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Republic of Panama
Comptroller General
Directorate of Statistics and Census

Seventh National Population Census and Third Housing Census
May 10th, 1970

Enumerator's Manual

[pp 1-12 omitted]

[p. 13]

Instructions for filling out the Family Form

General rules of procedure

1. Who should be enumerated in this dwelling:

a) All the persons who slept last night in this dwelling. Include domestic servants and their relatives, guests, etc., if they slept here last night.
b) All the persons that reside habitually in this dwelling even if they have not slept here last night because of reasons of work, leisure, or other transitory cause.
Verify that all those less than one year old, and particularly newborns, have been included because there is a tendency to omit them.

2. Who should not be enumerated in this dwelling:

a) Persons who live in this dwelling but spent last night in another house, tenement (casa de vecindad) or hotel; hospitalized sick persons, detainees in jail, students in boarding schools, reformatories; etc. These persons will be enumerated in the place where they slept.
b) Persons who live in this dwelling, but find themselves out of the country. For these persons you will write down only the information that is requested on the back of the form.

[Points 3-6 omitted]

[p. 14]

7. Description of the Family Form:

To enumerate the inhabitants of a dwelling unit (private house, apartment, room in a block of tenements or a place not meant for living but used as a dwelling) a Family Form, with columns, will be used, that is to say, that a column is used for writing down the information of every person who inhabits the dwelling unit.
The Family Form has been designed for enumerating a dwelling unit on each form and each form consists of 9 columns. When the number of inhabitants of a dwelling unit is larger than 9, use another Form to complete the enumeration, writing down the data of the tenth person in the column designed for the second person, that is to say, leaving blank the column corresponding to the information of the "Head". Repeat also the information about "Locality".

[p. 15]

The Family Form has the following sections

I Locality of the Dwelling
II Dwelling Information
III Population Information

Furthermore, the back of the form contains:

a) Special instructions about aspects of the enumeration that by its nature require special attention from the enumerator.
b) Special information that is requested only for the persons who reside in the dwelling but at the moment of the enumeration find themselves out of the country; and
c) Spaces meant for observations to make some explanation with the purpose of giving more clarity to the information, in any of the questions in Section III about "Population Information".

Be advised that Section II about "Dwelling Information" also contains spaces meant for observations to write down any additional explanation referring to this Section.

[p. 16]

Content of the form

Form Number

Write down the number which corresponds to the order in which you carry out the visits within the segment to be enumerated. The first form that you fill out will be Number 1, the second Number 2 and so forth. This numeration is applied to not only dwellings with their occupants present (occupied), but also to dwellings without occupants, and to places not meant to be inhabited but are used as a dwelling.

Locality Information:

1. Segment Number: Write down the number of the segment that you enumerate, which appears in the maps that are given to you.
2-5 Province, District, Administrative unit, and Locality: Carefully write in the corresponding spaces, the name of the province, district, administrative unit, and locality where the dwelling to be enumerated is located. If for some reason it is indicated in the maps that part of a locality is found within the limits of the segment that you should enumerate, write the name of the locality in the space for Question 5 and in parentheses write down the word "part". Example: Locality: Guayabito (Part).
6. Street or Avenue (Name and Number): Write the complete name or number of the street, avenue, highway or road where the building that contains the dwelling to be enumerated is located.
7. Number and Name of the building or establishment: Write down the number and name of the building that contains the dwelling to be enumerated.
When the Official Municipal Nomenclature does not exist, write down the number that identifies the building. In some localities the numeration of the Office of Health is used.
[p. 17]
If the building does not have a number or a name, just write "without number".
8. Room or Apartment Number: Write down the number or letter that identifies the dwelling to be enumerated. If the room or apartment does not have a number, indicate its position within the building so it can be found easily. In those cases in which the building and the dwelling coincide, that is to say, when the building contains only one dwelling, without spaces meant for other uses, draw a horizontal line in the space meant for the number of the room or apartment.
9. Block Number: (Only for Panama City and the city of Colon) Write down the number of the block where the dwelling that is to be enumerated and that is identified in your segment is located.
Dwelling Information

Before moving ahead to the questions in this section, it is necessary to define what is considered a "Dwelling":
Dwelling: This is any place or premises structurally separate and independent, that has been built, made or converted for use as permanent or temporary housing or lodging of persons or also any class of lodging, fixed or mobile, occupied as a living quarters on the date of the census.
The dwelling can consist of:

a) A group of rooms or one room, apartment or house meant to house a group of persons or only one person.
b) A vessel, vehicle, tent, or also any other class of housing used as a living space on the date of the census.

The dwelling can form part of a building constructed only for residential use, like an apartment building, or it can form part of a building constructed for other uses, like for example: the dwelling of a teacher who lives in the school building, or the dwelling of the guard who lives in the establishment, or the dwelling of the door-keeper who lives in the office, etc.

[p. 18]

The following instructions about each concept are detailed.

Question 1 Type of Dwelling

Mark box 1 if the dwelling to be enumerated is a permanent or semi-permanent private house, in other words, it contains a single dwelling (a chalet--house or cottage--, a clay - covered plant fiber (quincha) house, etc.). It is a single dwelling even if the private house has one or more rooms used for different reasons other than lodging. Example: Sewing room, shop office, storage room, etc.
[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 1 of the census form.]

a) Permanent dwelling: is composed of a room or group of rooms situated in a building or house, built with long lasting materials such as: concrete, concrete blocks, bricks, stone, wood, etc. Example: brick house.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a permanent dwelling]

b) Semi-permanent dwelling: It is built with materials of medium to short duration, such as quincha (clay covered plant fiber), adobe, cane, straw, palm leaves, bamboo, etc. Rustics dwellings, such as a shack, a hanging shack (rancho colgado) [p. 19] or without walls, a quincha house, all typical of the interior of the country, are all considered semi-permanent dwellings.

Mark box 2 when it concerns a dwelling built with non-suitable materials (old pieces of wood, pieces of zinc, cardboard, tin, canvas, cloth, etc.). Generally these dwellings form part of the so-called "Emergency Areas". If these dwellings are unoccupied or closed up do not write down more information relative to the dwelling. (questions 3 to 14)
Improvised dwelling: For census purposes, an independent dwelling of temporal nature, built with ill-suited materials, such as old wood, pieces of zinc, tin, cardboard, canvas, cloth, etc.

[To the right of the text is a picture of an improvised dwelling]

Mark box 3 if it concerns an apartment, that is to say, if the dwelling occupies part of a building and has private toilet facilities and bathroom. Include in this group "duplex" dwellings and condominiums.

[To the right of the text is a picture of an apartment.]

Mark box 4 if the dwelling is meant for a room or rooms in a tenement building, or that is, a dwelling which occupies a part of a building and that does not have private toilet facilities or bath. The occupants of these dwellings share the use of toilet facilities and bathroom.

[To the right of the text is a picture of tenement housing.]

[p. 20]

Mark box 5 when you find persons who use a place or space not principally meant to be a dwelling, such as a doorway, vessel, granary, garage, stable, office, store, door-keeper's lodge, etc. as living quarters on the day of the census.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a person sitting in a box.]

Mark box 6 when it concerns a collective dwelling (hotel, tenement, hospital, etc.). There are special instructions for the enumeration of Collective Dwellings.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a hospital.]

Question 2 Condition of the dwelling.

Mark box 1 when it concerns a dwelling with any occupant present at the moment of the census.

Mark box 2 when it concerns an inhabited dwelling whose occupants are not present at the moment of the census.
Mark the box corresponding to the situation of the unoccupied or uninhabited dwelling according to whether it is found to be for rent, for sale, under construction, or is only occupied as a vacation or summer house. If the unoccupied dwelling is not in any other the conditions above, mark the box "other reason".

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form.]

[p. 21]

Remember that questions 3 to 14 only correspond to dwellings with occupants present who are classified in one of the boxes 1, 2, 3, or 4 of question number 1: type of dwelling.

The following should be kept in mind:

a) If box 1 of question 2 is marked, proceed to obtain all the information about the dwelling.
b) If any of boxes 2 to 7 are marked, the only thing required is to write down the date and sign the form.

Question 3 Rooms in this dwelling

How many rooms does it have? Write down with numbers and in the corresponding space, the total number of rooms that the enumerated dwelling has. Do not count as a room the kitchen, bathroom, halls, terraces, "porches", doorways and garages. Also do not consider those that are used exclusively for commercial, industrial or service (store, workshop, depositories of grain and other product, elevated storage rooms (jorones), stalls for animals, etc.) purposes.
Of these rooms, how many are bedrooms? Write down in the corresponding space, the number of bedrooms that the enumerated dwelling has.
Bedroom is understood to be the room principally meant and used for sleeping.
In the case of dwellings with only one room, "0" bedrooms will be marked.
Does it have a room for cooking? Mark the corresponding box if the dwelling has or does not have a space exclusively for cooking.
Mark the box no if the kitchen is found to be improvised on a balcony, corridor, garage, etc. or within a room or part of a room that also has other uses such as: Dining room-kitchen, or bedroom-kitchen.

[p. 22]

For the case of hanging shacks (ranchos colgados), this question does not apply completely. The enumerator will write down "0" for the numbers of rooms and bedrooms and will mark box 2 of this question for the room for kitchen.

Question 4 Ownership and rent

Mark box 1 when the dwelling that the family occupies is "owned". This is considered "owned":

a) The dwelling occupied by the owner of the building and the land or only the building.
b) The dwelling built by means of mortgage loans from the Social Security Fund, the National Bank or other credit institutions, even if it has not been completely paid for.

Mark box 2 when the inhabited unit is rented, that is, the right to live there is paid for in Balboas and write down in the corresponding space the monthly sum. Example: B/6.50; B/25.00; B/65.00; B/125.00, etc.
Mark box 3 when the dwelling is not owned or rented.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 4 of the census form.]

[p. 23]

Question 5 Predominant material in the exterior walls of the building

Predominant material is understood as that of which the largest part of the building where the dwelling is located is made.
Mark the corresponding box, keeping in mind that:

a) This question refers to the building.
b) The building and the dwelling coincide when it refers to an individual house.
c) In the case of rooms in a tenement house and of apartments, the building contains many dwellings.
d) In the case of hanging shacks or without walls, mark box 5.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 5 of the census form.]

Question 6 Material in the roof of the building

Mark the corresponding box keeping in mind that this question refers to the predominant material of which the largest part of the roof of the building where the dwelling is located is made.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 6 of the census form.]

[p. 24]

Question 7 Material in the floor of the dwelling

Mark the corresponding box, keeping in mind that:

a) This question refers to the material of the majority of the floors of the dwelling.
b) You shouldn't look only at the material of the floor in the living room because in some dwellings this floor is different than the material of the rest of the rooms.

In these cases the predominant material in the majority of the rooms will be written down.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 7 of the census form.]

Question 8 Source of drinking water

Mark box 1 when the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink comes from a public aqueduct or system of pipes and is installed throughout the dwelling.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a public water tower]

Mark box 2 when, within the building, no installation of pipes to the public water system exist, but the inhabitants are supplied with water from a communal pump or faucet installed inside or outside the building, [p. 25] it doesn't matter at what distance, as long as the pump or faucet is connected to the public water system.
Mark box 3 when the occupants of the dwelling are supplied with water coming from a private system for their own exclusive use.
Keep in mind that in some cities and villages with public water systems, there are dwellings, especially in the outskirts, whose occupants are not supplied with drinking water from the public water system. Because of this, the question should be asked in case of doubt.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a private water tower]

Mark the corresponding box 4 or 5 when the drinking water of the occupants of the dwelling comes from a public or private sanitary well with a pump to extract the water.

[To the right of the text is a picture of a public water pump]

To mark any of these boxes take into consideration the following:

a) The pump can be operated manually, by motor or by windmill.
b) The well can be public (for example, the artesian well installed in the town square) or can be private.
c) The water from the well can be distributed in the house through a system of pipes or simply collected and transported in containers.

[To the right of the text are pictures of a public and a private well]

[p. 26]

Mark the corresponding box when the water that the occupants of the dwelling drink is not from an public water tower or a deep well with a pump, but rather from an uncover spring (brocal) (box 6), from rainwater (box 7), from a surface well (box 8) or from a river or gully (box 9).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 8 of the census form.]
[Under the text are pictures of an uncovered spring, rainwater, a surface well and a river or gully.]

Question 9 Sewer facilities

Mark the corresponding box taking into account that:

a) Toilet facilities can be for private or communal use.
"Private" when they are for exclusive use of one family.
"Communal" when they are for the use of two or more families.
b) Toilet facilities can be connected to a system of sewers (drains) that serve the whole community or a part of it, or can be connected to a septic tank, generally built in the patio of the dwelling.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 9 of the census form.]

[p. 27]

Question 10 Availability of a bathroom

Mark the corresponding box taking into account that:

a) The bath can be for private or communal use.
"Private" when they are for exclusive use of one family.
"Communal" when they are for the use of two or more families.
b) "Bath with water from a pipe" is understood to be that which is connected to the aqueduct system and is equipped with all the installations that this requires (faucets, showers, bathtub, etc).
c) In the classification of "bathroom with water by other means", all bathrooms which do not fit the requirements mentioned above, that is, the bath water brought to the room through means of cans, buckets or other recipients should be included.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 10 of the census form.]

[p. 28]

Question 11 Lighting

Mark the corresponding box, according to the type of lighting that the dwelling unit uses. Example: Electric, kerosene lamp, guaricha [also means kerosene], etc. In the case of candle lighting, mark box 4 (other).

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 11 of the census form.]

Question 12 Fuel used for cooking

Mark the corresponding box according to the fuel that is used in the dwelling for cooking.
Box 5 will only be marked when they do not cook in the dwelling.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form.]

Question 13 Domestic appliances

Mark the corresponding box:
In the case that they do not have any of the appliances mentioned above, draw a diagonal line through the whole question.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 13 of the census form.]

[p. 29]

Question 14 Was this dwelling built before 1960?

Mark the corresponding box according to the answer of the person to be enumerated.
If the answer is " yes", ask in what year the dwelling to be enumerated was built and write it down in the space meant for this. There will be cases in which the person enumerated will not remember the information. Try to get the information from other sources (from the neighborhood, the lessee, etc.). Keep in mind that in tenement houses this information should be uniform for all the dwellings.

Population Information

A. General characteristics

(Questions 1 to 8)
(Applicable to persons of all ages except questions 5 and 8, whose exceptions are noted)

Question 1 What is your name and Surname?

Write down the name and surname of each of the persons who slept the night of May 9 in this dwelling and the names of those persons who spent the night away from the dwelling but were not lodged in another dwelling, beginning with the Head of household.
If a newborn has not yet been given a name, write "newborn" in the space that corresponds to its name and surname.
After having written the name and the surname of all of the persons of the dwelling continue the interview, writing down first the information about the Head: Continue with the information about the second person and so on until finishing with the information about all of the persons of the dwelling.

[p. 30]

When the number of the members of the family is greater than 9, use an additional form in order to complete the enumeration, repeating on this second form the locality information and writing down the information about the tenth person of the dwelling in the column corresponding to the second person, that is to say, leaving blank the column for the first person that corresponds to information about the Head.

Question 2 What relationship or relation do you have with the Head of the Household?

Mark the corresponding box in agreement with the relationship or relation that the person has with the Head.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 2 of the census form.]

[Above the text is a picture of a family]

In the space corresponding to "Other", specify the relationship or relation that the person has with the Head. Example: sibling, grandchild, niece/nephew, aunt/uncle, servant, guest, etc.
In the case of finding family groups in Collective Dwellings, like hotels, tenements, schools, etc., fill out a family form for each group, following the same instructions applicable to private dwellings. Example: The Administrator of a hotel or tenement who lives in the same building with family members; the watchman of a boarding school who lives with other family members in the same establishment.

Question 3 Sex

Mark the corresponding box. Do not use the name to deduce the sex of the person since there are names common to both sexes like Concepción, Gertrudis, Rosa, Carmen, etc.

[p. 31]

Question 4 How old are you?

Write down the person's age in completed years, in other words, the age of the person on the last birthday. For those less than a year old, write down "00". Use numbers, not letters, to make the annotation.
If there is some doubt in the person when answering the question, try to get the exact age. One resource is the Personal Identity Card.
When a person does not know his/her age, as occasionally happens among persons of advanced age, try to help by making references to historical events or simple local happenings. The age of a person also can be estimated with enough precision, relating the age of a woman when she had a baby to the current age of that child; or how old when getting married or consensually united and remembering how many years that they have been married or consensually united. In these cases, when writing down the estimated age, this age should be followed by the letter "E". Example: 53E; 68E; etc.
If after having exhausted all resources it is not possible to get or estimate the age of the person, write "not known".

Question 5 What is your marital status?

Do not ask this question to minors of less than 15 years and mark box 8 (minor). For those older than 15 [15 years and older is implied; census form states clearly those less than 15 are minors], mark the corresponding box applying the following definitions:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 5 of the census form.]

[Consensually] United: The person who lives in marital union without being married, that is to say, that the person has not been legally married by Law or the Church.
It should be kept in mind that many persons "consensually united" tend wrongly to declare that they are single.

[p. 32]

Single: The person who has never been married nor lived in marital union, that is to say, has no spouse or companion. Before marking this box, ask if the person has ever been married or consensually united since in many cases the person tends to declare themselves "Single" when actually "Separated" from a Marriage or a [Consensual] Union. In these cases mark the corresponding box (6 or 7).
Married: The person who has been legally married (civil or religious) and lives in this state.
Divorced: The person legally separated who has not married again and does not live in marital union.
Widowed: The person whose spouse or companion has died and has not married again and does not live in marital union
Separated from marriage: The person who lives separated from their spouse and does not live in marital union.
Separated from [Consensual] Union: The person who lives separated from their companion and does not live in marital union.

Question 6 Where were you born?

Mark the box "Here" if the person was born in the same locality (village or city) where the person is being enumerated. In this case do not fill out the other spaces of the question.
If the person was born in another locality, write down in the corresponding space the name of this locality (village or city) and the district to which it belongs.
If the person was born in the Panama Canal Zone, write "Canal Zone" in the space meant for "Locality". For those born abroad, write the name of the country of birth in the space that says "In other Country".
In the case of Panama City and the city Colon and other important urban centers, consider these as a single locality.

[p. 33]

Keep in mind that Panama City is comprised of 13 administrative units and the city of Colon of 2 administrative units. As an annex (on page 60) the alphabetic list of the districts and administrative units that form the Republic are included, and furthermore the administrative units of the aforementioned cities are included in order to verify if the name that has been given corresponds effectively to one of these districts or administrative units of Panama City or the city of Colon.

Question 7 Where do you live permanently?

The locality (village or city) refers to where the person lives habitually. If the person lives in the same locality (village or city) where being enumerated, mark the box "Here", and do not fill out the other spaces of this question.
If the person lives in another place in the country, write down in the corresponding space, the name of the respective locality, administrative unit, and district. Example: Locality: Cerro Cama; administrative unit: Amador; district: La Chorrera.
If the person lives habitually in the Panama Canal Zone, write Canal Zone in the space meant for locality.
For persons who live permanently abroad write down the name of the country in the corresponding space and do not ask question 8.

Question 8 Where did you live in May of 1965?

If the person lived in the same locality in 1965 as where being enumerated, mark the box "Here" and do not fill out the other spaces of this question.

[p. 34]

If the person lived in another locality of the country in May of 1965, write down that locality and the administrative unit and district to which it belongs.
If the person lived abroad in May of 1965, write the name of the country on the corresponding line.
For minors under 5 years of age, draw a diagonal line through the whole question.

B. Educational Characteristics

(Questions 9 to 12)
(Only for persons 6 years old or older)

Question 9 What is the highest grade or school year you have completed?

Before making the corresponding annotations, follow these instructions:

Do not use roman numerals. Keep in mind that the highest grade or year of regular education totally passed is requested and consequently neither half grades nor grades that have not been completely finished or passed should be written down.
If the person has received education abroad or in schools in the Panama Canal Zone, write down the equivalent grade in the system of regular education of this country with the closest possible approximation. For example: the 8th grade of the schools of the Canal Zone of Panama is equivalent to the 2nd grade of secondary schooling in Panama.
Keep in mind that the grade or year that is wanted refers only to what was passed within the three levels of regular education (primary, secondary, university) that is taught in public or private schools. (See annex 1 that refers to the schools of regular secondary education.)

[p. 35]

Therefore, courses of regular education, special or vocational studies that do not require the passing from a first cycle, such as some sewing schools, business schools, cooking schools, confectionary schools, secretary schools, telegraph schools, and other similar schools as well as correspondence schools will not be considered. Example [all refer to specific, well-known schools in Panama]:

The Applied School of Commerce
Accounting and Commerce Technical
The Muñoz School of Diesel Motors
The Thomas Alva Edison Institute

If the person claims to have taken one of these classes of special studies, insist on obtaining the information that refers to the last grade or school year passed in schools of regular education.
Below, examples of how to fill out the corresponding boxes are described:
Write down the grade in the line corresponding to the class of regular education. Examples:

Case 1: The person claims to have passed the sixth grade of primary school.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of case 1 of question 9 of the census form.]

Case 2: The person claims to have passed the second year of secondary school.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of case 2 of question 9 of the census form.]

If the person says that he/she is attending the first grade of primary school, mark box 4, this box is for persons who have never attended school.

[p. 36]

Question 10 Can you read and write?

This question applies to persons that can read or write in any language.

Mark the corresponding box. Ask the question only to persons who never have attended school or only studied to the second grade of primary school. When the person has passed at least the third grade of primary school, do not ask the question and mark the box "yes".
If the person only knows how to read or only knows how to write numbers or sign their name, mark the box " no".

Question 11 What diploma, certificate or degree do you have?

Write down in the corresponding space, the degree (diploma or certificate) that the person has obtained and the name of the school where the degree was obtained. This question refers to diplomas, certificates or degrees that schools of both regular and non-regular education award. If the person has received many degrees, write down those that are considered to correspond with the highest level. For complementary [i.e., supplementary] explanations, use the space for "Observations".

Question 12 Do you currently attend school?

(Only for person between 6 to 40 years of age)

Before making the corresponding annotations, follow these instructions:
If the person is attending a school of regular education and a supplementary school at the same time, the grade or year of the school of regular education will be written down as that which the person attends.

[p. 37]

Keep in mind that research about school attendance refers both to official schools and private schools of this country.
If the person does not attend any school, mark box "05".
Below examples of how to fill out these boxes are described.
Write down the number, on the corresponding line, to the class of regular education, the grade and school year that the person attends.

[Below the text is a picture of a man teaching a class]

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 12 of the census form.]

Examples:

Case 1: If the person is attending the 5th grade of primary school, the annotation will be made as: Primary 1 5
Case 2: If the person is attending the 4th year of secondary school, the information will be written down in the following manner: Secondary 2 4
Case 3: If the person attends a school of non-regular education, as the supplementary schools are (1 or 2 years long) in which education about beauty, tailoring, confectionary is taught or also kindergartens, mark a "X" in the box corresponding to "Other school" 04.

If the person does not attend any school, mark box "05".

[p. 38]

C. Economic Characteristics

(Only for persons 10 years old or older)

Keep in mind that questions 13-18 of this section correspond only to persons 10 years old or older.
The answers obtained in question 13 are the basis for classifying the population of persons 10 years old or older as economically active (employed or unemployed) and as not economically active (homemaker, student, retired, pensioned, rentier, or other inactive persons).
The questions relating to the section are applied to the situation existing in the week immediately before the day of the Census (reference week).
Definition of reference week or "last week": It is the complete calendar week from Sunday to Saturday that for census purposes goes from May 3 to May 9, 1970.

Question 13 Did you have any job or employment last week?

Mark box 1 (you worked) if the answer to this question is "YES", for the following cases:

a) If the person to be enumerated has an occupation or job, remunerated in money or in kind during all or part of the reference period which is the week of the 3rd to the 9th of May, 1970.
b) If the person has a business or job of his own account.

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 13 of the census form.]

[p. 39]

c) If the person regularly works in a business or enterprise that belongs to a family member, even while not drawing a paycheck or salary. ([Contributing] Family Worker).
d) If the person has a steady remunerated job but does not work during the reference week because of temporary circumstances: sickness or accident; vacation; on leave; pregnant; work conflicts; bad weather; machine breakdowns; strike; etc.

If the person responds " no", ask what he/she did (what did he/she dedicate him/herself to) last week and make the corresponding annotation in agreement with the answer that the person gives.
Mark box 2 when:

a) The person did not have a job or employment during the reference week but has worked before and is looking for employment (visits employment agencies or offices in search of work, consults friends about the availability of work, is relying on ads in newspapers, that is to say, makes the effort with the goal of finding employment).
b) The person is not looking for work because a job has been found that will begin on a previously appointed date.
c) The person did not look for work nor solicit employment because they thought that they did not have any chance of getting a job.

Mark box 3 when:
The person has never worked but is looking for a first job ("New Worker").
Box 4, Homemaker
Include in this group women who dedicate themselves only and exclusively to domestic tasks and chores in their own home and were not looking for work, nor were they retired, pensioned, living on investments, or attending school.

[p. 40]

Box 5, Retired, pensioned, rentied:
Include in this group all persons who have stopped working and are receiving income exclusively in the concept of auxiliary or pensioned retirement. By the same manner, include in this group all the persons who, without working, receive money or investments from a business or enterprise. Do not include persons who receive a pension for food, divorce, etc.
Box 6, Other condition
In this group persons 10 years old or older who are not thought to be in a previously defined group and that do not have a remunerated job and are not looking for employment are classified. The following persons will be included in this group:

a) Student: The person who dedicates him/herself to studying.
b) Economically inactive: The person who, without being classified in any of the previous groups, does not do any economic activity and remains idle because he/she does not want to work or for being found physically or mentally impeded to do it.

In relation with this question, special care should be taken with persons of the female sex who declare themselves to be "Homemaker" (box 4) and those who declare themselves to be students (box 6). In the first case they sometimes also do remunerated jobs like: cleaning, ironing, sewing, styling hair, painting fingernails, making candy, etc. in their own home or outside it but because they spend little time in these labors they forget to give this information.
On the other hand, some students after class or on weekends dedicate themselves to cleaning shoes, selling newspapers, washing cars, etc. Equal care should be taken with the spouse or companion or the children of farm families, who regularly help with the agricultural labors but do not declare this job. In these cases mark box 1 "you worked".
For the reasons already explained, it is necessary that when asking and receiving as an answer that the person is a "Homemaker" or "Student", the Enumerator should go into more depth to find out if the person worked any job during the reference week. If the result was that during this period the person worked, even when it was partially, instead of [p. 41] marking box 3 (Homemaker) or 6 (Student), box 1 "You worked" will be marked and the interview will continue in order to finish the information of the section relating to economic characteristics.

Question 14 What occupation, position or job did you carry out last week?

(Only for one who worked or looked for employment)

For the person who "worked" (box 1 of question 13) during the reference week, write down the profession, job, office or principal class of job that was worked during this week. If more than one job was worked, only write the one that produced the largest income.
For the person who did not work during the reference week but had worked before and looked for employment, (box 2 of question 13), write down the last occupation, office or employment worked.
For the person who never has worked and is looking for a first job (box 3 of question 13), write down "New Worker" and do not ask this person questions 15 to 18.
The occupation should be written down in a precise form, using the specific designations and therefore not using vague and generic terms.
Examples:
Incorrect: Mechanic;
Correct: Auto Mechanic, Dental Technician, Heavy Machinery Mechanic

Incorrect: Professor
Correct: Professor of Primary School, Professor of Dance, Song, Professor of Secondary School, University Professor

Incorrect: Office worker;
Correct: Typist, Secretary, Accountant, File Clerk

[p. 42]

Incorrect: Weaver;
Correct: Weaver of Hackamores, Hat Weaver,

Incorrect: Agricultural Worker;
Correct: Milkier, Coffee Harvester, Cane Cutter, Cowhand

Incorrect: Construction Worker;
Correct: Mason, Plumber, Construction Carpenter

In the majority of the cases of professional activities, the occupation corresponds to the profession of the person to be enumerated. Nevertheless, persons with professional specialization can work jobs of a different nature than their specialization in which case the occupation or job that they had during the reference week will be written down. If a doctor in General Medicine, for example, does not work at this profession, but rather [has] a position as Professor in the University, "University Professor" should be written down.
For employees of the National or Municipal Government that are responsible for legislative, executive, administrative and managerial functions, write the title for which they have been elected or appointed. Example: Governor, Mayor, Minister of State, Head of Department, Head of Section, Treasurer, Port Inspector, General Comptroller, Education Inspector, Director of Primary School, Captain of the National Guard, etc.
For other of the Government employees, get when it is possible the specific occupation Example: Architect, Engineer, Agronomist, Pharmacist, Veterinarian, Zoologist, Surgeon, Dentist, Nurse, Midwife, School Teacher, Lawyer, Municipal Judge, Shorthand Clerk, Auditor, Agent of the National Guard, Circuit District Attorney, Municipal Representative, etc.
For the employees of the Government whose specific occupation is difficult to determine, write: Public Employee.

[p. 43]

Question 15 Was your job paid in money or in kind by a person, institution or company?

(Only for one who worked and who had worked before and looked for employment)

If the answer to this question is "YES", ask where the person worked and mark box 1, 2, or 3 according to the answer. To mark the corresponding box, the following definitions should be kept in mind:

[The instructions refer to a graphic of question 15 of the census form.]

Box 1. Government Employee: is a person who works or has worked for the National, Municipal Government such as: The Ministry of Treasury, Secretary, Council, Autonomous and Semi-autonomous Entities like the General Finance Office, Social Security Fund, Institute of Economic Promotion, etc. and receives for the job remuneration in the form of a salary of a wage.
Box 2. Private Company Employee: is a person who works or has worked for a private employer and receives for the job remuneration in the form of a salary, wage, commission, tip, payments by the job or payments in kind. Examples: Agricultural Worker, domestic employee, seller in a grocery store, employee in a shoe factory, etc.
Box 3. Employee in the Panama Canal Zone. The person classified as an employee of the Panama Canal Zone is all persons who work or have worked in a company, business or institution established in this area. Example: Employees of the Army of the United States, private offices or workplaces, banks, employees in a family house, employees of contractors, etc.
Box 4. Worker on their own account: One who runs or has run their own economic company or private business or manages on their own account a profession or office and is not in charge of any remunerated employees. This person can work alone or with associates. Example: Bus driver, Traveling salesperson, Home hairstylist, Shoeshine [person], etc.

[p. 44]

Box 5. Employer (owner): One who runs or has run their own economic business (alone or with associates), or manages on their own account a profession or office, that always is in charge of one or more employees who receive salaries. Example: The owner of a department store who has many employees, the agricultural and livestock producer who has cowhands and farmers who tend to his farm or ranch, etc.
Box 6. Family Worker: It is the person who manages or has managed an occupation working at least a third of the time during the reference week without receiving remuneration in a company or business run by a member of the family.

Question 16 Where did you work?

(Only for one who worked and who had worked before and looked for employment)

This question's primary goal is to know where the person carried out or had carried out the occupation declared in Question 14. In order to be able to get the most exact information, the name of the company or institution and the principal activity which this company or institution does is requested.
Before filling out this question the enumerator should keep in mind the following:

a) Government Employee: For the person who worked last week (the reference week) or for one who had worked before and looked for employment: Write down the name of the Department, Ministry, or the Institution and do not fill out the space meant for "Principal Activity".

Examples: General Hospital of the Social Security Fund
Institute of Economic Progress
Municipal Treasury
Post office and Telecommunications
Ministry of Public Works
National University
National Guard
[p. 45]
b) Private Company Employee: For the person who worked last week (the reference week) or for one who had worked before and looked for employment: Write down the name and the principal activity of the company or establishment where the person worked.
Examples:

Name of the company / Principal Activity

Las Delicias Grocery / Sale of Food
La Española Drugstore / Sale of Medicine
Continental Hotel / Accommodations
National Brewery / Production of Beer and sodas
Commercial Distributor / Distribution of Beer and sodas
Santa Lucía Ranch / Raising of cattle
Department Store La Suerte / Sale of clothes and similar things
El Tamarindo Bar / Bar and dance hall

c) Employee of the Panama Canal Zone: For the persons who worked last week (the reference week) or for one who had worked before and looked for employment: Write down the name of the company, office, section, division or department.
Examples:

Name of the company / Principal Activity

First National City Bank / Bank
Division of the Maintaining of the Company of the Canal / Maintaining of buildings, highways, etc.
Clubhouse (Restaurant) / Sale of food
Maritime Agents / Maritime transportation of passengers and Cargo
Division of Army Engineers / Technical Engineering jobs
Insurance Company / Life, fire insurance, etc.
Commissary / Sale of food
Tailor's Workshop / Tailoring of clothes
Barber Shop / Cutting of hair
Beauty Salon / Personal care
[p. 46]
d) Worker for his/her own account, employer (owner) and family worker: For the person who worked last week (the reference week) or for one who had worked before and looked for employment. Write down the name and the principal activity of the business. If the business does not have a name, draw a diagonal line and only write down the principal activity of the business.

In some cases it is not possible to determine the name of the establishment or company where the interviewed person works or had worked. These cases will be written down in the space meant for principal activity in the following manner:

Agricultural Farm: When the farm does not have a name or the interviewed person does not remember the name of the farm.
Family House: For persons who work or have worked in a family house as a domestic employee, cook, nanny, ironer, cleaner, gardener, etc.
In their own house: For persons who do the following labors in his/her own home: seamstresses, tailors, cleaners, ironers, sellers of food, etc.
In the street: For persons who work or have worked for their own account as: cleaner of cars, traveling salesperson, patio or garden cleaner, taxi driver, party bus (chiva) driver, bus driver, commission agent, cleaner, ironer, etc.
Special cases: For persons who manage or have managed a same occupation in more than one business, like for example an accountant who keeps the books for a factory and a department store at the same time, write down the name of the business from which the larger salary is or was received.

Question 17 What wage or salary do you earn?

This question is only for persons who declared to have worked last week (box 1 of Question 13) as [p. 47] an Employee of the Government, of a Private Company, or of the Panama Canal Zone (box 1, 2 or 3 respectively of Question 15). Do not include in these cases [here] persons pensioned for food, divorce, etc.
Write down in Balboas, in the corresponding space, the total amount of the wage or salary that the person earns, according to whether it is hourly, daily, weekly or monthly. If the person also receives income by commission, pension or retirement, write down the sum in the corresponding space. It is very important to note that this question can have more than one answer.
Examples:

1. If the salary is established as B/0.60 per hour make the annotation in the following manner:
Salary B/0.60 per hour even when the payment is given weekly.
2. If the payment is established as B/150.00 monthly make the annotation in the following manner:
Salary B/150.00 per month even when the payment is paid every two weeks. Such is the case with Government employees, whose wage is fixed in a monthly sum, but receive payment every two weeks.
3. If the person works as salesperson for an electric appliances shop with a fixed wage of B/200.00 monthly, plus a monthly commission according to the total amount of the sale (let's say that the commission in the last month was B/160.00), the annotation of this information will be done in the following manner:
Salary B/200.00 monthly
Commission B/160.00 monthly
4. If the person is retired with a pension of B/60.00 monthly and also works as a watchman with a monthly wage of B/90.00, this information will be written down as:
Salary B/90.00 per month
Pension B/60.00 per month
[p. 48]

It should not be forgotten that the question refers to the gross wage or salary, that is to say without deducting Social Security payments or Income Taxes or any other deductions like a loan from a bank or other credit institutions. Do not forget that this question applies to those persons who were on vacation, sick or on leave during the reference week and were classified in box 1, 2, or 3 of Question 15. You will ask these persons for their last salary or wage before going on vacation, on leave or getting sick.

Question 18 How many hours did you work last week?

This question is asked only to the person who claimed to have work last week in Question 13 and is classified in Question 15 as: Government Employee, Private Company Employee or Panama Canal Zone Employee (boxes 1, 2 or 3 respectively).
Write down in the corresponding space the total number of hours worked last week (the reference week: May 3 to May 9). For salaried farm workers try to get this information with as much precision possible. For those persons who were on vacation, were sick or on leave last week (the reference week) write down the number of hours worked during the last work week or that is before going on vacation or on leave or getting sick. Include overtime worked during the reference week always when they refer to the occupation declared in Question 14.

[p. 49]

D. Social Security

(Only for those 10 years old or older) [Applies to questions 19 - 20]

Question 19 Have you ever paid Social Security?

Mark the corresponding box according to the answer that the person gives, keeping in mind that the person who pays or has paid Voluntary Social Security should be included. If the answer is " no", also mark the box "NO" in question 20.

Question 20 Did you pay Social Security last month?

Mark the corresponding box according to the answer that the person gives, keeping in mind that the person who has paid Voluntary Social Security should be included.

E. Fertility

Question 21 How may children born alive have you had?

This question is only for women 15 years old or older.
It should be kept in mind that generally the enumerated person tends to omit those children who were born alive but died shortly thereafter or at the moment of birth, limiting themselves to declaring only those who are currently alive. Because of this, emphasis should be made to phrase the question so that is it clear that the number of children born alive is what is wanted, [p. 50] and that it is not important how many are still alive and how many have died. Keep in mind that children who are with the mother as well as those who do not live with her are to be included.
Write down "00" for all women 15 years old or older who have not had a child.

Question 22 Of these [live born], how many were born in the last 12 months?

This question is exclusively for women between 15 and 50 years of age who declared to have had children because what is wished to be known is the number of children declared in Question 21 who were born in the last 12 months, or that is from May 9, 1969 to May 9, 1970.
If the woman has had no children in the last 12 months, write down "00".

Total number of people living in the Dwelling: This information will be written down in the box that is in the upper right of Section III (Population Information). In the case of using more than one form for a dwelling, this information should be written down only on the last form.

Special Information

The special information that is requested on the back of the form refers to persons residing in the visited dwelling who were found to be not present at the moment of the interview. The questions are the following:
Name: Write down the name of persons who are considered permanent members of the dwelling who were out of the country for the following reasons: vacations, studies, sickness, pleasure trip, work (travel agents, consuls, ambassadors, advisors, technicians, etc.), sailors, crews of ships of the high sea, etc.
Relation with the Head: Write down the relationship or relation that the person has with the Head of household.
Sex: Write down "M" for male and "F" for female.
Age: Write down the age in completed years that the person has.

[p. 51]

Highest grade or school year passed: Write down the highest grade or school year that the absent person passed.
Country: Write down the name of the country where the person is found.
Length of absence: Write down the time that the person has been absent from the country.
Reason: Write down the reason why the person is absent.
Date and Signature
Once the enumerator has finished filling out the Family Form, the enumerator will write down the day in which the form was filled out and the signature in the corresponding space.

Special Cases:
The Embassies and the Foreign Consulates will be enumerated through the Ministry of Foreign Relations.

[p. 52]

General Instructions for the Enumeration of Collective Dwellings

1. Definition of Collective Dwelling: A Collective Dwelling is defined as, that dwelling which is used by a group of persons who live together for reasons of lodging, treatment, or for reasons of instruction, of work, of religious creed, of military service or any other type of reason (brothels).
2. Types or groups of Collective Dwellings: For enumeration purposes, Collective Dwellings have been classified in 2 types or principal groups. These groups and the manner in which they will be enumerated are explained below.
a) First type of group: Schools, Penal Institutions, Asylums, Orphanages, Reformatories, Children's Homes, Children's Hospital, the Hospital Nicolás Solano and the Psychiatric Hospital.

1) Who should Enumerate? The enumeration of these Collective Dwellings will be carried out by a civil servant of the Office of Statistics and the Census.
2) Who should be Enumerated? The following people should be enumerated: Students, interns, detainees, shut-in persons (in asylums, orphanages, reformatories or children's houses). Sick shut-ins (Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano, Psychiatric Hospital), that slept in this dwelling or establishment the night of the 9th to the 10th of May.
3.) Form that will be used: To enumerate the persons mentioned above, the Form for Special Collective Dwellings will be used.
4) Special Case: As the case can be made that in the Special Collective Dwellings, classified in the first type or group, a manager or personnel on duty may live there, and slept there the night of the 9th to the 10th of May. These persons will be enumerated with the Family Form.
[p. 53]

b) Second type or group: In this group the following establishments have been classified: hotels; tenements; clinics and hospitals (except the Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano, Psychiatric Hospital), religious communities; coastal trading ships anchored in the bay; brothels.

1) Who should enumerate? The enumeration of these Collective Dwellings will be carried out by a civil servant of the Office of Statistics and the Census and, in special cases, by a person who has the responsibility for running the establishment or by the person who this person designates.
2) Who should be enumerated?:
a) Those persons lodged in hotels and pensions. Persons "in transit" through the country or that is, those whose stay will not exceed 48 hours, only should answer the following questions:
Name and Surname
Sex
Age

b) Sick shut-ins in hospitals or clinics (except those interned in the Children's Hospital, Hospital Nicolás Solano and the Psychiatric Hospital).
c) Directors, Administrators, Managers and Owners of an establishment or institution and their family members who live in this establishment or institution.
d) Service personnel of the establishment or institution and their family members who always live in it. For example: Interned inspectors or watchpersons, doctors, nurses, waiters, cooks, cleaners, etc.
e) Members of religious communities.
3) Form that will be used: To enumerate the persons mentioned above, the " Family Form" will be used.
[p. 54]

3. Procedure to follow for filling out the schedules and census forms:

a) General Instructions: Before beginning the job of enumerating, the person in charge of filling out the form should have carefully read the instructions that appear in the Enumerator's Manual. In case of any doubt, the civil servant responsible for the census work of the area where the collective dwelling is located will be consulted. For those collective dwellings where the form should be filled out by the person who runs the establishment or the person who has been selected for this task, there will be a civil servant from the Office of Statistics and the Census who will come to collect it on the day of the 10th of May and carry out the verifications that are deemed necessary. In the case of collective dwellings, enumerated in the First Type or Group, the procedure will be to enumerate on the Family Form, the managerial and service personnel of the respective establishment. Then the Form for Collective Dwellings will be filled out for the rest of the persons that occupy this dwelling as shut-ins, interned, etc.
In the case of Collective Dwellings enumerated in the Second Group both the managerial personnel and other persons will be enumerated, with the Family Form.
b) Form for Special Collective Dwellings: This form has room to write down the information of 36 persons. When the number of persons that occupy the collective dwelling exceeds this amount additional forms will be used.
On the additional forms the information about the locality, the name and the address of the establishment that appears on the original form will be transcribed; below that the information corresponding to the rest of the persons will continue to be written down.
[c] Family Form: This form is the same that is used for enumerating persons who live in private dwellings. After filling out the information relative to the locality, name and address of the establishment, an X in box 6 Question 1 will be marked to indicate that it concerns a Collective Dwelling. As a general rule, questions 2 to 14 about the characteristics of the dwelling will not be filled out for Collective Dwellings.
[p. 55]

With respect to questions about characteristics of the population (1 to 22 of the form), the following procedure will be followed:

1) In the case that there is independent family groups who inhabit these dwellings, they will be enumerated following the norms that are applied to the enumeration of families living in private dwellings.
2) Persons who reside as guests will be enumerated on a separate form and in the question about relation or relationship to the Head, "guest" will be written down.
3) Persons who reside as administrators or service employees and do not have any family members with them, should be enumerated on the same form as the guests and for relation, "other" will be written down.

[p. 56]

The Agricultural and Livestock Census in Indigenous Zones

For reasons of practical order the Agricultural and Livestock Census will be carried out at the same time as those of Population and Dwelling on May 10, 1970. A different form that has the following sections will be used for it.
a. Locality Information:
In this the name of the province, district, locality and segment where the dwelling to be enumerated will be written down.
b. Seasonal Cultivations:
This section contains the following questions:

How much did you plant in 1969? (rice, jungle vine (bejuco), yucca, yams).
How much did you harvest? (rice, jungle vine (bejuco), yucca, yams).
How much did you sell? (rice, jungle vine (bejuco), yucca, yams).
c. Permanent Cultivations:
How many trees or plants that produce something do you have today? (Plantain trees, banana trees, coffee trees, cocoa plants, coconut trees, avocado plants, orange trees).
How much did you sell in 1969? (Plantain, banana trees, coffee bushes, cocoa plants, coconut trees, avocado plants, orange trees).
d. Animals:
How many do you have today? (of all ages) (cows, horses, pigs, hens, roosters, chickens, ducks and geese).
e. Domestic Industry:
How many did you make in 1969? (hats, hammocks, change purses (chácaras) and regular purses, handicraft jewels [chaquiras] and necklaces, traditional carrying baskets [jabes or molas"], coconuts [copra] (in number of coconuts)).
How much did you sell in 1969? (hats, hammocks, change purses (chácaras) and regular purses, handicraft jewels [chaquiras] and necklaces, traditional carrying baskets [jabes or molas"], coconuts [copra] (in number of coconuts))
f. Observations:
This space will be employed to make any explanation with the purpose of giving more clarity to the information contained in any of the questions.