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Republic of Panama
Comptroller General
Directorate of Statistics and Census

Eight National Population Census and Fourth Housing Census
May 10, 1980

Enumerator's Manual

[pp 1-48 omitted]

[p. 49]

Instructions for filling out the Family Form

General rules of procedure

1. Who should be enumerated in this dwelling

a) All persons who slept last night in this dwelling. Include the domestic servants and their relatives, guests etc., if they slept here last night.
b) All persons who reside in this dwelling habitually even if they did not sleep here last night because of their job, recreation or other transitory cause.
Verify that all those less than one year old, and particularly newborns, have been included because there is a tendency to omit them.

2. Who should not be enumerated in this dwelling

a) Persons who live in this dwelling but spent last night in another house, tenement (casa de vecindad) or hotel; the sick in hospitals; imprisoned in jails; in boarding schools; reformatories; etc. These persons will be enumerated in the place where they slept.

[Points 3-6 were not translated into English]

[p 50]

7. Description of the Family Form

To enumerate the inhabitants of a dwelling unit (individual house, apartment, room in a tenement house, place not meant to be inhabited but used as a dwelling) the Family Form, with columns, will be used. That is to say a column is used to write down the information about each one of the persons who inhabit the dwelling unit.
The Family Form has been designed to enumerate a dwelling unit with each form and consists of seven columns. When the number of persons in the dwelling unit is larger than seven, use another form to complete the enumerationwriting down the information of the eighth person in the column meant for the second person, that is to say, leaving blank the column corresponding to the information about the "Head". Repeat also the information corresponding to "Locality".
The Family Form has the following sections:

I. Locality of the Dwelling
II. Dwelling Information
III. Population Information

Also the back of the form contains

a) Special instructions about aspects of the enumeration that by their nature require special attention from the Enumerator.
b) Spaces meant for observations for making some explanation with the purpose of giving more clarity to the information contained in any of the questions of Section III over "Population Information".
[p. 51]

Be advised that Section II about "Dwelling Information" also contains spaces meant for observations to write down any additional explanation referring to this Section.

Content of the Form

Form number:

Write down the number which corresponds to the order in which you will carry out the visits within the segment to be enumerated. The first form that you fill out will be Number 1, the second Number 2 and so forth. This numeration is applied to not only dwellings with their occupants present (occupied), but also to the dwellings without occupants, and to the places not meant to be inhabited but are used as a dwelling such as hallways, handcarts, garages, etc.

Locality information

1. Segment Number:

Write down the number of the segment that corresponds to you, which appears both in the map and in the folder that is given to you to do your job.

2 to 5.Province, district, administrative unit and locality:

Carefully write in the corresponding spaces the name of the province, district, administrative unit and locality where the dwelling to be enumerated is located. If for some reason it is indicated both in the map and in the folder that the boundaries of the segment cover part of a locality, write the name of this locality in the space for Question 5 (Locality) and in parentheses write down the letter (P) that means "part". Example: Locality: El María (P).

6. Street or avenue (number or name):

Write the complete number or name of the street, avenue, highway or road where the building that contains the dwelling to be enumerated is located.

[p. 52]

7. Number or name of the building or house:

Write down the number or name of the house or building that contains the dwelling to be enumerated.
When the Municipal Nomenclature does not exist, write down the number that identifies the building or house. In some localities the enumeration of the Office of the Service of the Eradication of Malaria is used.
If the building or house has no number or name, just write "without name".

8. Room or apartment number:

Write down the number or letter that identifies the room or apartment to be enumerated. If the room or apartment does not have a number, indicate its position within the building so it can be found easily. Example: At the end of the corridor on the left side, above the stairs, etc. In those cases in which the building and the dwelling coincide, that is to say, when the building contains a single dwelling without spaces meant for other uses, draw a horizontal line in the space meant for the number of the room or apartment.

9. Block number: (only for Panama City and Colon)

Write down the number of the block where the dwelling to be enumerated is located that appears in your segment.

Dwelling Information

Before moving ahead to the questions in this section, it is necessary to define what is considered a "Dwelling":
Dwelling: This is any place or premises structurally separate and independent, that has been built, made or converted for uses as permanent or temporary housing or lodging of persons or also any class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as a living quarters on the date of the census.

[p. 53]

The dwelling can consist of:

a) A group of rooms or one room, apartment or house meant to house a group of persons or only one person.
b) A vessel, vehicle, tent, or also any other class of housing used as a living space on the date of the census.

The dwelling can form part of a building constructed only for residential use, like an apartment building, or it can form part of a building constructed for other uses, like for example: the dwelling of a teacher who lives in the school building, or the dwelling of the guard who lives in the establishment, or the dwelling of the door-keeper who lives in the office, etc.

Question 1 Type of Dwelling

Mark a single box, consider a private house to be a structure, building or house that contains a single dwelling ( a chalet, a clay covered plant fiber (quincha) house etc.). It is a single dwelling even if the private house has one or more rooms used for different reasons other than lodging. Example: Sewing room, shop office, storage room, etc. The private house can be permanent (box 1), semi-permanent (box 2), or improvised (box 3).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 1 of the census form.]

a. Permanent Dwelling (box 1)
It is built with long lasting materials such as: concrete, concrete blocks, bricks, stone, wood, etc. Example: brick house. Include permanently attached mobile homes (carros-casas).

[To the left of the text is a picture of a permanent house]

[p. 54]

b) Semi-permanent dwelling (box 2)
It is built with materials of medium to short duration, such as quincha (clay covered plant fiber), adobe, cane, straw, palm leaves, bamboo, etc. Rustics dwellings, such as a shack, a hanging shack (ranchos colgados) or without walls, a quincha house, all typical of the interior of the country, are all considered semi-permanent dwellings.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a semi-permanent dwelling]

c. Improvised Dwelling (box 3)
For census purposes, an improvised dwelling is considered an independent dwelling of temporal nature, built with ill-suited materials, such as old wood, pieces of zinc, tin, cardboard, canvas, cloth, etc.
Generally these dwellings form part of the so-called "Emergency Areas".

[To the right of the text is a picture of an improvised dwelling]

Mark box 4 if it concerns an apartment, that is to say if the dwelling occupies part of a building composed of other dwellings and has private toilet facilities and bath. Include in this group dwellings like "duplexes", "condominiums", and semi-detached houses.
[To the right of the text is a picture of an apartment building.]

[p. 55]

Mark box 5 if the dwelling is meant for a room or rooms in a tenement building, or that is, a dwelling which occupies a part of a building composed of many dwellings and that does not have private toilet facilities or bath. The occupants of these dwellings share the use of toilet facilities and bath.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a tenement building.

Mark box 6 when you find persons who use a place or space not principally meant to be a dwelling, such as a doorway, vessel, granary, garage, stable, office, store, etc. as living quarters on the day of the census. With dwellings marked in box number 6, the rest of the questions about dwelling will not be asked and questions about the population of each of its occupants will be asked.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person sitting in a box]

Mark box 7 when it concerns a collective dwelling (hotel, boarding house, hospital, etc.). There are special instructions for the enumeration of Collective Dwellings.
With dwellings marked in box 7, the rest of the questions about dwelling will not be asked and questions about the population of each of its occupants will be asked.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a hospital]

It is important to indicate that for the enumeration of the previously identified collective dwellings, such as hotels, boarding houses, boarding schools, hospitals, convents and other institutions meant for lodging groups (generally big) of individuals united by a public objective or a personal common interest and that appear on a list in the hands of the regional inspector, there exist special forms, enumerators and instructions.
It is recommended to the supervisors that on the day of the instructions, they consult their regional inspector about the procedure to follow and the form to use [p.56] in case there exists a collective dwelling not previously identified in their zone.

Question 2 Condition of the dwelling

Mark only one box. You should mark box [1] when it concerns a dwelling with any occupant present at the moment of the census.
Mark box 2 when it concerns an inhabited dwelling whose occupants are not present at the moment of the census.
Boxes 3 to 7 of this question are for pointing out unoccupied buildings and the reason for not being occupied.

Questions 3 to 14 are only for dwellings with occupants present who are classified in any of the boxes 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 of question number 1: type of dwelling.

The following should be kept in mind:

a) If box 1 of question 2 (condition of the dwelling) is marked, proceed to obtain all the information about the dwelling.
b) If any of boxes 2 to 7 of question 2 (condition of the dwelling) are marked, the only thing required is to write down the date and sign the form.

[p. 57]

Question 3 Rooms in this dwelling

How many rooms does it have? Write down with numbers and in the corresponding space, the total number of rooms that the enumerated dwelling has. Do not count as a room the kitchen, bathroom, halls, terraces, "porches", doorways and garages. Also do not consider those buildings that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service (store, workshop, depositories of grain and other product, elevated storage rooms (jorones), stalls for animals, etc.) purposes.
Of these rooms, how many are bedrooms? Write down in the corresponding space, the number of bedrooms that the enumerated dwelling has.
Bedroom is understood to be the room principally meant and used for sleeping.
In the case of dwellings with only one room, "0" bedrooms will be marked.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 3 of the census form.]

Does it have an area exclusively for cooking? Mark the corresponding box if the dwelling has or does not have a space exclusively for cooking.
If the kitchen is found improvised in the living room, balcony, corridor or garage, mark box " no" [] 2.
For the case of hanging shacks, this question does not apply completely. The enumerator will write down "0" for the numbers of rooms and bedrooms and will mark box 2 (NO) on this question for the area exclusively for a kitchen.

Question 4 Ownership

Mark box [] 1 (Owned) when the dwelling that the family occupies is owned. The dwelling is considered "owned" by the owner of the building and the land or only the building. Include as owned a dwelling constructed with their own resources, those [dwellings] built with mortgage loans already paid for or those acquired through other means.
Mark box 2 (Owned mortgaged dwelling) when the dwelling has been built by means of mortgage loans from the Social Security Fund, the Savings Bank, the National Bank, collective mortgages and other credit institutions and have not been totally paid for.
Include also as owned mortgaged those dwellings whose original mortgage has been totally paid for but that is found to be committed to a new mortgage that has not been paid for yet.
For the cases of the mortgaged dwellings, write down in Balboas, in the corresponding space, the monthly sum that is paid on the mortgage.
Example: B/65.00, B/150.00, B/275.00, etc
Mark box 3 (Rented) when the unit of habitation is rented that is that the right to use it is paid for and write down in Balboas in the corresponding space the monthly sum that is paid for rent.
Example: B/5.00, B/25.00, B/55.00, B/135.00, etc.
Mark box 4 (Ceded) when the dwelling is ceded, or that is, when the occupants are not the owners and do not pay rent or mortgage. Generally, persons who inhabit these dwellings are relatives of the owner or the dwellings have been ceded for reasons of work.

[p. 59]

Example: some worker's houses of the Chiriqui Land Company, the cleaner of an apartment building who is given the room for cleaning the building.
Mark box 5 (Condemned) when the dwelling that the family occupies is condemned or that is, it is considered uninhabitable by the Office of Safety, the Fire Department, the Department of Municipal Engineering, the Department of Sanity of the Ministry of Health and that because of its poor state and hygienic and deteriorative condition constitute grave danger for the security and health of its tenants. The tenants do not pay rent and assume the expenses of water and light.

Question 5 Predominant material in the exterior walls of the building or house.

Predominant material is understood to be that which the largest part of the outer walls of the building or house where the dwelling is located is made of.
Mark only one box considering that:

a) This question refers to the building or house.
b) The building and the dwelling coincide when it concerns a private house.
c) In the cases of rooms in tenement houses and apartments, the building contains many dwellings.
d) In the case of hanging shacks or without walls, mark box 5.

[p. 60]

Question 6 Predominant material in the roof of the building or house.

Mark only one box keeping in mind that this question refers to the predominant material of which the largest part of the roof of the building or house in which the dwelling is located is made.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 6 of the census form.]

Question 7 Predominant material in the floor of the dwelling

Mark only one box keeping in mind that:

a) This question refers to the material of the majority of the floors of the dwelling.
b) You shouldn't look only at the material of the floor in the living room because in some dwellings this floor is different than the material of the rest of the rooms.

In these cases the predominant material in the majority of the rooms will be written down.

[p. 61]

Question 8 Source of drinking water

Mark only one box keeping in mind that:

a) For the dwellings that have water system pipes within the dwelling, begin with the following form:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 8 of the census form.]

[p. 62]

Mark box 1:
When the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink comes from a public water system of the IDAAN.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a water tower]

Mark box 2:
When the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink comes from a community public water system.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a water tower.]

Mark box 3:
When the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink come from a private water system.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a private water tower]

[p. 63]

b) For dwellings whose inhabitants get water from installations from water systems located outside of the dwelling, proceed as follows:
Mark box 4:
When the occupants of the dwelling are supplied drinking water from a pump or faucet installed outside the dwelling connected to a public water system of the IDAAN.
Mark box 5:
When the occupants of the dwelling are supplied drinking water from a pump or faucet installed outside the dwelling connected to the community public water system.
Mark box 6:
When the occupants of the dwelling are supplied drinking water from a pump or faucet installed outside the dwelling connected to a private water system.
c) For dwellings whose inhabitants get drinking water from a sanitary well that is public (box 7) or private (box 8) with a pump to extract water, the enumerator should keep in consideration the following:
1) The pump can be manual, motorized of from a windmill.
2) The pump can be public (for example an artesian well installed in the town square) or it can be private (installed in the patio of the house).

[Below the text is a picture of a public pump and a private pump.]

[p.64]

d) Mark the corresponding box when the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink is not from a public water tower or a sanitary well, but rather from an unprotected uncovered spring (brocal) (box 9), from rainwater (box 10), from a surface well (box 11) or from a river or gully (box 12).

[Under the text are pictures of a uncovered spring, rainwater, a surface well and a river or gully.]

Question 9 Sewer facilities

Mark only one box keeping in mind:

a) Toilet facilities can be of private or communal use. "Private" when they are for exclusive use of one family (boxes 1, 2, or 3). "Communal" when it is for the use of two or more families (boxes 4, 5 or 6).
b) Toilet facilities can be connected to a system of sewers (drains) that serve the whole community or part of it; they can be connected to a septic tank, generally constructed in the patio of a dwelling; or they can be a pit toilet or latrine.
c) If the dwelling does not have toilet facilities mark box 7 (without toilet facilities).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 9 of the census form.]

[p. 65]

Question 10 Availability of bathroom

Mark a single box taking into account that:

a) The bath can be for private or communal use.
"Private" when it is for exclusive use of one family (boxes 1 or 2).
"Communal" when it is for the use of two or more families (boxes 3 or 4).
b) "Bath with water from a water system" is understood to be that which is connected to the aqueduct system and is equipped with all the installations that this requires (faucets, showers, bathtub, etc).
c) In the classification of "bath with water by other means", all bathrooms which do not fit the requirements mentioned above, that is, the bath water brought to the room through means of cans, buckets or other recipients should be included.
d) If the dwelling does not have a bathroom, mark box 5 (without bathroom).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 10 of the census form.]

[p. 66]

Question 11 Lighting

Mark a single box keeping in mind that lighting can be electric or another type.
Mark box 1 when the dwelling has electric installations provided from connections to the IRHE.
Mark box 2 when the dwelling has electric instillations provided from connections of any other type (owned motor, from the municipality or from a private company).
Mark box 3 when the occupants of the dwelling use gas for lighting.
Mark box 4 when the occupants of the dwelling use kerosene for lighting. Mark box 5 when the occupants of the dwelling use another type of lighting or when there is not any (Example: candles).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 11 of the census form.]

Question 12 Cooking fuel

Mark a single box, according to the cooking fuel that is used in the dwelling. This can be electricity (box 1), Gas, (box 2), Kerosene (box 3), Coal (box 4) [p. 67] or firewood (box 5).
Box 6 will only be marked when nothing is cooked in the dwelling.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form.]

Question 13 Domestic appliances

Mark one or more box according to the case.

[The instructions refer a graph in question 13 on the census form.]

Question 14 Was this dwelling built between 1970 and 1980?

Mark the corresponding box according to the person's answer.
If the answer is "yes", ask what in what year was the enumerated dwelling built and write it down in the corresponding space.
There will be cases in which the person does not know the date. Try to get the information from other sources (the neighbors, the lessee, etc.). In other cases, the information will be found written down on a special card at the entrance of the building.
Keep in mind that in tenement houses and apartments this information will be uniform for all dwellings. En the case of having exhausted all resources without getting the information, mark the box "not known".

[p. 68]

Population Information

A. General Characteristics

(Apply to questions 1 to 9)

(Applicable to persons of all ages except for question 5, whose exception is noted)

Question 1 Name and surname

Write down the name and surname of every person who slept in this dwelling the night of May 10th and those persons who, being members of the dwelling, spent the night away from it but were not lodged in another dwelling. Begin with the name of the Head of family or that of the persons who the members of the family consider as such and continue in the following order: The spouse of the head, the children in order of age, oldest to youngest, the other relatives of the head.
If a newborn has not yet been given a name, write "newborn" in the space that corresponds to its name and surname.
After having written the name and surname of all the persons of the dwelling, continue the interview in vertical form, writing down first all information about the Head, continue with all information about the second person and so on until finishing all information of all the persons of the dwelling.
When the number of members of the family is greater than 7, use an additional form to complete the enumeration, repeating on this second form the locality information and writing down the information about the eighth person in the second column, that is to say, leaving blank the first column which corresponds to the information about the Head.

[p. 69]

Question 2 What relationship or relation do you have with the head of dwelling?

Mark the corresponding box in agreement with the relationship or relation that the person has with the Head.

[Below the text is a picture of a family]

In the space corresponding to "Other relative" and "No relative" specify the relationship or relation that the person has with the Head of the Dwelling.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form.]

Question 3 Sex

Mark the corresponding box. Do not use the name to deduce the sex of the person since there are names common to both sexes like Concepción, Gertrudis, Rosa, Carmen, Isabel, etc.

Question 4 How old are you?

Write down in the corresponding spaces, the age in completed years of the person on the last birthday. For those less than one year old, mark the corresponding box.

[p. 70]

If there is some doubt in the person when answering the question, try to get the exact age. One resource is the Personal Identity Card.
When a person does not know his/her age, as occasionally happens among persons of advanced age, try to help by making references to historical events or simple local happenings. The age of a person also can be estimated with enough precision, relating the age of a woman when she had a baby to the current age of that child; or how old when getting married or consensually united and remembering how many years that they have been married or consensually united.
If after having exhausted all resources it is not possible to get or estimate the age of the person, write "not known".

Question 5 What is your current marital status?

For those under 15 years old, mark box 8. For those 15 years old and older, mark the box that corresponds, applying the following definitions:

[Consensually] United: The person who lives in marital union without being married, that is to say, that the person has not been legally married by Law or the Church.

[The instructions refer a graph in question 5 on the census form.]

It should be kept in mind that many persons "consensually united" tend wrongly to declare that they are single.
Single: The person who has never been married nor lived in marital union, that is to say, has no spouse or companion. Before marking this box, ask if the person has ever been married or consensually united since in many cases the person tends to declare themselves "Single" when actually is "Separated" from a Marriage or a [Consensual] Union. In these cases mark the corresponding box (6 or 7).
[p. 71]
Married: The person who has been legally married (civil or religious) and lives in this state.
Divorced: The person legally separated who has not married again and does not live in marital union.
Widowed: The person whose spouse or companion has died and has not married again and does not live in marital union.
Separated from Marriage: The person who lives separated from his/her spouse and does not live in marital union.
Separated from [Consensual] Union: The person who lives separated from their companion and does not live in marital union.

Question 6 Where were you born?

Mark the box "here" if the person was born in the same locality or hamlet where the enumeration is taking place. In this case, do not fill out the other spaces of the question. The same will be done for those who declare to be born in the Canal Zone.
If the person was born in another locality or hamlet write down in the corresponding space the name of this locality, the administrative unit and the district it belongs to.
For those born abroad, write the name of the country of birth in the space that says "Other Country".

[The instructions refer a graph in question 6 on the census form.]

[p. 72]

Question 7 How long have you lived in this locality or hamlet?

Mark the box "Always" if the person declares to have always lived in the locality where enumerated. Be certain that the person has always lived in this locality without having resided for some amount of time away from it. In this case, the date in which the person returned to settle down will be written down and question 8 will be asked.
Mark the box "In passing" when the person declares to not reside in or to be in passing through the enumerated locality. This box also should be marked for students who only live in this locality during the period of classes.
Mark the box "In transit" en the case of persons who live abroad and are found in this dwelling because of vacation or personal reasons.
If the person claims to have lived before in another locality or hamlet, write down in the corresponding space the month and year of moving to the locality or hamlet lived in currently. Example: December 1975. If the person does not remember well the month and year of moving to this locality or hamlet try to guess it through some reference; the age of the person; completion of studies, employment search, etc.
For those who claim to have "always" lived in the same locality or hamlet of enumeration, or are "in passing" or "in transit", continue the interview with question 9.

[p. 73]

Question 8 Where did you lived before settling in this locality or hamlet?

This question is applied only to persons who in question 7 gave an amount of time for living in the place where they are being enumerated.
If the person lived before in another locality or hamlet, write down the name of this locality, the administrative unit and the district it belongs to.
If the person lived abroad before, write down the name of the country in the corresponding space.

[The instructions refer a graph in question 8 on the census form.]

Question 9 Is your mother currently alive?

Mark the corresponding box.

[The instructions refer a graph in question 9 on the census form.]

[p. 74]

B. Educational Characteristics

(Apply to questions 10 to 13)

Only for persons 4 years old and older

Question 10 What is the highest grade or school year of regular education you completed?

[Below the text is a picture of a schoolgirl]

[The instructions refer a graph in question 10 on the census form.]

Before making the corresponding annotations, follow these instructions:
Do not use roman numerals. Keep in mind that the highest grade or year of regular education totally passed is requested and consequently neither half grades nor grades that have not been completely finished or passed should be written down.
If the person has received education abroad, write down the equivalent grade in the system of regular education of this country with the closest possible approximation. For example: the 9th grade in schools abroad is equivalent to the 3rd year of secondary school in Panama.
Keep in mind that the grade or year that is wanted refers only to what was passed within the three levels of [p. 75] regular education (primary, secondary, university) that is taught in public or private schools. (See annex 1 that refers to the schools of regular secondary education).
Therefore, courses of regular education, special or vocational studies that do not require the passing from a first cycle, such as some sewing schools, business schools, cooking schools, confectionary schools, secretary schools, telegraph schools, and other similar schools will not be considered. Example [all refer to specific, well-known schools in Panama]:

The Applied School of Commerce
Accounting and Commerce Technical
The Muñoz School of Diesel Motors
The Thomas Alva Edison Institute

If the person claims to have taken one of these classes of special studies, insist on obtaining the information that refers to the last grade or school year passed in schools of regular education.
Studies or correspondence courses will not be considered regular education.
Below, examples of how to fill out the corresponding boxes are described:
Write down the grade in the box corresponding to the class of regular education. Examples:

a) The person claims to have passed the forth grade of primary school, the annotation will be made like: Primary (1) (4)
b) For the case of persons who declare to have passed any grade in the basic cycle, the annotation should be done on the level of primary. Example: If the person passed the eighth grade, it will be written down as: Primary (1) (8)
[p. 76]
c) The person claims to have passed the third year of university, annotation would be: University (3) (3)

If the person claims to be attending the first grade of primary school, or attends a kindergarten or children's center, mark the box "No grade" (X) 04. Also include in this box persons who have never attended school.

Question 11 Do you know how to read and write?

[Below the text are pictures of a schoolgirl and schoolboy reading.]

This question applies to persons that can read or write in any language.
Mark the corresponding box. Ask the question only to persons who never have attended school or only studied to the second grade of primary school. When the person has passed at least the third grade of primary school, do not ask the question and mark the box "yes" (X) 1.
If the person only knows how to read or only knows how to write numbers or sign their name, mark the box " no" (X) 2.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 11 of the census form.]

[p. 77]

Question 12 What diploma, certificate or degree do you have?

[Below the text is a picture of a woman graduating]

Write down in the corresponding space, the degree (diploma or certificate) that the person has obtained and the name of the school where the degree was obtained. This question refers to diplomas, certificates or degrees that schools of both regular and non-regular education award. If the person has received many degrees, write down those that are considered to correspond with the highest level.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form.]

Question 13 Do you attend school currently?

[Below the text is a picture of a classroom with a teacher and students]

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form.]

[p. 78]

Before making the annotations, follow corresponding instructions. Keep in mind that research about school attendance refers both to official schools (basic general schools from the reformed and not reformed systems) and private schools of this country.
For a better interpretation and understanding of the information, we present below the following explanations:

a) The basic general education of the reformed system (basic cycle) is extended from the 1st to the 9th grade.
b) The primary education (not reformed or traditional system) is extended from the 1st to the 6th grade.

If the person is attending a school of regular education (reformed or not reformed system) and a supplementary school at the same time, the grade or year of the school of regular education will be written down as that which the person attends. Do not use roman numerals.
Below are some examples of how to fill out the boxes in this question.

a) If the interviewed person attends the 4th grade of primary school, the annotation will be:
Primary (1) (4)

b) If the interviewed person attends the 8th grade of the basic general school (basic cycle), the annotation will be:
Primary (1) (8)

c) If the interviewed person declares to be attending the 6th year of a secondary school, the annotation will be:
Secondary (2) (6)

The enumerator should follow the same criteria for persons who declare to be attending the University.

[p. 79]

For the cases of children who are attending a kindergarten or a children's center, mark the box,
"Preschool or kindergarten" (X) 04
Persons who declare to be attending a non regular teaching school such as supplementary schools (1 or 2 years of duration), in which education about beauty, tailoring or confectionaries is taught, mark the box,
"Other school" (X) 05

For those who do not attend any school mark the box
"Does not attend" (X) 06

C. Economic Characteristics

For persons 10 years old or older
(Apply to questions 14 to 25)

The questions that form this Section are meant to get information about the participation of the population 10 years old or older in the economic activities of this country.
The questions relating to the chapter are applied to the situation existing in the week immediately before the day of the Census (reference week). Reference week is defined below:
Definition of "Reference Week" or "Last Week": It is the complete calendar week, from Sunday to Saturday that, for census purposes goes from May 4, 1980 to May 10, 1980.
The answers obtained in question 13 are the basis for classifying the population of persons 10 years old or older as:

1. Economically active (employed and unemployed).
2. Not economically active (homemaker, student, disabled, retired, pensioner, rentier, others inactive).
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1. Economically active population
This group is understood to be the population of 10 years old or older who supply the workforce available for the production of goods and services of the country and is divided into Employed and Unemployed.
1.1 Employed Population: is understood to be persons who:
a) Have an occupation or job remunerated in money or in kind, during the reference week.
b) Have a private business or job on their own account. Example: The owner of a grocery store, the farmer, the lawyer who has his own practice, etc.
c) Works regularly in a business or company of a member of their family even when not drawing a wage or salary (Contributing family worker).
d) Sell tickets, newspapers, or any other article; make food to sell; wash cars; shine shoes; sew in their house for others; the kind of work, time worked or amount of money that they receive during the reference week does not matter.
e) Have a steady remunerated job but do not work during the reference week because of temporary circumstances: sickness or accident; vacation; work conflicts such as: bad weather; machine breakdowns, strike, on leave, etc.
1.2 Unemployed population: This group constitutes persons who do not have a remunerated occupation or job during reference week, but:
a) Have worked before and look for work (visits employment agencies or offices in search of work, consults friends about the availability of work, is relying on ads in newspapers, that is to say, makes the effort with the goal of finding employment).
[p. 81]
b) Are not looking for work because they have a job that will begin on a previously appointed date.
c) Look for their first job or that is "New Workers". The oldest age for a "New Worker" is 45.
2. Not economically active population
This group is understood to be the flowing persons:
2.1 Homemaker: The person who is dedicated only and exclusively to domestic tasks and chores in their own home and were not looking for work, nor were they retired, pensioned, living on investments, or attending school. In a dwelling there can be more than one homemaker.
2.2 Student: The person who is dedicated exclusively to studying.
2.3 Invalid: The person who is found to be physically or mentally impeded from working.
2.4 Retired: The person who has stopped working and is receiving retirement income.
2.5 Pensioned, rentier: The person who receives auxiliary or pensioned income (pensioned). Equally include in this group all the persons who without working receive money or investments from a business or company (rentier). Do not include persons who receive pension for food, divorce, etc.
2.6 Retired without benefits: Include in this group the persons who in some opportunity had a job but currently are separated from all type of economic activity without receiving retirement benefits or a pension.
2.7 Other condition: The person who without being classified in any of the groups above does not do any economic activity and remains idle.

When classifying the population, special care should be taken with the persons of the female sex who declare themselves to be "Homemaker" and those who declare themselves to be [p. 82] students. In the first case they sometimes also do remunerated jobs like: cleaning, ironing, sewing, styling hair, painting fingernails, making candy etc. in their own home or outside it but because they spend little time in these labors they forget to give this information.
On the other hand, some students after class or on weekends dedicate themselves to cleaning shoes, selling newspapers, washing cars etc. Equal care should be taken with the spouse or companion or the children of farm families, who regularly help with the agricultural labors but do not declare this job.
For reasons already explained, it is necessary that before classifying the population, the enumerator investigates more to find out if the parson did some work during the reference week. If is made known that the person worked during this period, even when it was part time, it should be classified as Employed, that corresponds to the population who is Economically Active.

Question 14 During the last week, did you do any work or have a job?

Mark the corresponding box according to the response of the person.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 14 of the census form.]

Question 15 Were you looking for work last week?

Mark the corresponding box according to the response of the person.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 15 of the census form.]

[p. 83]

Question 16 What was the reason for not looking for work last week?

This question is asked to persons who answered "NO" on the question before (Question 15).
Mark the corresponding box according to the response the person gives you.
For persons who have been classified in boxes 1 to 4 continue to question 17 (occupation).
For persons classified in boxes 5 to X, continue with question 25 (What was your total income last month?).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 16 of the census form.]

[p. 84]

Question 17 What occupation, position or type of work did you perform last week or the last time you worked?

Ask this question to the employed and unemployed persons who have worked before, that is to say to those who answered "yes" in any of the questions 14 or 15 and to those who were classified in any of the boxes 1, 2, 3 or 4 of question 16.
For the person who did not work during the reference week but had worked before and looked for employment, write down in the corresponding space, the occupation, employment or job that was done the last time employed.
For one who has never worked (new worker) and looking for a first job mark the box "New worker" and go to question 25.
The occupation should be written down in a precise form, using the specific designations and therefore not using vague and generic terms.
Examples:

Incorrect: Mechanic;
Correct: Auto Mechanic, Dental Technician, Heavy Machinery Mechanic

Incorrect: Agent;
Correct: Insurance Agent, Purchasing Agent

Incorrect: Office Worker;
Correct: Typist, Secretary, Accountant, File Clerk

Incorrect: Machine Operator;
Correct: Dredge Operator, Road Roller Operator

Incorrect: Manager
Correct: Radio station manager, Holster factory manager

[p. 85]

Incorrect: Doctor;
Correct: Physiatrist, Veterinarian, Radiologist, Dental Surgeon

Incorrect: Construction Worker;
Correct: Mason, Plumber, Water carrier, Road Roller Operator, Shoveller, Quarry worker

Incorrect: Agricultural Worker
Correct: Milker, Kitchen assistant (Water carrier), Coffee Harvester, Cane cutter, Poultry farmer, Stable hand, Cowhand, Fighting cock caregiver

Nevertheless, persons with a professional specialization can do another job of a nature different than the specialization. In these cases if they have worked two jobs during the reference week write down as principal occupation that which produces the largest income for the person.
For employees of the National or Municipal Government that are responsible for legislative, executive, administrative and managerial functions, write the title for which they have been elected or appointed. Example: Governor, Mayor, Minister of State, Head of Department, Head of Section, Treasurer, Port Inspector, General Comptroller, Education Inspector, Director of Primary School, Captain of the National Guard, etc.
For other of the Government employees, get when it is possible the specific occupation Example: Architect, Engineer, Agronomist, Pharmacist, [p. 86] Veterinarian, Zoologist, Surgeon, Dentist, Nurse, Midwife, School Teacher, Lawyer, Municipal Judge, Shorthand Clerk, Auditor, Agent of the National Guard, Circuit District Attorney, Municipal Representative, etc.
For the employees of the Government whose specific occupation is difficult to determine, write: Public Employee.

Question 18 Where do you worked or where did you last work?

This question applies to "employed" and "unemployed" persons.

Write down the information in the following manner:

a) If it concerns a business, establishment, company, agricultural farm or livestock ranch that has the name of a private office, write the complete name. Example: El Sol supermarket, Rita Industries, La Estancia Farm, El Porvenir Shoe store, Law Office of Ramos and Sánchez, etc.
b) If it concerns a governmental office, specifically write the name of the office or institution. Example: Institute of Hydraulic Resources; General Comptroller; National Institute of Water and Sewers; National Bank; Ministry of Housing.
c) When it concerns an agricultural farm or livestock ranch without name, write: "agricultural farm" or "livestock ranch".
d) When the person works in a private house like for example domestic employees, cleaners, cooks, gardeners, etc. write down "Family house".
e) In the cases of seamstresses, cleaners or persons who make food in their own house as a job for sale, "in their own home" will be written down".
f) When persons work in the street on their own account (car cleaners, traveling salespersons, patio cleaners, taxi drivers), "in the street" will be written down.
[p. 87]
g) For persons who work in the Canal Area, the name of the Division or Department where they work should be written down.
Examples:
1. Division of maintaining the Canal Company.
2. Division of Engineering of the Canal Company
3. Commissary or Club House, Area of the Canal
4. Gorgas Hospital

Do not use acronyms or abbreviations of the name of the Company or Institution. If the person gives you acronyms and you do not know their meaning, ask the person to explain it to you.

Question 19 What does this business establishment or company do?

This question applies to both "employed" and "unemployed" persons.

Write with the best precision the class of activity which was done at the business, establishment or company whose name was written down in question 18.
Examples:
Question 18 / Question 19
El Sol Supermarket / Sale of provisions
Rita Industries / Manufacture of clothes
Law Office of Ramos and Sánchez / legal or counseling services

For persons who work or have worked in companies, institutions businesses
established in the Canal Area, write down the activity which [p. 87] these companies, institutions or businesses did such as the following examples:

Question 18 / Question 19
Division of the Maintaining of the Canal Company / Maintaining of buildings, highways, etc.
Division of Engineering of the Canal Company / Technical Engineering Jobs
Commissary / Retail commerce
Gorgas Hospital / Medical service

Question 20 You work or worked last as [. . .]

Mark the corresponding box in agreement with the answer the person gives you. To mark the box keep in main the following classifications:
Government Employee: It is the person who works or has worked for the Central or
Municipal Government, such as: The Comptroller General, The Ministry of Housing and
Treasury, Government Offices, City Hall, etc. in Autonomous or Semi-Autonomous
Entities like the Social Security Fund, Institute for the Formation and Use of Human
Resources (IFARHU [in Spanish]), etc. and receives for the work a remuneration in the form of salary or wage.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 18 of the census form.]

[p. 89]

Private Company Employee: is a person who works or had worked for a private employer and receives for the work a remuneration in the form of salary, wage, commission, tip, paid by the job or paid in kind. Examples: Agricultural worker, domestic employee, seller in a grocery store, employee in a shoe factory, head of accounting in a construction materials company, secretary in a dental clinic, etc.
Employee of a Canal Agency: Every person who is classified as a Canal Agency employee is one who works or has worked in a company, business or institution established in the Canal Area. Examples: Employees of the United States Army, private offices or workshops, banks, employees in family houses, employees of contractors, etc.
Employee of a Cooperative or communal organization: is a person who works or has worked for a cooperative or communal organization and receives for the work remuneration in the form of a salary or wage.
Worker on their account: is a person who runs their own private business or manages by their own account a profession and an office and is not in charge of any remunerated employee. This person can work alone or with an associate. Include also persons who declare to work in the Canal Area by their own account. Examples: Bus drivers, traveling salespersons, in house hairstylist, shoe shiner, caddy in the Canal Area.
Employer (owner): The one who runs or has run their own economic company (alone or with associates), or manages, by their own account a profession or office that always is in charge of one or more employees who receive remuneration.
Example:
The department store owner who has many employees, the agricultural or livestock producer who has cowhands and those who attend to the farm, the doctor who has an office worker, the architect who has an office, etc.

[p. 90]

Member of a production cooperation or communal organization: is a person who works or has worked for a cooperative or communal organization (settlement, communal group, local group) and receives income proportional with the sale of the product.
Family worker: is a person who manages or has managed an occupation for more than 15 hours during the reference week, without receiving remuneration in a company of business run by a member of their own family.

Question 21 Are you currently employed permanently or temporarily?

Only for one who works as an employee

Mark the corresponding box in agreement with the answer that the person gives.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 21 of the census form.]

Question 22 In which locality or hamlet is your job located?

Only for one who is employed

This question has as its primary goal finding out where the company, institution, office, farm, settlement, field or forest of the occupation declared in question 17 is located.
Mark the box "Here" if the person claims to work in the same locality or hamlet where they reside.

[p. 91]

If the person claims to work in another locality or hamlet different from that of the residence, write down in the corresponding space the name of that locality or hamlet, of the administrative unit and of the district to which it belongs.
If the person declares to work in "Another country", mark the corresponding box.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 22 of the census form.]

Question 23 How many hours did you work last week?

For all those employed

Write down in the corresponding space the total number of hours worked in the occupation declared in question 17. Remember that hours worked refer to the week before the census (reference week).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 23 of the census form.]

Question 24 What wage or salary do you currently earn?

Only for the employee who declared an occupation in question 17

This question only for persons who declared to have worked the week before the census (Box 1 of question 14) in the condition of [i.e., as an] employee (boxes 1, 2, 3 or 4 of question 20).
To get the following information, follow the instructions that are described below:

1) For employees, the questions refers to the wage, gross salary or commission obtained in the occupation declared in question 17, without deductions of Social Security, Income Taxes, Education Insurance or any other deduction like a loan from a bank or other credit institution.
[p. 92]
Make the annotation in the questionnaire according to the type of payment that the person declared, in other words, if the payment is received hourly, daily, weekly, monthly or by commission.

Examples:
a) If the salary is established at ninety cents per hour, make the annotation in the following form, even when that payment is paid weekly.
1 Hourly B/0/90
b) If the salary is established at two hundred Balboas monthly, make the following annotation, even when the payment is paid every two weeks
4 Monthly B/200/00
2) For persons who work for "commission", write down in the corresponding space what was received by commission in the last month.
3) When the person declares go earn a "fixed wage" and "commission", write down both pieces of information in the corresponding boxes.

Question 25 What was your total money income last month?

Remember that this question refers to the population of 10 years old or older both economically and non-economically active.
Include the wage or salary, the business or company earnings, sale of agricultural or cattle products, lottery winnings, private bets, pensions, retirement payments, grants, rent from houses, bingo or casino winnings, etc.
Write down in the corresponding space the answer that the person gives you.

[p. 93]

D. Fertility and Mortality

For women 15 years of age or older
(Apply to questions 26-29)

Question 26 How many sons or daughters born alive have you had?

It should be kept in mind that generally the enumerated person tends to omit those children who were born alive but died shortly thereafter or at the moment of birth, limiting themselves to declaring only those who are currently alive. Because of this, emphasis should be made to phrase the question so that it is clear that the number of children born alive is what is wanted, and that it is not important how many are still alive and how many have died. Keep in mind that children who are with the mother as well as those who do not live with her are to be included.
In the case of women who have never had a child, mark the box "None" ()00 and continue with question 30.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 26 of the census form.]

Question 27 Of these [liveborn], how many are currently alive?

Write down in the corresponding boxes the answer that the person gives you.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 27 of the census form.]

Question 28 On what date was your last born-alive child born?

Write down in the corresponding space the day, month and year in which was born your last child born alive.

[p. 94]

Question 29 Is you last born son or daughter currently living?

Mark the corresponding box.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 29 of the census form.]

E. Mental or Physical Impediments

For persons up to 40 years of age

Question 30 Do you have, from birth or other cause, any physical or mental disability?

Mark one or more boxes according to the following definitions.

a. Blind: The person has no vision or sees very little (visual weaknesses).
b. Deaf: The person does not see or talk, communicates through signs but with normal intelligence.
c. Mental retardation: consists of a below average or below normal intellectual capacity and is seen through growing up and the development of the person.
d. Invalid: is a person who through injuries in the locomotive system is not self-sufficient. It includes those who suffer from cerebral paralysis and those paralyzed in the arm or leg. Do not include those who walk with crutches or lack an arm.

If the person does not have any impediment, mark the corresponding box.

[p. 95]

Name And Date

Once the enumerator has finished filling out the Family Form, the enumerator's name and the date on which the form was filled out will be written down.
Equally after the supervisor has finished revising the Family Form, the supervisor's name and the date on which the form was revised will be written down.

Special Cases
The Ambassadors and Foreign Consulates will be enumerated by the Ministry of Foreign Relations.

General instructions for the enumeration of collective dwellings

1. Definition of collective dwelling:

A Collective Dwelling is defined as, that dwelling which is used by a group of persons who live together for reasons of lodging, treatment, or for reasons of instruction, of work, of religious creed, of military service or any other type of reason (brothels).

2. Types of collective dwelling:

For enumeration purposes, Collective Dwellings have been classified in 2 types or principal groups. These groups and the manner in which they will be enumerated are explained below.

a) First Type: Boarding Schools, Penal Institutions, Asylums, Orphanages, Reformatories, Children's Homes, Children's Hospital, the Hospital Nicolás Solano (Service of Neurology), the Psychiatric Hospital, the Palo Seco Hospital.
Who should be the Enumerator? The enumerator of these dwellings will be carried out by a civil servant at the service of the Office of Statistics and the Census.
[p. 96]
Who should be enumerated? The following people should be enumerated: Students in boarding school, detainees, shut-in persons (in asylums, orphanages, reformatories or children's houses). Sick shut-ins (Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano (Neurology Service), Psychiatric Hospital), that slept in this dwelling or establishment the night of the 10th to the 11th of May.
Form that will be used: To enumerate the persons mentioned above, the Form for Special Collective Dwellings will be used.
Special Case: As the case can be made that in the Special Collective Dwellings, classified in the first type, a manager or personnel on duty may live there and slept there the night of the 9th to the 10th of May. These persons will be enumerated with the Family Form.
b. Second Type: In this group the following establishments have been classified: hotels; boarding houses; clinics and hospitals (except the Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano, Psychiatric Hospital) religious communities; coastal trading ships anchored in the bay; brothels.
Who should Enumerate? The enumeration of these Collective Dwellings will be carried out by a civil servant at the service of the Office of Statistics and the Census and, in special cases, by a person who has the for responsibility of the running of the establishment or by the person this person designates.
Who should be enumerated?
1) The lodgers in hotels and boarding houses.
Those persons lodged in hotels and pensions. Persons "in transit" through the country, or that is, those whose stay will not exceed 48 hours, only should answer the following questions:
Name and Surname
Sex
Age
[p. 97]
2) Sick shut-ins in hospitals or clinics (except those interned in the Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano and the Psychiatric Hospital).
3) Directors, Administrators, Managers and Owners of an establishment or institution and their family members who live in this establishment or institution.
4) Service personnel of the establishment or institution and their family members who always live in it. For example: Interned inspectors or watchpersons, doctors, nurses, waiters, cooks, cleaners, etc.
5) Members of religious communities.

Form that will be used: To enumerate the persons mentioned above, the "Family Form" will be used.

3. Procedure for filling out the forms in the collective dwellings:

a. General Instructions: Before beginning the job of enumerating, the person in charge of filling out the form should have carefully read the instructions that appear in the Enumerator's Manual. In case of any doubt, the civil servant responsible for the census work of the area where the collective dwelling is located will be consulted. For those collective dwellings where the form should be filled out by the person who runs the establishment or the person who has been selected for this task, there will be a civil servant from the Office of Statistics and the Census who will come to collect it on the day of the 10th of May and carry out the verifications that are deemed necessary.
b. Form for Special Collective Dwellings: This form has room to write down the information of 32 persons. When the number of persons that occupy the collective dwelling exceeds this amount additional forms will be used.
[p. 98]
On the additional forms the information about the locality, the name and the address of the establishment that appears on the original form will be transcribed; below that the information corresponding to the rest of the persons will continue to be written down.
c. Family Form: This form is the same that is used for enumerating persons who live in private dwellings. After filling out the information relative to the locality, name and address of the establishment, an X in box 7 of Question 1 will be marked to indicate that it concerns a Collective Dwelling. As a general rule, questions 2 to 14 about the characteristics of the dwelling will not be filled out for the Collective Dwellings.
With respect to the questions about Characteristics of the Population (1 to 30 of the
form), the following procedure will be followed:
1) In the case that there is independent family groups who inhabit these dwellings, they will be enumerated following the norms that are applied to the enumeration of families living in private dwellings.
2) Persons who reside as guests will be enumerated in a separate form and in the question about relation or relationship to the Head, "guest" will be written down on the line "No relative".
3) Persons who reside as administrators or service employees and do not have any family members with them, should be enumerated on the same form as the guests and for relation or relationship to the Head, "administrator or "service employee"" will be written down according to the case.

Description of the use of the Forms for Indigenous Regions

For the enumeration of the population that lives in indigenous regions, two forms for the Population and Housing Census will be used, one for the enumeration of the non-indigenous population (Family Form) and one for the indigenous population (Indigenous Form).

[p. 99]

With regard to the Agricultural and Livestock Census, this will be applied to the population that inhabits the indigenous zones, that is, for the indigenous and non-indigenous population.
The specific instructions for filling out both the Indigenous Form and the form of the Agricultural and Cattle Census is described in each one of them.
The instructions for filling out the Family Form for the non-indigenous population appear in its respective manual.

[Rest of the document omitted]