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Republic of Panama
Comptroller General
National Institute of Statistics and Census

Eleventh National Census of Population and Seventh of Dwelling
May 16th, 2010

Enumerator Manual

[The index and pages 1-17 are omitted.]

[p. 18]

V. Population subject to the enumeration.

1. Who should be enumerated:

1.1 All persons, whether member of the household or not, who slept in the interviewed dwelling the night before the day of the Census, that is, the night of May 15 to May 16, 2010.

1.2 Enumerate persons who live in the dwelling, even if they had not slept there; if they spent the night away because of their job like for example: a nurse or security guard who took their turn at night, a driver who traveled all night transporting passengers or goods, etc. Remember that if in the household that you enumerate any member of the household has been taken in since the previous enumeration, you should use the questionnaire in which the mentioned person is registered to complete the information of the rest of the members of the household.

1.3 Persons who live in the dwelling, even if they have not slept there, because of any reason like: they attended a party, a funeral wake or other special case.
2. Who should not be enumerated:

Persons who live in the dwelling, if the night before the Census they were:

Lodged at another house, boarding house or hotel
Hospitalized
Detained in prison

They will be enumerated by another enumerator in the place they are found.

[p. 19]

VI. Definitions relative to the census.

Some basic concepts:

The enumerated unit of the Census is the dwelling. For the best understanding of the specific instructions relative to the filling out of the questionnaire, it is fundamental that the enumerator keep in mind the following concepts:

a. A dwelling: is any place or premises structurally separate or independent that have been built or transformed for use as permanent or temporary housing or lodging of persons; it also considers any class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied by persons as a living quarters on the date of the Census.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

The dwelling must have direct and independent access (entry) from the street or through common use spaces for circulation such as corridors, patios or stairways.

A dwelling can be:

a. 1. Private: is used or meant to be used as a separate or independent dwelling [morada] or domicile, for a family or other group of persons, with or without family ties, but who live together or under a set of family rules or by a person who lives alone. In a particular dwelling there could reside one or more households.

Examples of a private dwelling:

A room in a tenement house
Rooms in a tenement house
An apartment
A chalet
A shack
An annex in a chalet
[p. 20]

a. 2. Place not intended for housing but used as a dwelling:
Any place or premises that are part of a building or structure built for other purposes, for example:

A bedroom or room that a teacher in a school occupies
A room that a watchperson in a factory occupies
Any place or premises that lodge persons such as garages, elevators, hallways, among others
A vehicle, canvas or tent where individuals or households are lodged
Any other kind of lodging meant to accommodate a group of people or a single person.
a. 3. Collective: dwelling used or meant to be used as special living quarters by a group of persons generally without family ties and who live together for reasons of discipline, health, education, religious life, work and others such as labor camps, trabajaderos [sown fields], among others.

Examples of a collective dwelling:

Barracks of the National Police
A hospital
A boarding school
A hotel
A jail
A booth for workers
A convent
An asylum
An orphanage
A pier
[p. 21]

b. Census household: is a group of persons who share a common life under a set of family rules or for discipline, health, religion, education reasons, etc. The concept of census household covers, among others, the following category:

Private household: constitutes a group of persons with or without kinship ties who reside under the same roof and who, at least for their food, depend on a common fund (they participate in a communal pool of money). In a dwelling there can be more than one private household.

[There is a picture below the text]

Examples of a private household:

A family with a father, mother and children
A family with father, mother, children, grandparents and uncles and aunts
A single person
A family and a friend who lives habitually with them
Up to three unrelated persons who rent a common apartment
A family or person who has rented a bedroom from a private dwelling and share expenses


[p. 22]

From the given definitions, it can be seen that there exists equivalence between private household and private dwelling, that is to say, for each private dwelling there is at least one private household. Nevertheless, although less frequent, it should be kept in mind that:

a) In a collective dwelling a private household can be found. For example, bedrooms of a boarding house where a family resides habitually.
b) In a private dwelling like a chalet or a big apartment, there can exist, along with the household of the owner of the apartment or house, another household (for example: a couple who is renting one of the rooms and have an independent budget for living).

VII. Instructions to fill out the enumeration form.

a. Procedure

1. Description of the enumeration form:

The census questionnaire is the form used to register all the information required and the guide to develop the interview in the household; it comprises a group of questions on different topics, and each one of them related to a chapter in the enumeration instructions.
In the census questionnaire there are blocks of questions for the dwelling and household characteristics, and blocks of person question for the population characteristics. The information on each dwelling is included in the sections I and II, that on the household is included in section III, while that on population in sections IV to VIII. Section IV contains the list of occupants, in which all persons that slept in the household the night before census day must be registered.

[p. 23]

The sections of the enumeration form are the following:
Section I. Location of the dwelling: This chapter makes reference to the geographic location of the dwelling.
Section II. Information on the dwelling: Information on the type of dwelling, construction materials, condition, ownership, electricity, water, number of households, and other characteristics is requested.
Section III. Information on the household: Information on household assets, agricultural activities, and international migration is requested.
Section IV. List of occupants: the names of persons who slept in the household the night before the census day are registered, as well as of those who did not sleep in the dwelling but did not spend the night in a different dwelling.
Section V. General characteristics: Information on demographic and migration characteristics of each of the household members is requested, as well as of those who are not members of the household, but slept the night before in the dwelling.
Section VI. Educational characteristics: in the first part, this section collects information from the population 4 years old and over, and its purpose is to investigate on school attendance and educational attainment; in the second part, which is for persons 10 years old and over, has as an objective to investigate on literacy and the highest academic degree obtained.
Section VII. Economic characteristics: for persons 10 years old or more; it investigates on occupation, economic activity category, and status in occupation.
Section VIII. Fertility and mortality characteristics: For women 12 years old and over; information on the number of children born alive and mortality for children born during the last twelve months is requested.

[p. 24]

2. General rules:

a. Enumeration:

Each questionnaire is used on a specific private household, that is, one form must be used per enumerated household. If there is more than one household in a dwelling, one form will be used for each of them and all chapters will be filled out for the first household. For each additional household the chapter II, information on the dwelling, shouldn't be filled out.

[There are 2 sample images of sections I and II of the enumeration form. The first one has both sections filled out, while the second only section I and it has section II crossed out. Sample images of the form are found in pages 25 and 26.]

[p. 27]

b. Using more than one form per household:

Both the census questionnaire and the occupants list (section IV) only have spaces for up to 8 persons; therefore, when the total of persons in the enumerated household exceeds 8, you will need to use an additional form.
In this case, in the second questionnaire draw a diagonal line in the parts corresponding to the head of household (person 01), then cross out the person number 02 and write 09 and register the information of the ninth person in this column.
Also write the information corresponding to section I, location of the dwelling, in each additional questionnaire.

[There is an example of a filled out questionnaire where the part for the head of household is crossed out with a diagonal line and person number 02 is replaced by 09. Sample images of the form are found in pages 28 and 29.]

[p. 30]

c. Numerating the questionnaires:

The first required information, located in the upper right part of the form, is the identification number for the questionnaire. The numeration of the questionnaires will be done in sequential form (01, 02, 03, and such) within each census segment, using the order of the route that you have used to go through your segment, according to the cartographic material.

[There is a sample image of the questionnaire and household numbers from the enumeration form.]

This numeration applies both to dwellings with residents present (occupied), and to dwellings with residents absent, to places not intended for habitation, and lastly to unoccupied dwellings (for sale or rent, under repair or construction, summer home, or other reason.)

[There is a box showing the numeration for dwellings that have different status, such as occupied with residents present, occupied with residents absent, etc.]

Do not consider in this numeration commercial and public buildings, such as: storage buildings, supermarkets, schools, churches, deposits, among others, unless there are people living in those places, in that case it is a place not intended for habitation but used as dwelling and must have the corresponding numeration.
If any other dwelling has been built within the limits of the census segment, enumerate it registering the number of questionnaire according to the route that you are taking and in the space for observations include the necessary clarifications.
If during your visit to the segment you find a consulate or an embassy, do not take it in consideration.

[There is a box representing dwellings in a segment, where there is an embassy, a church, a supermarket, and a deposit.]

[p. 31]

The initial dwelling number will always be No. 1 and the numeration of the following dwellings will be sequential (02, 03, 04, 05, 06...) until reaching the last dwelling in your segment.

[There is a picture of a block and all the dwellings within it appear numbered sequentially.]

Example: You will enumerate the fourth dwelling in your census segment, then the information will be registered as:

[There is a sample image of the heading of the numeration form indicating the questionnaire is No. 4.]

For those households that have more than 8 members that slept the night before census day in the dwelling, the additional questionnaires must have the same number of the main questionnaire.

[p. 32]

Example:

You will enumerate the first dwelling in your census segment, where 9 persons reside and all of them belong to a single household; the information required in the upper right part in the first page of the form in both questionnaires will be registered as:

[There are two sample images of the heading of the enumeration form, where both cases have the same questionnaire and household number.]

Remember that:

In the space for the questionnaire number you must register the number that corresponds to the dwelling, according to the order, when doing the enumeration.

[There is a sample image of the questionnaire number from the enumeration form.]

[p. 33]

Numeration of additional households in a dwelling:

In the space for household number you must register, using one digit, the number that corresponds to the household that in most cases will be 1.
When in a dwelling there exits more than one household you must do a sequential numeration using always 1 for the main household.
The additional households must have the same number of the questionnaire that was used for the main household.

Example:
After enumerating successfully the first dwelling, you find two households in the second; the information required in the upper right part of the first page of the form for both questionnaires will be registered as:

[There are two sample images of the heading of the enumeration form, where both cases have the same questionnaire number, but the main household has 1 and the secondary household has 2 in the household number.]

Remember to maintain the questionnaires one inside the other to avoid them being lost.

[p. 41]

[Literals e. to k. were not translated into English.]

Section I: Location of the dwelling

This chapter has the objective of identifying geographically the dwelling under study in the census.

Before arriving to the assigned area, the enumerator must fill out this chapter with the information included in the enumerator materials related to: province or region, district, judicial precint [corregimiento] and segment; the rest will be filled out during enumeration (locality, neighborhood, street or avenue, building or dwelling, room or apartment number).

Province or region, district, and judicial precint [corregimiento]
Carefully write in the space assigned the name of the province or region, district and judicial precint[corregimiento] where the dwelling being enumerated is located.

Segment number
Register the segment number that you will enumerate, which appears both in the cartographic material and the enumeration materials that you received for your work. Remember that you can work in more than one segment, thus you must register the segment number that corresponds to the dwelling being enumerated.

Locality [lugar poblado]
Carefully write in the corresponding space the name of the locality where the dwelling being enumerated is located; including the letter (P) if it appears in the tag on the enumeration materials.
If you, as an enumerator, do not have clear to which locality the dwelling being enumerated belongs to, ask the respondent.

Neighborhood
Register the name of the neighborhood, the municipal capital [cabeceras de distrito] in urban areas, where the dwelling being enumerated is located; if your material doesn't have this identification draw a line in the corresponding space.

[p. 42]

Street or avenue (number or name)
Write the number or complete name of the street, avenue, highway, or road where the private dwelling being enumerated is located.

Building or house (number or name)
Register the number or name of the house or building that contains the dwelling being enumerated.
When municipal numeration does not exist, register the number that identifies the building or house. In some localities the numeration of the Housing Ministry (MIVI) is used. When the building or house doesn't have a number or name, draw a horizontal line.

Room or apartment number
Register the number or letter that identifies the room or apartment that is being enumerated. If the room or apartment doesn't have a number, indicate its position within the building, so that it is easy to know its location. For example: at the end of the corridor on the left side, going up the stairs, etc. If it is necessary, use the spaces in the observations section. In those houses in which only the building and the dwelling coincide, that is, when the building contains only one dwelling without spaces for other uses, draw a horizontal line in the space for the room or apartment number.

[p. 43]

Example of how to fill out section I

Fill out section I using the label that appears in your cartographic material. When you are enumerating the first dwelling of your segment, the respondent will indicate that his/her dwelling is located in the Ocú locality, Villa Raquel neighborhood, main street, and the number of the dwelling is 8550. The information in section I must be registered in the following manner:

[There is a simple image of the heading and section I of the enumeration form that has been filled out according to the example.]

[p. 44]

Section II: Information on the dwelling


Question No. 1: Type of dwelling

The objective of this question is to determine the types of dwellings that exist in our country. Disregarding if it is inhabited or not, the dwelling will be subject of enumeration.
Identify by observation and using also the definitions described below. In case of doubt, make the questions that you consider will help you to clarify the type of dwelling. Mark only one circle.

Consider the following definitions:

1. Type of dwelling

Following the characteristics of the dwelling, they are classified in the following types:

1A. Private dwelling
As it was previously explained, a private dwelling is that used as a separate and independent home, by a family or another group of people, with or without family relationship, but that live together or as a family, or by a person that live by him or herself. One or more private households could inhabit a private dwelling.

a. Individual permanent (circle 01):
It is a dwelling constructed with long lasting materials, such as: cement block, brick, stone, concrete, wood, cane sticks with clay [quincha], adobe, among others. The dwelling could be finished or partially built. The townhouses or duplex units are considered as individual permanent dwellings.
[p. 45]

[There are example pictures of three individual permanent dwellings, one built from cement block, one made of wood, and the last one of cane sticks with clay [quincha].]

b. Individual semi-permanent (circle 02):
It is a dwelling built of materials of short to medium term duration, such as palm tree leaves, straw, cane sticks, among others.

[There is a picture of a house made of cane sticks and palm tree leaves]
[p. 46]
Improvised (circle 03):
It is a dwelling built with non-permanent intention and that generally is part of the so-called "spontaneous human settlements or emergency neighborhoods." The walls are made of materials such as old pieces of wood, zinc sheets, tin, cardboard, pieces of cloth, or plastic.

[There is a picture of an improvised dwelling]

Apartment (circle 04):
It is the living unit with water supply, sewage, and exclusive use bathroom. It is located in a building where there are two or more similar dwellings in the same floor. This type of dwelling can be found in a lower story construction or in a building of two or more floors.

[There is a picture of a multi-story building]

Room in a tenement house [casa de vecindad] (circle 05):
It is a dwelling constituted of one or more rooms in a rented house and that occupies part of a building that comprises several dwellings and, generally, doesn't have sewage or exclusive use bathroom, being these of common use for all households or dwellings.
[There is a picture of a room in a tenement]

Place not intended for habitation but that is used as a dwelling (circle 06):
It refers to any place or space not intended to be a dwelling, such as: hallway, a ship, a barn, a garage, a cowshed, an office, a store, schools, and businesses, among others.
Remember that what makes this place not intended for habitation object of the enumeration is that there is a private household residing in it.

[There is a picture of a store and a ship.]

Example: A teacher that occupies a room in the school.

If you circle this option (06), draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions for section II, information on the dwelling, and continue filling out chapter III, information on the household.
[p. 47]

1B. Without a dwelling
Mark this circle when you find persons that do not have a place to live and sleep in the streets (indigents). The victims of a disaster are also included in this category, among others.

Victims of a disaster (circle 07):
Mark this circle when the persons suffered important damages; for example, loss of their dwellings and/or appliances, due to natural disasters (flooding, landslide, among others) or a fire.
Remember to draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions of section II, information on the dwelling, and continue filling out section III, information on the household.

[There is a picture of three children victims of a disaster.]

Indigents (circle 08):
You will mark this circle when the persons at the census time are located in the streets, sidewalks, stands, under a bridge, in a park, among others, because they do not have enough resources to live.
Remember to draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions of section II, information on the dwelling, and sections III and IV, and continue with section V, general characteristics of the population.

[There is a picture of a person sleeping in the street]

In the street, control points, seaport, airport (circle 09):
Mark this circle for persons that at the day of census are at control points to be enumerated or are in transit in our country.
[p. 48]
This last case refers to persons (foreigners) that at the census day are not in their dwelling nor in a collective dwelling and, due to travel reasons, are located in the national territory or sea, and thus are in transit.

Remember to draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions of section II, information on the dwelling, and sections III and IV, and continue with section V, general characteristics of the population.

[There is a picture of persons in transit in an airport.]

If you marked any of the circles 08 (indigents) or 09 (in the street, control points, seaport, airport), remember to draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions of section II, information on the dwelling, and sections III and IV, and continue filling out section V, general characteristics of the population.

1C. Collective dwelling

As it was previously explained, a collective dwelling is one that is used as a special housing place by a group of people, generally, without family relationship and that have life in common due to discipline, health, learning, religious life, work, or other reasons, such as reformatories, jails, criminal colonies, hospitals, sanatoriums, house for the elderly, hotels, etc. If you find collective dwellings in the segment that you are working on, this will be enumerated by a work group assigned for this purpose.

[There is a picture of a hospital]

Mark the corresponding circle, draw a diagonal line on the rest of the questions of section II, information on the dwelling, and sections III and IV, and continue with section V, general characteristics of the population.

[p. 49]

The blank spaces that appear in the lower right part of the question will be use later during the review and coding process at the office.

[There is a sample image of question 1 from the enumeration form.]

Example:

It could be occupied by a collective dwelling, which is the most frequent situation. A part of it could be used as housing for a private household.

[There is a picture of a hotel and a family and next to it the text below.]

The owner of the hotel lives permanently with his family in one of the penthouses of the hotel.

In this case, you must fill out a questionnaire for the private household, and regarding how to proceed in this situation you should go to Annex 3 (collective dwelling) of the enumerator manual.

[p. 50]

Question No. 2: Status of the dwelling
[Question2 was asked of private dwellings.]
The objective of this question is to obtain the coverage of enumerated dwellings and to count with an inventory of the conditions on which the dwelling was found at the time of census: occupied, offered for sale or rent, in construction, among others.
This information is only for private dwellings. It is possible to distinguish several categories.
When arriving, the enumerator of a dwelling could find the following situations:
The residents are in the dwelling (present residents).
The dwelling is unoccupied (being sold or for rent, being repaired or in construction, used seasonally only for summer, or other reasons).

2A. Occupied

It is a dwelling that is used as housing at the time of census.
Mark only one circle considering the following definitions:

a. With persons present (circle 1):
It is an occupied dwelling which residents are present at the moment of census.
b. With persons absent (circle 2):
It is a dwelling that is being used as housing, which residents are not present at the time of census. This dwelling must be visited more than once, to avoid omissions in the enumeration during the census day. If the interview is made, mark circle 1. Otherwise, mark circle 2.

[There is a sample image of question 2 from the enumeration form]

[p. 51]

2B. Unoccupied dwelling (circles 3 to 6):
It is a dwelling that at the time of census is unoccupied. Mark the circle that corresponds; remember that this is important, to know the number of dwellings existing in the country.
Note: You must not confuse a dwelling with occupants absent with an unoccupied dwelling; if it is possible, ask the neighbors before registering its status.

a. Being sold or for rent (circle 3):
A dwelling that, at the moment of the visit, is unoccupied because it is being sold or is offered for rent.

[There is a picture of a dwelling that indicates "on sale".]

b. Being repaired or in construction (circle 4):
This is a dwelling that, at the time of the visit, is not occupied because it is being repaired or remodeled, or that it is still under construction.

[There is a picture of a dwelling under construction.]

c. Seasonal or temporary residence dwelling (circle 5):
It is a dwelling that is used for vacations or weekends, because the person or family lives permanently in another place and at the census day it is unoccupied.

d. Other reason (circle 6):
In this case, the dwelling is not in any status previously mentioned. For example, it is abandoned.

When you mark any of these circles (2, 3, 4, 5, or 6), continue with the next dwelling.
In this question only one circle can be marked.

[p. 52]

Example:
If at the moment of visiting a dwelling, the door is closed, ask the neighbors for a reason; if they indicate that the owners of that dwelling do not live there, but they use the dwelling seasonally, mark the corresponding circle:

[There is a simple image of question 2 from the enumeration form.]

[p.53]

Questions 3 to 21 should only be asked if the dwellings have their residents present (circle 1).

[Questions 3 to 21 were asked of dwellings that have their residents present.]


Question No. 3: Is your dwelling...?

Ownership of the dwelling

Read the options and mark only one circle according to what the respondent indicates you. Consider the following definitions:

a. Mortgaged (circle 1):
It refers to the dwelling that has been built through a mortgage loan from the Mortgage Bank, the Social Security Fund, a savings fund, the National Bank, collective mortgages, or other credit institutions and has not been totally paid for.
Include also as mortgaged those dwellings which original mortgage has been completely paid for, but are still under a new mortgage that hast not been paid yet.
In the case of dwellings under a mortgage, mark the circle 1 and register the monthly amount in balboas that is paid for the mortgage, in the corresponding space. Register round numbers, omitting the cents. Put a "0" in front if the value of the mortgage is less than 1,000 balboas.
If the person pays the mortgage every other week, multiply the amount by two.
If the respondent indicates that he/she is paying a mortgage on the house and does not declare the amount, inform about this situation in the blank spaces for observations.

b. Rented (circle 2):
A dwelling is considered to be rented when there is an amount paid for the right to use it. Register in balboas and using round numbers in the corresponding space, the amount that is being paid as rent.
Put a "0" in front when the rent is lower than 1,000 balboas.

Remember to multiply by two if respondent declares that the rent is being paid every other week.

[p. 54]

If the respondent indicates that he/she is paying the rent for the house and does not declare the amount, inform about this situation in the blank spaces for observations.
Remember that the amount is recorded using round numbers, not cents; if the person declares the value using cents proceed in the following manner: if the cents are equal or higher than 0.50 you must round up. For example:

a) Monthly mortgage payment: B/. 107.55. Register: 0108.
b) Monthly rent payment: B/. 320.08
If the cents are lower than 0.50, those must be omitted. Example: register 0320.

Example:
The respondent declares that he/she has a discount of B/.90.75 every other week as a mortgage payment. Mark the circle and register the corresponding amount.

[There is a simple image of question 3 from the enumeration form]

[p. 55]

c. Owned (circle 3):

It is a dwelling occupied by the owner of the building and land, or only the building. Include as owned a dwelling built using their own resources, or those built through mortgage loans that have been paid, or those acquired through other means.

d. Ceded (circle 4):

It is a dwelling whose occupants are not the owners, nor pay rent or a mortgage. Generally, people residing in these dwellings are related to the owner or have received them from their employer.

Examples:

Some houses of workers of the company Bocas del Toro Fruit Company.
The room occupied by the janitor of a building as a payment for keeping it clean.
The apartment, property of a father, is occupied by a newly married daughter, for which she is not paying any rent.
e. Condemned (circle 5):
It refers to occupied dwellings considered as uninhabitable by the Office of Safety of the Fire Department, the Department of Municipal Engineering, the Department of Sanity of the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Housing, or the System of National Civil Protection, that because of its poor state, their hygienic conditions and deterioration, constitute grave danger for the security and health of its tenants. The tenants do not pay rent and assume the expenses of water and electricity.

f. Other (circle 6):

Include here any type of tenure not considered in the previous options and specify in the corresponding line the type of tenure.

[p. 56]

[There is a sample image of question 3 from the enumeration form]

Question No. 4: When was this dwelling built?

The information that is obtained in this question will allow us to determine the number of dwellings that have been built at each period of time and, also, to verify statistics on construction during the inter-census period.
The objective is to investigate the period of time when the dwelling was built, either before 2000, between 2000 and 2005, or between 2006 and 2010.
Read the alternatives given in the questionnaire and mark only one circle, according to the response of the person being enumerated.
Sometimes the respondent may ignore the construction date. In this case, it is recommended to ask for the information from other sources (neighbor, renter, among others). When you are enumerating apartments in a building or rooms in a tenement, the information must be the same for all the dwellings. If you cannot obtain the required information, mark the circle 4 "unknown".
Clarification: Mark the starting period of the dwelling construction, even if it is a room. Do not consider any renovation.

Example:
The dwelling that you are visiting, according to the respondent, was built in April 2002.

[There is a sample image of question 4 from the enumeration form]

[p. 57]

Question No. 5: What is the predominant material in the exterior walls of the building or house?

This question should not be filled out by observation, since you only see a part of the dwelling and it might be the case that the dwelling is not constructed from the materials that you observe.

Wall: Construction that starts at the floor and continues vertically and is used to close a space, divide a room from another, protect a zone of the house from the outdoors, or support a roof.
The dwelling walls comprise those in the front, in the sides, and in the back.
If more than one material was used for the walls, register the predominant one.
It is important to clarify that this question is not referred to the material that cover some walls, like wallpaper, but the base material: wood, cement block, palm leaves, among others.
Mark only one circle according to the answer of the respondent. If he/she has doubts when answering, consider, when clarifying them, what was discussed in the preceding paragraph.
It refers to the material from which most of the exterior walls is made, of the building or house where the dwelling is located, such as:

a. Cement block, brick, stone, concrete:

Cement block: It is a prefabricated piece of concrete or cooked ceramic.
Brick: Piece of cooked clay or cement, almost always of a rectangular form.

[There are two pictures of walls made of bricks or concrete.]

Stone: Mineral element, more or less hard and compact, that is used as a construction material.
[p. 58]
Concrete: Mixture of cement, sand, crushed rocks or aggregates, water and sometimes an additive to change its properties, and could include or not steel. Include the dwellings built using prefabricated material, for example, M2 or convitec.
a.[b.] Wood (plank, piece): Solid part of trees without the bark, conveniently cut in boards or planks.

[There is a picture of walls made of wood]

b. [c.] Cane sticks with clay [quincha], adobe:

Cane sticks with clay [quincha]: Material prepared with a mixture of straw and clay that is adhered to an structure generally made of cane sticks and other sticks tied with lianas or other type of materials. Include houses of cane sticks with clay [quincha] that have been plastered.

[There is a picture of a house with walls made of cane sticks with clay.]

Adobe: It has the shape of a brick, but with larger dimensions. It is made based on earth mixed with herbs or grass, which is compacted in molds and then sun-dried. The adobes are glued to each other using clay.

[There is a picture of a house with walls made of adobe.]

c. [d.] Metal (zinc, aluminum, among others): Material that is used as metal sheets to close a structure.

[There is a picture of a house with walls made of metal sheets.]

[p. 59]

e. Palm leaves, straw, cane sticks, bamboo, or sticks: Materials of vegetal origin that are used in the construction of dwellings called ranches. Include bamboo houses that have been plastered.

[There is a picture of a house with walls made of sticks.]

f. Other materials: Material of inferior quality not included in the previous categories, such as: plastic pieces, cloth, cardboard, etc.

[There is a picture of a house with walls made of other materials.]

g. Without walls: The dwelling doesn't have any material that closes it.

[There is a picture of a house without walls. Below there is a sample image of question 5 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 60]

Question No. 6: What is the predominant material in the roof of the building or house?

This question is asked to know the predominant material that makes up the roofs of the dwellings.

[There are two pictures of a house and a dwelling.]

It refers to the material that makes up the largest part of the roof of the building or house where the dwelling is located. If you are enumerating a building or apartment house or rooms of a tenement house, this question relates to the roof of the building or house.

Roof: Structural element that is part of the coverage of a house or dwelling to protect it from the weather phenomena such as rain, sun, wind, among others.

a. Concrete slab: Built with sand, stone, cement, iron, water, and additives.

[There is a picture of a mason on top a concrete roof.]

b. Tile: Corrugated piece of cooked mud or clay, which adopts different forms and shapes.

[There is a picture of a tile roof.]

c. Other type of tiles (tejalit, panalit, techolit, among others): Waved sheet with a new technology free of asbestos, belonging to the new generation of construction materials. Includes cement tiles.

[There is a picture of a roof made of other type of tiles.]

[p. 61]

d. Metal (zinc, aluminum, among others): Metal sheet generally corrugated.

[There is a picture of a roof metal sheet.]

e. Wood: Solid part of trees, without the cortex, conveniently cut in boards.

[There is a picture of a wood boards.]

f. Palm, straw: Materials of vegetal origin, which are used to build dwelling roofs.

[There is a picture of a hut with roof made of palm leaves.]

g. Other materials: those not considered in the previous options, such as: pieces of plastic, cloth, waste, among others.

[There is a picture of a house made of wood and roof with other materials.]

Mark just one circle according to the predominant roof material of the building or house.

[p. 62]

[There is a sample image of question 6 from the enumeration form.]

If you observe all the dwelling materials, verify with the respondent.

Clarifications with respect to questions 6 and 7:
These two questions, unlike the rest of the section, refer to the building where the dwelling is located, that is, in those cases when you are enumerating apartments or rooms in a tenement house, the questions refer to the material used in the roof of the apartment building or the tenement house where those rooms are located.

[There is a picture of an apartment building.]

[p. 63]

Question No. 7: What is the predominant material in the floor of this dwelling?

The purpose of this question is to know the predominant material that makes up the dwelling floors.

Floor: Natural or artificial soil of the dwelling.
It refers to the floor material of most of the rooms in the dwelling.

Consider the following definitions:

a. Mosaic or tiles, marble and parquet:

Mosaic: Pieces of stone, glass or ceramics of diverse colors to create drawings or not.
Tiles: Thin layers of ceramics, stone, or other resistant material to recover the floor.

[There is a picture of tile floor.]

Marble: Natural stone, with an observable specific texture and capable of receiving polishing.
Parquet: Planking formed of narrow and polished pieces of wood, arranged in a regular way creating geometric shapes.
b. Pavement (concrete): Built with gravel or stone, sand, and cement, it could include or not iron.

c. Brick: Piece of cooked mud or cement, almost always in a rectangular shape.

[There is a picture of a brick floor.]

d. Wood: Solid part of trees without the cortex conveniently cut in boards.

[There is a picture of wood floor.]

[p. 64]

e. Earth: Organic or inorganic material from which the natural soil is mostly composed of.

f. Other materials (cane stick, sticks, waste material, among others): Those not included in the previous materials and which are of inferior quality.

This question concerns the floor material of most of the rooms in the dwelling.
You should not be guided exclusively by the material of the floor in the living room, since in some dwellings such flooring is different from the materials used in the rest of the rooms.

Mark only one circle according to the type of material from which the floor of the dwelling is built, following the respondent's answer.

[There is a sample image of question 7 from the enumeration form.]

Next, fill out the questions 5 to 7 according to the following example:

[p. 65]

Example:
Mr. César Cedeño informs that his house is made of cane sticks with clay [quincha]; except for the kitchen that is made of cement; regarding the roof, he says it is made of tiles. When asked about the floor, he tells that, because of lacking enough money, only the living room has been paved and the rest of the house has earth floor.

[There is a sample image of questions 5 to 7 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 66]

Question No. 8: How many rooms does this dwelling have?

(Do not include the kitchen, toilet, or bath.)
Room: It is each of the chambers or spaces used for housing purposes. The rooms must be separated by fixed walls of any material that establishes a practical separation between each of the different chambers.
When you ask this question, clarify to the person that is being enumerated what must be included or not as rooms, next there is a detailed list of what you should consider for a better understanding:

[Below the text there is a table that indicates what should and what should not be included when counting rooms.]

Include

Living room.
Dining room.
Bedrooms.
Study rooms.
Recreation rooms.
Room for the domestic service.
Rooms that are ceded and rented as long as those are within the enumerated dwelling (more than one household in the dwelling.)
Attics used as sleeping room.
Elevated storage rooms [jorones] that are used as sleeping rooms.
Do not include
Kitchen.
Bathroom.
Hallways.
Terraces.
Doorways.
Attics (that are not used as sleeping rooms.)
Garages.
Annexes that are rented and have an independent entrance.
Those that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service reasons (shop, workshop, depositories of grain and other products, elevated storage rooms [jorones], stalls for animals, etc.).

Finally, register at the two-digit level, in the corresponding space, the total number of rooms that the dwelling you are enumerating has, putting before a 0, if the quantity is lower than 10.

[There is a simple image of question 8 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 67]

Question No. 8A: Of these [rooms], how many are only for sleeping?

The objective of this question is to quantify the total number of rooms that the dwelling has and that are used only to sleep, even if they have not been built for this purpose. The information obtained will permit us to know the level of overcrowding of the household.

Overcrowding: Congestion in the same place of a number of people that is considered excessive.

These rooms are generally known as bedrooms.
Register in Arabic numbers, in the corresponding space, the number of rooms exclusive for sleeping that the dwelling being enumerated has, even if they have not been built for this purpose. Consider attics only if those are used exclusively for sleeping. Register "00" if the dwelling does not have any room exclusive for sleeping.

The number of rooms indicated in this question must be lower than the total of rooms mentioned in question 8.

Note: In indigenous areas it is possible to find dwellings without walls and having only one room where all the daily life activities are performed. You must register "01" in question 8 and "00" in question 8a of section II, information on the dwelling, because by definition, those do not have exclusive rooms for sleeping.

[There is a picture showing huts without walls. Below the picture, there is a sample image of questions 8 and 8A from the enumeration form.]

[p. 68]

Example: The respondent declares that, in his/her apartment, there is a living room - dining room and 2 rooms used for sleeping and a room that is used as storage. The answer will be registered in the following way:

[There is a drawing representing the different rooms listed in the example. Below, there is a sample image of questions 8 and 8A from the enumeration form.]

[p. 69]

Question No. 9: Where is the drinking water mainly obtained from?

This question refers to how drinking water is supplied in the dwelling.

Read the question and then the options given as they appear in the questionnaire. Mark a single circle according to the response of the respondent.

a. Public aqueduct of the IDAAN (circle 01):
It is the system through which the inhabitants are supplied drinking water by means of a distribution network administrated by the IDAAN (National Institute of Water Systems and Sewers).

b. Public aqueduct of the community (circle 02):
[Consider this] when water that occupants of the dwelling drink is provided by a public water system that is administrated by the community or another private entity.

[There is a picture of three community water tanks.]

c. Private aqueduct (circle 03):
System of supplying private drinking water provided for exclusive use of the dwelling that has a storage and distribution system for the dwelling.

If you marked any of the circles 01, 02, or 03 (water system), go to question No. 10, Are there drinking water installations within the dwelling?

d. Covered spring well (circle 04):
[Consider this] when water that occupants of the dwelling drink is provided from a public or private sanitary well that has a pump to extract water. The pump can be manual, motorized or by windmill.

[There is a picture of a covered well.]

e. Uncovered spring well (circle 05):
[Consider this] when water that occupants of the dwelling drink comes directly from a deep open well from which the water is obtained by means of bucket or vessels manipulated by pulleys or simply ropes.

[There is a picture of an uncovered well.]

[p. 70]

f. Rainwater (circle 06):
This is water that comes directly from the rain and is collected and stored to be drink by the occupants of the dwelling.

g. Superficial well (circle 07):
Also known as a natural pool opened to an earth spring and almost always natural.

h. River, stream, or lake (circle 08):
[Consider this] when the supply of drinking water is obtained directly from a river, stream, or lake.

[There is a picture of a person getting water from a river, stream, or lake.]

i. Cistern truck (circle 09):
[Consider this] when the supply of drinking water is obtained by means of a cistern truck.

[There is a picture of a cistern truck.]

[p. 71]

j. Bottled water (circle 10):
It is water in a sealed bottle, packed and offered for sale for human consumption, shown as natural drinkable or treated drinkable water.

[There is a picture of a bottle of water.]

k. Other (circle11):
In the case that drinking water is obtained by other means different from those previously described, you will mark this option. For example, water in a solid state: ice block.

If you marked any of the circles 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, or 11, go to question 13 and draw a diagonal line in questions 10 to 12.

[There is a sample image of question 9 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 72]

Question No. 10: Are there drinking water installations within the dwelling?

This question has as an objective, from a sanitary point of view, to know if the in the interior of a dwelling water is supplied through a pipe.

Mark the circle according to the answer of the respondent.

[There is a picture of a faucet outside the dwelling and a picture of a sink.]

Remember that this question applies only for those who marked any of the circles 01, 02, or 03 (public water system of the IDAAN, public community water system, or private water system) in question 9 (where is the drinking water principally obtained from?).
It could happen that not in every dwelling of the segment drinking water is obtained in the same way, thus, do not assume this information and ask the respondent the source of drinking water.

[There is a simple image of question 10 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 73]

Example of questions 9 and 10:
When enumerating the dwelling of Mr. Arnoldo Ruiz, he informs that they obtain the water from the public water system of the IDAAN, but since it is available only two days per week, there is a cistern truck every day in the morning; he does not use this water to drink, but to wash, clean, shower, among other uses. He indicates that within the dwelling they do not have drinking water installations. The answers will be registered in the following way:

[There is a simple image of questions 9 and 10 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 74]

Question No. 11: How many days per week is drinking water available?

[For households with drinking water supplied by the public water system of the IDAAN, a public community water system, or a private water system, in question 9.]
We want to know how many days per week the dwelling has drinking water service, both in dry and rainy seasons.

This question applies only to those who marked any of the circles 01, 02, or 03 (public water system of the IDAAN, public community water system, or private water system) in question 9.

Dry season: Between December and April.
Rainy season: Between May and November.

This question must be asked in the following manner:

How many days per week do you receive drinking water during the dry season? Mark the answer that the respondent declares.
How many days per week do you receive drinking water during the rainy season? Mark the answer that the respondent declares.

Register in each space the respondent's answer and continue with question 12.
Remember that this question refers to a week period. The week has 7 days.
If it is the case that within the segment the answers are different, investigate with the respondents and register the pertinent clarifications, in the spaces for observations.

[There is a sample image of question 11 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 75]

Question No. 12: Approximately, how many hours per day do you receive drinking water?

[For households with drinking water supplied by the public water system of the IDAAN, a public community water system, or a private water system, in question 9.]

The objective of this question is to know the regularity of potable water supply for the dwelling during the 24 hours of the day.

Remember that this question is asked when any of the circles from 01 to 03 have been marked in question 9 (water supply).

It refers to the regularity in potable water supply for the dwelling, according to the most predominant situation, both in the dry and rainy seasons.

This question must be asked in the following manner:

Approximately, how many hours per day do you receive drinking water during the dry season? Register at the two digits level in the assigned space, the answer declared by the respondent.
Approximately, how many hours per day do you receive drinking water during the rainy season? Register at the two digits level in the assigned space, the answer declared by the respondent.

When the number of hours varies, ask how many hours approximately does the dwelling has the service.

[There is a sample image of question 12 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 76]

Example of questions 11 and 12:
The respondent declares that for the dry season she receives water every other day, between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. During the rainy season, she receives water 5 days a week, during the 24 hours of the day.

[There is a sample image of questions 11 and 12 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 77]

Question No. 13: Does this dwelling has toilet facilities?

The objective of this question is to determine if the household has any system to eliminate human waste, disregarding the material of which it has been built.

[There is a picture of a toilet facility.]

Read the question and next each of the options that appear in the questionnaire. After the respondent indicates one of the 4 options, consider that you must mark only one circle, according to the respondent's answer. Make the necessary clarifications considering this:

a. Facilities of pit or latrine (circle 1): It is formed by a deep pit in the ground covered by a small hut. This type of facilities is characteristic of rural areas of the country.
b. Toilet facilities connected to a sewage system (circle 2): It is connected to a system of pipes that exist in some localities for collection and transportation of waste water.
c. Toilet facilities connected to a septic tank (circle 3): It is built generally of waterproof concrete. It is used more frequently in suburban areas, where there is a water system, but no sanitary sewers. In the case of neighborhoods or urbanizations that have a septic tank for all dwellings, consider the facilities as connected to a sewer system.

[There is a picture representing toilet facilities connected to a septic tank.]

If the answer is any of the circles 1, 2, or 3, mark the corresponding circle and continue with question 15. You must draw a diagonal line in question 14.

[p. 78]

d. Does not have (circle 4): If the dwelling does not have toilet facilities, mark circle 4 (does not have) and continue with question 14.

[There is a simple image of question 13 from the enumeration form.]

Question No. 14: What is the most frequently used place for this dwelling to deposit human waste?

[For households without toilet facilities in question 13.]

Remember that this question is asked when the dwelling does not have toilet facilities (circle 4 from question 13.)
Read the question and next each of the options that appear in the questionnaire.
If the answer chosen is circle 5 (other) register in a legible way, in the correspondent line, the other place where the human waste is deposited.
Mark the corresponding circle and continue with question 16.

[There is a sample image of question 14 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 79]

Question No. 15: The use of the toilet facilities is...
[For households with toilet facilities in question 13.]

Through this question we want to know if the toilet facilities declared in question 13 are of exclusive use for the dwelling or shared with other households, which are within this dwelling or outside of it.

Only ask this question if in question 13 you marked any of the circles 1 to 3 (pit or latrine, connected to sewer system, or connected to a septic tank.)

[There is a simple image of question 15 from the enumeration form.]

Example of questions 13, 14, and 15:
In the household that is being enumerated they indicate you that they have a pit as toilet facilities and it is of exclusive use for the dwelling. The question will be registered in the following way:

[There is a sample image of questions 13 to 15 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 80]

Question No. 16: What type of lighting does the dwelling have?

The objective of this question is to know the source mostly used by persons in the dwelling for lighting.

Mark only one circle according to the answer of the respondent.

a. Electric from the electrical company (circle 01):
If a dwelling has electric installations provided from any of the distributor companies. Examples: Northeast Electric S.A., Electric Transmission Company S. A. (ETESA).

b. Electricity from the community (circle 02):
A dwelling has electric installations provided by the community.

Amount of monthly electricity payment:
For those who marked circles 01 or 02 ask: how much do you usually pay every month? Put a "0" before when the value of the monthly payment is less than B/. 1,000.

This refers to the amount of money (in balboas) that regularly, is paid every month for the electricity service in the dwelling.

If the respondent declares that she does not pay for the public electricity or community electricity service mark "9997". Example: She has not signed a contract with the distribution company, the dwelling has an informal connection [conexión bruja or telaraña], etc.
If the respondent declares that they do not pay any amount, since it is include in the rent payment, mark "9998".
Remember that the value is registered in round numbers, without decimals; if the person declares a value including decimal numbers, proceed in the following manner: if those are equal or higher than 0.5 you must round up. Example:

a) Regular monthly payment for electricity: B/. 17.55. Register: B/. 18.
b) Regular monthly payment for electricity: B/ 32.08.
If the fractional part is less than 0.5, this must be omitted [round down]. For example, register B/. 32.
[p. 81]

c. Own electricity (generator) (circle 03):
Electricity in a dwelling is only generated by an own plant for private use.

d. Kerosene or diesel (circle 04):
Occupants of a dwelling are illuminated with kerosene or diesel.

e. Gas (circle 05):
Occupants of a dwelling are illuminated with gas lights.

f. Candles (circle 06):
This is a source of light having a wick and a bar of solid fuel for lighting.

g. Solar panel (circle 07):
It is a device that captures energy from solar radiation used to produce electricity.

h. Other (circle 08):
You will register the type of lighting not included in the previous categories, such as: hand operated bulb, car battery, etc.

[There is a sample image of question 16 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 82]

Example:
The person being enumerated informs that they use electricity from the company Edemet-Edechi and pays monthly B/. 43.00. The question will be registered in the following manner:

Question No. 17: How is garbage waste removed from this dwelling?

We want to investigate with this question the system generally used to eliminate garbage in the dwelling to measure possible sources of environmental pollution.

Consider the following definitions:

Public collection truck (circle 1): You will mark this option when the occupants of the dwelling put the garbage in front of their dwellings, so that collection units from the municipality transport them to crematories or places for their disposal.

[There is picture of a public collection truck.]

Private collection truck (circle 2): When the person pays a third party or private firm to remove trash from her dwelling.

[There is a picture of a private collection truck.]

[p. 83]

Incineration or burning (circle 3): When the dwelling disposes of garbage by burning it.

[There is a picture of garbage being incinerated.]

In an empty lot (circle 4): When the dwelling disposes of garbage by putting it in an empty land.

[There is a picture of garbage in a vacant land.]

Burial (circle 5): When the dwelling disposes of garbage by burying it.

[There is a picture of garbage being buried.]

River, stream, lake or sea (circle 6): When the dwelling disposes of garbage by throwing it to a river, stream, lake, or the sea.

[There is a picture of garbage next to a mass or water.]

Other form (circle 7): You will register other method to dispose of garbage not included in the previous categories.

Mark just one circle, according to the answer declared by the respondent.

[p. 84]

Example:
Mr. Ricardo Rivera declares that in this dwelling, they burn the garbage in the backyard. The answer will be registered in the following way:

[There is a sample image of question 17 from the enumeration form.]

Question No. 18: In this dwelling, what cooking fuel is used most often?

The objective of this question is to know the type of fuel that is most frequently used for cooking in the dwelling; it also allows us investigating how open the population is regarding the use of natural resources (firewood)

Fuel: It refers to the most commonly used fuel for food preparation.

Gas (circle 1): It refers to propane gas or hydrocarbon used as fuel.
Firewood (circle 2): Group of sticks, bushes, logs, that cut into pieces are used for combustion.
Electricity (circle 3): It refers to the caloric energy used for cooking. Example: electric stove, pans, rice cooker, etc.
Kerosene (circle 4): Colorless liquid or slightly yellow that is used as fuel for cooking.
Coal (circle 5): Solid fuel of black color and vegetal origin.

[p. 85]

Does not cook (circle 6): [Persons] in the dwelling do not cook, because they buy food at restaurants or eat at friends' or relatives' homes.

[There is a sample image of question 18 from the enumeration form.]

In this question, you must mark just one circle.

Question No. 19: Do you use any space of the dwelling for any economic activity? (Such as dressmaking, beauty salon, workshop, kiosk or store, selling fried foods, etc.)

We want to know if there is any area in the dwelling used for any economic activity, such as: store, workshop, dressmaking, beautician, cooking, selling fried foods, among others.
Mark only one circle according to the response of the respondent. If the answer is "yes", specify the activity.

[There is a sample image of question 19 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 86]

Example:
Mrs. Celia is a stylist and manicurist. She declares that in her dwelling she has a room exclusively to work for her clients. The answer will be marked this way:

[There is a sample image of question 19 from the enumeration form and next to it a picture of a beauty salon.]

Question No. 20: Do residents of this dwelling use a second dwelling during vacations or weekends, either owned, rented, or ceded?

The objective of this question is to know if any of the persons in this dwelling has another one that is used during vacations or weekends, being this one owned, rented, or ceded, and where it is located. If they have more than one, you must register the location that is mostly used.
Read literally the question and wait for the respondent's answer.

As a second dwelling: It is defined as the one that is used for temporary residence, generally during vacations and weekends.

If the answer is "yes" mark the circle 1 and continue with question 20A.
Read to the respondent the alternatives. Mark with an "x" the circle 001 "in this same place" if the respondent declares that it is located in the same locality that is being enumerated and continue with question 21.

[p. 87]

When the person declares "in another locality [lugar poblado]", register the name of the place where it is located, the town [corregimiento], district, and province, and continue with question 21.
For those who inform that they use another dwelling and it is in "another country", mark circle 9998 and continue with question 21.
If the answer is "no" mark circle 2 and continue with question 21.

[There is a sample image of questions 20 and 20A from the enumeration form.]

[p. 88]

Example:
The respondent declares that every weekend she travels from the capital city to her second owned dwelling that is located in the locality of Chicá, town [corregimiento] of Chicá, district of Chame, province of Panamá.

[There is a sample image of questions 20 and 20A from the enumeration form.]

[p. 89]

Number of households in the dwelling.

Question No. 21: How many households reside in this dwelling?

Consider as household the one where persons cook together and share a single budget for all their expenses.

The objective of this question is to identify the number of households that reside in the dwelling being enumerated. This number allows us to know the dwelling needs in the country and, also, have the necessary elements to improve the living conditions of the household members.

Read literally the question.
In a dwelling there could be more than one household. Consider as a household(s) the one that cook independently and manage a separate budget.
Before marking the answer, you must put emphasis on: Do all persons residing in this dwelling share a single amount for food expenses and share a budget? Then, proceed in the following manner:
If the respondent answers "yes" so that all residents of the dwelling have a single expense for food and manage a single budget, you will consider that the dwelling has a single household.

Example:

[There are two pictures, one representing a dwelling with a single household and the other a dwelling with two households.]

[Single household] Mr. Felix Gómez, his wife Iris, his daughter Flor, and his son Arnulfo share expenditures.
[Two households] Mr. Roberto Marin, his wife Carmen, his daughter Annie, his son Mario, share expenditures of the dwelling and food with the family of his son Roberto Jr., Rita, and their sons: Jose Roberto and Estrella.

[p. 92]

You will register in the upper right part of the form, the following information:

[There is a sample image of pages 1 and 2 of the enumeration form, where questionnaire and household number 1 along with question 21 indicate that there is only one household in the dwelling.]

If the answer to the question is "No", this indicates that there is more than one household or group of persons that have separate expenses for food and independent budgets. Count the number of existing households. In this case, you must identify the main household and which are the additional households and continue as it is explained in part d (numeration of additional households in a dwelling), from chapter 2, general procedure rules (look at page 50 of this manual).

Example:
Mr. Cárcamo resides in his dwelling with his wife and his younger daughter, his niece and his niece's son. He declares that his niece cooks separately and they have separate budgets.

[There is a picture representing the previous example and another picture with an example of a dwelling with two households.]

[p. 93-96]

You will register in the upper right part of the enumeration form the following information:

[There are two sample images of pages 1 and 2 of the enumeration form. The first one has questionnaire and household number 1, and question 21 indicates 2 households in the dwelling. The second one has questionnaire 1 and household number 2 and the rest is crossed out with diagonal lines.]

[p. 97]

That is, in the end you will have two enumeration forms with the same questionnaire number, but with a different identification number for each household.

Note: The questionnaire for the additional household must have all the sections filled out, except 2, information on the dwelling, in this case for the second household.
If the respondent does not know which the main household is, help her asking who is the head or owner of the house, the person responsible for renting, or the person who pays for most of expenditures; the rest of households must be classified as additional households.

[There is a sample image of question 21 from the enumeration form.]

[p. 98]

Example of a dwelling and two households:

[There is a picture below the text.]

The main household occupies most of the rooms (living room, two rooms for sleeping and an exclusive room dedicated to sewing). There is direct access to the street from their living room.
The secondary household occupies a room ceded by the main home and to go out, they go through the dining room of the main household.

[p. 99]

Remember prior to completing the questionnaires of dwellings with more than one household:

[There is a table below the text.]

Questionnaire for the main household

1. Complete Section I Location of the dwelling, boxes of Questionnaire No. and Household No.
2. Ask questions from Section II Information on the dwelling
3. Complete Section III Information on the household
4. Complete Section IV List of occupants
5. Complete Section V to Section VIII: General, educational, economic, fertility and mortality characteristics.

Remember that at the end of the interview you should fill in the box that appears under the list of occupants: Total number of enumerated persons by sex (men and women).

Questionnaire for secondary household(s)

1. Complete Section I Location of the dwelling, boxes of Questionnaire No. and Household No. Remember to write down the same number of dwelling of that of the main household questionnaire.
2. Draw a diagonal on Section II Information on the dwelling
3. Complete Section III Information on the household
4. Complete Section IV List of occupants
5. Complete Section V to Section VIII: General, educational, economic, fertility and mortality characteristics.

Remember that at the end of the interview you should fill in the box that appears under the list of occupants: Total number of enumerated persons by sex (men and women).

Section III: Information about the household.

Important:

1. Use a questionnaire for each household and proceed as follows:

a) For the first household, complete all sections in the questionnaire.
b) For all other households, use an additional questionnaire, complete section I Location of dwelling, draw a diagonal in section II Information on the dwelling, and continue to complete the remaining sections.

[p. 100]

Question No. 22: Does this household have a…?

The purpose of this question is to gather information about the existence of appliances and the quantity of them in a household, which provide their members with greater convenience.
It refers to goods available to a household such as TV, radio / stereo, home phone, cell phone, refrigerator, washing machine, electric fan, air conditioner, sewing machine, automobile, computer, cable / satellite service and internet access.
Ask the question as it is written and read all the appliances that are included in the questionnaire; by marking with an "X" the corresponding circle, according to the respondent's answer.

Note the following definitions:

a. Stove: electric power or gas-powered appliance used for cooking.
b. Refrigerator: electrical or gas-powered appliance which can freeze or keep food cold.
c. Washer: electric or gas machine for washing clothes.
d. Sewing machine: home use machine that mechanically performs sewing of fabrics, leathers, among others.
e. Home fixed phone: electronic device that allows distance telephone communications with other phones and usually stays at home.
f. Radio / sound equipment: electronic airwaves receiver (AM, FM, digital and SW). It includes stereos with radio.

In this case ask, how many?
g. Electric fan: electronic appliance to cool down a room or suite.

In this case ask, how many?
h. Air conditioner: electronic appliance that allows a room to get to a desired temperature.

In this case ask, how many?
[p. 101]

i. Cellular phone: mobile and portable electronic device that enables telephone communication through a wireless communication network.

In this case ask, how many?
Automobile: motor vehicle, usually with four wheels designed for individual or family land transportation. A motorbike is not included, nor those that are exclusive for business.

In this case ask, how many?
i. Television: Electronic wave receiver of television: VHF, UHF or signals from cable or satellite.

In this case ask, how many?
If they have TV, ask:
Cable / satellite Connection: a system of cable or satellite television, offering a wide selection of programs, through a plural number of channels.
j. Computer: device processing data electronically through software programs and that converts information in audio, video or printed documents.

In this case ask, how many?
If they have a computer, ask:
Do you have internet connection?: Connection to a network of computers that are connected together on a global level, to get or share information (news service, email, file transfer, among others.).

Remember to mark with an "X" those circles according to the answers given by the respondent and quantify in two digits whenever it is requested. Precede 0 when the amount is less than 10.
If the enumerated person declares that an appliance is damaged, ask if it can be fixed. If the appliance can be fixed, mark circle 1 "Yes", otherwise mark circle 2 "No".

[p. 102]

Remember that all sections must have an answer, either Yes or No.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 103]

Example:
Mrs. Virginia Rodriguez stated that her household has: stove, refrigerator, washing machine, 3 radios, 2 electric fans, 1 air conditioner, 2 cars, 4 TVs, 4 cellular phones, sewing machine, 1 computer and a 3-in-1 package with Cable Onda: fixed phone, cable and internet.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 104]

Question No. 23: Here or in another place, any person living in this household…?

With this question we want to know if any member of the household is engaged in agriculture or livestock activities, whether at a home orchard or at an agricultural and livestock exploitation. Agricultural and livestock exploitation and home orchards are defined as follows:

Agricultural and livestock exploitation: any area of land used wholly or partly for agricultural, livestock and forestry, regardless of title, size, or location, by a producer and the members of her household. However, if a member of a producer's household works a separate field, this last is treated as a separate exploitation unit and may consist of one or more farms. Several farms and land areas form together a unit of exploitation, provided they are located in the same district.

Home orchards: are those land extensions less than 50 square meters, a large percentage of them are in semi-urban areas of the country. They are either extensions or land or square meters of courtyards of houses where, generally, persons plant tubers and fruit trees and raise some pets.

Read each of the following options and mark the corresponding circle depending on the respondent's answer. Remember that each alternative should have an answer either "Yes" or "No".

a. Did the person plant some kind of grains (rice, corn, beans or others), cassava, yams, taro, vegetables, sugar cane and other crops in 2009?
This question involves the production of food such as rice, maize, sorghum, bean vines, beans, pigeon peas, guandú, cassava, yam, potato, otoe, tobacco, sugar, onion, lettuce, sweet pepper, cabbage, industrial or salad tomato, carrot, beet, cucumber, squash, melon, watermelon, squash, among others.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

[p. 105]

b. Does the person have plants, fruit or timber trees, or pasture?
Remember that this question refers to coffee, banana or guinea banana, plantain, papaya, orange for juices or grafting, cocoa, pineapple, coconut, achiote, avocado, lemon, grapefruit, mango, guava, passion fruit, pixbae, guava, cashew, etc. They also cover all timber trees such as mahogany, cedar, teak, oak, spruce, pine, cant, among others.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

c. Does the person have medicinal or ornamental plants for commercial purposes?
If the person grows medicinal or ornamental plants for commercial purposes, check yes in this question. Ornamental plants include: roses, lilies, red palms, chavelitas, papos, bougainvillea, orchids, carnations, chrysanthemums, among others. Also, some examples of medicinal plants are: aloe, sage, rue, mastranto, linden, paico, lemon balm, horsetail, balsamina, bitter guabito, plantain, among others.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

d. Does the person have cattle, pigs, horses, mares, mules or machos (combination of a donkey and a mare), donkeys, sheep, or goats?
Read the question literally and check this box if the person has all or any of the animals listed.

[There are two pictures below the text.]

[p. 106]

e. Does the person raise chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, quails or bee hives?
Read the question literally and check this box if the person has all or any of the animals listed.

[There are three pictures and a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 107]

Question No. 24: In the last ten years, has any member of this household left to live permanently in another country?

This question is to determine and identify persons by household, who have left to live permanently in another country in the last decade.
This question refers to people who have left to live abroad permanently, therefore do not consider those who are studying in another country or people who are out of the country on vacation, for work or otherwise.
Mark only one circle, agreeing with the response of the person.
Remember that this question refers to persons living in the dwelling, not to relatives living in another house.
If in this household, someone has left to live permanently in another country, ask the person's name, sex and age when she left. Write the answer to three digits. If the person is 99 years or older, enter the real age in the appropriate spaces, if the person is under 10 years precede with two "0" to complete three digits. For persons less than one year write "000". Also, write the year and the name of the country to which the person moved in the space provided for each question.

If nobody in the household has left to live permanently in another country, mark the circle 2 "No" and go to Chapter IV, list of occupants.

[p. 108]

Example:
Servando Fernandez, son of the head of household being enumerated, moved to Miami, USA, in April, 2002, at age 30.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 109]

Section IV. List of occupants

When beginning this section read literally the heading printed in the questionnaire.

"Tell me the names of all persons who slept last night in this household, starting with the head of household, and continue in the following order: spouse, single children, oldest to youngest, married children with their spouses and children, other family members, relatives, non-relatives, and domestic service members."

(Include persons who did not sleep and stayed here but who were not staying elsewhere because they were taking care of a relative in the hospital, at a funeral wake, or were traveling or working without having been previously enumerated.)

In each of the corresponding lines, write the name and surname of the persons who slept at this household the night before the interview. Start with the name of the head of household or the individual whom other household members consider as such, and proceed in the following order: spouse of the head, children, oldest to youngest, and the other persons who slept in this household.
Include all persons who slept in this dwelling on 15 to May 16, 2010, regardless whether they live there permanently or not.
Include members of the family who did not sleep in the dwelling but who were not lodged in another dwelling; example: a person who spent the night taking care of a relative in the hospital; a person who was fishing; a doctor or nurse who took their shift in a medical center; a night watch person, a driver who traveled all night transporting passengers or cargo; a seller in a pharmacy or restaurant; someone who was at a party; someone who was at a funeral wake, etc.
If a newborn has not been given a name at the time of the interview, write "newborn" in the corresponding space. Do not forget to include the elderly.
After writing down the name and surname of every person who slept in the dwelling ask the question on sex only when the name is common for both sexes. Examples: Carmen, Rosa, Trinidad, Concepción, Natividad, etc. Remember that sex is the biological condition that distinguishes persons into men and women.
Make sure that you enumerate all persons in the list of occupants. Persons on this list of occupants make up what we call a private census household.

[p. 110]

Private census household: is the group of people who live together under a family regime or for disciplinary, health, religious or education reasons, among others. It is constituted by a group of people with or without kinship, living under the same roof and that, at least for food, shares a budget (they participate in a communal fund.)

Then, ask the head of household:

Does anyone in this household have any physical or mental disability? If "yes", mark that circle, ask "who" and mark the corresponding circle for that person, if the answer is "No", mark the circle and go to question 5.

Does any Indigenous person live here? If "yes", mark that circle, ask "who" and mark the corresponding circle for that person. If "No", mark the circle and go to question 6.

Is anyone in this household a Black or African descent? If "yes", mark that circle, ask "who" and mark the corresponding circle for that person. If the answer is "No", mark the appropriate circle.

[There is a sample image of the form.]

Following the list of occupants of the household, there is a box to be filled in at the end of the enumeration of each household.

[p. 111]

Count all the people who were enumerated and are listed in the questionnaire; tally by sex in the box provided, verify that you enumerated each of the persons on the list of occupants.
If you have used more than a questionnaire in this household, record the information in the first questionnaire.
Try not to make mistakes, as this will help you fill in the preliminary count box (Cen 01 Form).

[There is a sample image of the form.]

Next, there are a few lines for observations on the characteristics of the dwelling, the household and the list of occupants.

[There is a sample image of the form.]

Continue with questions of Chapter V. General Characteristics. Remember that those questions should be asked to each individual.

Example of filling out the list of occupants:
In an enumerated household, the night before slept the following persons: Ernesto Berrocal is the head of household, and besides him, his wife Aminta de Berrocal, their children, in order of age: Ruth, Julio, Martin and Emilia, slept at home. Afterwards, he adds that Martin studies in the Netherlands, but he has been with them for three days as he is on vacation. His parents, Pedro Berrocal Berrocal and Ofelia de Berrocal, and their grandson, Francisco Fuentes, whom they care for, also spent the night there. Finally, he remembers that the assistant of his father's store, Rodolfo Galindo, slept there. When Mr. Berrocal is asked if any member is an indigenous, he reports that Mr. Rodolfo is a Ngäbe>[an indigenous group living mainly in Western Panama], and when he is asked if anyone in the household is of African descent, he states none. Similarly, we are told that his son Julio is a slow learner, since he had problems at birth.

[p. 112 -113 examples are omitted.]

[p. 114]

Remember that when the number of persons is greater than 8, you must use an additional questionnaire, repeating the location, number of questionnaire and number of household. Write down the information of the 9th person in the space provided for person 02 of section IV, List of occupants.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text. Example provided: Total [1][0];
Men [0][6]; Women[0][4]. Information should appear only in this box, for the main questionnaire]

[p. 115]

[There is a sample image of the form above the text. We observe there that a diagonal was drawn in the questionnaire and another diagonal was drawn in the boxes with the total count of men and women, in the case of additional questionnaires that were not used.]

Remember that additional questionnaires should not have any information.

[p. 116]

When you have completed the registration in a collective home or other:
To fill the information concerning the enumeration summary table, tally all the persons in the survey who were enumerated, and get totals by sex in the appropriate box.
Keep in mind that if you use more than one census questionnaire, you should count all persons who were enumerated in each of these questionnaires.

Example:
You enumerated the Hotel Las Palmas, 40 people registered, 25 men and 15 women. You will use 6 questionnaires, you must tally all persons enumerated in these questionnaires and write down the information in the main questionnaire.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text and an example. Example: Total [4][0]; Men [2][5]; Women [1][5]]

[p. 117]

Section V. General Characteristics
[For persons of all ages]
[Questions 1 to 12a]

In the line corresponding to information of the person (01, 02, 03 …), copy the name and surname you wrote down in the list of occupants, following the same order, and ask the questions to each person, beginning with the head of the household, then, with the spouse of the head, the children from oldest to youngest, among others.
Ask these questions to each person in the list of occupants as long as they can answer for themselves.

Question No. 1: What kinship or relationship do you have to the head of the household?

This question is asked to know the kinship or relationship between the head and the other members of the household.

Kinship: it is the tie that members of a particular census household have to the head. This may be based on consanguinity, affinity or custom ties, adoption, and work, among others.
Data from the first person on the questionnaire will always correspond to the head of household and should not be used to fill the data of another household member.
Mark with an "X" in the circle agreeing with the respondent's answer. If you are interviewing the head of household, mark the circle [circle 01] and do not ask this question
In cases of children who cannot answer for themselves or of any person who is not present at the time of the visit, ask this question as follows: What kinship or relationship does [Name of the person] have to Mr. (Mrs.) [head of the household]?

[p. 118]

With this question it should be kept in mind that:

Head (Circle 01): refers to a person recognized as such by the rest of the members of the home.
In the case that there is no agreement between the members, the person who has the economic responsibility should be considered as the head of household. When there are many who contribute economic responsibility, consider as head the person who contributes the most. When the home is formed by unrelated members, consider as head the oldest person in the home.
When the person recognized as head of household is absent, one who satisfies the requirements of the definition, in other words, one who is recognized as "head" of the household or who upholds any of the conditions in their absence will be considered to be head.

Spouse of the Head (Circle 02): refers to the wife or companion if the head is male or the husband or companion if the head is female. This relationship permits any type of matrimonial relation, that is to say that the pair can be married civilly, ecclesiastically, or [consensually] united. In the same household you can find more than one spouse; write them down as such.

Son (daughter) (Circle 03): refers to the children born of the marriage or the consensual union, as well as to adopted children or children raised there.

Son and daughter-in-law (Circle 04): refers to the spouse of the children of the head.

Grandchild or great-grandchild (Circle 05): Mark this circle if it concerns the children of the children of the head or the grandchildren of the head.

Father or mother of the head (Circle 06): refers to the mother or father of the head. Mark this circle, even, when it concerns the father or mother of the head who raised her or adopted her.

Mother or father-in-law (Circle0 7): refers to the father or mother of the spouse of the head.

Other relatives (Circle 08): Include siblings, brothers and sisters-in-law, godfathers, cousins, godsons and daughters; both of the head or the spouse, etc.

In the corresponding line, write down the relationship that the respondent has with the head of the household.

[p. 120]

Domestic service (Circle 09): Refers to domestic servants. These are persons working at the household being enumerated, doing domestic chores and who receive payment in cash and / or in kind for their work; examples: domestic employee, gardener, driver or chauffeur, cook, housekeeper, majordomo, among others.

Non-related (Circle 10): Any member of the household who does not belong to the categories above is included. Example: friends and guests.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

Example:
When interviewing Mrs. Alicia, she states that she is the companion of Florentino, who is the head of household. Although they have been living together for several years, they have not thought about civil or by the church marriage. The answer to the question on relationship to head is marked with:

[There is a sample image of the form below the text, but no actual example was provided.]

[p. 120]

Question No. 2: Sex:

The question referring to the sex is asked with the purpose of knowing the composition of the population by sex.

Sex: Biological condition that distinguishes persons as men and women.

Do not go by the name to deduce the sex since there are common names both for men and women. If you find persons with names such as Rosa, Jose, Isabel, Maria, René, Gertrudis, Alex, Giovanni, Leslie, among others, and the person is not there at the time of the interview, ask the respondent, very subtly, if she is referring to a male or a female, and do not assume what the answer is.
Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle in agreement with that marked in the list of occupants (Section IV).

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

Question No. 3: What is your age in years completed?

With this question we know the structure of the population by specific age and groups of ages.

Age: It refers to the age of an enumerated person at the moment of the census, that is, at the last birthday. Write down, with three digits, the age in complete years of the person.

If the person is 100 years old or more write down the number, with three digits, in the corresponding spaces; and if the person is less than 100 years old, put one or more zeros in front of it [the age], when necessary. If the person is less than one year old, mark circle 000. Immediately ask the day, month and year in which the enumerated person was born.
If any doubt about answering the question is observed, try to obtain the exact age through their personal identity card, the social security card or other documents that contain this information.
When the person does not know their age, does not have a personal identity card and has children, estimate the age based on her age when her first child was born and put next to the age the letter E (estimated).

[p. 121]

[There is a sample image of the form above the text.]

Example:
The head of the household declares that Engell, his youngest son, will be 6 as he was born on June 18, 2004.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

Question No. 4: Do you currently receive social security benefits as a…?

The purpose of this question is to detect people who are insured, because they currently pay contributions or have already paid their contributions to the Social Security Fund, as well as those found as "beneficiaries" of the insured.
To ask this question you should read slowly every option, wait for the respondent's answer and verify that the Social Security card has not expired (it is up to date).

Direct insured: An employee who is currently paying social security fees through the amounts the employer deducts from her paycheck. Include here unemployed persons at the time of the census whose social security card or checkbook has not expired.
Note: If a person is unemployed, but the social security card is up to date, you should check the option of insured and write this down in the space provided for observations.

[p. 122]

Beneficiary: Each of the dependents of the insured person who do not make social security contributions, but who, by law, are entitled to receive all medical benefits. Example: The children under 18, children from 18 to 25 years of age while they are students, the parents (after turning 60 years old), the mother and wife or spouse . Include also those women who receive social security benefits as a survivor, after their spouse died.

Retired: People having completed the payment of their social insurance fees and have the established age [for retirement].

Pensioner: A person who has stopped working, certified by a physician and authorized by the Social Security because her health does not allow her to work.

Retired or pensioner after working in another country: this line shall include persons who are retired or were pensioned off in another country. Example: people who retired or were pensioned off in the former Canal Zone and military bases.

If the person answers "No", mark the corresponding circle and go to question 5.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 123]

Example: Ernesto works at the Ministry of Economy and Finance, where he is deducted fees for social insurance.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

Question No. 5: What is your current marital status?

Read slowly the alternatives and mark the corresponding circle agreeing with the response of the person. There should only be one option marked.

Current marital status: The status of each person in relation to the laws and relative customs [traditions] that exist in the country.

Consider the following definitions:

[Consensually] United: is a person who lives in marital union without having been civilly or religiously married with their current companion. The person could be living in the same dwelling with the spouse or not.
Separated from marriage: is a person who lives separated from their spouse and does not live in [consensual] marital union.
Separated from [consensual] union: is a person who lives separated from their companion and does not live in [consensual] marital union.
Married: is a person who has been married civilly and/or religiously and lives in this state.
Divorced: a person legally separated who has not married again and does not live in [consensual] marital union.
[p. 124]

Widowed: is a person whose spouse has died and has not married again and does not live in [consensual] marital union.
Single: is a person who has never married or lived in [consensual] marital union, that is to say, who never has had a spouse [companion].
Less than fifteen years old: This includes all children less than 15 years old; if a child claims to be in any of the other marital statuses, accept her answer.

Some people tend to say that they are single because they have never been married, although they have lived in [consensual] marital union. In this case, consider them as separated from [consensual] union.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

Example: Mr. Guillermo says that he was married and he is now separated as he had problems with his wife, but he is not divorced; however, he thinks he is single.

[There is a sample image of the form below the text.]

[p. 125]

Conformation of nuclear families.

Nuclear family.

Group of people living under the same roof, share a common life and are linked by ties of blood kinship, adoption or marriage. We consider only the blood ties to the first degree downward or upward (parents and children). The family nucleus must consist of at least two members. It is important to remember that both "household" and "family nucleus" are different definitions.
In a group there is always a head and one or more family groups (nuclei), which in turn, will have a group or nucleus leader.
In a household there can be one or more families.
Kinship and marital status, as well as their names and last names will be considered for their codification.

Notice that for household's identification, the following criteria should be followed:

In the group there is a married or consensually united couple
In the group there is a married or consensually united couple with single children
In the group there is only one of the parents with single children. Only unmarried children (question on kinship) form a nucleus with their parents.
[p. 126]

To encode the family nucleus we use the boxes in question 1 on the relationship to the head of household.

[There is a sample image of the form with an arrow pointing to the digit in the first box. The example is "Nucleus [1] [3]", this is, the family group number 1 in this household.]

The first digit indicates the number of the family nucleus within the household and it should be assigned on a one by one basis according to the number of groups that exist in the household.

[There is a sample image of the form with an arrow pointing to the digit in the second box. The example is "Nucleus [1] [3]". This is, a son or daughter of the head of the family group number 1.]

The second digit indicates the relationship to the primary member of the respective core.

[p. 127]

Examples of nuclear families:

[There is a sample image of the form enumerating a household whose members are Ernesto Berrocal, Aminta Berrocal, Ruth Berrocal, Julio Berrocal, Martin Berrocal, Emilia Berrocal, Pedro Berrocal, Ofelia Berrocal, Francisco Fuentes and Rodolfo Galindo.]

[p. 128]

[There is a sample image of the form enumerating a household whose members are Ernesto Berrocal, Aminta Berrocal, Ruth Berrocal, Julio Berrocal, Martin Berrocal, Emilia Berrocal, Pedro Berrocal, Ofelia Berrocal, Francisco Fuentes and Rodolfo Galindo.]

[p. 129]

Ernesto and Aminta Berrocal are married and their unmarried children: Ruth, Julio, Martin and Emilia also slept in this household.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There are six explanatory pictures below the text.]

Ernesto Berrocal [1] [1] Nucleus or group
Aminta Berrocal [1] [2] Nucleus or group
Ruth [1] [3] Nucleus or group
Julio [1] [3] Nucleus or group
Martin [1] [3] Nucleus or group
Emilia [1] [3] Nucleus or group

[p. 130]

The father and mother of Mr. Berrocal slept at this household the night with a child they care for. The grandson [the child] does not form a family group or nucleus with them, as he is not their child; therefore, he has no first-degree blood ties [with the Berrocal family].
The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There is one explanatory picture below the text.]

Pedro [2] [1] Nucleus or group
Ofelia [2] [2] Nucleus or group
Francisco [0] [0] Nucleus or group

Rodolfo Galindo, who also slept there, does not form a family group or nucleus with anyone, as he has no kinship with household members.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There is one explanatory picture below the text.]

Rodolfo [0] [0] Nucleus or group

[p. 131]

Example No. 2.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Aurora Cortes and Favio Pinzon.]

Favio and Aurora are [consensually] united, and Aurora is the head of the group.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There are two explanatory pictures below the text.]

Aurora [1] [1] Nucleus or group
Favio [1] [2] Nucleus or group

[p. 132]

Example No. 3.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Lia Bustamante, Vanesa Marquez and Caroline Duran.]

Lia, Vanesa and Caroline are friends and are not related to each other.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There is one explanatory picture below the text.]

Lia [0] [0] Nucleus or group
Vanesa [0] [0] Nucleus or group
Caroline [0] [0] Nucleus or group

[p. 133]

Example No. 4.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose member is Amanda Humphrey.]

Amanda slept alone in this household.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There is one explanatory picture below the text.]

Amanda [0] [0] Nucleus or group

[p. 134]

Example No. 5.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Beni Esturaín, Yanice González and Carla Medina.]

Ms. Beni is a widow and has no partner; she is the head of the household. Her daughter Yanice is separated; she is always there and has a daughter, Carla, whom she never leaves alone.

The coding is done in the appropriate boxes for each person, in Question 1 of kinship, as follows:

[There is one explanatory picture below the text.]

Beni [0] [0] Nucleus or group
Carla [1] [3] Nucleus or group
Yanice [1] [1] Nucleus or group

Example No. 6.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Maria Ruiz, Jacqueline Ruiz, Hanna Ruiz and Angie Ruiz.]

Maria is the head of the household and her sister Jacqueline and her brother Andrés's daughters, Hanna and Angie, slept in the household.

[There are three explanatory pictures below the text.]

Maria [0] [0], Jacqueline [0] [0], Hanna [0] [0]] and Angie [0] [0]

[p. 136]

Example No. 7.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Sofia de Borbón, Leonor Borbón and Felipe Borbón.]

Sofia takes care of her grandchildren in her home in Chiriquí while their parents work in the capital city,

[There are two explanatory pictures below the text.]

Sofia [0] [0], Leonor [0] [0], and Felipe [0] [0]

[p. 137]

Example No. 8.

[There is a sample image of the form above the text enumerating a household whose members are Letizia Ordoñez and Juan Ordoñez.]

Letizia is the head of household; she is single and lives with her father, who also slept the night before in this household.

[There are two explanatory pictures below the text.]

Letizia [1] [1] Nucleus or group
Juan [1] [6] Nucleus or group

[p. 138]

Health Limitations

Question No. 6: Health limitations

This question has no relation to question 4 (anyone in this household has any physical or mental disability?) in Chapter IV, list of occupants.

The purpose of this question is to know the living conditions of people with permanent limitations to do their daily activities, i.e. to know if these limitations are due to problems in different functions or structures of their bodies. It is also aimed at determining the amount of limitations found in activities that a person actually does, as opposed to the activities she would like to do or can do, but she does not because of various personal or environmental reasons.

Limitations to do an activity: this means, having difficulty with an activity that involves:

Increased effort to do the activity
Discomfort or pain when doing the activity
Slowness in doing the activity
Changes in the way of doing the activity

With this question we want to establish if the respondent has any limitation.

If the respondent answers "Yes", mark circle 1.
If the answer is "No" mark circle 2.

Notice that a limitation could be:

a. Mild, moderate or low: Symptoms, signs or consequences exist and generate some difficulty to perform activities of daily living. The person is independent in self-care activities (dressing, eating, bathing, grooming, etc.); however, there are very specific activities that she cannot perform given her condition.
[p. 139]

b. Many limitations or distress: Symptoms, signs or consequences cause a decrease or a significant incapacity in the ability of a person to perform most activities of daily living, even self-care activities may be affected.
c. Extreme / cannot do it or very severe disability, either total or absolute: such as blindness, deafness, paralysis, among others. The symptoms, signs or consequences prevent them to conduct activities of daily living.

Read slowly the alternatives and mark the corresponding circle, according to the responses given by the respondents, being those yes or no.

You should remember that:

a. Do you have trouble hearing, even with hearing aids?: Refers to people who have serious or major difficulties, even with the use of hearing aids or other technical assistance for hearing; sirens, alarms, warning devices, among others. It also refers to people who, due to a loss or decrease in hearing, are unable to understand a conversation in a normal tone. People with total deafness in one ear (i.e. listen well only in one ear), should be included in this disability.

b. Do you have difficulty viewing, even when you wear glasses?: Refers to people with serious and important problems of vision, whether near or long distance vision, or problems to sense the presence of light, so they see blurry or see shades, even with glasses or lenses, whatever the cause.

c. Do you have difficulty walking or moving permanently?: Refers to difficulty standing or walking for long periods of time (greater than or equal to 30 minutes) or long distances. They include people with difficulties in maintaining and changing body parts in different positions, or prostrate people with no possibility of movement in their own bed. It also includes getting up, lying down and standing up, in the case of people with major difficulties in making and maintaining those positions. Example: people with paralysis of the four limbs (tetra or quadriplegia); elderly or, that situation that requires them to be in bed due to a deficiency of mobility (extreme obesity).
[p. 140]

[People with physical disabilities can use wheelchairs (electric or manual) or walking with difficulty, sometimes with crutches or a cane.
They [those using wheelchairs and those walking with difficulties] have different degrees of autonomy; some can climb up some steps; some just use a wheelchair to get around, for short periods or permanently. However, they are considered disabled because there are activities that they cannot do, even with technical assistance.]

d. Do you have any permanent difficulty using your arms and / or hands?: It refers to the difficulty of moving the upper limbs (arms and hands) that generates limitation to grab.

e. Do you have any permanent difficulty speaking or communicating?: Refers to severe or important difficulties to pronounce words or to generate and send messages by voice. For example: people with serious language disorders produced by brain injuries, stroke, head trauma, or language disorders associated with dementia, mental retardation, cleft palate, stuttering, confusion of words, among others.

f. Do you have any permanent difficulty learning?: It refers to the difficulty of learning in a normal way, abstract content such as mathematical operations, complex concepts, retention of ideas for long periods. It involves learning, understanding, and applying what is learned, and also involves the ability to focus, read, write, solve problems and make decisions at an expected level.

[There is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 141]

Remember that all questions must have an answer, either "Yes" or "No"

Example:
The respondent stated that she listens well and sees well with lenses, she has problems with her knees and has trouble bending and walking long distances. The doctor told her that she suffers from arthritis and the disease is lifelong lasting. She has no difficulty moving her arms and hands yet. She has no problems to speak or learn, because at age 50 she began a course in English.

[There is a sample image of the form.]

Ask this question, if in the list of occupants (Chapter IV), the name of a person has been marked with circle 1 in question 4 (disability), otherwise mark circle 8 "None".

Question No. 7: What type of physical or mental impediment do you have? (Mark the most serious)
[For persons who stated they have any mental or physical disability in question 4.]

This question is asked in order to capture the population that suffers from some type of physical or mental impediment, which prevents them to function normally.

[p. 142]

Disability: Any restriction or lack (due to impairment) of ability to perform an activity in a way or within a range considered as normal for a human being.

Ask this question, if in the list of occupants (Chapter IV), the name of a person has been marked with circle 1 in question 4, otherwise mark circle 8 "None".

Consider [as a physical or mental impediment] the following:

Blindness: The person who completely lacks vision or see very little (visually impaired), an impairment that cannot be normalized using lenses, treatments and other optical aids. Include people who are blind from birth, or who suffer from diseases such as glaucoma, toxoplasmosis, and infections caused by various accidents (hit in the eye, various injuries, among others).

[There is a picture to the left of the text.]

Deafness: The person who cannot hear nor talk, even with the help of hearing aids, and who communicates through signs but with normal intelligence.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

Mental retardation: A person with intellectual capacity below normal. This is evidenced by a poor school performance, adaptive and behavioral problems, and delayed mental and social development. A typical case is a "mongoloid" (Down's syndrome).

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

Cerebral Paralysis: The persons who at birth or during the first three years of life suffered an injury or brain damage that prevent them from moving normally, having stiff muscles or coordinating movements. They usually have problems with hearing or vision, mental or speech problems, or have convulsions.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

Physical disability: Person who has difficulty performing skillfully activities, activities of daily living or move independently because of an accident, illness, stroke or amputation. Also, those persons having malformations that physically limit them or, those who were born lacking a limb.

[There is a picture to the right of the text.]

[p. 143]

Mental problems (mental disorder): this refers to person with impaired general and specific mental functions that are originated in organic mental disorders, autism, schizophrenia, psychosis, personality disorders, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, among others; and people with all types of dementia; any deficiency that prevents them from carrying out activities of daily living, socializing with other people, among others. This person has difficulties interacting with others (family, friends and strangers), because she has mental or nervous problems.

Other: Mark this box if the person has developmental disorders, it also applies to children who, according to their age, do not crawl, do not walk or do not speak when that is expected and do not have a definite diagnosis that would allow them to be placed in one of the above categories. That is, include the person who does not have any kind of disability described in the above categories (circles 1-6).

None: Mark this circle when the person in the list of occupants stated to not have any physical or mental disability, circle 2 of Chapter IV of the list of occupants. Remember in this case, not to ask the question.

Example: The head of the house said that his son Arturo, age 9, was born blind.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 144]

Ask this question if in the list of occupants (Chapter IV), the name of a person has been marked with circle 1 (Yes) in question 5 (Indigenous). Otherwise, mark circle 10, None.

Question No. 8: To which indigenous group de you belong?
[For persons who stated they are Indigenous in question 5.]

This question is asked with the purpose of quantifying the indigenous population in the national geography and the indigenous group to which it belongs.

An indigenous is considered to be a person who declares to belong to an aboriginal group independent of the locality where she is enumerated.

Mark with an "X" the indigenous group to which the respondent states she belongs to.

[To the left of the text there are three pictures.]

Remember to ask this question if in the list of occupants (Chapter IV) the name of a person has been marked with circle 1 in question 5. Otherwise, if the person has declared that no indigenous person lives there, automatically mark circle 10 "None."

For children under 5 years old, check the option based on the ethnicity of the parents.

In the option Other (circle 09), you must include any indigenous group that is not covered by the above options and that belongs to another country. You must specify the name of the group to which the respondent belongs to. Example: Mapuche (Chile), Guajiro (Venezuela), Pisamira (Colombia), Zapoteco (Mexico), among others.

[p. 145]

Example:
When enumerating a dwelling, the head responds that both he and his companion are indigenous. To the question about the group they belong to, both of them respond to be Emberá. A child of 4 years who lives with them will be classified as follows:

[p. 145 Example is omitted.]

Question No. 9. Do you consider yourself…?
[For persons who stated they are Black or African descent in question 6.]

Ask this question if in the list of occupants (Chapter IV), the name of a person has been marked with circle 1 (Yes) in question 6 (Black or of African descent). Otherwise, mark circle 5, None.

This question is intended to generate greater visibility of African descendants in Panama, strengthen the identity character and increase the rates of appropriation of citizens' rights.

Ask the question literally and read slowly each of the alternatives presented. Check only one according to which the respondent answers.

[p. 146]

Black or African descent: Refers to the social group originally brought from Africa to the Americas by Europeans. They are divided into ethnic subgroups [subetnias], according to the different periods in which they reached the Isthmus.

a. Colonial Black: A descendant of African slaves brought to the Isthmus during the Spanish colonization. You can identify the descendants of the latter in the central provinces, in areas such as Nata, Parita and Monagrillo, and Chiriquí, in areas such as Puerto Armrelles and Alanje. In the province of Colón in areas such as Costa Arriba and Costa Abajo. In the province of Panama are located in Pacora, San Miguel and Chepo.

b. Antillean Black: Descendant of West Indian workers who speak French, English, or other languages who came to Panama, mainly during the construction of the Panama Rail Road, the French Canal late in the nineteenth century, and the North American Canal. They are mostly located in areas of the cities of Panama and Colon and the Bocas del Toro province.

c. Black : A person with ancestors who are descendants of Black slaves or colonial Blacks and / or descendants of Black Antilleans who speak English, French or other languages, migrants at different periods of the national development, who selected this option for self-identification.

d. Other: Any other Black or African descent group not included in the above categories. Write down what the respondent indicates.

e. None: Select this circle when the person stated in the list of occupants (Section IV) that she does not perceive herself as a Black or African descent, i.e. Circle 2 of question 6.

For those under 10 years old, check the option provided by the head of household.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 147]

Example:
The respondent in the list of occupants (Section IV, question 6, black or African descent), when you asked "Do you consider yourself…?" she responds "Black".

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

Ask this question if in the list of occupants (Section IV) the name of a person has been marked with Circle 1 (yes) in question 6 (Black or African descent). Otherwise, mark Circle 5, none.

Examples for questions 1-9 on general characteristics:
You are enumerating Julio Berrocal in the Barriada Colina de las Cumbres, he is the son of Mr. Berrocal, is 17 years old, was born on July 25, 1992; he is a beneficiary of social security, is single, and has limitations for learning, as he had complications at birth. He has intellectual disabilities that make it hard and difficult for him to study. He does not belong to any indigenous group, is considered neither Black nor African descent.

[p. 148 Example is omitted.]

[p. 149]

Below, with questions 10 to 12A, we will investigate the internal and international migration in the country.

Migration:

This is the movement, with change of habitual or permanent residence, of individuals from a place of origin or departure, to a destination or place of arrival, for a defined interval or period (e.g. one year, five years, ten years, etc.). This involves crossing the boundaries of a country, of a geographical division or of an administrative and political division within a country.

Question No 10: Where did your mother live when you were born?
[Questions 10 to 12A were asked to all persons.]

The objective of this question is to determine the lifetime migrant, i.e. persons whose habitual place of residence at the date of the census differs from their place of reference (mother's residence) at the moment of birth.
Mark with an "X" the circle "In this place" if a person declares that her mother lived in the same locality where she is being enumerated "when she was born".
When a person says that her mother was living "in another locality" "when she was born", write down the name of the district and the province or indigenous region to which the locality belongs to and go to question 11.
For those who say that their mother lived "in another country" "when they were born", write down the name of the country and go to question 10A.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 150]

Example:
You are enumerating the home of Mr. Vicente Moreno in Sardina del Palmar, in the district of La Pintada, Coclé province. He says that when he was born, his mother lived in El Platito, Las Minas district in the province of Herrera.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 10A: In what period did you arrive in Panama?
[Questions 10 to 12A were asked to all persons.]

Objective: To know the time of arrival to Panama of people born in another country.

Ask this question if the respondent stated in question 10 that her mother lived in another country when she was born, and specify the period in which she arrived in Panama.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 151]

Question No.11: Where do you live permanently?
[Questions 10 to 12A were asked to all persons.]

This information is necessary for determining the actual population of every locality in the whole country.

Permanent Residence: is the locality where the enumerated person usually lives.
Mark with an "X" the circle "in this place" if an enumerated person claims to live permanently in the same locality where enumerated. In the contrary case, write down the name of the locality where the person lives permanently and its district and province or indigenous region. In both cases continue with question 12.

For those who claim to live permanently "in another country", mark the corresponding circle and end the interview with this person.

Example: A person states that she does not live permanently in the place being enumerated and says that her usual dwelling is located in Negra Roja, a locality in the district of Kankintú, Ngäbe-Buglé region; you should write down the information as follows:

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 152]

Question No. 12: Where did you live before coming to the place [district, province] where you live permanently?
[Questions 10 to 12A were asked to all persons.]

The following question is asked with the purpose of measuring the migration through districts, provinces or indigenous regions and nations for the indicated periods or, in other words, the migratory movement of the population.
Mark with as "X" the circle "In this place" if a person declares that she has always lived in the locality where being enumerated and move on to question 13.
If a person used to live "In another locality", write down in the corresponding spaces the name of the locality, the district and the province or indigenous region where they used to reside before settling down in this place. Also, if a person declares to have lived in another country, write down its name. In both cases, continue with question 12A.

Example:
Mr. Montenegro declares that before coming to live in this place, he used to live in Costa Rica.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 153]

Question No. 12A: When did you arrive to the place [district, province] where you live permanently?
[Questions 10 to 12A were asked to all persons.]

Ask this question if the respondent stated in question 12 to have lived in another locality or country, and indicate the period in which she came [to live in her current place of residence].

Example:

Continuing with the example above, Mr. Montenegro indicates that he returned from Costa Rica three years ago.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Example of filling out the questions 1 to 12A:
You are enumerating the home of Mr. Berrocal at Barriada Colina de Las Cumbres, a Panama district in the Panama province. Now, you are going to interview Mr. Rodolfo Galindo, he is 55 years old, was born on March 15, 1955; he has no social security and is married. He wears glasses and he sees really well with them, so do not think he has any disabilities. He has neither physical nor mental disability; he belongs to the Ngäbe group [an indigenous group living mainly in Western Panama] and he does not perceive himself as a Black or an African descent. When he was born, his mother lived in Soloy, Besiko district, region of Ngäbe-Buglé . Before moving permanently with the Berrocal family, he lived in the town of Nancito, Remedios district, Chiriqui [province]. He moved to Las Cumbres in December 2006.

[p. 154-155 Examples are omitted.]

[p. 156]

Section VI. Educational Characteristics

For persons 4 years old and older.
[Questions 13 and 14 were asked to individuals 4 years old and older]

If the person has less than 4 years, go to question 28.

Question No. 13: Do you currently attend school?
[Questions 13 and 14 were asked to persons 4 years old and over]

School attendance refers to both schools of regular education (official or private) and schools of vocational character that are not incorporated into the regular system of education (schools of 1, 2, or 3 years that teach dressmaking, beauty, mechanics, electricity, etc.). Consider as school attendance, attending any "pre-school" or "children center", and schools for people with physical or mental disabilities.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle in agreement with the response of the enumerated person.

If at the time of the Census the schools are closed for vacation, strikes, lack of teachers or another reason, and the enumerated person is a student awaiting the resumption of classes, "yes" should be marked in question 13.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Example: Vanessa is 13 years old and is in the 1st year of secondary school.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 157]

Question No. 14: What is the highest level and grade or school year you have completed?
[Questions 13 and 14 were asked to persons 4 years old and over]

The objective of this question is to know the maximum grade of education achieved by persons in order to distinguish between those who finished or not, every one of the educative levels, besides, it allows us to detect if there have been, over time, changes in the educational structure.
Remember that this question applies to those 4 years old and older.
Mark the circle or write down in the corresponding, according to the level of education, the number of years a person approved.
Consider the following definitions:

Level of education: It is defined as the degree or highest degree level approved in the regular education system as it is imparted in schools or public or private universities in the country, i.e. primary, premedia [equivalent to middle school], secondary, vocational and university .

The latter may be at a technical, undergraduate, graduate, masters or doctorate level. If the person has received education abroad, please report a nearly as possible equivalent degree in the regular education system of the country. Distance courses are not considered regular education.

a) No grade: is when a person did not go to school, or did not complete the first grade of primary school.

b) Pre-school: Includes care centers or learning centers for children, usually under age 6. This includes both adaptation centers, such as nurseries, day-cares, children's centers, pre-kindergarten, and centers for infant orientation where they take care for infants, and education centers such as kindergartens or day-cares.

c) Special Education: Comprises the actions meant for providing educational opportunities to those whose physical, mental, emotional, social or educational, conditions require special attention in order to develop their full potential. Example: Panamanian Special Institute (IPHE).

d) Primary: This type of education is free and compulsory for all children within the ages of six (6) to fifteen (15) years old. However, you may find students aged between five (5) and eighteen (18) years attending primary school.


[p. 158]

e) Vocational: Its purpose is to prepare students directly for a trade or profession; it consists of a basic cycle of vocational training of two to three years in length and has as a requisite the possession of a certificate of completion of primary studies in progress.

f) Middle or Secondary Education: This level of education has as a prerequisite the completion of the primary level of education, and it is, in turn, required for higher education. Secondary education consists of two cycles:
First Cycle or premedia [equivalent to middle school]: usually consists of three (3) years. It requires a certificate of completion of primary education in progress or the completion of primary education.

Second cycle or Middle: It is usually represented by a degree in sciences, arts and commerce. Its prerequisite is having a certificate of completion of the first cycle of secondary education or a certificate of completion of premedia studies. Normal education that prepares for the teaching practice also requires the same pre-requisite.
g) Higher, non-university: is the education that superior institutes of diverse specialties offer; these institutes have their own programs, curriculum, and because of their characteristics they are not considered university degrees, such as tourism, Institute of Computer Science, etc. Its requirement is to have a bachelor or secondary education degree, and its duration is two years.

h) Higher, university: is the education taught at universities such as: University of Panama, Universidad Tecnologica of Panama, Santa María La Antigua, Universidad del Istmo, Universidad Latina, Interamericana, ULACIT and others.

For private universities, list the years actually approved, not quarters or semesters.

i) Specialization or graduate: Studies carried out after obtaining an undergraduate degree; diplomados [equivalent to a diploma or certificate] are excluded. Duration: 1 year.

j) Master's: Refers to a higher academic degree, after having obtained an undergraduate degree. Maximum duration: 2 years.

k) Doctorate: refers to the highest academic level that a person can aspire to; having completed an undergraduate degree is required. Duration: 3-4 years.

These stages of study can be performed, either in the country or abroad.
As you can observe, there is a code on each answer choice so you only have to put the last digit according to the respondent's answer.

[p. 159]

[Above the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Do not use roman numerals. Keep in mind that the highest degree or year entirely approved is requested and consequently neither half a degree nor degrees that have not been completely finished or passed should be written down.
If the person has been educated abroad or in schools operating in the Panama Canal Area, write down as nearly as possible the equivalent grade in the regular education system of the country. Example: The 8th grade in those schools is equivalent to the 2nd year of secondary school in Panama.

Consider as a vocational school those that are not incorporated in the regular school system and that teach dressmaking, mechanics, electricity, commerce arbitrator, among others. Do not include in this category public schools such as the School of Arts and Crafts (Melchor Lasso de la Vega) and professional and technical institutes located in different parts of the national territory.
In those schools or colleges where premedia [equivalent to middle school] has been implemented, if a person indicates that she is in 7th, 8th or 9th grade, remember that she refers to 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of formal secondary education.

[p. 160]

Note: If a person has studied in a school of regular education and also, in a vocational school, consider as level passed the one in a school of regular education, as long as this one is the highest one or [at least] the same.

Maximum values for grade levels.

The maximum parameters are listed for each level as follows:

Primary [1] [6]
Vocational [2] [3]
Secondary [3] [6]
High - Not University [4] [2]
High - University [5] [6]
Specialization (Graduate) [6] [1]
Master's degree [7] [2]
Doctorate [8] [4]
[p. 161]

Example No. 1: The respondent declares she has just completed a Masters in Advertising (2 years), after finishing an undergraduate degree (four years).

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Example No. 2: The person got an undergraduate degree in Electro-mechanics at a vocational school (3 years).

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 162]

Questions 15 and 16 for persons 10 years old and older.
[Questions 15 and 16 were asked to individuals 10 years of age and older]

Question No. 15: Are you able to read and write? (Check "Yes", only when persons know both of them.)
[Questions 15 and 16 were asked to persons 10 years old and over.]

This question is asked with the purpose of measuring the literacy level of the population.

Literacy: The ability of the person to read and write.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Literate: Is anyone able to read and write a message and understand it.

Illiterate:

a. A person who cannot read or write.
b. A person who can only read.
c. A person who can only read and / or write numbers and sign her name.

If the person can read and write a message, check "Yes" (circle one). If the person only reads or write numbers, although she knows how to sign her name, check "No" (circle 2) and go to Section VII. Economic Characteristics.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 16: What degree or diploma do you have?
[Questions 15 and 16 were asked to persons 10 years old and over.]

This question allows us to know or examine the correspondence between the supply and demand of skilled labor force with determined specialties in the market.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 163]

Write in the space provided the diploma or degree that the person has obtained. The diplomas or degrees refer to those that people obtain through courses of study in fulltime or partial time programs, whether in regular education or not, within or outside of the country.
If the person claims to have received only a primary school certificate, a first cycle of basic education certificate or a general certificate, mark circle "none".
If the respondent states that she has a degree earned in a vocational school, write it down.
In the case of people who have multiple titles, write down the one that she considers the most important or the highest level.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 164]

Examples of filling out questions 13, 14, 15 and 16:

Example No. 1:
Mrs. Laura states that she obtained her certificate of the first cycle but, because of difficulties with her economic situation, she had to enter a vocational school where she obtained the degree of dressmaker and currently is working at this position.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 165]

Example No. 2:
Her daughter, who lives with her, is taking university classes in pedagogics to be a professor; she already graduated as a Licenciada [undergraduate degree] in accounting (5 years).

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 166]

Example No. 3:
Esteban is 25 years old, finished 6th, but because there was no secondary school close to where he lived when he was a child, he did not continue studying. He does not have any interest in continuing to study.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 167]

Example of Section V: Alejandra is twelve years old and is in the second year of secondary school or eighth grade of basic education.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 168]

Section VII. Economic Characteristics

[For people 10 years old and older.]
[Questions 17-27]
[Questions 17 to 27 were asked to individuals 10 years old and older]

For people 10 years old and older. If the respondent is less than 10 years old, go to question 28.

The aim of this section is to obtain information on the participation of the population 10 years old and older in economic activities of the country.

The information refers to the week before the census day. This week is defined as the reference week and includes Sunday through Saturday, that is, from 9 to 15 May, 2010.
It is recommended that each household member respond [these questions] for themselves. If this is not possible, the head or responsible adult might respond on behalf of the younger ones. You should insist that adult members answer themselves.
Particular attention should be paid to special groups, as it may be difficult to determine their condition. These groups include women, especially those who work with relatives without pay, something similar may happen with the young and the elderly.
An example is given in rural areas, where most men are engaged in agriculture and often work with their wives and children. Also, it might occur in urban areas that, for example, a child works in her mother's shop.

Principal activity of a person:
Survey responses on questions 17-27 are the basis for classifying the population aged 10 and older in:

[p. 169]

1. Economically Active Population (EAP): Includes all persons of either sex aged 10 and older, who supplies the available work force to produce economic goods and services in the country, during the reference week.
The production of economic goods and services also includes the construction on their own.
People who are part of the economically active population are classified as "employed" or "unemployed'.

a) Employed population: includes persons aged 10 and older who during the reference week:
Worked at least one hour
Have an occupation or job remunerated in cash or in kind.
Have a business or are self-employed.
Work regularly in a company, business or farm of a family member, even if they do not receive wages or salary (family worker).
Persons temporarily absent from work, due to illness or injury, holiday or vacation, strike, study leave or training, maternity leave, reduction in economic activity, temporary disorganization or suspension of work for reasons such as bad weather, mechanical or electrical breakdown, shortage of raw materials or fuels, or other temporary absence with or without license.
Persons who maintained a formal attachment to their job are also persons in remunerated employment.
Did not work, but work for fixed periods (marines, contractors, among others).
[p. 170]

b. Unemployed population: This group is comprised of all persons aged 10 and over who during the reference week:
Do not have an occupation or job and are looking for a job.
Looked for work before and is expecting news, that is, the person has taken steps to find a paid employment or an independent job.
Are not looking for a job during the reference week, but say they got tired of looking for a job.
The person you interview says that she got a job, which will begin at a later date to the census reference week.
2. Not economically active population (NAEP): Includes, all persons aged 10 and older who do not do any economic activity, such as working at home (housewives), retirees, pensioner, rentiers, retired, students and those in institutions such as nursing homes, prisons, among others.

Question No. 17: Did you work last week?

Work is understood to be any work activity that is done with the purpose of producing goods and services that have economic value in the market.

If the answer is "Yes", mark the corresponding circle and go to question 23. If it is "No", mark the circle 2 and go to question 18.
This question should be answered "Yes" by people who have a job or a remunerated job or employment or those who have their own business such as the owner of a grocery store, the professional who has his own office, the person who does not have land, but makes his living working as an agricultural laborer in a plantation, or a pawn cleaning livestock pastures, among others.

The box "yes" should be marked also, for all persons who work independently. For example:

A mason, plumber or electrician working on their own.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 171]

A person making chips for selling.
A dressmaker working at home.
A woman doing beautician works in her home.
An ironer ironing in a family house.
A gardener working in various houses.
A woman making food for sale, either in her own home or away.
A woman weaving baskets or making any other crafts for selling.
A peddler or a traveling salesperson.
A shoe shiner.
A farmer working in his plot of land.



[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 18: Do you have any job from which you were temporarily absent last week?
[For persons who answered "No" in circle 2, question 17.]

For those who answered "No", circle 2, question 17.

Also, "yes" should be marked when:
A person has employment but was absent last week because of temporary incapacity, vacation or on leave because of pregnancy or other reason.
An independent worker worked few hours or did not work for temporary reasons during the reference week. For example: a taxi driver whose car was being repaired, a candy seller who became sick, among others.

[p. 172]

[Above the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 19: Did you do any work last week for which you received money such as: selling lottery or newspaper, making food, washing, ironing or sewing clothes, washing cars, shining shoes, trimming land, knitting, making hats, among others?
[For persons who answered "No" in question 18.]

(For those who answered "No" in question 18)

If the answer is "Yes", mark circle 1 and go to question 23. If the answer is "No" mark circle 2 and go to question 20.

[To the right of the text there are two pictures.]

It is important that you investigate those women who do activities such as selling duros [frozen fruit juice] or making candies for selling, as they do not consider this activity a job and say they are housewives or students only.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form and a picture.]

[p. 173]

Question No. 20: Did you look for work last week?
[For persons who answered "No" in question 19.]

(For persons who answered "no" in question 19.)

If the answer is yes, mark the corresponding circle and go to question 23. If the person answers "no", go to question 21.

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 21: Did you look for work during the last month?
[For persons who answered "No" in question 20.]

(For persons who answered "no" in question 20.)

If a person answers "Yes", mark the corresponding circle and go to question 23. In the case of a person who has answered "no", continue with question 22.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 22: What was the reason for not looking for work last week?

Read all the alternatives presented in the questionnaire and begin to mark the circle according to the response of the person. If a person responds affirmatively in any of the circles 01 to 04 (the person does occasional jobs, looked before and is expecting news or finds impossible to find a job), mark the corresponding circle and continue with question 23.

[p. 174]

For those who answer "Yes" to any of the circles 05-11 (Retired or age pensioner, pensioner (by accident or illness), only student, homemaker or household worker only , permanently disabled to work, age (70 and over), Other inactive), mark the corresponding circle, go to question 28 and draw a diagonal line through questions 23 to 27.

Note the following definitions:

The person works for fixed periods of time (Circle 01): A person not looking for a job, because she depends on a work she does with some regularity and which gives her enough income to survive, must be located in this question. Example: contractors, or marine in the reference week who were resting in their homes.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

The person is about to start working (Circle 02): The person you interview says that she got a job, which will begin at a later date to the census reference week.

The person looked for a job before and is expecting news (Circle 03): The person searched employment or job before and is waiting to be called or warned about.

The person got tired of looking for a job (Circle 04): The person states that she did not seek employment during the reference week, as she has done it previously and did not found a job, so she thinks that it is impossible to find a job.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Retired or old age pensioner (Circle 05): A person who has stopped working, after having the quotas and the required age and who is receiving retirement income (regardless of the country where he retired).

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 175]

Pensioner (by accident or illness) (Circle 06): A person who has stopped working and is receiving income retirement or pension for having some kind of ailment, disease or having had an accident that prevents her from performing work activities. This does not include people who receive maintenance for divorce or separation, or survivors.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Student only (Circle 07): The person who is dedicated solely to studying.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Housewife only or home worker (Circle 08): A person of either sex, who does not do any economic activity, and is dedicated to taking care of her own home. For example, consider housewives and other relatives responsible for the care of the house and of the children. These people are engaged solely to the housework or chores in their own homes, they are not looking for a job, they are pensioners or retired, they receive no income, or attend school. There may be more than one housewife in a home.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Permanently disabled to work (Circle 09): Consider in this group those persons having some sort of permanent disability as a result of an illness, accident or any physical or mental limitation (disability) which prevents them from doing any work, and who do not receive pension for their condition.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Advanced age (70 and over) (Circle 10): This refers to people who are neither working nor looking for work, because their age does not allow it. Age 70 and over is the parameter from which the Census defines elderly population. Do not classify in this section a person just because she is 70 years; you should inquire if she does the chores at home, she is a homemaker; if she works she is classified as an employee, among others.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 176]

Other inactive (Circle 11): Persons without being classified in any of the above groups who do not perform any economic activity and are inactive. The same person can be a rentier (the person who receives money without having to work or who receives income from a business or company such as: real estate, rental of land or machinery, etc.), or can be idle (lazy), among others.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Remember that you should mark only one answer in this question.

If the person is a student and also works, you should have marked circle 1 "Yes" in question 17; equally, if the person is retired and works well, you should have marked circle 1 in question 17. In summary, it prevails in the classification of questions 17 to 22, the fact that she is a worker.

[p. 177]

When classifying the population you should take special care with persons who declare to be "Worker in the home, homemaker " or " Student" because the first group at times also does remunerated jobs like: cleaning, ironing, sewing, doing hair, painting fingernails, making candies or food to sell, etc. in their own home or outside of it, but because they spend little time in these labors they forget to supply this information.
On the other hand, some students shine shoes, sell newspapers, are supermarket packers, or wash cars, etc. after class or on weekends. Equal care should be taken with the spouse or companion or the children of farm families, who regularly help with the agricultural labors but do not declare such job.
If a person worked during that period even though it was part time, she should be classified in the category of Employee which corresponds to the Economically Active Population.
For the case of workers of the home or homemakers who attend school, that is to say, that they have been marked in circle 1 (Yes) in question 13 of Section VI. Educational Characteristics, you should mark circle 07 (Student only) of the question 22 of Section VII. Economic characteristics.

Example of filling out questions 17 to 22:

When interviewing a person, if she responds that last week they did not work, nor had any employment, nor looked for work the last month, and when asking her the reason why she did not look for work last week, she responds that she is a homemaker and attends night classes at the university, the response will be marked in the following manner:

[The example is not complete as the sample forms have no special signs indicating how to fill out any of the questions]

[p. 178- 179 Examples are omitted.]

[p. 180]

Question No.23. What occupation, position or job did you do last week or the last time you worked?

For a person who works you should ask what occupation, trade or job was done last week; if the person has more than one job, write down the occupation of the principal job. Consider as the principal job as the one which produces the largest income.

Occupation: the profession, trade or type of work in practice or having been practiced by a person who worked in the reference week.

For the unemployed who worked before, you will investigate the last occupation or type of work they practiced.
When asking this question please note that: if she is an employee, you should ask it in the following way: "What occupation, trade or job did you do last week? And if she is an unemployed, you should ask the question in this way: "What occupation, trade or labor did you do the last time you worked?"

If the person said she has never worked, mark the corresponding circle and go to question 28. The upper age limit for those who "never worked" is 29 years if male and 45 years if female; investigate the cause and make the respective observations.
Write down in this question the specific occupation that is or was done in the job of the enumerated person, avoiding vague or generic terms. Example:

[Below the text there is a sample image of the form.]

Note: Do not include activities like voluntary work, such as adult literacy led by MIDES, participation in presidential elections (judges), participation in the census, etc.

[p. 181]

Examples of most common occupations

[There is a chart with 4 columns, two called "Data" and two called "You should write down".]

Data
Office worker

You should write down
Internal Messenger
Hotel Receptionist
Bank Teller
Executive Secretary

Data
Driver

You should write down
Of a truck
Of a taxi
Of a bus
Of an ambulance

Data
Mechanic

You should write down
Of cars
Of diesel engines
Of sewing machines
Of typewriters

Data
Seller

You should write down
Of newspapers
Of lottery, "chances", etc.
In clothes department stores

Data
Professor

You should write down
Of mathematics (at secondary school level)
Of primary school
Of engineering (at university level)

Data
Doctor

You should write down
Psychiatrist
Dentist
Dermatologist
Pediatrician

Data
Construction Worker

You should write down
Mason Helper
Mosaiquero [construction worker specialized in setting up tiles]
Shoveler

Data
Secretary

You should write down
Accountant
Executive
Executive and bilingual

Data
Cutter (machetero)

You should write down
Gardener: family home, parks, etc.
In the street: cleaner of lots or patios.
In her land [monte in Spanish]: farmer

Data
Chief

You should write down
Of audit
Of credits
Of deposits
Of statistics
Of human resources
Of sales
Of transport

[p. 182]

Question No.24. Where do you work or where did you work last?

(Write down the name of the establishment, company or institution, if the person works in the street, at home, with a family, in an agricultural farm, among others; write down what the person states.)

For a person who works, ask: where do you work? If a person answers that they did not work, ask: where did you work last?

With this question we want to know the name of the establishment, company or institution where the person works or worked, and not the name of the locality where this place is located.

According to the response of the respondent, mark the corresponding circle taking into account the following criteria:

a) If it is a business, business, company, or private office, write down the full name. Example: Editora Panamericana, Inc., Lopez Optics, Hotel Continental, Conway Store, Miramar soft drinks.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

b) Do not use acronyms or abbreviations of the name of the company or institution, unless it is a government agency: IDAAN IFARHU, MOP, ANAM, etc. If the respondent supplied the acronyms and you do not know its meaning, ask her to have to explain its meaning, and write it down.

c) When it concerns an agricultural farm or a livestock ranch, write down "In an agricultural farm or a livestock ranch".

d) When a person works or used to work in a private house like for example: domestic employees, laundresses, cooks, gardeners, etc., write down "In family house".

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

e) In cases of seamstresses, laundresses or persons who prepare or used to prepare food at home for sale, write down "In their home".

f) When people work or used to work in the street on their own account (auto scrubbers, street vendors, patio cleaners, taxi drivers or bus, commission agents, laundresses, ironers, among others.), do not ask this question but rather write down "In the street"

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 183]

g) When the respondent says that her workplace is or was in a kiosk selling seafood, meat, or vegetables in the public market, or it is or was in a kiosk selling of all kinds of crafts, write: "Kiosk in craft market, vegetable or fruits market or in seafood market."

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

h) If the person works or worked as a fisherman on his own write "In the sea ".

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

If a person declares to work or have worked in any school or secondary school, write down the name of the school or secondary school and not the Ministry of Education. Similarly, for those who claim to work in any medical center or hospital, write down the name of the medical center or hospital and not the Ministry of Health.

[Below the text there are two pictures.]

i) If the person performs her occupation in a place where they need workers such as masons, electricians, plumbers and assistants, accountants, teachers, among others, who work in places where the customer needs them, write: "Customer's house, site or premises." Exclude domestic service.

[Following the text, there is a sample image of the form.]


[p. 184]

Question No. 25. What does this business, establishment, company or institution, where you work or worked, do?

This question relates to the sector of economic activity which includes the business, establishment or institution where the person works or worked during the reference period.
Write down as accurately as possible, the kind of activity that was done at the business, establishment or company stated in question 24.
If the person works or worked in any government institution, list the specific activity carried out by the institution.
In the case of companies such as: Grupo 99, Grupo Rey, Grupo Melo, Panama Brewery, Inc., Coca Cola, Fidanque Brothers and Sons, Inc., Grupo Machetazo, among others, you should ask the respondent, the actual area of the company where she works, as these companies, like many others, have or do different activities (pharmacies, bakers, butchers, etc.), and they are classified into different branches of the economic activity.
For a person who works, you should ask, "What is done at this business, establishment, company or institution where you work?" However, if a person does not work, you should ask, "What is done at the business, establishment, company or institution where you worked?"
[Following the text, there is a sample image of the form. Below that, there are two images related to hospital services and corn sowing.]

[p. 185]

Examples:

[On this page there is a chart with two columns, one marked "Question 24" and the other "Question 25". Question 24 column consists of a list of names of companies and Question 25 column consists of a list of their respective economic activities.]

López Optics: Eye examinations and sale of glasses.

La Oferta Department store: Sale of clothes for women, men or children.

3 Sisters Grocery store: Provisions retail sales.

Vendomatica, Inc.: Wholesales of soft drinks.

Ortega's Blacksmith: Factory of iron and others.

General Comptroller of the Republic: Administration and public services.

Restaurant La Primavera: Sale of food and drink (restaurant).

Pedro Pablo Sanchez Secondary School: Secondary education.

Martín Feuillet School: Primary education.

Santo Tomas Hospital: Medical and health Services.

In a family house: Domestic duties.

In their farm: Growing of rice.

In their customer's house, site or premises: Construction of dwellings or masonry; services such as plumbing, home electrician, locksmith, among others.

Vargas Garage: Repair of automobiles.

In the sea: Fishing for seafood.

In the street: Collective transportation (bus).

In the street: Selective transportation (taxi).

In their own house (without business premises): Garments manufacture (tailor).

National Bank of Panama: Banking Services.

Buendía Factory: Clothes factory.

Foxy Club: Entertainment Activities.

First Security Agency: Sale of Insurance.

María Gabriela Beauty Salon: Hair care service and beauty treatments.

El Machetazo department store: Sales department.
Inside El Machetazo we find:
Govil International, Inc.: Factory of clothes, shoes, among others.
Pharmaceutical Establishments, Inc. : Sale of pharmaceutical products
[p. 186]

Examples for questions 17 to 25:

Example No. 1:
Ernesto reports that he worked as a lawyer at the Ministry of Economy and Finance last week. The Ministry is responsible for formulating economic and social policy, manage and provide resources to implement the plans and programs of the Government, so, he is a government employee, permanently.

Example No. 2:
Amalia de Berrocal did not work last week or pursue any work, but she was looking for a job. The last time she worked, it was as a bilingual secretary at the College of William Shakespeare, a school dedicated to teaching at the secondary level.

Example No. 3:
Ruth Berrocal did not work last week because she was on vacations. She is a student of a Masters in Management of Social Welfare and attends graduate school every night. She works, during work hours, as a sociologist in CEASPA, the Panamanian Center for Studies and Social Action, which is a non-governmental organization dedicated to social research. She works as an employee of CEASPA.

Example No. 4:
Julio Berrocal did not work or looked for a job during the last week or last month because he is a student, currently enrolled in the fourth year (tenth grade) of high school. He also helps his mother, as much as he can, with housework.

[p. 187-194 Examples are omitted.]
[In pages 187 to 194, there is a sequence of images showing the sequence of questions asked to persons above mentioned.]

[p. 195]

Question No. 26: Do you work or worked the last time as...?

The purpose of this question is to know the occupational category, which is simply the status in the job that the interviewee holds or held, whether the respondent is currently employed or unemployed.
Before asking this question, observe the response entries in questions 23 and 24 as, based on these responses, in some cases you may deduce what circle in this question to mark.
Read the alternatives and mark the corresponding circle, according to the respondent's answer. To do so you should keep in mind the following definitions:

Employee: A person who works or has worked for a public or private employer, and receives remuneration in the form of wages, salary, commission, paid by the job or in kind.

Circle 01: Government Employee: A person who works or has worked for national or local government institutions such as the Government, the Ministry of Agricultural Development (MIDA), for autonomous or semi-autonomous institutions such as the Savings Fund, the Social Security Fund, or for state companies such as the Institute of National Water Systems and Sewer Systems (IDAAN), among others. This person receives compensation for their work in the form of salary or wages.
Remember that persons who declare to be working for the Canal Commission (now called the Panama Canal Authority), must have circle 01 marked, Government Employee.

Circle 02: Employee of a Non-Profit Organization: is a person who works or has worked for an organization whose primary objective is to produce goods and services and supplied them to the community below market costs. Main sources of funding are derived from voluntary contributions made by households as consumers, or revenues. Examples: the National Association for the Nature Conservation (ANCOR), Casa Esperanza, Caritas, Remar, Club 20-30, Club de Leones, churches, asylums, political parties, unions, Funda Mujer, Casa Esperanza, among others.

[p. 196]

Circle 03: Employee of a Cooperative: A person who works or worked for a company with a form of association, which is dedicated to producing items, goods or services, and receives for his work, a compensation in the form of wage, salary, commission, paid by the job or in kind. Example: El Educador Savings and Credit Cooperative R. L., Mola Producers Cooperative R. L. [Mola is a type of Panamanian blouse], San Antonio Savings and Credit Cooperative R. L., among others.

Circle 04: Private Company Employee: A person who works or has worked for a private employer and receives remuneration for his work in the form of wages, salary, commission, paid by the job or in kind. Examples: agricultural or livestock laborers, bus driver assistants, sellers in a grocery store, worker in a shoe factory, chief accountant, among others.

Circle 05: Domestic Employee: is a person who works or has worked for a single home different than her own, doing housework, and receives for her work a salary in money or in kind; example: domestic employee, gardener, chauffer, cook, house keeper, among others.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

NOTE: Persons who engage in domestic chores (laundry, ironing, cleaning, etc.), will be classified according to the following conditions:

1. If a person constantly works in the same households, then she should be regarded as a Domestic Servant (circle 05).

2. If a person offers her services for the day (going from house to house), she should be considered as an Independent or Own-account (circle 07).
Circle 06: Employee in the Canal Commission or Defense Sites: is a person who used to work for the Canal Commission or Defense Sites (Army [in English]) and received for her work remuneration in the form of wage or salary.

If any of circles (01 to 06) were marked, go to Question 27.

[p. 197]

Circle 07: Independent or own-account: is a person who runs or has run her own economic company, private business or farm, among others, or practices or has practiced a profession and is not in charge of any employees. She can work alone or with an associate; example: Bus driver, traveling salesperson, dress maker at home, shoe shiner, farmer, and fisherman, among others.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Circle 08: Owner or Employer: One who runs or has run her own economic business (alone or with associates), or manages on their own account a profession or office, as long as she has always been in charge of one or more employees who receive salaries in money or in kind.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Circle 09: Member of a Production Cooperative: is a person who has participated or participates in an associative type of company that produces an article or good that requires some grade of transformation. Generally the members provide themselves the decision making power and the benefits go back to or are distributed by way of cooperative returns; examples: 1 de mayo Cooperative of Work and Food Storage, R. L, Mola Producers Cooperative, R. L.
Note: It is important to remember that employees who receive a salary from production cooperatives should not be classified in this group, but as Employees of a Cooperative (circle 03).

Circle 10: Family Worker: A person who holds or has held a job in the reference week, without receiving remuneration, in a company, business or farm operated by a member of his own family.

Considering that it may prove to be too simple to determine who is an Employee (of the Government, Private Company, Canal Commission, etc.), let us analyze the rest of the occupational categories and the following cases a little more:
If any of the circles 07, 08, 09 or 10 were marked, draw a diagonal on question 27 and go to question 28.

You are enumerating the dwelling of Mr. Juan Batista, when asking him about his place of work he says that he works in the workshop Ichi Perez (question 24). Before marking the circle, be careful in making the correct classification asking additional questions like the following:

[p. 198]

Are you the owner or an employee of this business? If he is the owner, ask him if he is in charge of employees. If the response is yes, classify him as owner or employer (circle 08); on the contrary, if he has no employees, classify him as independent or own-account (circle 07).

You will be able to determine the occupational category of the persons in some cases, by means of question 23 (occupation). Example: a shoe shiner, traveling salesperson, car washer, scrap seller, newspaper seller, among others, and other occupations that persons do in which they logically are not in charge of any employees. These persons can be classified automatically as independent or own-account (circle 07).

Equally, the occupational category (question 26) will be able to be determined through the response given to question 24 (name of business, company or institution). Example: If a person states that she worked in the National Environmental Authority, the Institute of National Water Systems and Sewer Systems or any other governmental dependency, you can automatically classify them as Government Employee (Circle 01). Similarly, if a person works in her house or in the street, she can be classified as independent or own-account (circle 07).

Inasmuch as the family worker, you may think that it concerns a person who works in a family house; nevertheless, if you carefully read the definition, it will become clear to you that it actually concerns a person who works in the company, business or farm without receiving a wage or a salary. In this category are included the family members of farmers who work in the same plot of land without receiving payment. Examples:

A child who works 8 hours a day (Tuesday to Sunday) in her mother's shop, without receiving payment.

[Following the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 199]

A 16 year-old student who used to work in the afternoon with her grandfather in a farm without receiving a salary, from Wednesday to Sunday for 3 hours every day.

Ask this question to persons who were classified in any of the circles 1 to 6 of question 26.

Question No. 27: Are you or were you a _______ employee?

[Question 27 is asked to those persons classified in categories 1 to 6 of question 26.]

Remember that this question is asked to those who claimed to be employees in question 26.
If you marked any of the circles 02, 03, 04, 05 or 06 (Employee of a non-profit institution, employee of a cooperative, private company employee, domestic employee, or employee in the Canal Commission or defense sites, respectively) in question 26, only mark circles 2, 3, 4 or 5 in this question (Contract for a specific job, fixed contract, open-ended contract or no written contract, respectively).

Read the alternatives and mark the circle corresponding to the response agreeing with the response of the person, considering the following definitions:

Permanent (Circle 1): They are workers of the Governmental Sector who always have been appointed by decree.

Contracted for a specific job (Circle 2): a person whose job duration or contract validity is limited to the duration of the work. Example: most of construction workers.

On a fixed contract (Circle 3): Labor condition of a worker in a private company, cooperative, non-profit organization or in the governmental sector whose contract has a fixed period of validity (start and end dates)

On an open-ended contract (Circle 4): Labor condition of every worker in a private company, cooperative or non-profit institution who has an employment contract with an undetermined duration by the interested parties (worker and employer).

[p. 200]

No written contract (Circle 5): Labor Condition of every worker who does not have an employment contract and where there is an oral agreement between the interested parties (worker and employer).

[Following the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

Examples for questions 17 to 27:

Example No. 1:
Ernesto reports that he worked as a lawyer at the Ministry of Economy and Finance last week. The Ministry is responsible for formulating economic and social policy, manage and provide resources to implement the plans and programs of the Government, so, he is a government employee, permanently.

Example No. 2:
Amalia de Berrocal did not work last week or pursue any work, but she was looking for a job. The last time she worked, it was as a bilingual secretary at the College of William Shakespeare, a school dedicated to teaching at the secondary level.

Example No. 3:
Ruth Berrocal did not work last week because she was on vacations. She is a student of a Masters in Management of Social Welfare and attends graduate school every night. She works, during work hours, as a sociologist in CEASPA, the Panamanian Center for Studies and Social Action, which is a non-governmental organization dedicated to social research. She works as an employee of CEASPA, with an open-ended contract.

Example No. 4:
Julio Berrocal did not work or looked for a job during the last week or last month because he is a student, currently enrolled in the fourth year (tenth grade) of high school. He also helps his mother, as much as he can, with housework.

[p. 201 to 208 Examples are omitted.]
[In pages 201 to 208, there is a sequence of images showing the sequence of questions asked to each person above mentioned.]

[p. 209]

Ask the following question to all household members.
[Questions 28 and 28A were asked to all household members]

Question No. 28: Was your income last month from:

[Question 28 is asked to all household members.]

When asking each of these questions, keep in mind that they must be asked in an orderly way.

Read every one of the options and wait for the person to supply you the response to each one. If the response is "I had no income", draw a line in the corresponding spaces.

Income: Refers to the retribution, be it monetary or in kind, received by all persons, active or non-active, during the month of April.

[To the right of the text is a picture of paper currency.]

Remember that a person can get income in one or many categories from a. to j. If the response is that no income was obtained, draw a line in the corresponding spaces.
When asking each of these questions, keep in mind that they must be asked in an orderly way, omitting unnecessary questions, depending on the age of the interviewee.
Remember that the value is given in integers, with no cents. If a person reports the income value including cents, proceed as follows: if cents are greater than or equal to 0.50, the income value must be rounded up. Example:

a) Payment of monthly salary. B/ 317.55. Enter 318.
b) Payment of monthly income. B/ 420.08.
If cents are less than 0.50, omit them. Example: [B/ 420.08.] Enter 420.
[p. 210]

a. Gross wage or salary: refers to the gross wage, salary or commission obtained by the employee, without deductions of Social Security, Income Tax, Education Insurance, or whatever other deduction from loans from a bank or other credit institution. This paragraph should bring information only if the person is an employee. Codes 1 to 5 in question 26.

If the employee receives payment in kind (clothes, food, shoes, etc.), enter the corresponding value in monetary form.
Keep in mind that sometimes the employee can receive both types of payment (in cash and in kind). If that were the case, then you must add both amounts and enter this value in the appropriate spaces.

Note that:

For persons who only receive commission for their job, write down how much they earned in their last commission.
Put a zero in front when the amount is less than B/10,000. If the amount is greater than B/100.000, write down 99998.
When a person earns a fixed salary and also overtime or commission, add the two amounts and write down the result in the corresponding space.
If the person has been working for less than a month and has not yet received any payment for her work, write down the amount agreed [by the parties].
For employees who receive an hourly wage, find out how much they earn per hour and how many hours a day they work. Multiply that value ["hourly wage" times "hours of work per day"] by the number of days worked per week, multiply this result by 4.33 to get the monthly amount.
For employees who receive a weekly salary, find out the average wage or salary per day, then multiply this amount by the number of days they usually work in the week, and multiply this amount by 4.33 to get monthly amount.
The year has 12 months, 52 weeks or 365 days.
By dividing 52 weeks between 12 months we get an average of 4.33 weeks [per month].
That is why the salary or monthly income is multiplied by 4.33, to get a monthly amount. Since some months have 5 weeks and others 4 weeks, by multiplying [a salary or income] by that number [4.33] we obtain a [monthly] salary or income closest to reality.
[p. 211]

For employees in the agricultural sector, who do not receive a fixed salary because they are paid according to the days worked, ask how much they earn per day, then multiply this amount by the number of days worked in the month and write down the resulting amount. So, in this case, you do not multiply by 4.33.
If no information is provided, note down clarifications on the space provided for observations.
All persons who marked any of the circles from 01 to 05 in question 26 (Do you work or did you work as…): Government employee, Employee of a Non-Profit Institution , Employee of a cooperative, Private Company Employee, Domestic employee, should have a response for this question. Exceptions are given to those who responded not having a job last month because they were unemployed.

Example No. 1:
Roberto earns B/.3.50 an hour. He works Monday to Friday, 8 hours a day, and on Saturdays from 8 to 12.

Solution:

1. He works Monday to Friday, 8 hours a day. 5x8 = 40 hours. He works for four hours on Saturdays. Total = 40+4 = 44 hours per week.
2. He earns B/3.50 per hour.
3. The calculation is as follows:

No. of hours per week x Hourly payment x 4.33
To get a monthly amount multiply by 4.33, because there are some months with 5 weeks.
44 x B/3.50= B/3.50 = B/154.00 weekly payment

Weekly payment B/154.00 x 4.33 = B/666.82 Monthly payment
Roberto earns B/666.82 a month.
[p. 212]

In the form the amount should be recorded as follows:

[Below the text, there is a sample image.]

[p. 213]

Example No. 2:
When enumerating a dwelling, it is found that one of its members worked as an agricultural worker on the farm Las Malvinas, for ten (10) days in the month. The payment received was B/.6.00 for 6 days and B/4.00 the rest of the work days.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 214]

If you notice the person a little doubtful at the time of declaring the information to you, request, tactfully, a pay stub for the last month. If the pay stub corresponds to a week, multiply the gross total by 4.33, and if it corresponds to every other week, multiply the gross total by 2.

b. Thirteenth month: Include in this space the thirteenth month payment to employees of state-owned or private companies. If the person gives you the total amount of her bonus [Décimo in Spanish], divide it by four (4) and write down that amount in the appropriate space. If the person does not remember, divide the monthly salary received by twelve (12) and write it down in the space. For government employees, proceed as follows: If they earn less than or B/.400.00 calculate the thirteenth month payment as described above. If the person earns more than B/401.00 the thirteenth month payment is calculated on B/400.00. You should also be aware that there are some state institutions such as the Savings Bank and the National Bank, who pay the bonus based on the earned salary. If the person tells you that this is her case, proceed as directed above, i.e., divide the gross salary by 12 and write down the necessary observations.

Remember that employees of the Panama Canal Authority are not paid a thirteenth month [bonus]

c. Income from independent or own-account work: refers to net income, that is to say, income minus expenses in the activity that a person did.

[This option is only for independent or own-account workers, owners or employers, and members of a production cooperative.]

Only for independent or own-account worker, owner or employer, and member of a production cooperative, circles 07, 08 and 09 of question 26.
For an independent or own-account worker, the amount recorded is the net income, i.e., income minus expenses in her activity.
In the case of agricultural workers who are independent or own-account workers, include self-consumption (this is, when they consume at home a proportion of what they produce).
In some cases it will be a little difficult to obtain information from people who have no accounting records. In these cases, find out the average earnings per day, then multiply the amount by the number of days the person usually works in the week, and then multiply it by 4.33, and get the monthly income. If no information is provided, note down clarifications on the space provided for observations.

[p. 215]

Example:
When enumerating the owner of a grocery store, he says that he obtained a net gain by the sale of provisions, approximately B/25.00 daily. The store does not close any day of the month.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 216]

d. Retirement or old age pension: Refers to the person who receives income from a retirement system or pension (regardless of the country where he retired).

e. Pension (by accident, illness, or other survivor): Refers to payments recognized by a social security system if the person has any ailment, disease or inability to practice an occupation.
Include in this section those persons receiving a pension such as survivors of the father, mother, son, daughter, wife, as well as pensions from disabled children.

f. Aid from institutions or other persons who do not live with you: Include the contribution that a person receives provided from family members (those who live outside of the home), or other persons, as well as contributions from public or private institutions. The contribution can be in cash or in kind.

These contributions can consist of:

1) Child support: monetary contribution that children receive from the parent who does not live with them, or the contribution that adults receive from their children. In general, these pensions are laid down by a competent authority, such as a judge, magistrate or mayor.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

2) Money: monetary contribution received by a household member, from friends or relatives who do not live in with them.

3) Others: It refers to the calculation of the monetary value received by any household member, in donations of clothing, footwear, housing, transportation, construction materials, among others. When you write down a value in this field, you must specify what the value comprises in the space provided for that purpose. The amount you must register is the sum of all contributions that the person may receive in this category.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Add up all the contributions the person may receive in this area.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a cow.]

[p. 217]

g. Rents, investments, interests, or benefits: This refers to money received by the rent of dwellings, premises, land or other property that the person owns. It also includes dividends, interest or profits from the ownership of stocks, bonds and savings accounts or investment accounts.

h. Scholarships: This refers to the income that persons may have received indirectly as a transfer from any institution for payment of their studies. This includes any type of subsidy provided by any institution (public or private). Also, it is considered in the category of scholarships any reimbursement of expenses that some companies give to their employees for expenses in education for themselves or a member of the employee's family. In these cases, the person does not directly receive an income, but she does not pay the education expenditures, because some institution does it on her behalf.
Find out with the interviewee, when they receive the scholarship and how many months are covered by this payment. Divide the amount received by the number of months covered, to get the monthly amount.

[p. 218]

Example:
The respondent states that she received a grant of B /300.00 every three months.
You must divide B /300.00 by three to get the monthly amount. The response will be recorded as follows:

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 219]

i. Agricultural or Livestock Sales: is the net income that the person has obtained for selling agricultural or livestock products. If the person claims to be an independent worker or a salaried worker in the agricultural sector, do not include this revenue here again.

[Below the text there are two pictures]

j. Other income: This includes any other income that the respondent received in the last month, from sources other than those listed above. If the person claimed to have more than one job as an employee, as an independent or own-account worker, record here the salary or income received from the other(s) job(s). Include any grant received last month. Also include the Conditional Cash Transfer (Red de Oportunidades), which should correspond to the person receiving it.

Note:

If the respondent has two jobs as an employee, write down the salary of the principal work in section a. (Gross salary or wages), and write down the second one in section j. (Other income).
If the respondent is an employee and has received income from independent or own-account work, her wages must be recorded in section a. (Gross salary or wages) and her income from independent or own-account work must be recorded in subsection c. (Income from self-employment or self).

[p. 220]

Question No. 28A: Income...

If respondent has income (Circle 1): Mark the circle if there is any information in literals a. to j. [question 28]

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

If respondent does not have any income (Circle 2): Mark this circle if the interviewed person had no income in the reference month.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

Not declared (Circle 3): Mark this circle in the case that, after explaining to them the confidential nature of their information, in a subtle or indirect manner, the person refuses to offer the information.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 221]

Examples of filling out questions 21 to 23:

1. Gustavo Vargas works weekends as an assistant mason and earns B/.15.00 a day. He is also traveling salesman of towels, key chains, among others, work done on his own. He earned last month B/200.00, as a result of his sales and he spent B/.60.00 on new merchandise. Her daughter gave him a trouser worth B/.25.00 last month. He also has three rooms for rent, for which he receives B/.60.00 a month for each room. He sold 5 hens weighing 4 lbs. each one for a value of B/1.25 per pound. Furthermore, he won B/84.00 in the lottery last month.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 222]

2. Beatriz Campos has been working as a domestic employee for a year, with a monthly wage of B/100.00. She receives biweekly a survivor pension of B/32.00. His mother, who does not live with her, gave her B/25.00 last month.

[p. 223]

Section VIII. Fertility and Mortality Characteristics

For women 12 years old and over.
[Questions 29 to 30]

[Questions 29 and 30 were asked to women 12 years old or more]

Fertility is the actual frequency of births among women of childbearing age. To investigate it, these questions are asked to women 12 years old and older.
Mortality is the permanent disappearance of all signs of life regardless of the time elapsed since the live birth. To investigate it, questions on the survival of children born alive are asked to women 12 years old and older.

The research for this section in the census provides the opportunity to collect data for estimating fertility and mortality to the national level and for determining how they affect the economic level of the population; it also serves to bring the vital statistics up to date.

Question No. 29: How many sons and daughters have you had born alive?

All those who upon being born have presented vital signs such as breathing, crying or movement even when they have died immediately after having presented these signs are considered as children born alive.

In this question information given by the female population 12 years old or older is requested without considering her civil or marital state, referring to the number of sons/daughters born alive she had all of her reproductive life to the date of the census.

[To the left of the text there is a picture of a woman and a baby.]

Read the question naturally, most of all when the enumerated dwelling has women of this age. If you note surprise, explain that in some dwellings there are women who have children at very young ages, and for this reason the question always has to be asked: When number of children born is less than ten, put a 0 in front of the number.
Write down in the corresponding spaces the number of sons and daughters that the woman declares and continue with question 30.
For women who have never had children, mark the circle 00 ("None") and end the interview with this person.

[p. 224]

Adopted children or stepchildren of women residents of the dwelling should not be counted. Only count biological children.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 30: Of these [children] how many are alive?

The information refers to the number of sons/daughters currently alive including all sons/daughters who the woman has had that are alive at the date of the census.

Write down in the corresponding spaces the response of the woman. The number of children declared in this question should be less than or equal to the response in question 29. If no child is alive, write down "00".

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

The following questions are asked to women from 12 to 49 years of age, who declared to have had children born alive.

For women 12 to 49 years old.
[Questions 31 and 32]
[Questions 31 and 32 were asked to women 12 to 49 years old, who have declared to have children born alive.]

Question No. 31: Of your sons and daughters born alive, were any born within the last 12 months?

This refers to all sons/daughters born alive by the female population in reproductive age (12-49 years of age), during the 12 months before the Census, that is, from May, 2009 to May, 2010.

[To the right of the text there is a picture.]

[p. 225]

Mark the corresponding circle agreeing with the response of the woman. When the woman answers affirmatively, the date of the birth of the son or daughter born alive should be marked in the corresponding space. (Day, month and year)
The response should be in numeric form. Example: 01-06-2009

If the response is "No", end the interview and continue with the next person.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

Question No. 32: Is this son or daughter still alive?

It refers to sons and daughters born alive in the last year, currently alive.

Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle, agreeing with the response of the respondent. Remember that this question refers to the child declared in question 31.

[Below the text, there is a sample image of the form.]

[p. 226]

Examples of filling out questions 29 to 32:

In the dwelling of Rubén Crespo, his wife, Mrs. Margarita Crespo is being interviewed. She says she is 28 years old, and declares to have an only child, Axel, born in the last 12 months. When asking her the date of the birth of Axel, she states he was born August 12, 2009.

Mrs. Alicia de Crespo, widowed, is the mother of Mr. Rubén Crespo, she lives with them and is 71 years old; when asked the questions about fertility and mortality, she answers that she has 3 children alive, but 5 altogether of which 2 died, one at two years and one at 15.

[p. 226 Example is omitted.]
[p. 227 Example is omitted.]

[p. 228]

Make the necessary observations, verify that all the persons written down in Section IV (List of Occupants) have been enumerated, fill out the chart that is at the end of the List of Occupants of the Household and end the interview. Write down your name and sign the questionnaires.

Do not forget to put the enumerator sticker in a visible place of the dwelling and to give the enumeration certificate so that the members of the dwelling are able to circulate.

[Below the text, there are sample images of the sticker and the enumeration certificate.]

[Rest of the document is omitted.]