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Tenth National Census of Population and Sixth of Housing
May 14th, 2000

Republic of Panama
Comptroller General
Directorate of Statistics and Census

Enumerator Manual

[The index and pages 1-14 are omitted]

[p. 15]

V. Population subject to the enumeration

1. Who should be enumerated:

1.1 All persons, whether member of the home or not, who slept in the interviewed dwelling the night before the day of the Census, or that is, the night of May 13 to May 14, 2000.

1.2 Enumerate persons who live in the dwelling, even if they had not slept there; if they spent the night away because of their job like for example: a nurse or security guard who took their turn at night, a driver who traveled all night transporting passengers or goods, etc. Remember that if in the home that you enumerate any member of the home has been taken in since the previous enumeration, you should use the questionnaire in which the mentioned person is registered to complete the information of the rest of the members of the home.

1.3 Persons who live in the dwelling, even if they have not slept there, because of any reason like: they attended a party, wake or other special case.
2. Who should not be enumerated:
2.1 Persons who live in the dwelling, if the night before the Census they were:
Lodged at another house, boarding house or hotel
Hospitalized
Detained in prison
They will be enumerated by another civil servant in the place they are found.

[p. 16]

VI. Definitions relative to the census

Some basic concepts :

The enumerated unit of the Census is the Dwelling. For the best understanding of the specific instructions relative to the filling out of the questionnaire, it is fundamental that the Enumerator keep in mind the following concepts:

A dwelling: is any place or premises structurally separate or independent, that has been built, made or converted for use as permanent or temporary housing or lodging of persons; such as any class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied by persons as a living quarters on the date of the Census.
A dwelling can be:

a. Private: is used or meant to be used as a separate or independent dwelling ["morada"] or domicile, for one or more homes or other groups of persons, with or without family ties but who live together or under a set of family rules or by a person who lives alone.
Examples of a private dwelling:

A room in a tenement house
A group of rooms in a tenement house
An apartment
A chalet
A shack
An annex in a chalet
A bedroom or group of bedrooms that form part of a building built for other reasons, for example:
A bedroom or room that a teacher in a school occupies
A bedroom or room that a superintendent in a building occupies
A room that a watchperson in a factory occupies
[p. 17]
Place not meant to be a bedroom but used as a dwelling:
Any place or premises that lodge persons like garages, storerooms, hallways. etc.
A vessel, vehicle, canvas or tent where persons or private homes are lodged.
Any other class of lodging meant to lodge a group of persons or a single person
b. Collective: is used or meant to be used as special living quarters by a group of persons generally without family ties and who live together for reasons of discipline, health, education, religious life, work and others.
Examples of a collective dwelling:
Barracks of the Defense Forces
A hospital
A boarding school
A jail
A booth for workers
A convent
An asylum
Census Home: is a group of persons who live together under a set of family rules or for reasons of discipline, health, education, etc. The concept of census home covers among others, the following category:

Private Home: constitutes a group of persons with or without relationship ties who reside under the same roof and who at least for their food, depend on a common fund (they participate in a common pool of money). In a dwelling there can be more than one private home.

[p. 18]

Examples of a private home:

A family with a father, mother and children
A family with father, mother, children and uncles and aunts
A single person
A family and a friend who lives habitually with them
Three students who rent a common apartment
A family or person who has rented a bedroom from a private dwelling and shares expenses

From the given definitions, it can be seen that there exists equivalence between private home and private dwelling that is to say that each private dwelling corresponds to at least a private home . Nevertheless, although frequent, it should be kept in mind:

a) In a collective dwelling a private home can be found. For example bedrooms or a boarding house where a family resides habitually.

b) In a private dwelling like a chalet or a big apartment, there can exist, along with the home of the owner of the apartment or house, another home (for example: a couple who is renting one of the rooms and have an independent budget for living).

VII. Instructions for filling out the Census Questionnaire

A. Procedure

1. Description of the Census Questionnaire:

The census questionnaire is the form for writing down the information that is requested and the guide for developing the interview in a home, it consists of a group of questions that cover different topics, each of which starts its own section.

[p. 19]

In the census questionnaire blocks of questions about the characteristics of the dwelling and the home and blocks of individual questions for the characteristics of the population have been designated. The information about every dwelling is included in sections I and II, that of the home is included in section III, while that of the population goes in section IV to VIII. Section IV has a "List of Occupants", in which all the persons who slept the night before the day of the census should be written down.
The sections of the census questionnaire are as follows:

Section I: Location of the Dwelling: This section refers to the geographic location of the dwelling.

Section II. Dwelling Information: In this one [section], information about the type, the composition of the material, the condition and ownership of the dwelling is requested.

Section III. Household Information: In this section information about the number of homes, mortality and migration are requested.

Section IV. List of Occupants: In this [section], the persons who slept in the dwelling the night before the day of the Census will be written down

Section V. General Characteristics: In this [section], information about demographic characteristics and about migration of every one of the members of the home are requested.

Section VI. Educational Characteristics: This section is directed in its first part to the population of 4 or more years old and has as its purpose, to gather information about school attendance and level of schooling; in its second part this is applied to persons 10 or more years old and has as its objective to gather information about: literacy and academic degree obtained.

[p. 20]

Section VII. Economic Characteristics: This section applies to persons of 10 or more years old and concerns gathering information about: occupation, the category of economic activity of these persons the category of the occupation.

Section VIII. Fertility and Mortality Characteristics: This is applied to women who are found between12 and more years of age and information about the number of children born alive as well as the mortality of the minors born in the last twelve months.

2. General rules of procedure:

a. Application of the questionnaire:
Each questionnaire is applied to a private home, that is to say, one for an enumerated home should be used. If in the dwelling there is more than one home, a questionnaire for each one will be used and all the sections about the first home will be filled out. For the additional home Section II should not be filled out.
Example:
When visiting a dwelling, the enumerator finds that in the same dwelling, along with the Pérez family, made up of José, his wife Carla and a child, lives a home made up of the oldest daughter who lives with her husband and a baby, in an annex and they use the same principal entrance to the home. They keep separate family budgets.
In this case, it concerns two homes and therefore a questionnaire for each home should be filled out, remembering that in the questionnaire of the second home Section II (Dwelling Information) should not be filled out.

b. Use of more than one questionnaire for a home: Both the census questionnaire and the list of occupants (Section IV.) only have room for writing down 8 persons: consequently when in the enumerated home the total number of persons that have to be enumerated exceeds 8, you should use an additional questionnaire.

[p. 21]

In this case, draw a diagonal line on the second questionnaire through all information corresponding to "Head" (Person 01), immediately after cross out the number of person 02 and write 09 and write down the information about the ninth person in this column.
Write down also information corresponding to Section I "Locality of the Dwelling" in each additional questionnaire.
Example:

[Below the text is a census questionnaire with "02" crossed out and "09" written above it.]

c. Numbering of the questionnaires:
The first required information, located in the upper right part, is the identification number of the questionnaire. The numbering of the questionnaires will be made in sequential form (01, 02, 03, etc.) within each census segment using the order of the route that you have used to travel through your segment according to the map material.
Example:
You are going to enumerate the fourth dwelling in your census segment, assuming that you have enumerated the three before, the information will be written down as:

[Below the text is a picture of a properly filled out form.]

[p. 22]

For homes that are formed by more than 8 members who reside habitually in the dwelling, additional questionnaires should bear the same number as the principal questionnaire.
Example:
You are going to enumerate the first dwelling in your census segment in which 9 persons reside and all form a single private home; the required information in the top right heading of the first page in both questionnaires will be written down as:

[Below the text are two forms.]

Remember that:
In the space questionnaire No. ____ the number that corresponds to the dwelling according to the order that you do the enumerating should be written down.

d. Numbering of the additional household in a dwelling:
In the space Household No. ____ the number that corresponds to the household that in the majority of the cases will be 1 should be written down as a digit.
When in a dwelling exists more than one household keep continuous numbering always using 1 for the principal household.
Additional homes should have the same questionnaire number that was used for the principal home.

[p. 23]

Example:
After successfully enumerating the first dwelling, you find in the second two homes, the required information in the top right heading of the first page in both questionnaires will be written down as:

[Below the text are two filled forms.]

[The rest of p 23 through p. 26 omitted]

[p. 27]

Section I. Location of the dwelling

This section has as its purpose identifying geographically the dwelling as the object of our census study.
Before arriving at the corresponding area, the enumerator should fill out this section with the information contained in the folder relative to: Province or region, district, administrative unit, block; the rest will be filled out during the enumerating (locality, area or neighborhood, street or avenue, building or house and apartment No.).

Province or Region, District and Judicial Precinct
Carefully write in the corresponding spaces, the number of the province or region, district and administrative unit where the enumerated dwelling is located.

Segment
Write down the number of the segment that corresponds to the enumeration, which appears both in the map material and in the folder that is given to do the job.

Block No.
Write down the number of the block where the enumerated dwelling is located and that appears identified in the segment; if the material does not have this information draw a line in the corresponding space.

Locality
Carefully write in the corresponding space the name of the locality where the enumerated dwelling is located; including the letter (P); if this appears indicated in the label of the folder. Keep in mind that if what is to be enumerated is a segment formed by more than a locality, in each questionnaire only the name of the locality where the enumerated dwelling is located should be written down. In other words, questionnaires with more than one name for locality should not exist.
If you as enumerator are not clear which locality the enumerated dwelling belongs to, consult the person.

[p. 28]

Neighborhood or Vicinity
Write down the name of the area or neighborhood, heads of district in urban areas, where the enumerated dwelling is located; if this information is not in the material draw a line in the corresponding space.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a street sign.]

Street or Avenue
Write the complete number or name of the street, avenue, highway or road where the enumerated dwelling or building that contains the enumerated dwelling is located.

Building or house
Write down the number or name of the house or building that contains the enumerated dwelling.
When the municipal numbering does not exist, write down the number that identifies the building or house. In some localities the numbering of the Ministry of Health (MIVI) is used. When the building or house does not have a number draw a horizontal line.

Room or apartment No.
Write down the number or letter that identifies the room or apartment to be enumerated. If a room or apartment does not have a number, indicate its position within the building so it can be found easily. Example: At the end of the corridor on the left side, above the stairs, etc. If it is necessary use the lines from the section of observations. In those cases in which the building and the dwelling coincide, that is to say, when the building contains a single dwelling without spaces meant for other uses, draw a horizontal line in the space meant for the number of the room or apartment.

[p. 29]

Example of filling out Section I
Using the labels that appear in the map material fill out Section I. When enumerating the first dwelling of the segment, the person states that their dwelling is in the Neighborhood El Olivo, main street and the number of their house is 8550. Section I will be filled out in the following manner:

[Below the text is a half filled out form.]

[p. 30]

Section II. Dwelling information

Question No. 1: Type of dwelling

The purpose of this question is to determine the type of existing dwellings in our country.

Identify the type of dwelling by observation and basing yourself on the definitions described beginning on the following page.

In case of doubt, ask questions that you consider are able to clarify best what kind of dwelling is being considered. Mark a single circle.

[Below the text is a "Type of Dwelling" form that is not filled out.]

You should keep in mind the following definitions:

[p. 31]

a. Private permanent (Circle 01):

It is built with long lasting materials such as: concrete, concrete blocks, bricks, stone, wood, adobe, clay covered plant fiber (quincha), etc. It can also be totally or partially built. Semi-detached houses or duplexes are considered individual permanent dwellings.

Examples:

[Below the text are 3 photographs of individual permanent dwellings, labeled Brick house, Wooden house and quincha house.]

[p. 32]

b. Private Semi-permanent (Circle 02):

It is built with materials of medium to short duration, such as cane, straw, palm leaves, bamboo, etc.

[To the right of the text is a photograph of an individual semi-permanent dwelling.]

b. Improvised (Circle 03):

It is built with temporary means and generally forms part of the "Spontaneous Settlements or Emergency Areas". It is built with material like: old wood, pieces of zinc, tin, cardboard, canvas, cloth, or plastic.

[To the left of the text is a photograph of an improvised dwelling]

c. Apartment (Circle 04):

It is a dwelling unit with toilet facilities and a bath of private use located in a building where three or more similar dwellings exist within the same piece of land. This type of dwelling can be found with one floor or as a building with two or more floors.

[To the right of the text is a photograph of an apartment building.]

d. Room in tenement housing (Circle 05):

It constitutes one or more rooms in a tenement house that occupies part of a building composed of many dwellings and do not have toilet facilities, or bath, of private use. The occupants of these dwellings share the use of toilet facilities and bath.

[To the left of the text is a photograph of a tenement house.]

[p. 33]

e. Place not intended for habitation but used as a dwelling (Circle 06):

It refers to any place or space not meant principally as a dwelling such as: a doorway, vessel, granary, garage, stable, office, store, etc.
If you mark this circle (06) do not ask the rest of the dwelling questions and begin filling out Section III. Household information.

[To the left of the text is a photograph of a ship.]

f. Without Dwelling: Mark this circle when you meet persons who do not have a place to live and sleep in the elements (indigents). Also victims are included in this category.

Victims (Circle 07): Mark this circle when persons claim to have remained without dwelling due to any natural phenomenon like floods, landslides, accidents, etc., remember not to ask the rest of the dwelling questions and begin filling out Section III. Household information.

Indigents (Circle 08): Mark this circle when persons do not have a dwelling, but rather they sleep in the street, sidewalks, parks, push carts, etc. remember not to ask the rest of the questions and go to Section IV. (List of Occupants).

g. Collective Dwelling:
As it is explained before, a collective dwelling is used and meant to be used as special living quarters combined of persons generally without family ties who live together for reasons of discipline, health, education, religious life, work and others such as reformatories, jails, penal colonies, hospitals, sanatoriums, nursing homes, hotels, etc.
It can be occupied by a collective home, which is the most frequent.
It can be part of a private home.
If you find a private home while a collective dwelling is being enumerated, use another questionnaire for registering the information about the members of the private home.

[p. 34]

Example:

[Below the text is a photograph of hotel with an arrow with the words "An owner of a hotel who lives permanently with the family in one of the penthouses of the hotel."]

Question No. 2: Condition of the dwelling:

When the Enumerator arrives at a dwelling the following situations can be found:

Occupants are in the dwelling (occupants present)
Occupants are not found in the dwelling (closed dwelling)
The dwelling is unoccupied (for sale or rent, under repair or construction, as a summer house or for another reason)

Mark only one circle keeping in mind the following definitions:

[p. 35]

a. With occupants present (Circle 1):
When it concerns a dwelling inhabited with any occupant present at the moment of the Census.

b. With occupants absent (Circle 2):
When it concerns an inhabited dwelling, but whose occupants are not present at the moment of the Census. This dwelling should be visited more than one time to avoid omissions of enumeration on the day of the Census. If the interview occurs, mark circle 1.

c. Unoccupied dwelling (Circles 3 to 6)
When an enumerated building is found in this situation (unoccupied), mark the corresponding box; remember that this is important, for knowing the amount of buildings in the country.

c.1 For sale or rent (Circle 3):
A dwelling that at the moment of the visit, is found unoccupied because of being for sale or rent.

c.2 Under repair or construction (Circle 4):
A dwelling that at the moment of the visit is not occupied because, they are repairing or remodeling it, or they have not finished building it yet.

[To the right of the text is a photograph of a building under construction.]

c.3 Summer house (Circle 5):
When it concerns a dwelling that is used for spending vacations or weekends because the person or the family has their habitual residence in another place and is found unoccupied on the day of the Census.

Other reason (Circle 6):
Is when the dwelling is not in any of the conditions mentioned above.
[p. 36]

When you mark any of there circles (2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) go to the next dwelling.
Note: A closed dwelling with occupants absent at the time should not be confused with an unoccupied dwelling, if it is possible ask the neighbors before marking its condition.
Example:
If at the moment of visiting a dwelling, the door is found to be closed and when asking the neighbors what it is due to, they indicate that the owners of this dwelling do not live in it, but they only come in the summer or on vacations, mark the corresponding circle:

[Below the text is a form.]

Questions 3 to 15 are only asked at dwellings with occupants present (Circle 1).

Question No. 3: How many households reside in this dwelling? (Consider as home(s) those who cook independently and manage a separate budget)

The objective of this question is to identify the number of homes that accommodate the selected dwelling. This number should permit us to know the dwelling needs in the country and also to rely on the necessary elements for bettering the conditions of life of the members of the home.
In a dwelling there can be more than one home. Consider as Dwelling(s) those who cook independently and manage a separate budget.

[p. 37]

Before marking the response, you should read the following indications and put emphasis on: Do all the persons who live in this dwelling share one eating expense? And then proceed to the following form:
If the response to the question is affirmative, in other words, if a person states that all the residents of the home have a common eating expense, it will be considered a single home.
If the response to the question is " no", this indicates that there is more than one home or group of persons who have separate eating expenses. Enter the number of existing homes. In this case, you should identify the principal home and which are additional homes and continue as it is explained in section d. (Numbering of the additional homes in a dwelling) from point 2.

General rules of procedure.
If the person does not know which is the principal home, help them by asking them who is the head or owner of the house, the one responsible for renting or the person who pays the majority of the expenses; the rest of the homes should be classified as additional homes.

Additional home: is one that lives under the same room of another home, but is clearly differentiated because it has its own expense, principally for eating.
Example of question 3:
Miss Cárcamo resides in the dwelling with her grandchild and a cousin who occupies a room ceded for her. She declares that she only cooks for herself and her grandchild; since the cousin always eats out.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 38]

Continuing with the previous example:
You are going to write down in the upper right part of the questionnaire, the following information:

[Below the text are two forms.]

That is to say that, at the end you will have two census questionnaires identified with the same Questionnaire number, but with a different identification for each home.
Note: The questionnaire of the additional home should have all the sections filled out except Section II. Dwelling Information.

Question No. 4: Is the dwelling . . ?

Ownership of the Dwelling
Read the options and mark a single circle according to what the person indicates. Keep in mind the following definitions:

a. Mortgaged (Circle 1)
It refers to a dwelling that has been built by means of mortgage loans from the Mortgage Bank, Social Security Fund, from the Savings Bank, from the National Bank, collective mortgages and from other credit institutions and are not totally paid for.
Include also as a mortgage a dwelling whose original mortgage has been totally paid, but that is found to be involved with a new mortgage and it has not been paid yet.
For the case of the mortgaged dwellings, mark circle 1 and write down in Balboas in the corresponding space, the monthly sum that is paid for the mortgage. Write down whole numbers, omitting cents. Put 0 in front of the mortgage when it is less than B/1,000.
[p. 39]
If a person pays the mortgage every two weeks, multiply this value by two
If a person claims to be paying a mortgage for a house and does not declare the amount, state this situation in the "observations" lines.
Example:
The head of the dwelling states that B/90.75 is paid every two weeks in mortgage payments. Mark the circle and write down the corresponding amount.

[Below the text is a form.]

b. Rented (Circle 2):
A dwelling is considered rented when the right to use it is paid for. Write down in balboas and in whole numbers, the sum that is paid for rent in the corresponding space.
Put 0 in front of the rent when the value is less than B/1,000.
Remember to multiply by two if a person declares to have paid this rent every two weeks.
If a person declares to be paying rent for a house and does not declare the amount, explain this situation in the "observations" lines.
[p. 40]
Example:
Miss Vivian Acosta pays B/250.00 a month, for the rent of the house where she resides. Mark the circle and write down the corresponding amount.

[Below the text is a form.]

c. Owned (Circle 3):
It is a dwelling occupied by the owner of the building and the land or only the building. Include as owned a dwelling built with their own resources, built through mortgage payments already paid for or rented or acquired through other means.

d. Ceded (Circle 4):
It is a dwelling whose occupants are not owners and they do not pay any rent or mortgage. Generally the persons who inhabit these dwellings are relatives of the owner or have been ceded for work reasons.
Examples:
1) Some houses for the workers of companies: Puerto Armuelles and the Bocas del Toro Fruit Company [in English].

2) The room that a cleaner occupies in a building as payment for doing the cleaning.

3) An apartment, owned by a father that a newly married child occupies for which no rent is paid for occupying it.
[p. 41]
e. Condemned (Circle 5):
It refers to a dwelling considered uninhabitable by the Office of Safety, the Fire Department, the Department of Municipal Engineering, the Department of Sanity of the Ministry of Health or the System of National Civil Protection and that because of its poor state and hygienic and deteriorative condition constitutes grave danger for the security and health of its tenants. The tenants do not pay rent and assume the expenses of water and light.

f. Other (Circle 6):
Include here any type of ownership that is not taken account of in any of the previous types.

Question 5 How many rooms does the dwelling have?

(Do not include the kitchen, toilet or bath)

Room:
It is any separated chambers used for means of lodging. The rooms can be separated by fixed walls of any material, which constitutes an effective division between the different chambers.
When this question is asked, clarify to the enumerated person what should be included as rooms or not, what should be considered for a better understanding is detailed below:

[p. 42]

[Below the text are two lists.]

Include

Living room
Dining room
Study
Recreation room
Domestic servant's room
Rooms always ceded or rented and when they are within an enumerated dwelling (more than one home in a dwelling)

Do not include

Kitchen
Bathroom
Hallways
Terraces
Doorways
Attics (that are not used as sleeping rooms)
Annexes that are rented and have an independent entrance
Those that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service (shop, workshop, depositories of grain and other products, elevated storage rooms (jorones), stalls for animals, etc.) reasons.

Finally, write down with two numbers in the corresponding space the total number of rooms that the enumerated dwelling has, putting a zero in front if the amount is less than ten.

Question Number 5a Of these [rooms] how many are for sleeping?

The objective that this question pursues is to quantify the total number of rooms which are in the home and that are used only for sleeping even if they have not been built for this purpose. The information obtained will permit us to know the level of housing of the home.
Write down in Arabic numbers in the corresponding space the amount of rooms exclusive for sleeping that the enumerated dwelling has, even if they have not been built for this purpose. Consider attics, only, if they are used only for sleeping. Write down " 00" if the dwelling does not have any room exclusive for sleeping.
The number of rooms in this question should be less than the total number of rooms mentioned in question 5.

[p. 43]

Example: The person declares to have, in their dwelling, a living room -- dining room and 4 rooms for sleeping. The response will be written down as:

[Below the text is a form.]

Explanations with respect to questions 6 and 7:
These two questions, unlike the rest of the section, refer to the building where the dwelling is, that is to say that in the cases in which apartments or tenement houses are being enumerated, the questions refer to the apartment building or the tenement house where the dwelling is located.

Question No. 6: What is the predominant material in the outside walls of the building or house?

This question should not be filled out from an observation since you only see a part of the dwelling and it can be the case that the dwelling is not constructed from the materials that you observe.
The walls of a dwelling are understood to be the walls of the front, sides and back.
If more than one material is used in the walls, write down the one most used or predominant.
It is important to clarify that this question does not refer to the material with which the walls are covered with like wall paper, but rather the base material: wood, concrete, palm leaves, etc.
Mark a single circle according to the response of the person. If the person has doubts about responding, keep in mind, when clarifying the doubts, what is written above.

[p. 44]

Question No. 7: What is the predominant material in the roof of the building or house?

This question is asked to know what is the predominant material with which the roofs of the dwellings are constructed.
It refers to the material of which the largest part of the roof of the building or house where the dwelling is located is made. If you are enumerating a building or apartment house or rooms of a tenement house, this question relates to the roof of the building or house.

[To the left of the text is a photograph of a house with a roof.]

Question No. 8: What is the predominant material in the floor of this dwelling?

What is wanted with this question is the predominant material of which the floors of the dwelling are built.
It refers to the material of the majority of the floors of the rooms of the dwelling. It is considered earthen floor when in the interior of the structure there has not been any improvement to the earth in its original state.
This question is concerned with the material of the majority of the floor of the rooms of the dwelling.
One should not look only at the material of the floor in the living room because in some dwellings this floor is different than the material of the rest of the rooms.
Mark a single circle according to the type of material that the largest part of the floor of the dwelling is built with, according to the response of the person.
Below, questions 6 to 8 are completed with the following information:

[p. 45]

Example:
Mr. Eualio Cedeño states that his house is made of cement; except for the kitchen which is made of quincha; as for the roof he says that it is made of zinc. When questioning him about floor, he states that, because of a lack of money, he has only paved the living room and the rest of the house has earthen floor.

[Below the text are three forms.]

[p. 46]

Question No. 9: Where is drinking water principally obtained from?

This question refers to the form of being supplied drinking water in the dwelling.
Read the question and then the options given as they appear in the questionnaire. Mark a single circle according to the response of the person.

a. Public Water System of the IDAAN (Circle 01):
It is the system through which the inhabitants are supplied drinking water by means of a community system administrated by the IDAAN (National Institute of Water Systems and Sewers).

b. Public Community Water System (Circle 02):
When the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink is provided by a public water system administrated by the community or another private entity.

c. Private Water System (Circles 03):
System of supplying private drinking water provided for exclusive use of the dwelling.

d. Sanitary Well (Circle 04):
When the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink is provided from a sanitary well that is public or private with a pump to extract water. The pump can be manual, motorized or by windmill. Include the protected or covered spring (brocales).

e. Uncovered Spring (Circle 05):
Deep open well from which water is obtained by means of bucket or vessels manipulated by pulleys or simply by ropes.

f. Rainwater (Circle 06):
Water that falls from clouds and is stored in vessels to be drank by the residents of the dwelling.
[p. 47]
g) Superficial well (Circle 07):
Also known as natural pool opened to an earth spring and almost always natural.

h) River or stream (Circle 08):
When the supply of drinking water is obtained directly from a river or gully.

i) Cistern Truck (Circle 09):
When the dwelling has installations for getting water from the IDAAN or from the community, but because of shortages the members of the home get drinking water principally from a cistern truck.

j) Other (Circle 10)
In the case that drinking water is obtained by any way different than those described above. Example: When the members of the dwelling consume bottled water.

If the person gives information of circles 01, 02, and 03 continue with question 10. On the other hand if any of the other circles are marked (04 to 10) go to question 12 of the questionnaire and a diagonal line will be drawn in questions 10 and 11.

[Below the text are two photographs labeled "unprotected spring" and "sanitary well".]

[p. 48]

[At the top of the page are three photographs labeled "River or gully", "Superficial well" or "natural pool", and "other (bottled water)".]

Question 10 Are the drinking water installations within the dwelling?

This question has as its objective, from a sanitary point of view, to know if the dwelling has a supply of water through a pipe in its interior.
Mark the circle according to the response of the person.

[To the left of the test is a photograph of water pipes.]

[p. 49]

Example of questions 9 and 10:
When enumerating the dwelling of Mr. Arnoldo Ruiz he states that they get drinking water from a water tower from the IDAAN, but because the water only comes two days a week, there is a cistern truck that distributes water every day in the morning. The responses will be written in the following manner:

[Below the text are two forms.]

[p. 50]

Question No. 11: With what regularity does the dwelling have a supply of drinking water?

(Select for each season the situation that prevails most)

The objective of this question is to know the periodicity, with which the dwelling has this service, which will permit the institution in charge to take the necessary measures.
Remember that this question is asked when there is something in the circles 1 to 3 marked in question 9.
It refers to the regularity in the supply of drinkable water which the dwelling has, according to the situation that prevails most both in the dry season as well as the rainy season.
This question should be asked in the following manner:
With what regularity does the supply of drinking water have during the dry season? Read the options. Mark the response that the person declares.
Both under the heading relative to "During the dry season" as well as the heading relative to "During the rainy season" the questionnaire presents 3 options for response, in which the most prevalent in each case should be marked. Mark the response of the person considering the following:

a. During 24 hours of the day (Circles 1 and 4):
In a dwelling they receive drinking water 24 hours a day all year, except when there are announced repairs, during the dry and rainy season.

b. Part of the day (Circles 2 and 5):
In a dwelling they receive drinking water some time during the day during the dry and rainy season.
[p. 51]
c. Occasionally (Circles 3 and 6):
When a dwelling spends more than a day without receiving drinking water, it is interpreted that they put up with this situation frequently and that the absence of water is not due to an eventual maintaining or repairing of the water tower during the dry or rainy season.

Example:
A person states that during the winter they receive water every day and in the summer it only comes from 6 at night to 5 in the morning. The responses will be written down as:

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 12: What type of lighting does the dwelling have?

The objective of this question is to know the source by which the persons in the dwelling are illuminated.
Mark a single circle according to the response of the person.

a. Public Electricity (Distributor company) (Circle 1):
When the dwelling has electric installations provided from distributor companies. Examples: Northeast Electric, S. A., Electric Transmission Company, S. A. (ETESA).

[To the right of the text are pictures of an electric lamp and power lines.]

[p. 52]

b. Community electricity (Circle 2):
When a dwelling has electric installations provided from the community.

c. Own electricity (plant) (Circle 3):
When a dwelling has electric installations generated by an owned plant of private use.

d. Kerosene or diesel (Circle 4):
When occupants of a dwelling are illuminated with kerosene or diesel.

e. Gas (Circle 5):
When occupants of a dwelling are illuminated with gas.

f. Other (Circle 6):
When occupants of a dwelling use another type of lighting that is not listed above. (Example: Candles, solar energy, etc.).

Example:
An enumerated person states that electric light is provided from the community, the question will be written down in the following manner:

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 53]

Question No. 13: In what period was this dwelling built?

Information that is obtained in this question will permit us to determine the amount of dwellings that have been built in each space of time and at the same time to verify the statistical study of the construction in the period between censuses.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a house.]

Mark a single circle according to the response of the person. Read the given alternatives in the questionnaire.
Some times a situation can be presented in which a person does not know the date of construction. In this case it is recommended to request information from other routes (neighbor, lessee, etc.), when you are enumerating apartment buildings or tenement houses, the information should be equal for all the dwellings. If finally you do not succeed in obtaining the required information, mark circle 4 "Not known."
Example:
The dwelling that you visit, according to the enumerated person, was built in April of 1993.

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 14: How is garbage waste removed from this dwelling?

What is wanted with this question is to gather information about how, generally, trash of a dwelling is thrown away, to measure possible sources of environmental pollution.

[To the left of the text is the "reduce, reuse, recycle" logo and to the right of the text is a picture of a trash can and bag.]

Mark a single circle, agreeing with the response that the person declares.

[p. 54]

Example:
Mr. Ricardo Rivera declares that in his dwelling, they burn the trash in the back of the patio. The response will be written down as:

[Below the text is a form.]

Question 15: Is part of the dwelling used exclusively for any economic activity?

What is wanted with this question is to know if in this dwelling there is any area exclusive for economic activities, such as: store, workshop, work in dressmaking, beauty, cooking, etc.
Mark a single circle according to the response of the person.
If the response is yes, specify the activity.
Example:
Mrs. Celia is a hairstylist and manicurist. She declares that her dwelling has a room exclusively for tending to her clients. The response will be such:

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 55]

Section III. Household information

Important
1. Use a questionnaire for every home and proceed in the following manner:

a) For the first of them, fill out all of the sections of the questionnaire.

b) For the rest of them fill out the all the sections except II dwelling information.

Question No. 16: Does this home have toilet facilities?

The object of this question is to determine if a home has or does not have a bathroom (toilet) or any form for eliminating human waste, independent of the material of which it has been built.
This question alludes to the availability of a system of elimination of excreta or feces, which can be exclusive for the home or shared with other homes.

[To the left of the text is a photograph of an outhouse that is very hard to see.]

Read the question and each of the following options for the response that appears in the questionnaire. After the person indicates one of the 4 options, you should consider that only one circle can be marked according to this response. Make explanations that you consider necessary keeping in mind the following:

a) Facilities of pit or latrine: is formed by a deep pit in the ground covered by a small hut. This type of facilities is characteristic en rural areas of the country.

b) Toilet facilities connected to a sewer system: is connected to a system of pipes that belongs to the community or part of it, for the collection of used water from toilets.
[p. 56]
c) Toilet facilities connected to a septic tank: is generally built from waterproof concrete. It is used more frequently in suburban areas, where there is a water system, but no sanitary sewers. In the case of Areas or Urbanizations that have a septic tank for all dwellings consider the facilities as connected to a sewer system.

d) If the home does not have toilet facilities, mark circle 4 (there are none) and go immediately to question 18.

Question No. 17: The use of toilet facilities is . . .

Only ask this question if you marked any of the circles 1 to 3 in the last question.
What is wanted in this question is to know if the toilet facilities declared in the last question (question 16) are exclusive to the house or shared with other homes, which are within this dwelling or outside of it.
Example for questions 16 and 17:
In the home that you are enumerating they indicate to you that they have toilet facilities from a pit and that only the members of the home use it. The response will be written down as:

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 57]

Question No. 18: In this dwelling, what cooking fuel is used most often?

The objective of this question is to know the type of fuel that is used most frequently for cooking in this home; also to indicate the availability for the population as well as the exploitation of natural resources (fire wood).
It refers to the fuel that is used most frequently for cooking in the home whether it be gas, fire wood, coal, kerosene or electricity.
In case a person declares to not cook, mark the corresponding circle.
Remember that this question only should have one circle marked.
Example:
You are enumerating a home where a person declares to have a gas stove, but cooks most of the time with fire wood. Mark the corresponding circle:

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 58]

Question No. 19: Does this household possess a . . ?

What is wanted from this question is to gather information about the existence of appliances that offer members a large convenience.
Ask the question as it is written and read all the appliances that are included in the questionnaire.
Mark with an "X" the circles agreeing with the responses that the person gives you.
If a person states that any appliance is broken, ask if it has been repaired. If the response is affirmative, mark " yes", and if contrary mark " no".
Remember that there can be more than one response for this question.

[Below the text are pictures of an electric fan, portable stereo, washing machine, car, a man with a cell phone, computer, calculator and television set.]

[p. 59]

Example:
Mrs. Virginia Rodríguez declares that her home has: television set, radio, refrigerator, stove and sewing machine.

[p. 60]

Question No. 20: During the last ten years, has any member of this household left to live permanently in another country?

What is wanted with this question is to determine and identify persons, by home, who have left to live in another country in the last decade.
This question refers to persons who have left to live abroad permanently therefore do not consider those who are studying in another country or persons who are outside the country because of vacation, work or other reason.
Mark a single circle according to the response of the person.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a globe.]

If the response is " yes" ask the name of the person, year in which they left, the country to which they went the age when they left and the sex, write it down in the space meant for each question. Write "H" for man and "M" for woman.
If the answer is " no" continue with question 21.
Example:
Servando Fernández, son of the head of the home who is being enumerated, moved to Miami, USA, in April 1992 when he was 30 years old.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 61]

Question No. 21: Between May 15, 1999 and today, has any member of this household died?

This question has the purpose of knowing the general current mortality of the whole population, from the period of May 15, 1999 to the census date, that is to say, the mortality in the last twelve months.

[To the right of the text is a picture of three crosses.]

If the marked response is yes, write down the name, age and sex of the deceased person. Write down the age in completed years of the person on the last birthday.
Remember that this question is concerning the members of this home and not of the family.
If a person declares that the deceased person was 98 or older write down 98. Only completed years are considered; the minors of one year are registered as 00 years.
If the answer is " no" continue to Section IV. List of Occupants.
Example:
A person declares that their uncle Antonio García who lived with them died May 16, 1999 at the age of 99 years.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 62]

Section IV. List of Occupants

When beginning this section read the heading printed in the questionnaire literally.
In each of the corresponding lines Write down the name and surname of every person who slept in this dwelling the night before the interview. Begin with the name of the Head of family or that of the persons who the members of the family consider as such and continue in the following order: Spouse of the head, children in order of age, oldest to youngest, other persons who slept in the dwelling.

Include members of the family who did not sleep in the dwelling but who were not lodged in another dwelling; example: a person who spent the night taking care of a relative in the hospital; a person who was fishing; a doctor or nurse who took their turn in a medical center; a night watch person, a driver who traveled all night transporting passengers or cargo; a seller in a pharmacy or restaurant; someone who was at a party; someone who was at a wake, etc.

If a newborn has not yet been given a name at the moment of the interview, write newborn in the corresponding space. Do not forget to include the elderly.
When the number of persons is larger than 8, you should use an additional questionnaire, repeating the locality, the questionnaire number and the home number. Write down the information about the 9th person in the part corresponding to the 2nd person.
After writing down the name and surname of every person who slept in the home ask the question about sex only when the name is common for both sexes; Example: Carmen, Rosa, Trinidad, Concepción, Natividad, etc. Remember that sex is the biological condition that distinguishes persons into men and women.

Finally ask the head of the dwelling if any member of the dwelling has any physical or mental impediment (Question 4). If the head answers "Yes", ask "who" and mark the circle corresponding to the person. If the head answers " no", continue to question 5, Does anyone indigenous live here?, if the head answers "Yes", ask "who" and mark the circle corresponding to the person; if the response is no begin to ask questions of Section V. General Characteristics. Remember that the questions are individual.

[p. 63]

Example of filling out the list of occupants:
In an enumerated home, young Elisa says that her dad Efraín Berrocal is the head of the home but that he is at the hospital taking care of her grandfather since yesterday and returns at noon to eat lunch. Also she states that besides her, her mother Arenda de Berrocal, her siblings Rita, Julio and Martín slept in the home. Afterwards she adds that Martín studies in Holland but has been with them for three days because of being on vacation. Finally she remembers that the assistant of her father's store, Alipio Galindo, slept here and has been residing in this home for three years. When asked if any member has any impediment, she says no and when asked if any indigenous person lives here she responds that Alipio is indigenous.

[p. 64]

[Below the text is a form named "List of occupants"]

After the list of occupants there appears in the questionnaire space for observations relative to the characteristics of the dwelling and the list of occupants. Below is found a chart that should be filled out at the end of the enumeration of each home in the following manner:
Count all persons who are in the list of occupants and total by sex, verify that each one of them has been enumerated and finally proceed to fill out the following chart:

[Below the text is a chart.]

[p. 65]

If one than one questionnaire has been used in the home, register the information in the first questionnaire.
Try to not commit errors since this box will help you fill out the preliminary inventory.

Section V. General Characteristics

(Questions 1 to 9a)
(Applicable to all persons of all ages)
In the line corresponding to information of person Number, go to the name and surname of the persons you wrote down in the list of occupants beginning with the head of the dwelling and then continue with the spouse of the head, the children from oldest to youngest, etc.

Question Number 1: What relation or relationship do you have to the head of the household?

This question is asked to know the relation or relationship between the head and the other members of the home.
It is the relation that the members of the home have with respect to the head of this home determined by kinship, marriage, adoption or affinity and custom.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a family.]

Mark with an "X" the circle corresponding to the response of the person. If the enumerated person is the head of the home, begin to mark the corresponding circle and do not ask this question.
With this question it should be kept in mind that:

Head: refers to a person recognized as such by the rest of the members of the home.
[p. 66]
In the case that there is no agreement between the members, the person who has the economic responsibility should be considered as head of the home. When there are many who contribute economic responsibility, consider as head the person who contributes the most. When the home is formed by unrelated members, consider as head the oldest person in the home.
When the person recognized as head of the home is absent one who satisfies the requirements of the definition, in other words, who is recognized as "head" of the home or who upholds any of the conditions in their absence will be considered to be head.

Spouse of the Head (Circle 2): refers to the wife if the head is male or the husband if the head is female. This relationship permits any type of matrimonial relation, that is to say that the pair can be married civilly, ecclesiastically, or [consensually] united. In the same home you can find more than one spouse; write them down as such.

Son (daughter): refers to the children born of the marriage or the consensual union, as both adopted children and children raised there.

Son and daughter-in-law (Circle 4): refers to the spouse of the child(ren) of the head.

Grandchild or great-grandchild (Circle 5): Mark this circle if it concerns the children of the children of the head or the grandchildren of the head.

Father or mother of the head (Circle 6): Mark this circle, inclusive, when it concerns the father or mother of the head, raised by them or adopted.

Mother or father-in-law (Circle 7): Father or mother of the spouse of the head.

Other relative (Circle 8): Include siblings, brothers and sisters-in-law, godfathers, cousins, godsons and daughters; both of the head or the spouse, etc.

No relative (Circle 9): Any member of the home who does not belong to the categories above is included. Example: (friends, guests, domestic servants).

[p. 67]

Example:
When enumerating Mrs. Alina she states that she is the companion of Florentino who is the head of the home. Although they have been living together for many years they have not thought about getting married civilly or through the church. The response to the question about relationship to the head will be marked as:

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 2: Sex:

The question referring to the sex is asked with the purpose of knowing the composition of the population by sex.
Sex: Biological condition that distinguishes persons as men and women.
Do not go by the name to deduce the sex since there are common names both for men and women.
Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle in agreement with that marked in the list of occupants (Section IV).

Question No. 3: What is your age in years completed?

Through this question is known the structure of the population by specific age and groups of ages.
It refers to the age of an enumerated person at the moment of the census, that is, at the last birthday.

[p. 68]

Write down, with two digits, the age in complete years of the person.
If the person is 99 years old or more write down "98" in the corresponding spaces; and if the person is less than 10 years old, put a 0 in front of it [the age].
Immediately ask the day, month and year in which the enumerated person was born.
If any doubt about answering the question is observed, try to obtain the exact age through their personal identity card, social security card or other documents that contain this information.
When the person does not know their age and does not have personal identity documentation, estimate the age based on their age when their first son was born and put next to the age the letter E (estimated).
Example of questions 2 and 3:
The head of the home declares that Ángel, his youngest son, will be 10; since he was born June 14, 1990.

[Below the text are two forms.]

Question No. 4: What is you current marital status?

Read slowly the alternatives and mark the corresponding circle agreeing with the response of the person. There should only be one option marked.
Consider the following definitions:

[p. 69]

[Consensually] United: a person who lives in marital union without having been civilly or religiously married with their current companion. The person can be living in the same dwelling with the spouse or not.

Separated from marriage: a person who lives separated from their spouse and does not live in [consensual] marital union.

Separated from [consensual] union: a person who lives separated from their companion and does not live in [consensual] marital union.

Married: a person who has been married civilly and/or religiously and lives in this state.

Divorced: a person legally separated who has not married again and does not live in [consensual] marital union.

Widowed: is a person whose spouse has died and has not married again and does not live in [consensual] marital union.

Single: is a person who never has married or lived in [consensual] marital union, that is to say who never has had a spouse [companion].

Under fifteen years: a person whose age is less then 15 years.

If one under 15 years declares to be in any of the marital states, accept their response.
Some persons have the tendency to say that they are single because they have never been married, but nevertheless they have lived in [consensual] marital union. In such a case, consider them as separated from [consensual] union.

[p. 70]

Example: Mr. Guillermo states that he was married, but as he has problems with his wife, he separated, and has not divorced from her; according to him he is single.

[Below the text are two forms.]

Question No. 5: What type of physical or mental impediment do you have? (Mark the most serious)

This question is asked with the object of understanding the population that suffers from some type of physical or mental impediment.
Carry out this question if in the list of occupants the name of a person has been marked in the circle from question 4, or was not marked in circle 7 "none".

[p. 71]

Consider as

Blindness: a person who has no vision or sees very little (visual weaknesses) an impediment that cannot be normalized with the use of glasses, treatments or other optical aids. Include persons who are blind from birth, blind by sickness like glaucoma, "toxoplasmosis", and diverse infections, and those blind by accident (hit in the eye, diverse injuries, etc.).

[To the right of the text is a picture of an eye doctor and patient.]

Deafness: a person who does not hear or talk and communicates through signs but with normal intelligence.

Mental Retardation: a person who has a below normal intellectual capacity. The characteristics are shown through a low performance in school, problems with adaptation and behavior, and retardation in mental and social development. A typical case is a "mongoloid" [Down's syndrome] person.

Cerebral Paralysis: a person who when being born or during the first three years of life suffered a cerebral lesion or injury that does not permit them to move in a normal form and having stiff muscles and uncoordinated movements. Generally, they have aural, visual, and mental problems with language and suffer convulsions.

Physical disability: a person who because of an accident, disease, cerebral brain hemorrhage, or amputation has difficulty doing with skill activities of daily life or moving independently. Also those who have malformations that limit them physically or those who were born lacking any extremity.

Other: Mark this box in the case of a person who is autistic, suffers from dementia or presents irregularities in development (its is applied also to children in which when their age is considered, do not crawl, walk or speak when it is expected that they do it and do not have a definite diagnosis that would permit them to be put in any of the other categories listed above). Or that is, include a person who does not have any type of impediment described in the categories listed above. (Circles 1 to 5).

None: Mark this circle when the person declared in the list of occupants to not have a physical or mental impediment.

[p. 72]

Example: The head of the dwelling declares that her son Arturo, 9 years old, was born blind.

[Below the text are two forms.]

Question No. 6: To which indigenous group de you belong?

This question is asked with the purpose of quantifying the indigenous population in the national geographic and the indigenous group to which it belongs.
An indigenous is considered to be a person who declares to belong to an aboriginal group independent of the locality where enumerated.

[To the right of the text is a picture of an indigenous group.]

Remember to ask this question if on the list of occupants a name of a person has been marked in the circle of question 5; on the contrary, if a person has stated that no indigenous person lives there, automatically mark circle 09 " none".

[p. 73]

For those under 5 years, mark the question based on the ethnic group of their parents.
Example:
When enumerating a dwelling, the head responds that both he and his companion are indigenous. To the question about to what group he belongs, both respond to be Emberá. A child of 4 years who lives with them will be written down as such:

[Below the text are two forms.]

Question No 7: Where did your mother live when you were born?

The objective of this question is to determine persons whose habitual place of residence at the date of the census differs from their place of reference (mother's residence) at the moment of birth.
Remember that this question refers to the locality where the mother lived when the enumerated person was born and not the place where they stayed in the hospital or other site where she moved to give birth.

[To the left of the text is a picture of two parents and a baby.]

[p. 74]

Mark with an "X" the circle in this place if a person declares that their mother lived "when born" in the same locality where enumerated.
When an enumerated person says their mother was living " in another locality" "when born", write down this name and the district and province to which this locality belongs and go to question 8.
Example:
You are enumerating the home of señor Vicente Moreno in Sardina del Palmar in the district of Pintada, province of Cocé. He states that when he was born, his mom lived in Salitre, district of Cañazas, in the province of Veraguas.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p.75]

Question No. 7a: In what period did you arrive in Panama?

Ask this question if a person declared in question 7 that their mother lived in another country when born and indicate the period in which they arrive at Panama.
Example:
Carlos Reynoso states that his mother traveled to Panama to settle down in 1984, but he arrived in 1992.

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 8: Where do you live permanently?

This information is necessary for determining the real population of every locality in the whole country.
Permanent Residence is the locality where the enumerated person resides habitually.
Mark with an "X" the circle " in this place" if an enumerated person claims to live permanently in the same locality where enumerated. In the contrary case, write down the name of the locality where the person lives permanently and its district. In both cases continue with question 9.
For those who claim to live permanently " in another country", mark the corresponding circle and end the interview with this person.

[p. 76]

Example: A person states that they live permanently in the place of enumerating and points out that their habitual dwelling is located in Laredo, a locality that is in the district of Penonomé, province of Coclé, you should write down the information as:

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 9: Where did you live before coming to live in this place?

The following question is asked with the purpose of measuring the migration through districts, provinces and nations for the indicated periods, or another manner of knowing the migratory movement of the population.
Mark with as "X" the circle " In this place" if a person declares to reside in the same locality where being enumerated and move on to question 10.
If a person used to live " In another locality", write down in the corresponding spaces the name of the locality, the district and the province where they used to reside before settling down in this place. Also, if a person declares to have lived in another country, write down its name. In both cases, continue with question 9a.

[p. 77]

Example:
Mr. Montenegro declares that before coming to live in this place, he used to reside in Costa Rica.

[Below the text is a form.]

Ask this question, if the person declared in question 9 to have lived in another locality o in another country and indicate how long since returning.
Example:
Continuing with the above example, Mr. Montenegro returned from Costa Rica 3 years ago.

[Below the text is a form.]

[p. 78]

Section VI. Educational Characteristics

For persons 4 years old or older
[Applies to question 10 -11]

Question No. 10: Do you currently attend school?

School attendance refers to both schools of regular education (official or private), as well as schools of vocational character that are not incorporated in the regular system of education (schools of 1, 2, or 3 years that teach dressmaking, beauty, mechanics, electricity, etc.). Also consider school attendance as any "pre-school" or "children center" and attendance at schools for persons with mental or physical deficiencies attendance in specialized courses that last six (6) months or more and attendance at courses for illiterates.
Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle in agreement with the response of the enumerated person.
Example:
Vanessa is in the 1st year of secondary school.

[Below the text is a form and a picture of a schoolgirl.]

If at the moment of the Census the schools are closed for vacation, work stoppages, lack of teachers or another reason, and the enumerated person is a student waiting to renew classes, yes should be marked in question 10.

[p. 79]

Question No. 11: What was the highest grade or school year you passed?

The objective of this question is to know the maximum grade of education achieved by persons in order to distinguish between those who finished or not, every one of the educative levels, besides, it permits us to detect if there have been, with time, changes in the educational structure.
Remember that this question is applied to persons 4 years old or older.
Mark the circle or write down in the corresponding space agreeing with the level of education, the number of years the person passed.
Keep in mind the following definitions:

a) No Grade: is when a person did not go to school or did not finish first grade of primary school.

b) Pre-school: is understood to be care centers or learning centers for children generally under 6 years, here is included both centers of adaptation like nurseries, day care, children's centers, pre-kindergarten, and Centers for Infant Orientation where they take care of infants, as well as centers of education like Kindergartens and Day-Care.

c) Special Education: is the actions meant for providing educational opportunities to those whose physical, mental, emotional, social or pedagogical conditions require particular attention with the goal of developing the maximum of their capacities. Example: Panamanian Institute of Special Needs (IPHE).

d) Primary: This type of education is free and obligatory for all minors understood to be between six (6) to fifteen (15) years of completed age. Nevertheless, it is possible to find students with ages between five (5) and eighteen (18), attending primary school.

e) Vocational: Its purpose is to prepare directly the students for a craft of profession, consisting of a basic cycle of vocational orientation of two (2) years of duration, has as a requisite the possession of a certificate of finishing primary studies.

f) Secondary: This educational level has as a prerequisite the passing of the primary level of education, and is at the same time required for superior education. Middle education is integrated by two cycles:
[p. 80]
First Cycle: usually consists of three (3) years. It requires a certificate of finishing primary studies.

Second Cycle: generally is represented by a Bachelor in sciences, letters or business. Its pre-requisite is possessing a certificate of first cycle. Normal education which also prepares for teacher training also requires the same pre-requisite.
g) Superior Non-University: is the education that superior institutes of diverse specialties offer, these institutes have their own programs, curriculum and because of their characteristics are not considered university courses, such as Tourism, Institute of Computer Science, etc. its requirement is to have a bachelor or secondary degree, and its duration is two (2) years.

h) Superior University: is the education that is imparted at the [The following is a list of specific universities in Panama.] University of Panama, "Technología" of Panama, Santa María La Antigua, del Istmo, Latina de Costa Rica, Interamericana, ULACIT and others.

i) Graduate: is studies that are done corresponding to the superior university level after the academic level.

j) Masters: refers to the superior academic level, after having obtained a degree.

k) Doctorate: refers to the highest academic level that a person can aspire to, having finished the degree is required.

These last three stages of study can be of one, two or three years, either in the country or abroad.

[p. 81]

Examples: Declared Information

[Below the text is a chart with a column for case number, declared information, which category that pertains to and how it should be marked on the questionnaire.]

Case 1
A person declares to have passed 4th grade of primary school.
Primary

Case 2
A person states to have not attended school or did not finish first grade of primary school and at the moment of the interview is taking first grade.
No Grade

Case 3
A person declares to have graduated from Systems Engineering of the Technologic University (5 years).
University Superior

Case 4
A person declares that their child attends classes in the IPHE.
Special Education

Case 5
A person declares to have just completed a Graduate School in Finance (1 year).
Graduate

Case 6
A mother states that her child of 4 years attends the Center of Infant Orientation.
Preschool

Case 7
A person obtained a degree in dressmaking in a Vocational school.
Vocational

Do not use roman numerals. Keep in mind that the highest grade or year of regular education totally passed is requested and consequently neither half grades nor grades that have not been completely finished or passed should be written down.
In those schools or secondary schools in which premedia [equivalent to middle school] has been implemented, if a person claims to study the 7th, 8th or 9th grade, remember that it refers to the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd year of formal secondary education.
If a person has received education abroad or in schools in the Panama Canal Zone, write down the equivalent grade in the system of regular education of the country with the closest possible approximation. For example: the 8th grade of the schools of the Canal Zone of Panama is equivalent to the 2nd grade of secondary schooling in Panama.

[p. 82]

Consider as a vocational school those that are not incorporated in the system of regular education and that teach dressmaking, mechanics, electricity, commerce arbitrator, etc. Do not include in this category schools and official schools known as vocational but that are incorporated into the system of regular education, such as is the case of the School of Arts and Crafts and the professional and technical institutes that are found in different parts of the national territory.
Note: If a person has studied in a school of regular education and also, in a vocational school, consider as level passed as the one of regular education, always and when this one is the highest; in the case of them being the same in both schools, write down the one of the regular school

Questions 12 and 13. For persons 10 years old or older

If a person declared, in question 11 no grade, special education or until the third grade of primary school and is 10 years old or older, ask question 12 (Do you know how to read and write), if the contrary, draw a diagonal line through this question and go to question 13.

Question No. 12. Are you able to read and write?

This question is asked with the purpose of measuring the literacy level of the population.

[To the left and right of the text are pictures of children reading and writing.]

If a person knows how to read and write a message, mark Yes (circle 1). If they only read or write numbers, although they know how to sign their name, mark No (circle 2) and go to Section VII. Economic Characteristics.

[p. 83]

Example: Iván is 12 years old, he attends 5th grade of primary school.

[Below the text is a form.]

Question No. 13: What degree or diploma do you have?

This question permits us to know or examine the correspondence between the supply and demand of the labor force described with determined specialties in the market.
Write down in the corresponding space the diploma or degree that the person has obtained. Diplomas or degrees refer to those that persons acquire through courses of study in fulltime or part time programs, whether in regular education or not, within or outside of the country.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a person wearing a cap and gown.]

For the case of persons who possess many diplomas or degrees, write down the one the person considers most important or of the highest level.
If the person has not received any diploma or degree, but rather only a primary school or first cycle certificate mark the circle none.

Examples of filling out questions 12 and 13:
Example No. 1:
Mrs. Betina states that she obtained her certificate of the first cycle, but because of difficulties with her economic situation, she had to enter a vocational school where she obtained the degree of Dressmaker and currently is working at this position.
Example No. 2:
Her daughter, who lives with her, is studying the subject of Pedagogy at the university to be a professor; she already graduated with a License in Biology.

[p. 84 omitted]

[p. 85]

Example No. 3: Eynar, who is 25 years old, finished 6th, but because there was no secondary school close to where he lived when he was a child, he did not continue studying. He does not have any interest in continuing to study.

[Below the text is a form.]

Section VII. Economic Characteristics
The objective of this section is to get information about the participation of the population 10 years old or older in economic activities of the country.
The information refers to the week before the Census. This week is defined as the reference week and is understood to be from Sunday to Saturday.
It is recommended that each member of the home respond for themselves. If this is not possible, the head or responsible adult could respond for the youngest, but it is preferable to insist that the adult members, especially if they are working, respond for themselves.

[p. 86]

Principal activity of the person:
The responses obtained in questions 14 to 17 are the basis for classifying the population of 10 years old or older in:

1. Economically Active Population: is understood to be the population 10 years old or older who supplies the available work force for the production of economic goods and services in the country, during the reference week. This population is classified as employed or unemployed.
a) Employed population: covers persons 10 years old or older who during the reference week:
- Have an occupation or job remunerated in money or in kind.
- Have their own business or they work on their own account.
- Work regularly in a business or company of a member of their family even when not drawing a wage or salary ([Contributing] family worker). In this case a [contributing] family worker should have as a minimum 15 hours worked to be considered as such.
- Persons absent from their job temporarily because of sickness or accident, holidays or vacations, strikes, on leave from school or military service, on maternity leave.
- Did not work, but do occasional jobs.

b) Unemployed population: This group is understood to be persons 10 years old or older who during the reference week:
Do not have an occupation or job and are looking for employment.
Looked for work before and waits for news, that is to say, one who has adopted means of looking for remunerated employment or an independent job.
2. Not economically active population: is understood to be retirees or pensioners, students, workers at home or homemakers, rentiers and other conditions.

[p. 87]

Question No. 14: Did you work last week or did you have any job from which you were temporarily absent?

Work is understood to be all labored activity that is done with the purpose of producing goods and services that have economic value in the market.
If the response is yes, mark the corresponding circle and go to question 18. If they answer " no", continue with question 15.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a woman secretary.]

In this question, persons who are employed or that is those who have a remunerated job or employment or those who have their own business like for example the owner of a grocery store, the businessperson who has their own office, etc. should respond "yes".

[To the right of the text is a picture of a welder.]

The box "yes" should be marked also, for all persons who work independently. For example:

A dress designer who works at home.
A woman who does beautician jobs.
An ironer who irons in a family house.
A gardener who works in different houses.
A woman who makes food for selling outside of the house.
A woman who weaves baskets or any other craft for selling.
A peddler or traveling salesperson.
A farmer who works a plot of land.
A child of a farmer who helps the father with the crops.
A farmer who does not have any land, but makes a living as cane cutter cleaning fields or as one who sows.

[To the right of the text are pictures of a hairstylist and a farmer.]

[p. 88]

Also, "yes" should be marked when:
A person has employment but was absent last week because of temporary incapacity, vacation or on leave because of pregnancy or other reason.
An independent worker that during the reference week worked few hours or did not work for temporary reasons. For example: a taxi driver whose car was being repaired, a candy salesperson who became sick, etc.

Question No. 15: Did you look for work last week?

(For persons who answered no on question 14.)
If the answer is yes, mark the corresponding circle and go to question 18. If the person answers "no", continue with question 16.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a man holding a piece of paper that says "curriculum".]

Question No. 16: Did you look for work during the last three months?

(For persons who answered no in question 15.)
If a person answers "Yes", mark the corresponding circle and go to question 18. In the case of a person who has answered " no", continue with question 17.

Question No. 17: What was the reason for not looking for work last week?

Read all the alternatives presented in the questionnaire and begin to mark the circle according to the response of the person. If a person responds affirmatively in any of the circles 1 to 3 (Does occasional jobs, looked before and waits or news or impossible to find work), mark the corresponding circle and continue with question 18.

[p. 89]

For those who respond "Yes" in any of the circles 4 to 8 (Retiree or pensioned, Student, Worker in the home or Homemaker, Rentier or Other condition), mark the corresponding circle, go to question 23 and draw a diagonal line through questions 18 to 22.
Keep in mind the following definitions:
Does occasional jobs: A person who does not look for employment because they depend on a job that they do periodically and that generates enough income to survive. Example: sailors, contractors who during the reference week were found resting in their houses.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person working.]

Looked for work and is waiting for news: has looked for work before and is waiting to be called or sent for.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person reading the classified ads.]

Impossible to find work: A person who claims to have not looked for work during the reference week since they have looked before and have not found any.

[To the left of the text is a person looking through a magnifying glass [!].]

Retired or pensioned: A person who has stopped working and is receiving income as retirement payments or pensions. Do not include persons who receive food pensions for divorce or separation.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a two persons.]

Student: A person dedicated only and exclusively to studying

[To the left of the text is a picture of a student.]

Household worker or housewife [explicitly feminine]: Persons of one or other sex, without managing any economic activity dedicate themselves to taking care of their own homes. For example, the homemakers and other family members that are charged with the attention of the house and the children. These persons do only and exclusively domestic tasks and chores in their own home and are not looking for work, are not retired, or pensioned or live on investments, or attend school.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a woman carrying a plant.]

[p. 90]

Rentier: a person who receives money or investments from a business, company, real estate, renting of land, machinery, etc.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person.]

Other condition: a person who, without being classified in any of the groups above, does no economic activity. This person can be idle, physically or mentally handicapped, etc.

[To the right of the text is a picture of the handicapped logo.]

If a person is dedicated to studying and also works, they should be marked in question 14 in circle 1 (Yes); equally, if a person is retired and also works, they should be marked in circle 1 in question 14. In summary, the fact that a person works prevails in the classification of question 14 to 17.

When classifying the population you should take special care with persons who declare to be " Worker in the home, Homemaker" or " Student" because the first group at times also does remunerated jobs like; clean, iron, sew, do hair, paint fingernails, make candy or food to sell, etc. in their own home or outside of it, but because they spend little time in these labors they forget to supply this information.
On the other hand, some students after class or on weekends dedicate themselves to cleaning shoes, selling newspapers, supermarket packer, washing cars etc. Equal care should be taken with the spouse or companion or the children of farm families, who regularly help with the agricultural labors but do not declare this job.
If it comes about that a person worked during this period even though it was partially, should be classified in the category of Employed which corresponds to the Economically Active Population.
For the case of the workers of the home or homemakers who attend school, that is to say, that they have been marked in circle 1 (Yes) in question 10 of Section VI. Educational Characteristics, you should mark circle 5 (Student) of the question 17 of Section VII. Economic Characteristics.

[p. 91]

Example of filling out questions 14 to 17:
If when interviewing a person, they respond that last week they did not work, nor had any employment, nor looked for work and when asking them for what reason they did not look for work last week, they respond that they are a homemaker and attend night classes at the university, the response will be marked in the following manner:

[Below of the text are four forms.]

[Pages 92 - 102 in the original language document appear in an order that does not correspond to the logical order of the survey. This English translation has revised such order to follow that of the relevant questions such that the pages of the original language document appear as follows: 93, 92, 99, 94, 95, 96, 98, 97, 100, 101, and 102]

[p. 93]

Question No. 18: What occupation, position or job did you do last week or the last time you worked?

For a person who works you should ask what occupation, trade or job was done last week; if the person has more than one job, write down the occupation of the principal job. Consider as the principal job as the one which produces the largest income.
For a person who answers that they did not work, you should ask what occupation, trade or job they did the last time they worked. Write down in the designed space the principal occupation, the employment or job that they did the last time they worked. If an unemployed person never has worked, but rather is looking for their first employment, mark the corresponding circle and go to question 23. The highest age for these persons is 29 if male and 45 if female, investigate the cause and make the respective observations.
Write down in this question the specific occupation that is done in the job of the enumerated person, avoiding vague or generic terms. Example:

[Below the text is a chart with 2 columns, one called "information" and one called "you should right down".]

Information
Office worker

You should write down
Internal Messenger
Hotel Receptionist
Bank Teller
Executive Secretary

Information
Driver

You should write down
Of a truck
Of a taxi
Of a bus
Of a mule

Information
Mechanic

You should write down
Of cars
Bicycle Assembler
Of diesel engines
Of sewing machines
Of typewriters

Information
Seller

You should write down
Of newspapers
Of lottery, Chances, etc
In clothes department stores,
In a pharmacy

Information
Doctor

You should write down
Psychiatrist
Children's Dental Surgeon
Dermatologist
Pediatrician

Information
Construction Worker

You should write down
Mason Helper
Mosaiquero [construction worker specialized in setting up tile]
Shoveller

Information
Secretary

You should write down
Accountant
Executive

Information
Cutter (Machetero)

You should write down
Gardener: in family house, parks, etc.
In the street: cleaner of patches of land
In their country: farmer

[p. 92]

Questions 19 to 23 should be asked to all persons who marked circle 1 in questions 14, 15, 16 and 17 and circles 2 and 3 of the last question except persons who answered that "they never have worked" (circle 9998) in question 18.

Question No. 19: Where do you work or where did you work last?

For a person who works, ask: where do you work?. If a person answers that they did not work, ask: where did you work last?
What is wanted from this question is to know the name of the establishment, company or institution where the person works or worked and not the name of the locality where this place is located.
Write down the information in the following manner:

a) If it concerns a business, establishment, company or private office, write the complete name. Example: The Panamanian Company of Aviation, Lopez Optics, The Continental Hotel, The Department Store Luces, Refrescaría Miramar.

b) Do not use acronyms or abbreviations of the company or institution, unless it concerns a governmental dependence, IDAAN, -IFARHU, MOP, ANAM, etc.

c) When it concerns an agricultural farm or a livestock ranch, write down " In an agricultural farm or a livestock ranch".

[To the left of the text is a picture of a farmer.]

d) When a person works or used to work in a private house like for example: domestic employees, cooks, gardeners, etc, write down " In family house".

[To the left of the text is a picture of a cleaning person.]

[p. 99]

e) In the case of dressmakers, cleaners or persons who make or used to make food in their house for their job or to sell write down " In their house".

f) When persons work or used to work in the street on their own account (car washers, traveling salespersons, patio cleaners, taxi or bus drivers, commission agents, cleaners, ironer, etc.) Do not ask this question but rather write down " In the street".

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person selling newspapers.]

g) If a person works or used to work as one who fishes on their own account, write " In the sea".

[To the right of the text is a picture of the sea.]

h) If a person declares to work or have worked in any school or secondary school, write down the name of the school or secondary school and not the Ministry of Education. Equally is it applied to those who claim to work in any medical center or hospital, the name of the medical center or hospital is written down and not the Ministry of Health.

Question No. 20: What does this business, establishment, company or institution, where you work or worked, do?

It is that which the establishment, factory, farm or workshop does where the person works

For a person who works, you should ask, what is done at this business, establishment, company or institution where you work? However if a person does not work, you should ask, what is done at this business, establishment, company or institution where you work or worked?
Write with the best precision the class of activity that was done at the business, establishment or company whose name was written down in question 19. If a person works or worked in any governmental institution, write down Administration and Public Services.

[p. 94]

Examples:

[On this page is a chart with two columns, one marked "Question 19" and the other "Question 20". Question 19 is a list of names of companies and Question 20 is a list of their respective economic activities.]

López optics
Eye examinations and sale of glasses

Department store La Oferta
Sale of clothes for women, men or children

Grocery store 3 Brothers
Sale of retail provisions

Ortega's Blacksmith
Factory of iron and others

General Comptroller of the Republic
Administration and Public Services

Restaurant Asturias
Sale of food and drink (restaurant)

Martín Feuillet School
Primary Education

Pedro Pablo Sánchez Secondary School
Secondary Education

Manual María Tejada Roca Hospital
Medical Services

In a family house
Domestic Duties

In their farm
Growing of rice

Marduro Importing
Importing and exporting of audio and video appliances

Vargas Garage
Repair of automobiles

Commission of the Canal
Transportation though aquatic waterways

In the sea
Fishing for seafood

In the street
Collective transportation (bus)

In the street
Selective transportation (taxi)

Ramos Construction S. A.
Construction of dwellings

In their house
Production of dresses (dress maker)

First Security Agency
Sale of Insurance

Beauty Salon of María Gabriela
Hair care service and beauty treatments

Buendía Factory
Clothes factory

U.S. Army
Defense Services in the Defense of the Canal Area

Discothèque Energy
Entertainment Activities

National Bank of Panama
Banking Services

[p. 95]

Example of filling out questions 17 to 20

Example No. 1:
Mr. Aníbal Arias says that he works in the fishing industry, and then sells the product in the market; last week we was sick with the flu and was not able to go out fishing, he also declares that his wife, Inés, does the chores of the home and at the same time sews molas [cloth ornaments of many colors made by indigenous people in Panama] to sell.

[Below the text are two forms marked Person No. 1: Anibal and Person No. 2 Inés.]

[p. 96]

Example No. 2:
Lorena Díaz, who is 28 years old, states that she has been looking for work for three months, since she recently graduated and has never worked. Her mother Doña Rosa lives with her and declares that it is impossible for her to find work and that her last job was as a packer in the cookie and confection factory Pascual S. A.

[Below the text are two forms marked Person No. 1: Lorena and Person No. 2 Doña Rosa.]

[p. 98]

Question No. 21: Do you work or did you work the last as a:

The objective of this question is to know the category of the occupation, which is nothing more than the classification with respect to the employment that the interviewed person manages or managed, whether employed or unemployed.
Before asking this question, observe the responses written down in questions 19 and 20, since based on these responses, in some cases you will be able to deduce which circle in this question to mark.
Read the alternatives and mark the corresponding circle, according to the case, for which you keep in mind the following definitions:

Circle 01. Government Employee: is a person who works or has worked for the national or municipal government, such as: Government worker, Ministry of Agricultural and Livestock Development (MIDA), autonomous or semi-autonomous institutions like the Savings Bank, Social Security Fund, and state companies like the Institute of National Water Systems and Sewer Systems (IDAAN), Authority of the Inter-oceanic Region (ARI), and receive for their work remuneration in the form of wage or salary.

[To the left of the text is a picture of an office worker.]

Circle 02. Private Company Employee: is a person who works or has worked for a private owner and receives remuneration in the form of wage, salary, commission, paid by the job or in kind. Example: agricultural worked, sellers in a grocery store, employee in a shoe factory, accounting head, executive secretary, etc.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a person working.]

Circle 03. Employee in the Canal Commission or Defense Sites: is a person who used to work for the Canal Commission or Defense Sites (Army [in English]) and receives for the work remuneration in the form of wage or salary.
[p. 97]
Circle 04. Employee of a Non-Profit Institution: is a person who works or has worked for and Non-Profit Institution, example: National Association for the nature conservation, House of Hope, Caritas, Remar"

[To the right of the text is a picture.]

Circle 05. Domestic Servant: is a person who works or has worked for a single home different than their own, doing activities and receives for the work a salary in money or in kind; example: domestic employee, gardener, chauffer, cook, house keeper, butler, etc.

Circle 06. Independent or own-account: is a person who runs or who has run their own economic company or private business or manages or has managed a profession or office in an independent form and is not in charge of any employees. It can be work alone or with an associate; example: Bus driver, traveling salesperson, dress maker at home, shoe shiner, etc.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a person sawing a piece of wood.]

Circle 07. Owner or Employer: One who runs or has run their own economic business (alone or with associates), or manages on their own account a profession or office, that always is in charge of one or more employees who receive salaries in money or in kind.

Circle 08. Family Worker: is a person who manages or has managed an occupation for 15 hours or more during the reference week, without receiving remuneration, in a company or business run by a member of their own family.

Circle 09. Member of a Production Cooperative: is a person who has participated or participates in an associative type of company that produces an article or good, that requires some grade of transformation. Generally the members provide themselves the decision making power and the benefits go back to or are distributed by way of cooperative returns; examples: Cooperative of Work and Food Storage 1 de mayo, Cooperative of Producers of Mola [a type of Panamanian blouse], R. L.

Considering that it may prove to be too simple to determine who is an Employee or salary earner (Of the Government, Private Company, Canal Commission, etc.) let us analyze the rest of the occupational categories and the following cases a little more:

[p. 100]

a. You are enumerating the dwelling of Mr. Juan Batista, when asking him about his place of work he says the he works in the workshop Vargas-Matamoros (question 19). Before marking the circle, be careful in making the correct classification asking additional questions like the following:
Are you the owner or employee of this business? If he is the owner ask if he is in charge of employees. If the response is yes classify him as owner or employer (circle 07); on the contrary if he has no employees, classify him as independent or for their own account (circle 06).
In the case that Mr. Batista declares to work for other persons, classify him as private company employee (circle 02).

b. You will be able to determine the category of occupation of the persons in some cases, by means of question 18 (occupation). Example: a shoe shiner, traveling salesperson, car washer, scrap seller, newspaper seller and other occupations that persons do in which they logically are not in charge of any employees. These persons can be classified automatically as independent or for their own account (circle 06).

c. In equal form the category of occupation (question 21) will be able to be determined through the response given to question 16 (place of work). Example: If a person states that they worked in the National Environmental Authority, the Institute of National Water Systems and Sewer Systems or any other governmental dependency, you can automatically classify them as Government Employee (Circle 01). Equally if a person works in their house or in the street, they can be classified for their own account (circle 06).

d) Inasmuch as the family worker, you may think that it concerns a person who works in a family house, nevertheless, if you carefully read the definition, it will become clear to you that it concerns a person who works 15 hours or more a week in the business of a family member without receiving a wage or a salary. In this category are included the family members of farmers who work in the same plot of land without receiving payment. Examples:
A child who works (Tuesday to Sunday) in mother's shop without receiving payment 8 hours daily.
16 year old student who used to work in the afternoon with grandfather in a farm without receiving a salary, from Wednesday to Sunday for 3 hours every day.

[p. 101]

Question No. 22: What kind of employment do you or did you have?

Read the alternatives and mark the circle corresponding to the response agreeing with the response of the person, considering the following definitions:

Permanent. Circle 1: They are workers of the Governmental Sector who always have been appointed by decree.

Contract for a specific job. Circle 2: It is the case of construction workers whose job duration and or contract validity is limited to the period of how long the work lasts.

On a fixed contract. Circle 3: Labor condition in which a worker in a private company or in the governmental sector can be found whose contract has a fixed period of validity.

Indefinite contract. Circle 4: Labor condition in which all workers in a private company who have a work contract with an undetermined duration between both interested parts (Worker and employer) are found.

Question 23: Was your income last month from:

The income refers to the retribution be it monetary or in kind, received by all persons 10 years old or older, active or non-active, during the month of April.

[To the left of the text is a picture of paper currency.]

Read every one of the concepts and categories and wait for the person to supply you the response. Remember that a person can get income in one or many categories from a to g. If the response is that no income was obtained, draw a line in the corresponding spaces and mark circle 2 in question 23 a.
Note: If a person declares to have obtained more than one income but does not say the amount in any of them, write down in the corresponding line 9999.
Below is detailed what should be included in each alternative of the question.

[p. 102]

a. Gross wage or salary: refers to the gross wage, salary or commission obtained in the occupation that the person did last month, without deductions of Social Security, Income Tax, Education Insurance, or whatever other deduction from loans from a bank or other credit institution.
Put a zero in front when the amount is less than 1,000. When the amount is more than 10,000, write down 9998.
When a person earns a fixed salary and commission, add the two amounts and write down the result in the corresponding space.
For persons who only receive commission for their job, write down how much they made in this job.
For employees who receive a weekly salary, multiply the gross income by 4.33.
For employees in the agricultural and livestock sector add the gross salary earned every day and write down the monthly total.
All persons who marked any of the circles 01-05 in question 21 (Do you work or did you work as:): Government employee, Private Company Employee, Employee of the Canal Commission or Defense Sites, Employee of a Non-Profit Institution, Domestic servant, should have a response for this question.

[p. 103]

Example:
When enumerating a dwelling, it is found that one of its members worked as an agricultural worker on the farm Las Malvinas, for ten (10) days. The payment received was B/.6.00 for 6 days and B/4.00 the rest of the work days.

[Below the text is a form.]

If you observe while enumerating some doubt at the moment of declaring the information to you, proceed with much tact, to ask for a pay stub corresponding to last month. If the pay stub corresponds to a week, multiply the gross total by 4.33 and if it is of every other week, multiply the gross total by 2.

[p. 104]

b. Income by independent work or by their own account: refers to net income, that is to say, income without spending in the activity that a person did.
Example:
When enumerating the owner of a grocery store, he says that he obtained a net gain by the sale of provisions, approximately B/25.00 daily. It does not close any day of the month.

[Below the text is a form.]

c. Agricultural or Livestock Sales: is the net income that the person has obtained by the sale of agricultural or livestock products.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a cow.]

[p.105]

Example:
Señor Mariano Ramos is a farmer, last month he sold 2 hundred pounds of rice and received for each one B/20.00, 5 hundred pounds of unpeeled rice at B/12.00 each one. Also he sold 3 chickens at B/5.00 e/o.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a plate of food.]

[Below the text is a form.]

d. Retirement payments or pension: refers to the income that the person receives from a retirement system or pension, or the payment recognized by a social security system because of inability to manage an occupation, it concerns what the retirees or pensioned are paid, include here pensions for the death of spouses, paid by Social Security. In the case of a person who in spite of being retired, declares to be currently working, you should also have information in section a. (salary).

[To the right of the text is a picture of a bag of money.]

[p. 106]

e. Grants of Family aid: is the income that a person receives for the payment of studies. It includes all subsidy provided by any type of institution (public or private) and the loans for studies that these institutions and other banking and financial institutions award.

[To the right of the text is a picture of books.]

Family aid: is the contribution that a person receives provided from family members (who lives outside of the home), or other persons, such as public or private institutions. These can be in money or in kind, example of this type of income is: milk or other food that children in schools or children's centers receive, food and goods donations by social aide or state programs; money, clothes, food or any other goods that can be received by parents or relatives who do not reside in the interviewed dwelling, etc.
The number to write down should be the final result of all the contributions that the person would be able to receive in this heading.

[To the left of the text is a picture of paper currency.]

Included in family aid is food pension that refers to the income that a spouse receives because of being separated such as food for children that they have in common. This payment generally is legally fixed, but other times is established by mutual agreement of the spouses; nonetheless. The enumerator should give attention to both situations so as not to lose this type of income in those cases in which the separation or the food of the children has not yet become legal. Also a de jure food pension can exist.
When the children are less than 10 years old, assign the income to the mother.

[p. 107]

f. Rents, Investments or subsidies: refers to money received by the rent of dwellings, land or any other property that a person owns. It also includes dividends, interest, or benefits provided from the possession of stocks, bonds, and savings and investment accounts.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a man with money in his hands.]

g. Other income: refers to any other type of income that the interviewed person could have had last month provided from other sources that have not been mentioned before; include games of chance (lottery, card games), thirteenth month, others.

23 a. Income:

If one has it (Circle 1): Mark the circle if information in some of section g exists.

If one does not have it (Circle 2): Mark this circle if the interviewed person had no income in the reference month.

[To the right of the text is a picture of money with a circle around it and a line through it.]

Not declared (Circle 3): Mark this circle in the case that, after explaining to them in confidence about this information, in a subtle or indirect manner, the person refuses to offer the information.

[p. 108]

Examples of filling out questions 21 to 23:

1. Gustavo Vargas is a traveling salesman and obtained last month B/150.00, the product of his sales and also he won B/84.00 in the lottery.

2. Beatriz Campos has been working as a domestic employee for a year, with a monthly wage of B/100.00. Also she declares that she received food pension of B/70.00 for her children.

[Below the text are two forms.]

[p. 109]

Section VIII. Fertility and Mortality Characteristics

For women 12 years old or older
[Applies to questions 24- 27]

Information about the variable fertility will be gathered for women 12 years old or older. In a strict sense, this variable, is the real frequency of births in the female population.
Information about the variable mortality will be gathered for all of those surviving of the sons/daughters born alive by women 12 years old or older. It is defined as: the permanent disappearance of all signs of life, whatever was the time that passed since the birth.
The gathering of information for this section in the census offers the opportunity of grouping information for estimating these variables to the national level in an economic way and principally to bring the vital statistics up to date.

Question No. 24: How many sons and daughters have you had born alive?

Children born alive are considered all those who upon being born have presented vital signs such as breathing, crying or movement even when they have died immediately after having presented these signs.
In this question information proportionate to the feminine population 12 years old or older is requested without considering her civil or marital state, referring to the number of sons/daughters born alive she had all of her reproductive life to the date of the census.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a baby and to the right is a picture of a woman and a baby.]

Read the question naturally, over all when the enumerated dwelling has women of this age. If you note surprise, explain that in some dwellings there are women who have children at very young ages, for this reason the question always has to be asked: When number of children born is less than ten, put a 0 in front of the number.
Write down in the corresponding spaces the number of sons and daughters that the woman declares and continue with question 25.

[p. 110]

For women who have never had children, mark the circle "None" and finish the interview with this person.
Adopted children or stepchildren of women residents of the dwelling should not be counted.

Question No. 25: Of these [children] how many are alive?

The information refers to the number of sons/daughters currently alive including all sons/daughters who the woman has had that are alive at the date of the census.

[To the right and left of the text are pictures of babies.]

Write down in the corresponding spaces the response of the woman. The number of children declared in this question should be less than or equal to the response in question 24. If no child is alive, write down "00".

The following conditions are applied to women from 12 to 49 years of age, who declared to have had children born alive.
[Applies to questions 26 -27]

Question No. 26: Of your sons and daughters born alive, were any born during the last 12 months?

This refers to all sons/daughters born alive by the feminine population in reproductive age (12-49 years of age), during the 12 months before the Census, that is to say from May 1999 to May of the year 2000.

[To the left of the text is a picture of a baby.]

Mark the corresponding circle agreeing with the response of the woman. When the woman answers affirmatively, the date of the birth of the son or daughter born alive should be marked in the corresponding space. (day, month and year).
The response should be in numeric form. Example: 01-06-1999
If the response is negative, finish the interview and continue with the next person.

[p. 111]

Question No. 27: Is this son or daughter alive?

It refers to sons and daughters born alive in the last years, currently alive.
Mark with an "X" the corresponding circle, agreeing with the response of the informant. Remember that this question refers to the child declared in question 24.

Examples of filling out questions 24 to 27:
In the dwelling of Rubén Crespo, his wife, señora Melissa is being interviewed, who says she is 28 years old, and declares to have an only child, son Axel, born in the last 12 months. When asking her the date of the birth of Axel, she states he was born August 12, 1999.
La Mrs. widowed Carmen de Cresco is the mother of Mr. Rubén, lives with them and is 71 years old, when asked the questions about fertility and mortality, she answers that she has 3 children alive, but 5 altogether of which 2 deceased, one at two years and one at 15.

[Below the text are two forms, one named Melissa and one Carmen vda. de Crespo.]

[p. 112]

Make the necessary observations, verify that all the persons written down in Section IV (List of Occupants) have been enumerated, fill out the chart that is at the end of the List of occupants and finish the interview. Write down your name and sign the questionnaires. And do not forget to put the enumerator sticker in a visible place of the dwelling and give the enumeration certificate that the members of the dwelling are able to circulate.

[Rest of the document omitted]