.g. DPI agricultural work but give the function done at the place where the person works e.g. DPI -"fisheries section".
Remember it is what the branch of government department or company does, not what the person himself does.

Question 23 and 24

Does anyone in this household... (Write 'yes' or 'no')
Grow coffee?
Grow tea?
Grow cocoa?
Grow rubber?
Grow spices?
Raise pigs?
Raise cattle?·
In the last 12 months did this household get any money from: (Write 'yes' or 'no')
Selling things they made?
Selling coconuts or copra?
Selling food crops?
Selling fish?
Running a Store?
Running a PMV?
Running a boat, canoe?
Any other activity (describe)

These two questions are about the household as a whole. If any members of the household are involved in the activities you should write 'yes'.

You should either give a 'yes' or 'no' answer in each of the boxes, for each activity. Make sure you ask about each activity. For example ask if people sell fish, even if they don't live near the sea. Sometimes people catch fish from ponds or small rivers and sell them.

Do not write 'yes' in these questions if the person does these activities for a wage job. For example

(a) a coffee plantation worker who gets paid a wage should have 'no' for "grow coffee" except if he has his own coffee somewhere else.
(b) a PMV driver who gets paid a wage should have 'no' for running a PMV- because it is not his own PMV business.

[pg.79]

Question 23

- If there are two blank spaces at the bottom of this question ask your supervisor and he will tell you what crops to write in.
- Note: it doesn't matter how much of any crop a family has. For example a family should answer 'yes' even if they only have a few coffee trees.
- In this question it doesn't matter if the people have got money from the crop or not. As long as they have planted the crop or done some work on it you should write 'yes'.
- If you are asking this question in a town ·or other non-village and people say they have crops back in their own village - you should write 'no' next to the crop, unless they themselves often go back to their village and look after their crops.

Question 24
This question is different to question 23.
The important thing here is whether people have got any money except wages from the activities listed.
It doesn't matter how much money. For example if a woman sold 3 bilums over the last 12 months then you should write 'yes' in the first box.
For any other activity ask "is there any other activity you get money from''? Examples are selling shelis, butterflies, canoes or selling 'wild pigs caught while hunting'.
When we mean selling for money.

Do not write 'yes' where people simply exchange the items for something else. Like a pig for a bow and arrow.

Question 25

Urban areas only: do you rent or own your house?

[pg.80]

Question 25 applies to urban areas only
Tick the rent or own box, then tick the most appropriate box out of boxes 1 to 4.
For rent-free housing tick the rented box and still ask who the house is rented from.
If someone is paying a house off as opposed to renting it this is counted as ownership. It is possible that some people may confuse paying off with renting - in this case you will have to find out whether they really are paying the house off or whether it is rented.

Note: who the rent is paid to is not always the same person or organization that the house is rented from.
In this case you will have to make sure that you have the organization the house is rented from.

[pg.81]

Page Totals/Tallying
(i) Page Totals

[Figure omitted]

In the bottom right hand corner of the Census form you'll see a tally box for adding up the number of males and females that are on each form.
Simply add up the number of M's and F's from Question 5. Then add up the total number of entries in Question 5 and check that Males and Females = Total number of people.

(ii) The page number boxes

For each household you must fill in the page number boxes at the bottom of the form. These page number boxes let us know how many Forms have been used for each dwelling.

[Text omitted, example]

[pg.82]

(iii) Using more than one form for a household

If you interview a Household with more than 10 Residents, or more than 3 Visitors you will have to use a second page. You must remember these points when you use a second page.

Question 2 - Relationship

If a mother and son are not on the same census form give the page number of the mother when filling in question 2 for the son, e.g. S of 02/P.l. You must state the page number with all relationships if more than one census form is used.

Question 14B - Mothers Person Number

When writing the mother's person number in Ql4B you will have to give the page number if you used more than 1 form for the household.

(iv) The household questions

When you do have to use a second form for the one dwelling then the household questions (Questions 23, 24, 25, 26) do not have to be completed on the second form. Complete them on the first form only.

(v) Mistakes

If you make a mistake try to correct it neatly. Everyone makes some mistakes.
If the whole page for the family group is a mess, cross out the page very clearly and start a new page. Do NOT tear out the sheet which has been crossed. Leave it in the book.

[Figure omitted]

[pg.83]

(vi) Spare pages

You will often finish interviewing and have spare pages left over at the back of your book. Do not tear them out. Give the complete book to your supervisor.

[Figure omitted]

[pg.84]

Section 7

Special dwellings (SDs)

Special dwellings mostly occur in urban areas. However they are also common on RNVs.
Special dwellings include such places as hostels, single workers quarters, nurses quarters, plantation laborers quarters, hospital wards, hotels etc.
Mostly single people stay in SDs.

Locating SDs.

In urban areas if there is a special dwelling in your census unit it will be shown on your listing sheet by the initial SD and the name of the SD will be given e.g. P.N.G.B.C. staff quarters.
For each S.D. shown on your listing sheet there is a separate CU folder with a special CU number.

In the separate CU folder for each SD there is an S.D. information sheet as well as a sketch map showing the location of blocks and the location of the rooms within each block. An example is given at the end of this section.

In RNVs you will not have any list. You must identify them yourself. Examples are plantation single workers quarters, apprentices' quarters, nurses quarters at a rural hospital. An SD must be more than 5 single people and have communal eating and living, that is, a mess hall.

Who does SDs

A. The following categories have special instructions and will be done in a special manner:

Corrective Institution Inmates
School Boarders
Hospital Wards
Hotel Guests

If you are given any of these to do, the Town Supervisor or District Census Officer will give you special instructions.

B. The larger SDs in urban areas will usually be done by a special team who will only do SDs. Large government hostels and nurses quarters are in this category. If one of these is in your CU in an urban area there will be a red ink stamp on your listing sheet telling you not to do it. So, in this case, you will not receive a separate CU folder with the S.D. information sheet in it.

C. Small SDs and all SDs in RNVs have to be done by the interviewer given that area. In urban area you will know if you have any SDs from the listing sheet and you will be given a separate CU folder containing an S.D. information sheet for the S.D.

Steps to take in censusing SDs

(1) First, contact the person in charge and check to find out the best time to do your interview. Often it will be as soon as you get there.
(2) Check with the person in charge if the sketch map is correct and ask if there are any more rooms where people are living. Also check if any 'passengers' are staying there.
(3) If a person who you have to census is not at home, leave a message that you' 11 be back the following night.
(4) Always watch out for visitors or passengers who may have stayed the night before.

How to complete the census form in SDs

SDs

These rules are very important and should be done in each SD.

A. Each S.D. must be censused in a new census pad. This rule applies no matter how small each S.D. is.

[pg.86]

B. Each S.D. has a special CU number. This is given on the top right hand corner of the S.D. information sheet. You should always record this special number where it says CU number on the census form or on front of the census pad. Also write the name of the S.D. where it says 'name' (e.g. Bank of N. S. W. Mess).

C. List the people in each room across the page from person numbers 01 to 07.

D. Check for wantoks or visitors who stayed at the S.D. the previous night. Use person numbers 08 to 10 for them.

E. Questions that do not apply in SDs

Question 2 Relationship: this does not apply. Use it for putting room or bed numbers or write S/P single persons.
Question l4B: Mother Person Number - Put 'NO' in all cases.
Question 23 and 24: Write N/A Not applicable for both of these in SDs.
Question 25: Write N/S.
Note: Be sure you still ask the Coverage Question in S.D. and total up the form at the find.

[Figure omitted, pg 87-88]

[pg.88]

Section 8

The long form cover sheet

Your Census form will be in a pad of 25 forms. In the front of the pad is the long form cover sheet.

[pg.89]

The cover sheet has 3 sections

I. Descriptive Information- at the top
Make sure this is filled in correctly. Check with your supervisor.
II. Supervisor Summary Sheet.
This is for your supervisor to fill in.
III. Quality Controller Section.
It is in this section that your quality controller will let your know what mistakes there are with your work.
i) Descriptive information
Pad number: Your District Census Officer, Town Supervisor or Quality Controller should have numbered all the pads. If there is no number ask your supervisor.
Province: Simply print in the name of the Province you are interviewing in.
District/town: In rural areas print in the name of the District. In urban areas print in the name of the town.
Census division: All rural and urban areas have a C.D. number. Ask your supervisor and write it in.
Census unit number: All rural and urban areas have a census unit number. Again ask your supervisor and write it in.
Census unit name: In rural areas this is the name of the village or RNV. In urban areas put the suburb. In urban settlements and urban villages put the name of the settlement or village.
Interviewer: Print your name clearly.
Supervisor: Print your supervisor's name clearly.

[pg.90]

Chapter 9

[Text omitted, Sections 9-13]

[Appendix 1 -5 omitted]