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Census Guide
National Census 2011
Government of Nepal
Central Bureau of Statistics

[p. 2]
[Introduction is omitted]

[p. 3]
[List of contents is omitted]

[p. 6]

Part -1: Census introduction and work and responsibility of enumerator

[Sections of: history of the census and census requirements are omitted]

3. Process of national census
Under the process of national census 1) pre census activities 2) field works and 3) post enumeration activities are included.

3.1 Pre census activities
3.1.1 Director committee, formation of technical committees
Planning of pre census activities starts before 3 years of fieldwork. In this process, along with review and evaluation of earlier census, expectations of the future census and the demands of government, data users of other areas are interacted with different parties. About the planning of National Census 2068, under the coordination of honorable deputy chairman of the National Planning Commission, director committee, different technical committee/sub-committees have been formed under the chairmanship of the General Director / Deputy Director General of Central Bureau of Statistics.

3.1.2 Organization proposal preparation, drafting questionnaires, pre-testing, test counting
Initially, planning of national census proposal was done and interactions took place between donor agencies, national agencies and the center bureau of statistics in different steps after documentation of different activities, estimated budget and expected budget from internal and external sources. Along with this, activating technical committees, questionnaire drafts, strategy of inclusive census, strategy of publicity, and other technical preparations were done. Similarly, pre-testing of drafts was done and interactions were organized in a majority of districts with participation of concerned authorities comprising mountain, hill, Terai, east, west, rural and urban areas. Then after, pilot census was organized in seven districts of Nepal namely Jumla, Doti, Banke, Kathmandu, Syangja, Mahottari, and Ilam. During questionnaire testing, drafts of census guides were also prepared.

[p. 7]

3.1.5 Preparation of inclusive census strategies
In order to make national census more inclusive, preparations have been completed, such as keeping questions related to women empowerment in the questionnaire, increasing women's participation in census preparation, including women's activities in production of publicity materials, arrangement of 40 percent women enumerators in fieldwork, and plans of statistical tables illustrating women's situation in census result included in the presentation after the census.

3.1.6 Appointment and training of official supervisor and enumerators
In National Census 2068 B.S. census offices will be established in all the districts. Establishing 3 census offices in Kathmandu, 2 each in Lalitpur, Morang, and Rupandehi. In each census office, census officers will work as head of district census office and area supervisors, census supervisor, and census staff in number of around 42,000 including enumerations will be working.
Employees of Center Bureau of Statistics will be brought to work when the required number of staff is not fulfilled, and local teachers will be utilized in regional works. If unfulfilled, new appointments will be made on contractual basis. Training will be arranged in different levels in order to make staff skilled in census work.

3.1.7 Establishment of district census offices and preparation
Throughout 75 districts of the country, 80 census offices will be established and in each district 2 to 5 area census offices will be established as per requirement.

3.1.8 Publicity
Accurate statistics can come only when questions in census are answered realistically. In order to encourage the respondent to answer correctly the questions asked in census, it is essential to help them realize the importance of census through different communication channels. The respondent is informed that giving correct answers to the asked question helps, giving prior information about census when enumerations go house to house. With the aim of spreading awareness of common people, publicity about census can be made through different media communication channels- newspapers, radio, television, cinema slide, poster/calendar/postal ticket, website etc.

3.2 Census field work
Fieldwork of census is carried out in two steps. First stage i.e. household notification task carried by the supervisors reaching each family, whereas in second stage, enumerators go to each household and fill out the questionnaires (data 1 and data 2). Questionnaires of data 1 will be filled in each household through direct interview whereas data 2 will be filled in selected households only. In all households of six mountainous districts having minimum population and 28 municipalities, both data 1 and 2 will be filled for total census. The list of district and municipality having total census is mentioned in index 2.1.

[p. 8]

3.3 Pilot census activities
3.3.1 Pilot enumeration Survey, PES
After fieldwork of census, pilot enumeration survey is carried out. In this survey, where quality of census is tested through selection method, census coverage and content related error is tested.

3.3.2 Editing and coding
In order to prepare questionnaires received from fieldwork for data entry, details of related sections are edited and coded through appropriate method. It is necessary to give this work a significant importance as details of census when edited and coded determines quality of statistics.

3.3.3 Data entry and verification
After filled details in census questionnaire forms are edited and coded, using appropriate software, a data entry program according to the pattern of census questionnaire is produced and data entry is carried out. Similarly, through computer programs, these data are verified and finalized.

3.3.4 Tabulation
Details asked in census questionnaires are processed in a result form and presented in different tables. Details in questionnaires are presented in appropriate tables in a way that users can understand. These tables are prepared considering the demand of statistics users and details asked in the questionnaires.

3.3.5 Result analysis, publishing and distribution
Results of census are consulted with experts and scholars and are analyzed through different perspectives. They are then presented/distributed among users in forms of various publications.
Therefore, the total process of national census requires around 5 years to complete.

4. Need and importance of enumerator guide
Collection of details of every family and individual of every household residing throughout the nation in a short span of time is an important task. As the contribution of enumerators is very important in this task, creating uniformity in field data collection tasks to improve data quality is the aim for which this guide is prepared. All enumerators involved in census should carry census task making. This is a compulsorily.

5. Works to be completed by enumerator during census
The enumerator should bring back the answers of questions from the questionnaire from each household. Therefore, the enumerator should understand each question of the questionnaires and make them understandable to the family head and all those who should answer and ensure they write correct answers. Through this perspective, the enumerator's role is huge for successful implementation of census.

Major responsibilities to be carried by enumerator during the time of census
1. According to the program of National Census 2068, enumerators should participate in enumeration training and discussion. They should read thoroughly and understand completely the subjects of questionnaires, definitions of questions asked in questionnaires, census procedure, and census guide.

2. They should recognize the limits of the enumeration area where one is assigned census work. The enumerator, after reaching the enumeration area, should receive general information such as the number of wards within the enumeration area or the area to be covered in a particular ward, the name of settlements, the paths and streets to reach that place, time taken to reach and return, identify population density, and so on and so forth.

3. An enumerator should identify where he/she is starting census work and ending beforehand, otherwise that can create confusion. Enumerators are given maps of their enumeration area. Though different instruction is provided related to the maps, for uniformity, enumerators should carry census work starting from the Northeast corner in a serpentine order without missing any household.

4. Before starting work, the enumerator should visit one's area and check if house serial number and family serial number is written or not, after receiving a household notification list from a supervisor. House number and family serial number should be written as below.

If 1 family resides in a house, it should be written as Ja. (total) 1/1, if 5 families have resided in a house, it should be written as Ja. 1/1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and if more than 10 families have resided then it should be written as Ja. 1/1-10.

That's why if a supervisor misses including any family in the listing of household, the enumerator should list the details of that missed family including house number after listing the last house of listing. If supervisor happens to miss any family of the house only then enumerator should fill in the house number and missed family number and details of that family after filling the last family of the listing.

5. Regarding whom to ask the details of the questionnaire by the enumerator, this information is mentioned clearly in the questionnaire as well as in its guide. Questions should be asked to the family head or someone responsible enough to answer about his/her family. Some details like date of birth of female can be correct if one can ask the female individual herself. Exact questions mentioned in the list should be asked with each family or individual understanding the intention of those questions. Unnecessary questions should not be asked.

[p. 9]

6. Questions should be asked in the form they are written. If the respondent does not understand a question, explain the question and write down the answer in a clear manner. It means he/she should not write the answer by interpreting the answer of the responder.

7. Questions are related to one another. That's why there should be consistency with the answer of a question to answer of another question. If there is not consistency, one should try to ask supplementary questions to maintain consistency in answers.

8. The enumerator should complete counting works within the designated timeframe, making the list one is working on. If due to any emergency, counting work cannot be completed in the designated timeframe, one has to report to one's supervisor on time to make necessary arrangements.

9. Every collected form/questionnaire should be kept safe. Details should not be collected or even showed in presence of any other unrelated people other than the supervisor, area supervisor or related official working in the enumeration area. If privacy of collected individual/personal details are revealed, one should be aware that a complaint will be made as per Statistics Act, 2015.

10. After completing the count in the set enumeration area, forms counted should be verified. If there is any count missing or repeated, one should rectify it immediately.

11. Census work is planned to be carried from 2068 Ashad 3 until Ashad 13. Census tenure will be exactly 11 days and the result of counting will be held in the mid date, i.e. Ashad 8. Enumerator on the last day, i.e. Ashad 13 should count those people who are missed or left in one's enumeration, street children whose address is uncertain, wanderers, sage, yogi, beggar or people like such should be counted where they are found. Such people are in probability to be missed but they should not be missed. That's why the enumerator should give special attention so that no one is left out or to not be counted twice. To their best ability, within the counting period, the enumerator should count the families in responsibility in a balanced way, not many or too few in a single day.

12. Counting that has been completed should be verified, and, before submitting to the supervisor, details as given in the cover page such as area counted, total list number, total family number, and total counted population (male-female), should be maintained. Similarly, counting start date and counting end date should also be mentioned. As the significant task, the enumerator, while submitting the form to the supervisor, should fill in details correctly in the control form that includes data 1 and data 1 and 2 to be submitted collectively. He/she should also write his/her name and sign before submitting.

[Sections: 6 "Items enumerators should carry with them during census", 7 " Enumerator's self-identity", 8 "Things to remember by enumerator while filling details in census" are omitted here.]

[p. 14]

9. Some rules to be followed by enumerators while filling census questionnaire

a. Some rules to follow while filling questionnaire
Enumerators involved in census can follow census guide regarding how to ask questions from questionnaire and fill answers. They have to follow rules as mentioned in census guide. In the section of questionnaire filling guide, probable questions and their answers are illustrated in detail with examples clearly. Though here are some few things which are emphasized to follow.

1. While filling data/form, wherever it is asked to make a circle, circle should be made in the number. E.g. 1 if male and 2 if female should be circled (O). Example:

[] (O) 1 male [option 1 is circled.]
[] 2. Female

2. In the space provided for answer, words, or numbers should be written clearly without making multiple corrections.

3. In the headings of age, area, number of workers, answers should be written in Devanagari number and not in words.

4. While filling data forms, in the sections of questions where special age group people should not be asked, dash (-) should be written.

While filling data forms, things to remember and other total instructions are provided in other sections of this guide. Enumerator should follow instructions based on that.

b. When families in household listing data form are not found
While going to the family in the household list data form and if the family is not found, one has to identify where the family has gone. If any family has gone somewhere else for a short period of time, one has to take details in appropriate time identifying their return date. If the family has shifted in different place of the same ward, then counting should be done from the same place they have stayed. If the family has migrated to any other parts of Nepal, then the enumerator from the new place should add the details of the family in the list data form and in the explanation section should mention that they have migrated. Likewise, the enumerator of the place from where the family has migrated should mention about migration in the explanation.
[p. 15]

As mentioned above, while going to families listed in list form if not met, one has to inform neighbors and come back again to collect data. If there is sure that the family returns back then only arrangements for interview should be made.

If such families that cannot be met, information should be taken from neighbors regarding their arrival. Information should be left and before call backs, decision should be made through neighbors regarding appointment with such families. If any family is out of contact during the time of census, then details of the family should be tried to obtain through the closest relative.

c. Refusals
If any family or individual does not want to provide details to keep it confidential, then one has to try to take details making him/her understand about privacy policy. Details obtained from any individuals without their interest can be false. That's why in order to prevent refusals, publicity should be made before about census which happens long time ahead but enumerator should understand that well and from one's side during the time of census share about the purpose of census and illustrate about privacy of details well. It should also be illustrated that the collected data will be kept confidential according to Statistics Act 2015 and are used in collective form for only statistical use and no any issue will come in future due to such data.

Behavior and personality of the enumerator also creates positive impact while receiving actual data from respondent.

d. Vacant references
If there is any home where families have not stayed or is left or locked, such vacant references are generally not included in census. But if houses included in household list form is vacant, enumerator should write explanation. Information can be found about those houses where family is not present through neighbor, house sitter, house owner or any other source. Explanation should be written for those houses that have recently been left out or is under construction or recently been demolished within the enumeration area.

e. Enumeration of special group of population
For people who do not stay in family and stay in groups like barrack, hostel, old age home, orphanage, homeless vagabond, street children, only personal details of data 1 should be collected.

[p. 16]

1. Institutional households
If any person stays in institutional households like: jail, orphanage, mental hospital, army and police barrack, cantonment, foster house, hostel, old age home, rehabilitation center, their details should be taken by the enumerator with the help of the institution. Or data should be collected providing small training to someone reliable of the same institution.

2. Counting of homeless and wanderers, sage and saints
For homeless, sage, saints and street children, wanderers, on the last day of census, whoever is met in any place, counting should be done right away and they should be made clear that they are included in census and they need not provide their details from any other place.

3. Counting of Nepalese in diplomatic mission in Nepal and abroad
During the time of census, foreigners staying in Nepal and working in foreign diplomatic mission located in Nepal should not be counted. But other foreigners who are staying in Nepal and are employed and doing business, they should be counted. Likewise, Nepalese people who are working overseas in Nepalese missions should also be counted during the time of census and department should make necessary arrangements.

Note: If any Nepalese works in foreign diplomatic mission of Nepal and stays in its accommodation, they should also be counted.

4. Regarding the counting of refugees
If the refugees are staying in Nepal in camps and if those camps fall within the area of enumeration, then they should not be counted. But if any refugee stays in any other place apart from camp doing business or service, then their details should be collected from the place they stay.

5. Regarding the counting of minority settlements and people of remote areas
Nepal is a country with difficult topography. The main purpose of census is to collect data from different settlements, castes, and creeds living in Nepal without missing any detail of each and maintain their original identity. So people belonging to a minority settlement and living in remote areas and in a minimal number should be counted with special attention though they stay away from a majority settlement.

10. Regarding the map used by enumerators
An enumerator should collect data of families and areas designated to him/her during eleven days (the census time). While counting this way, special attention should be made so that no one is missed out or repeated. So, according to a village or municipality development committee, in the prepared map of enumeration area, the responsibility of enumerators are also considered and in V.D.C., ward borders are made and wards in urban area have block borders. In this way the enumeration map is prepared. The same map should be used by the enumerator at the time of counting. If any ward is big, that ward is divided according to population and enumeration area is prepared according to requirement. If population is adequate, each ward is prepared as separate enumeration area map. Likewise, in the wards where there is a large proportion of minimum population, enumeration area work of two or more than two wards should be done by a single enumerator. Detailed description regarding map studies is provided in section of map studies.

[p. 17]

11. Relationship and contact of enumerators with supervisor
A supervisor is a focal person between the enumerator and the district or area office. An enumerator should always communicate to the supervisor and should contact the supervisor.

1. An enumerator should give information about any trouble faced to the supervisor for its solution, and as per instruction of the supervisor make the necessary initiatives.

2. An enumerator should contact the supervisor to carry census work of designated area or if additional information is required regarding designated area.

3. As far as possible, an enumerator should show initial questionnaires filled by him/her to the supervisor and discuss with him/her and correct those things that need correction.
4. As the supervisor receives progress of census work time to time, an enumerator should always remain prepared and keep one's work up-to-date.

12. Responsibility of an enumerator after counting work is completed
After an enumerator completes counting work of one's designated area, filled forms should be properly verified and if any changes are required, should make changes and keeps it correct. All details of the forms should be properly filled and numbers should also match in sequence.

Likewise, the map of enumeration area and listing data form, data 1, collective book of data 1 and 2 should be kept in separate index and submitted to the supervisor. While submitting these forms to the supervisor, control forms of data 1 and collective book of data 1 and 2 should have details filled. Until the forms are submitted to supervisor, they should be kept safe so that they are not torn, wasted, or wet.

[p. 18]

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[p. 19]

Part 2: Data - 1
Guide for details collection

In Data 1, three types of details should be collected:

a. Introductory details
b. Family details
c. Personal details

Introductory Details
The following information should be written in the upper part of data 1 in introductory details.

District- The name of district where the enumerator is working should be written clearly and completely. First, identify the district where the area, village, settlement lie where an enumerator is counting. E.g. Gulmi.

V.D.C. / Municipality- The area where counting is happening, it's village development committee or municipality name should be written. If it falls in V.D.C. then municipality should be crossed with a dash, and if it falls in municipality, V.D.C. should be crossed and related V.D.C. or municipality name should be written. E.g. Kathmandu, Pokhara, Butwal, Itahari, Thanapati, Ruru, etc.

Ward No.- After the name of V.D.C./municipality is written, the ward number of the family should be written after asking which ward number the house is located in that V.D.C./municipality. Each V.D.C. has 1 to 9 wards and each municipality can have 1 to 35 number of wards.

Village/ Settlement/ Tole- The houses of people in different locations are known as village or settlement. The family which is going to be counted, its village/settlement/tole name should be written. For example, Hulaktole, Bhatkuwa Nete, Tilaar, Dandapokhari, Bastipur, Ghoghanpur, Basantapur, etc.

House Serial No.- When the enumerator write the house serial number of the area that he/she counts, the number written in the family listing form should be the same as the house serial number, and it should assigned to the corresponding house. If the number written in the house is not clear, look at the household listing data form, search for the house serial number, and confirm and write the same number. For example, the supervisor writes the family serial number as Ja 3/6, so the house serial number should be written as 3. If any family has not house serial number, then the enumerator should determine and write the house serial number for that house. While writing serial number, looking at household data form, the number for that house should be in increasing number than the total serial number written by supervisor for your enumeration area. E.g., if the last serial number in household listing data form is 176 then, the missed out house serial number should be written as 177. If there are more houses that missed serial numbers then they should be 178, 179, and so on. The new house serial number should be added into the household listing data form. The serial number of the family whose house serial number is missed should be written in data 1 and data 2.

[p. 20]

Note- In each enumeration area, providing house number, house number and family number is determined. If enumeration area is smaller than ward area, all houses of enumeration area are serially collected and ward's total number is written in questionnaire book cover page.

Family S.N.- Every enumerator while writing family serial number of the enumeration area he/she is designated, similar to the above mentioned house serial number, the serial number mentioned in household list data should be the same as the family serial number written. If the supervisor misses any family serial number of any family, the supervisor should write the family serial number for the last family, and then missed families are assigned last number of family number.

Household means- Person or group of persons staying together with generally a single income source and living and dining in the same kitchen. In a house, there can be a person or many people, people related by birth and marriage or not. In order to separate family or members of family, concept of income-expenditure and kitchen has been pivotal. In the census, 'household' and 'family' terms have been used as synonyms.

Though by legal terms not separated, a person or group of persons living separately with separate kitchen are to be written as separate family for the purpose of census. During the time of census, the place where families have been residing, details should be taken from those places. If any person or persons during the time of census are not in house of origin and in any reason are staying in different place and dining in separate kitchen then, they should be counted from different family and not from their "origin" family.

In some families, the head of the family, children or any member of family during the time of census may be staying somewhere within or outside the country for any reason, or any son/daughter can be staying somewhere else for study or training. Generally, when they are staying separately, counting should be taking from that place. Opinions can be made that counting of those people can be done from the same family. In this situation, the responder should be understand that there can be repetition in counting or the count can be missed. Members of family or relatives who generally stay in a different place should be not counted as part of the family.

But if a member of the same family who stays with that family goes somewhere else for treatment, business, pilgrimage, or any other work for some days and those people are absent, then they should be counted as part of the same family. With the purpose of no one should be missed or repeated in census, for members of family who stay in a different place, their details should be collected from the place they stay. This does not affect in legal terms. For any member of family goes to foreign country to study or work, their details should be written in circled in option number 1 of question number 13 from family details, and their details should be written in question number 14.

[p. 21]

Person means- any woman, man, boy, girl, old woman, old man of any age.

Contact phone number- If the family which is going to be counted has any type of telephone service in its place, the telephone number of family should be written. In the process of data editing, when the needed family's any detail is found to be unclear or any detail is found to be missing then contact should be made with the family for correct detail. In that case, contact telephone number can be significant.

Page number... of total pages...- This detail should be filled only after all questionnaire pages of each book is filled. When all pages of the book do not come for use, based on the number of pages used, this detail should be filled accordingly.

While counting family of each enumeration area, the total number of books used should be taken into consideration. Then accordingly, on the blank area above of page number... of total pages in the completed questionnaire of each book should be written with the description based on the numbers of completed questionnaires in each book. Whatever the number of pages completed in the used book that is the total number of pages, the current number indicated in each of the pages of the questionnaire is the number of page. The total number of pages in a book of a questionnaire is single, and the number of pages would be different in each page. While determining the total number of pages, only completed questionnaire should be counted and the unused pages should be left while counting the total number of pages. This data is entered to determine the total number of questionnaires completed in the questionnaire book and whether any of the completed questionnaires are missing or not.

Total number of members usually living in the family
The total number of members usually living in the family to be counted should be asked, and the number of each members (whether they are children -including newborn-, elder, disable) should be written separately by categorizing them into male and female.

The number provided by the respondent should align with the total number of members, separately in the each category of both male and female, written in the individual data sheet. If the numbers do match, ask the respondent again and write them by determining the accurate numbers of both male and female.

Male: The total number of male members (including the newborn baby boy, if it is) should be written.

Female: The total number of female members (including the newborn baby girl, if it is) should be written.

Number of members absent in the family (but are somewhere else inside the country)

Total: If any family member, who is not separated from the family, are in other places, but are inside the country, the total numbers of such person should be asked and the total sum of male and female should be written in this section.

Male: The total number of male members who are usually not living in the family, not separated from the family, absent in the family, living somewhere else inside the country should be written.

Female: The total number of female members who are usually not living in the family, not separated from the family, absent in the family, living somewhere else inside the country should be written.

Number of members absent in the family (but are outside the country/or in abroad)

Total: If any member besides the usually living person in the family, who is not separated from the family, are in outside the country/or in abroad, the total numbers of such person should be asked and the total sum of male-female should be written in this section.

Male: The total number of male members who are usually not living in the family, not separated from the family, absent in the family, living outside the country/or abroad should be written.
[p. 22]
Female: The total number of female members who are usually not living in the family, not separated from the family, absent in the family, living outside the country/or in abroad should be written.

Name and surname of the household head
Household head can be defined as the main person of the family who arranges/manages the daily work, spending, and other dealing in the family. Generally the male or female members who are present in the family might be the household head. But the boys or girls who are under/below 10 years old could not be the household head. In many societies, it is found that the elderly male or female or the person respected by the family members is written as the household head. With this trend, many respondent might name the elderly person of the family as the household head. Keeping in mind about such trend, the enumerator should consider the above definition and accordingly figure out who is the key person in the family who manages the daily activities, spending, and other dealings in the family and then write the name of such person as the household head.

Determining the household head of the family to be enumerated, his or her name should be written in this section. According to the definition stated for the purpose of population census, the family head should be determined and his or her first name and last name should be written. While writing the first and last name of the household head, it should be remembered that the person stated in the serial number 1 of individual data sheet/form-1 and the person stated here should be the same.

Sex of the household head
The biological sex of household head should be determined and if he is male then circle the 1 and if she is female then circle 2. While marking the sex of household head, it should match the person to be stated in the serial number-1 of individual data sheet/form-1 with the sex to be stated in the column number-4.

[p. 23]

Household information

Question 1: what type of ownership is the house used by this family?

[] 1 Private
[] 2 Rental
[] 3 Institutional
[] 4 Other

Ownership means the ownership with legal rights, i.e. the ownership of the house belongs to that person under whose name the house is registered, in which they are living currently. Some of the houses might not be legally registered and in this condition, the ownership of land corresponds to the ownership of the house. For the enumeration purpose, the ownership of house has been divided into four categories.

1. Private - During the enumeration time, if the entire house, part of it or flat, where the family is currently living, legally belongs to any of the members of the household/family, then it is considered private ownership. If the house where the family is living is entitled to use as legacy/inheritance but not transferred to them legally, in such condition it is also considered private ownership. If the house in which the family is living is private, mark the number 1 with circle.

2. Rented - If the house, part of the house or a flat, in which the family is currently living, does not belongs legally to any member of the family, and if rent (either money or goods or both) is paid for living in there, then it should be considered rented and accordingly mark the number 2 with a circle.

3. Institutional - If the family is living in a house without paying any rent, which belongs legally to an organized institution or office, then such house is an institutional house. If such house exists, mark the number 3 with circle. If any family living in a house without paying any rent, which do not belongs to any institution or office but the house are used on the terms and conditions that an institution or office shall bear the rent, then such house should be considered as an institutional house and number 3 should be marked with a circle.

4. Other - Besides the types of houses stated above, if a family lives in a house of different kind, e.g. the house or space provided by relatives or a person or the house owner and is living there without any obligation of paying rent (money or goods), then it should be stated in the category of other. If the house where the family is living does not belongs to them and also has not taken any permission to live there, it should be stated as other. In other words, the house does not belong to the family, they do not have to pay rent and it is also non-institutional, then circle the number 4 with other category and also specify what is the type of the house / living place.

Question 2: what type of construction has the house the family is using now?
House generally means the dwelling place having one or more than one room or floor, with outer wall either of concrete or mud wall with raw materials, having a roof and are using by the people for dwelling purpose.

House can be of different sizes, kinds, and types. Some houses may not have a wall. Some houses are constructed by/beside the wall of other houses (for support) or by/touching the hill or elevated land. In some cases, two houses are constructed dividing them with a wall in the middle. There would be a main door to enter and exit from the house. For the purpose of the enumeration, all these types of dwellings where families are living, including hut, home, building, mansion, flat can be understood as a house. The house might belongs to self or others. If the family has used more than one house for dwelling purpose, the information should be taken from the main house which is in good condition from the perspective of dwelling. If any family is living in rent and have put their house in rent to somebody else or even if the house is vacant during the enumeration period, then the information should be taken from the house or rental space where they are living at the time of enumeration.

[p. 24]

Generally the type of construction of any house depends on the overall structure of the house including construction materials used in/for foundation, outer walls and roof, the floor/stories of the house and the life of the house. In the question, the types of the construction of a house has been determined based on the structure like foundation, outer wall, roof, number of floors/stories, and the year of construction of the house.

2.1 Foundation

[] 1 Mud bonded brick/stone
[] 2 Cement bonded brick/stone
[] 3 RCC pillar
[] 4 Wood pillar
[] 5 Other

Foundation means the structure under the land which is constructed by digging the land and using different kinds of construction materials and which is meant to support whole weight of a house. The type of the foundation of a house is determined by the structure of the foundation and the construction materials used to develop it. The foundation of houses has been described as follows:

Mud bonded brick/stone - If the foundation of a house has used the construction materials like stone, brick, cement block etc. and they have been joined by mud, such foundation is considered as the foundation with brick/stone joined by mud.

Cement bonded brick/stone - If the foundation of a house has used the construction materials like stone, brick, cement block etc. and they have been joined by cement, such foundation is considered as the foundation with brick/stone joined by cement.

RCC pillar- If the foundation of a house is constructed by digging the land and using construction materials like cement, gravels/concrete, sand and iron bar/rod, with pillar which has been made flat enough like the feet of an elephant at the base, then such foundation is considered cemented foundation with pillar.

Wooden pillar: If the foundation of a house has been constructed by making pits on the land, putting wood pillars on those pits and construction materials like stone, clay, and brick pieces have been used to support and made stand the wood pillar, then such foundation is considered as foundation with wood pillar.

Others- If the foundation of a house is constructed in a different way other than the structure stated above, then it should be specified in the category of others.

When specifying the foundation of a house by the enumerator, if the foundation of the house where the family is living is made with brick/stone joined by mud, then he should circle the reference 1, if it is made with brick/stone joined by cement then circle the indicator/symbol 2, if it cemented with pillar then circle the indicator/symbol 3, if it is of wood pillar then circle the indicator/symbol 4, and if the foundation is made in a different way than these, circle the indicator/symbol 5 and the description for the indicator 5 should be specified.

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2.2 Outer wall

[] 1 Mud bonded brick/stone
[] 2 Cement bonded brick/stone
[] 3 Wood or plank
[] 4 Bamboo materials
[] 5 Unbaked bricks
[] 6 Other

While determining the outer wall of a house, it should be done based on the materials used for the construction of outer wall of the house. If more than one materials are used, then taking the main construction materials as a base and accordingly should circle the appropriate reference. The outer wall of a house has been described as follows:

Mud bonded brick/stone - If the outer wall of a house has used stone, brick, cement block etc. and they are bonded with mud, such wall should be considered the wall with mud bonded brick/stone.

Cement bonded brick/stone- If the outer wall of a house has used stone, brick, cement block etc. and they are bonded with cement, such wall is considered cement bonded brick/stone wall.

Wood/plank- If the outer wall of a house is made with wood or plank, such wall is considered wooden/planked wall.

Bamboo materials - If the outer wall of a house has been made with bamboo or bamboo related materials, such wall is considered as bamboo made wall.

Unbaked brick - If the outer wall of a house is made with raw or unbacked bricks, such wall is considered unbaked brick wall.

Others - If the outer wall of a house is made with materials other than stated above, e.g. plastic, tree leaves, thatch, straw, tarpaulin, such should be specified in the category of others.

To specify the outer wall of a house, if the outer wall of a house is mud bonded brick/stone, circle the reference 1, if it is cement bonded brick/stone, circle the reference 2, if it is wooden/planked circle reference 3, if it is from bamboo materials, circle reference 4, if it is of unbaked brick, circle 5 and besides these, if the outer wall is made with other materials, circle the reference 6 and specify the materials.

2.3 Roof

[] 1 Thatch/straw
[] 2 Galvanized iron/metal sheet
[] 3 Tile/slate/stone
[] 4 RCC
[] 5 Wood/plank
[] 6 Mud
[] 7 Other

The construction materials used for roof means what types of materials are used for making the roof. If the roof is made with more than one materials, then taking the main construction materials as a base, circle the appropriate reference accordingly. The types of the construction materials used for roof has been described as follows:

Thatch/straw - If the house is roofed with/if the roof of a house is made with thatch/straw, the main construction material of the roof of such house is considered as thatch/straw.

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Metal sheet/ galvanized iron - If the roof of a house is made with metal sheet/galvanized iron, then the main construction materials of the roof of such house is considered as Galvanized iron/metal sheet.

Tile/slate/stone - If the roof of a house is made with tile or slate or stone, then the main construction materials of the room of such house is considered as tile/slate/stone.

RCC roof - If the room of a house is made with RCC, then the main construction materials of the roof of such houses is considered as RCC.

Wood/plank - If the house is roofed with wood/plank, then the main construction materials of the roof of such house is considered as wood/plank.

Mud- If the roof of a house is primarily roofed with mud, then the main material of such roof is considered as mud.

Others - Besides the above materials, if the roof of the house is roofed with other materials like plastic, tarpaulin, container/drum piece, it should be specified in others category.

To specify the construction materials used in the roof of a house, if it is roofed with thatch/straw, circle the reference 1, if it is roofed with galvanized iron/metal sheets, circle the reference 2, if it is roofed with tiles/slates circle reference 3, if it is roofed with RCC, circle reference 4, if it is roofed with wood/plank, circle 5, if it is roofed with mud, circle the reference 6 and besides these materials, if the roof of a house is roofed with other materials, circle the reference 7 and specify the materials.

2.4 Number of floors/stories of a house
Number of floors should be written by determining the number of floors of the house where the family is living in. The house with roof without any floor should be considered as single floor. If the top floor covers only same part of the roof, such floor should be counted and be added to the total number of floors.

2.5 How old is the house?
The age of the house where the family is living in should be determined/identified and written in years. If the house is constructed is less than a year ago, 00 should be written in the specified place. If the house was constructed earlier, and some floors were added later, then the first construction date should be identified in case of such a house and accordingly the total number years should be written. The family living in rental may not know the age of the house. In such case, the age should be written as per the response from the owner of the house.

Question 3: what is the main source of drinking water of the family?

[] 1 Tap / piped
[] 2 Tube well/ hand pump
[] 3 Covered well / kuwa
[] 4 Uncovered well / kuwa
[] 5 Spout water
[] 6 River / stream
[] 7 Other

Family's source of drinking water means the place or source from where the family fetch/brings water for the purpose of cooking and drinking. Source of drinking water differs in places and they also differs as per the weather change. While specifying the source, the much used source for drinking water should be specified.

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Some of the main drinking water sources are tap, well, kuwa, and tube well. In this question, we are looking to know the water sources that people are using for drinking or cooking food. We are not looking to know the water sources that are in use for livestock, washing, cleaning, irrigation, and other purpose. Therefore, the sources of water that are in use for other purposes should not be specified here.

The sources of water that people are using for drinking or cooking purpose can be of following types:

1. Tap / piped - If the family are using the water sources that comes from the tap/ pipe (metal or polythene), which are distributed with collection and purification either by private or public sector or from both, establishing a distribution system, then circle the reference one to specify the tap/piped source.

2. Tube well / hand pump - If the family is using underground water by pumping through tube well/roar or hand plumb, jet pump, then circle the reference 2 to specify such drinking water sources.

In some places, even people are using motor to pump the ground water to the reserve tank and link it to the tap / pipe. Such use of water should not be considered as tap/ piped, but from tube well/ pump and should make circle in reference 2.

3. Covered well / kuwa - If the family mostly is using drinking water from covered well / kuwa, circle the reference 3. It is believed that the water contained in covered well is comparatively better than the uncovered well.

4. Uncovered well / kuwa - If the family mostly is using drinking water from uncovered well / kuwa, circle the reference 4.

Nowadays, people are using tap/ piped water for cleaning and washing and bring jar water for the purpose of drinking. The purpose of this question is to identify the main source of drinking water. Therefore, if the people are using tap/ piped water other than drinking purpose or for only cleaning and washing in household use and they use jar water for drinking, then reference 7 "others" should be marked with circle.

5. Spout water - If the family fetches the drinking water primarily from spout water (or Pandhero), circle the reference 5.

6. River/stream - If the family fetches the drinking or cooking water mostly from a river, canal, stream etc., circle the reference 6.

7. Others - Besides the source stated above, if the family fetch the drinking or cooking water from other sources such as pond, tanker or jar/bottle, circle the reference 7 and specify the source.

Question 4: what is the usual type of fuel the family uses for cooking food?

[] 1 Wood / firewood
[] 2 Kerosene
[] 3 LP gas
[] 4 Cow dung / bio briquette
[] 5 Bio gas
[] 6 Electricity
[] 7 Other

Ask the family about the fuel they are using to cook food and determine the mostly used fuel source, circle the appropriate reference. A family might have used various kinds of fuel to cook their food. In such case, only circle the fuel that is used most. The detail description of fuels that families usually use has been put below:

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1. Wood / firewood - If the family is using usually wood/firewood for cooking food, circle the reference 1.

2. Kerosene - If the family is usually using kerosene stove for cooking food, circle the reference 2.

3. LP gas - If the family is usually using LP gas cylinder to cook food, circle the reference 3.

4. Cow dung / bio briquette - If the family is usually using the cow dung briquette or dried livestock dung mixed in wood, jute stick, fodder or bio briquette, circle the reference 4.

5. Bio gas - If the family is usually using the biogas produced from livestock dung, circle the reference 5.

6. Electricity - If the family is usually using electricity for cooking food, circle the reference 6.

7. Others - Besides the fuels stated above, if the family is usually using other fuel sources for cooking food (e.g. solar, thatch, straw, fodders only), circle the reference 7 and specify the fuel source items.

Question 5: what do you use for lighting in the family? What is the usual source of lighting in the family?

[] 1 Electricity
[] 2 Kerosene
[] 3 Bio gas
[] 4 Solar
[] 5 Other

Ask the family what they are using for lighting the house, and if it is electricity, circle the reference one. The family is usually using kerosene lamp or tuki for lighting, circle the reference 2. If the family is usually using bio gas for lighting, circle the reference 3. If the family is using the solar panel for lighting the house, circle reference 4. Besides the lighting source stated above, if the family usually are using other sources, e.g. wood, petromax using LP gas, wax, batteries used lamb etc., circle the reference 5 and specify the source.

If any household usually is using generator to produce electricity and lighting the house, this source should be identified as electricity and circle the reference 1.

Question 6: what types of toilets are in use in the household?

[] 1 Flush toilet (public sewerage)
[] 2 Flush toilet (septic tank)
[] 3 Ordinary toilet
[] 4 No toilet

There are different names in in Nepalese for the toilet where the family members generally dispose their feces. The toilet that the family uses generally should be in the house they are living or in the premise / compound of the house or somewhere near the house. Toilets are of different kinds, but for the purpose of the census it has been divided into four categories.

1. Flush toilet (public sewerage)
2. Flush toilet (Septic tank)
3. Ordinary toilet
4. No toilet

1. Flush toilet (public sewerage) - If the toilet is inside the house with the system of flush button (machine use) or has the facility of water to clean / flush the urine / feces and connected it directly with sewerage system of municipality for drainage, then to indicate such toilets as having flush and connection with public sewerage circle the reference 1.

2. Flush toilet (septic tank) - If the toilet is inside the house or compound of the house with the system of flush button (machine use) or has the facility of water to clean / flush the urine / feces or can be flushed using water and the drainage of it is connected with septic tank, then to indicate such toilets as having flush connected with septic tank, circle reference 2.

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3. Ordinary toilet - The toilets in the house or compound without having the systematic facility of flushing with water is said ordinary toilet. Such toilets might be constructed by digging ditch/pit on the ground and using wood or similar kind of temporary materials. The drainage of such toilets might not connected to any septic tank or sewerage. If the toilet that the family is using is of such ordinary type, circle the reference 3.

4. No toilet - Some families may not have their own toilet and go to the jungle, field or bank of river for toilet purpose. Hence, to indicate that the family do not have toilet in their house or compound or near the house, circle reference 4. For the purpose of the census, In the case of people are using public or settlement toilets, this should be considered having no toilet.

Question 7: what facilities are available in this house? (Multiple responses are possible and accepted)

[] 1 Radio
[] 2 Television
[] 3 Cable television
[] 4 Computer
[] 5 Internet
[] 6 Telephone
[] 7 Mobile phone
[] 8 Motor
[] 9 Motorcycle
[] 10 Cycle
[] 11 Other vehicle
[] 12 Refrigerator
[] 13 Not any above

This question is trying to understand whether the family has modern household facilities as stated above. The references 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 denote items related to communication, information and entertainment, references 8, 9, 10 and 11 denote transportation items, and reference 12 denotes refrigerator. Such facilities in a family might be one or more than one. Thus, ask the family about each reference items and circle the references if they have such facilities. For example, if the family have radio, circle the reference 1 and if they also have cycle, circle the reference 10, too. Similarly, if they have other facilities such as television and mobile phone, then circle the reference 2 and reference 7 respectively.

These services in the family generally have to be in use and they should be working / not be stopped working in the day of enumeration. But if the item can be simply repaired and it can work but not working at the time of enumeration, then such stuffs should be considered working.

For example, if the family have motorcycle and it is in good condition, but has got a puncture or plug is not working or general malfunction, and hence put in the house without using, but can be used with simple repair and the family is planning to use it after some repair, in such case even the family has not using at the time of enumeration, the motorcycle should be considered as a facility the family have. However, if the motorcycle is in very bad condition and cannot be used with simple repair and there is no certainty whether to use it or not in the future, in such case it is considered that they family do not have a motorcycle. Similar conditions apply to other remaining facilities.

The materials / stuffs of those services have been generally described below:

1. Radio - All the radios or transistors that run with electricity or battery which can be used by the family individually or collectively at any time in need fall under this category. If the family have radio and it is are in use, circle the reference 1. Nowadays, even the rechargeable lamp would have a radio. If the family is usually using such radio, consider the family to have a radio and circle reference 1. Similarly, if there is a radio in the individual mobile phone that the family members are using and if it is usually in use, consider such family to have a radio and circle the reference 1.

2. Television - if the family is using a television of any size or kind (either black and white or color) individually or collectively, circle the reference 2. Similarly, if there is a television in any mobile phone used by the family members and if they usually use such device, the family should be considered to have a television.

[p. 30]

3. Cable television - Ask the family whether they have used cable television to watch foreign or national television channels through the means of wire or wireless in their own house or rental place for individual use. If the family is usually using such service, circle the reference 3. Nowadays, people are also using Dish home facilities (an umbrella type equipment placed at the roof of the house that gives clear sound and pictures from different national and foreign channels than those services provided by cable television, and many of them are paid basis). If the family has been using such types of services, consider it as the availability of cable television amenity and circle the reference 3.

4. Computer - If the family or family members are using any desktop or laptop computer that can be run by electricity or batteries, circle the reference 4.

5. Internet - If there is facility of sharing the email and other information through Internet either using computer or other means in the family, it should be considered as having Internet. Generally the Internet is used through a computer. However, with the development of technology, there is increased use of Internet through PDA and mobile phones. If the family has such service from home, it should be considered that this family have Internet service and circle the reference 5.

6. Telephone - If the family has wired telephone service for its own use, circle reference 6. Whether the telephone service is local, STD, or ISTD, it should be put that the family has a telephone. But the wireless CDMA and SKY phone provided by the service providers like NTC and UTL should not be considered under the telephone category, instead they should be included under the mobile phone category.

7. Mobile phone - If the family is using any kind of wireless mobile phone facilities for its own use, circle the reference 7. The mobile phone, hand sky phone, CDMA provided of NTC; CDMA provided by UTL, and Ncell mobiles provided by spice Nepal and other similar kind of wireless phone provided by other services providers are under this category.

8. Motor - If there are any kind of automobiles the family are using for the purpose of its own travel or transportation (e.g. four-wheel motor, car, taxi, bus, minibus, microbus, TATA mobile, jeep, tempo, tractor, trelar, etc.), circle the reference 8. But,

- Whether the four-wheel vehicle, owned by the family or its members, are mostly in use of own transportation purpose or public transportation purpose, this should be determined and accordingly should be placed that the family has a motor or not. If the motor owned by the family has been mostly in use of public transportation businesses, then it should be considered that the family does not have motor services.

- The motor services stated above should be in good condition or running condition during the time of enumeration. Motors that were previously in use but now are not in use due to bad conditions, should be considered as not having motor services.

- If high level employees are using the motor services individually provided by their organization or company, then it should be considered that they family has motor services and circle the reference 8. But, if such motor services are available only for the purpose of going to and coming from the office, and are not available for use outside of office hours, then do not circle the reference 8. It should be considered that the family do not have motor services.

9. Motorcycle - If the family has a two-wheeler or three-wheeler motorcycle of any brand or company for their use, in good condition or running condition, circle the reference 9. If the motorcycle provided to an employee has been used by the employee as personal motorcycle, then such motorcycle is considered an amenity of the family and should circle the reference 9.

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10. Cycle - If any kind of cycle, with or without gear, is in the possession of the family, circle the reference 10.

11. Other transportation vehicle - Besides the vehicle stated in 8, 9, 10 above, if the family is using other kind of transportation means (e.g. horse, donkey, bull-cart, horse cart, etc.) for transportation or travel purposes, circle the reference 11.

12. Refrigerator - If the family has a refrigerator or fridge, circle the reference 12. This kind of appliance could be in the house for the household use or in store for business use. In both cases should be considered as having a refrigerator and should be circle reference 12.

13. Without any amenity (not any as above) - If the family does not have any of the appliances as stated above -e.g. radio, television, computer, Internet, telephone, mobile phone, cycle, motor, motorcycle, refrigerator - circle the reference 13.

N.B. - If there are more than one of the above appliances that are in use in the family, circle each related reference accordingly. It is not necessary that these amenities are owned by the family or members. Even if those facilities are in others name, but the family is using them privately as their own, then consider them as the appliances of the family and circle the related references that denote those appliances.

Question 8: Is there any house in the name of a woman of the family anywhere in the Nepal?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

House means any house that is made with any kind of materials for the purpose of living or for any other purpose in any district or place in Nepal.

For the purpose of the question 8, ask the family whether they have any house in the name or ownership of women (one or more women) of the family, and circle the related reference accordingly. If there is house in the name of any of the female members of the family, circle the reference 1 and if they do not have, circle the reference 2.

[Image is omitted]

[p. 32]

Female of the household refers to a female who usually lives in the enumerated household - e.g. household head, mother of the head, wife, daughter, sisters, sister-in-law, niece, aunt, granddaughter, mother-in-law etc. or other family member who is not relative of the household head. If a house is in the name of one or more than one female members, then circle the reference 1 to denote the "yes."

Female ownership household means that a female of the household has received or got the dwelling through any means such as inheritance, given by the family as a reward/dowry, pension, earned, loaned, or other.

Dowry/reward means that a fixed or movable asset (or added assets through it) that has been given to a female or women by her husband or other relatives and friends from the side of the husband is considered as a reward. If such fixed or moveable assets (or added assets through it) have been given by her mother/father side, then it is termed as a dowry.

Question 9: is there any land in Nepal in the name of women in the family?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Land means any land registered in a female name of the family at any place in Nepal that are for real estate, agricultural, or any other purpose. If any female member of the family have such land (for the purpose of real estate, agriculture, or any other), circle the reference 1 "yes" and if any female member do not have such land, circle the reference 2 "no."

Question 10: what is the total area of land that are in the name of a female member of the family?

Unit: Bigha
Area: [blank]

Unit: Kattha
Area: [blank]

Unit: Dhur
Area: [blank]

Unit: Ropani
Area: [blank]

Unit: Aana
Area: [blank]

Unit: Paisa
Area: [blank]

Here an area of land or house means the total area occupied by the female owned house or land and land without house. There might be one or more than one female members in the family.

If one or more than one female members in the family have a land or house registered in their name, ask them one by one the total area of land they have owned and identify the land area owned by all the female members. Similarly, if any of female members in the family have a house in their name, both the area occupied by the house and the area of land with the house should be specified in the heading of the land area. The area should be stated under the reference of Bigha or Ropani. While stating the area of the land, this should cover both the land that the family is using and the land they have rented or leased to others which are in the ownership of female members of the family, all over Nepal, and should be added up all the land. If there are any other references of measurement such as Mana/Pathi, then such areas should be converted into Ropani or Bigha. The converting method from one reference to another has been placed at the end of the document, in annex.

[Image is omitted]

[p. 33]

If one or more than one female members have a house or land in their name and while specifying the area of such land or house, the area of all the separate lands or houses should be added up and written accordingly as per the reference.

Question 11: Was there any death of members in the family in last 12 months?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No [go to question 13]

As the family that whether there was death (by any reason) of any family members in the past 365 days from the date of enumeration. If "Yes", then circle the reference 1 "Yes" and specify the total number of death. Then go the question number 12, and ask the details of the dead persons. If there was not death of family members, circle the reference 2 "No" and jump to the question number 13, without asking question number 12.

- Such death of family members could be in home or hospital or in other places and due to disease, illness, accident, disaster or other reason.

- If any newborn dies after a short or very short period of their birth, such case should be considered as a death of family members and necessary information should be taken of that child.

- Similarly, women of fertility age, pregnant, or new mothers could die due to different reason - such as unable to deliver, without proper care during the new mother period, or tetanus after the birth of a child, or other pregnancy reason while the child is inside the womb. But, if there is a stillbirth, then in such situation no information should be taken about the death of such child.

If there is death of family members of any age in the last one year, circle the reference 1 "yes" and go to the question 12. Ask the number of deaths in the family and write the information separately of all the dead persons.

Question 12: Provide the information of dead persons

Example 1:
S.N.: 1
Sex of the dead person
[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female
Cause of death: ________
Age at the time of death: _ _ _ years
If the dead are from 15 to 49 years women:
The condition at the time of death:
[] 1 Pregnant
[] 2 Labor / delivery pain
[] 3 Within the six months of childbirth or pregnancy ending period
[] 4 Other
Example 2:
S.N.=2
Sex of the dead person
[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female
Cause of death: ________
Age at the time of death: _ _ _ years
If the dead are from 15 to 49 years women:
The condition at the time of death:
[] 1 Pregnant
[] 2 Labor / delivery pain
[] 3 Within the six months of childbirth or pregnancy ending period
[] 4 Other

Sex of the dead/deceased persons - Ask whether the dead person is male or female and circle the reference 1 if they are male, and reference 2 if they are female.

Reason for death - There are different reasons for death. Ask the reasons of death for deceased persons and write the reason. Person's death can be due to illness, disease, accident, disaster, suicide, or other reasons. Hence, ask the reason and write it to the blank space under the heading of reason of death. If the person has died due to some illness, write the name of that illness in the blank space. Similarly, if the person has died due to some accident, write the kind of accident in the blank space, if the person has died due to natural disaster, write the kind of the disaster in the blank space. If the person died by suiciding, then write the reason "suicide" for the case of such person. Besides the reasons stated above, a person could die from other reasons, too. Such other reasons for death should be asked and stated.

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In developing countries like ours, many women die due to be unable to give birth, excessive bleeding at the birth, miscarriage or placenta previa or other different reasons after the childbirth. While specifying the reason for death of such women, get clear understanding about the reasons whether it is delivery related or pregnancy related. Deaths of family members is a sensitive issue and therefore while writing the reasons, get a clear understanding about it. In our society, most of the people die at home rather than a hospital and in this situation, the respondent might give the reason as natural death. So, ask the family members whether dead person had any illness before death or going under treatment of any illness, and identify the right reason of the death and write the name of the illness.

Example - The reason for the death of a child might be diarrhea and the reason for a women about giving the childbirth can be maternal death. Similarly, reasons for death can be accident, hearth disease, encephalitis, jaundice, typhoid, AIDS, tuberculosis, tetanus, etc. If there were more than one disease, identify the main disease and specify it, e.g. if a person with tuberculosis had also fever, then tuberculosis should be written because the fever might be caused by tuberculosis. If the fever was during the maternity period; the reason might be different for the fever.

[Images are omitted]

NB:
1. It has been seen that the reporting of death of a child/newborn immediate or soon after birth is missed. So, the vital information registration of death should not be missed to report. While collecting information, ask the female members of the family about whether there is any death within the reference time and identify it, if any. In the past 12 months, there might be death of more than one members of the family. Hence, write the information all the deceased persons in orderly like 1, 2...

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2. There will be possibility of missing or repeating the record of death incident by the family. The reference time is 12 months or 1 year long and in this period, death reporting can be affected due to other social incidents. For example, if the common members (father/mother) of two families died in the reference time and if the sons get separated after the death, the reporting might be done by both at the time of enumeration or might be missed from both sides. If the related families live in the same enumeration reference (e.g. VDC, ward etc.), ask the respondent carefully and do not let it be missed or repeated.

Age at the time of death - The age of the dead person at the death should be written in years completed. E.g. If the deceased person were 41 years and 7 months at the time of death, then the completed years was 41 and should be written as 41 years. If a child dies before reaching one year, then the year should be written as "00".

- If the deceased person was a male, do not need to ask another information after asking completed years.
- If the deceased person was a female and were also between 15-49 years old, then ask for the following information.

Condition at the time of death (15-49 years women) - This question should be only asked if the dead person was a woman aged 15-49 years old.

[] 1 Pregnant
[] 2 Labor pain
[] 3 Within six weeks after childbirth or termination of pregnancy
[] 4 Other

The main purpose of this question is to collect the information about the death related to pregnancy and maternity. In the column above titled reason of death, we can write the reason as maternity or pregnancy and in this column heading, we should write with clear understanding the condition of her when she was died. If the dead women condition at the time of death is related to pregnancy, circle the reference 1, if she is died during the labor pain, circle the reference 2 and if she was died within six months after the childbirth or miscarriage due to excessive bleeding or rotten placenta inside the uterus or other maternity reason, circle the reference 3. The condition at the time of death has been described below:

1. Pregnant - A woman with condition from the date conceiving to before the birth of a child is called pregnant. If the dead woman was pregnant at the time of death, circle the reference 1.

2. Labor pain - The condition of labor pain is the situation of recurring pain felt by a woman during childbirth. If the dead woman was in the labor pain at the time of death, circle the reference 2.

3. Within the 6 months after the childbirth or termination of pregnancy - Some women die after some time of childbirth or miscarriage due to excessive bleeding or rotten placenta if it is not expelled from the uterus. In this way, if a woman died within the six months after pregnancy due to various reasons resulted with pregnancy, circle the reference 3.

Besides the death due pregnancy or the reasons related to it, other reasons not related to pregnancy (e.g. accident) are not maternal death. According to the revised definition of WHO, maternal death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. To specify the other reason other than related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, circle reference 3.

[p. 36]

Like other developing countries, maternal death is the main cause of death among the reproductive age group women between 15-49 years. To understand the condition of maternal death, ask the family which of the above condition were present in the woman in her reproductive age group and should make a circle accordingly to the related reference.

4. Other - Women between aged 15-49 years old do not die only due to pregnancy related cause. Hence, if the situation of the dead woman was found other than the above stated situation of 1, 2, and 3, circle the reference 4 "other" and specify the cause.

NB (example):
1. Sitadevi died in August 1st 2010 at the age of 35 due to snakebite. She was pregnant at the time of death. In this situation, the cause of her death should be written as snakebite. However, reference 1 should be circled to specify the situation of her at the time of death.

2. The age of Harimaya was 43 years. 6 months ago, she died due to excessive bleeding after miscarriage. Here the cause was excessive bleeding and to specify the situation at the time of death, reference 3 should be circled.

3. Lalita died five months ago due to tuberculosis at the age of 16. Here the cause of death was tuberculosis and to specify the condition at the time of death, reference 4 should be circled.

Question 13: have the members absent in this family gone abroad?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No [Go to individual information]
[] 3 Do not know [Go to individual information]

Question 14: Please give the information about the persons of the family who is out of country

Example 1: S.N.: 1
Sex:
[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female
Age at the time of leaving (in years): _ _ _
Academic qualification: class/level: ________
Total period since leaving: ________
Purpose/ reason for going abroad: ________
Staying/ visited country: ________

Absent from the family and living abroad means - If any member of the family who has not separated and has gone out of country is denoted as absent or out of country. But, if they have gone out of country for the purpose pilgrimage, treatment, tourism/travel, business etc. for six months or less, it should not be specified as out of country. They should be counted as present members of the family. However, if they have just gone abroad for long study or employment, then they should be considered as absent and their information should be filled under the question number 14.

Ask whether any member of the family has gone abroad or not and if any of them has gone abroad, circle the reference one and take down the information of all the persons who have gone abroad. If nobody has gone abroad, circle the reference 2. If any of them are absent in the family but they do not know additional information, circle the reference 3. For the persons with circle in reference 2 or 3, there is no need to ask question 14.

[p. 37]

But if the person who has gone abroad for living there mostly has children born in abroad, then the information of such children should be counted under the person who has gone abroad.

Ask the family how many people are out of country among the absent members and fill the information of all of them one by one. If the page is not enough, add additional pages.

Sex (male or female) - Separate the male and female person from the out of country members, and circle the reference one if they are male and circle the reference 2 if they are female.

Age at the time of leaving - Ask the age of the person at the time of leaving for abroad and write the completed age at that time in years.

Completed class/level - Here completed level means the highest academic level the person had completed when he was leaving for abroad and should be written that. Any other information about the completed level shall be in accordance with the selection option 1. Write down the completed level in the column of the individual information in this questionnaire. Here, completed level should be asked only if the absent person was 5 years or older at the time of leaving for abroad. Completed level need not to be asked if the person leaving for abroad is younger than 5 years.

Total period since leaving (in years) - Write the total period in completed years since the person left for abroad or has been living abroad. If it has not completed one year, then write "00". While writing the period since leaving for abroad, even if the person is coming to Nepal, write the completed years since the person has left the country for the first time. But, if any person often leaves for abroad for short time and comes home regularly, then no matter how many times he/she left for abroad, such persons should be counted as present member in the family and this should not be counted under out of the country.

Purpose / reason for visiting abroad - There could be many reasons for the person to go abroad, who is absent from the family. Some go abroad for the purpose of study and some for economic reason. Even for economic reason, some go for employment and others go for business or other task.

While specifying the reason for going abroad, write the reason they first left for. To specify the reasons for going abroad, here 8 reasons (with some description) have been stated.

1. Business / trade - Business or trade means the process of selling or buying the goods under own responsibility and own investment of capital (money or goods). If the members absent from the family have gone abroad for trade purpose, cycle the reference 1. Besides the trade/business with own investment, circle the reference 1 for the person who has gone abroad to run any other business.

2. Private employment - If the absent members from the family have gone abroad to work in someone house, store, or any other private organization (place) earning wage or any kind of remuneration (money or goods), this should be considered private employment and circle the reference number 2.

3. Organizational / institutional employment - If any member of the family has gone abroad for employment in any government/ non-government organization or industry either receiving prior appointment or not, this should be considered as an institutional employment and circle or write the reference number 3 (e.g. recruitment in military, employment in biscuit company/factory, etc.).

[p. 38]

4. Study - If any member of the family has gone abroad for study or training, this should be considered under study and circle reference number 4. Study or training means the subject of getting academic qualification, skills, and knowledge.

5. Conflict - If any members of the family have gone abroad by leaving his/her usual place of leaving due to the armed conflict, circle the reference number 5.

6. Dependent - Any minor member, elderly people or any other member of family has gone to foreign country with the main member, such people are considered to have gone as a dependent, in order to hint such cause number 6 should be written.

7. Other - If someone has gone to foreign land without reasons above mentioned from number 1 to 6 then, number 7 should be written.

8. Not known - If it is sure that any member of family has gone to foreign land but if it is unknown then number 8 should be written.

Country visited - For people who have visited a foreign country during 6 months or more or those who have recently gone to a foreign country but they have planned to stay there for 6 months or more, then each individual and country they visited at first should be written separately for each of them. If any person has gone to any country at first but now has left and gone to any other country, the name of the country he/she visited first should be written. If the name of country the member of family visited is unknown then it should be written as unknown.

Example:
Miss Mankumari is the 20 year old daughter of Ram Bahadur. After completing her intermediate level in Science (I.Sc.), she came to Dhaka (Bangladesh) for two years to pursue her M.B.B.S.

His 30-year-old son while studying his master's, left his studies and has gone to United States of America to work in a restaurant.

In this case the details of people gone to foreign country should be filled as below:

S.N.: 1
Sex: Female [circled]
Age at the time of leaving (in years): 20
Academic qualification class/level: I.Sc.
Total period since leaving: 2
Purpose/reason for visiting abroad: 4
Staying/visited country: Bangladesh

S.N.: 2
Sex: Male [circled]
Age at the time of leaving (in years): 30
Academic qualification class/level: Bachelor degree
Total period since leaving: 5
Purpose/reason for visiting abroad: 2
Staying/visited country: United States of America

Note:
During the time of census, counting should not be done for Nepalese people who work at Nepalese diplomatic missions located in foreign countries as people who have gone foreign country. Counting of such people is done by foreign ministry taking them as people living in Nepal.

[p. 39]

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[p. 40]

Individual information
After collecting the introductory and household information of data sheet 1, there are questions for individual information collection on the right side of the page. To write individual information, a row has been allocated for each member of the family. Sequence and rules for information collection have been put accordingly. In line with this, ask the question and fill the information. The response of each individual question should be written in the respective column.

Column 1: S.N. (serial/sequence number)
The sequential number of family members has been written in column 1. If there are up to 6 members in a family, use one page. But, if there are more than 6 members, do not write on the same page. Use the next page. And correct the previously printed sequence number 1, 2, 3..., to the 7, 8, 9..., and write the information. If the family members are more than 12, then accordingly correct the previously printed sequence number 1, 2, 3..., to 13, 14, 15..., respectively and write the information. Even if the family members are less than 6, start a new page from sequence number 1 for enumeration of another family. Two different families should not be enumerated in a single page.

Column 2: name and surname of the person usually living in the family
Name and surname of a person are related with each other. While writing the name and surname of members of a family, the name of the household head should be written first and only then write the name of other members of the family sequentially.

While writing the name of a person, write the name which is officially in use and from which the other people in the locality can identify the person with that name. If the calling name in the family or in the locality is different than the original name, then write it in brackets under the original name and specify it as calling name in the locality.

While writing the name, do not write only like Jetho, Sanhili, Kanchha, Thule, Bouka, Langdi, Kari. By these types of name it would be difficult to identify the person after enumeration. Write the name and surname in specified separate space and completely. Write the name of the main person or household head of the family first starting with sequence number 1 and then follow the family tree and write the name of other members (household head's husband, wife, daughter, son, daughter-in-law, grandson, granddaughter, etc.) sequentially. While writing the surname, first identify what the surname of the family to be enumerated and after writing the name of a person, then write the surname/family name in the respective specified place.

[Image is omitted]

A household head can be defined as the main person of the family who manages the daily work, spending, and other dealing in the family. Generally the male or female members who are present in the family might be the household head. But the boys or girls who are under 10 years old could not be household head. In many societies, it is found that the elderly male or female or the person respected by the family members is written as household head. With this trend, many respondents might name the elderly person of the family as the household head. Keeping in mind about such trend, the enumerator should consider the above definition and accordingly figure out who is the key person in the family who manages the daily activities, spending, and other dealings in the family and then write the name of such person as the household head.

[p. 41]

The person who is absent from the family for many days or living somewhere else (in the country or in abroad) cannot manage the daily work, schedule, spending and dealing and hence, do not write the name of such person as the household head.

Similarly, elderly members of the family can manage the dealing of the family but cannot work or is it possible that they are ill. Therefore, do not write the name of such person, too, as household head.

[Images are omitted]

[p. 45]

NB:
1. There could be one or more people in a family. There could be elderly people, adults, children, newborn baby, and people with disability in a family. Similarly, there could be persons with family ties or without family ties. Do not leave and do not repeat while doing enumeration. Ask clearly who the relatives are, who are not, and enumerate all in respective headings.

2. If there are many members in a family (particularly in a big or joint family), start from the head and follow then the family tree (e.g. head, wife/husband, elder son/daughter-in-law, children of elder son...) and go sequentially like this. The main purpose of the enumeration is nobody should be left and nobody should be repeated. Keeping the purpose in mind, write the family members' name and surname in order.

3. While enumerating a family, ask the household head as far as possible. If it is not possible to take information from the household head, then only take the information from the next main person (e.g. husband, wife) or next key persons (e.g. mother, brother-in-law, sister). Take the information form the family member who knows well about his/her family members and not from others. The information taken from the person who do not know well about the family members could be wrong.

Example -
1. There are seven members in the family of Mr. Dhan Bahadur Gurung: Dhan Bahadur Gurung, his wife Nandakumari (Sanhili), father, aunt, one son and two daughters. Dhan Bahadur is in Indian Aramy for 9 years. His father's age is 67 years and cannot perform general work. The responsibilities to run day-to-day business of the house and manage expenses are on Nandakumari. Aunt helps in farm and general household work. Son and daughters go to school. With the situation of running the family and responsibilities, the household head is Namdakumari herself.

2. Nainkala Darji's son, Balbahadur Darji, has been working in an electricity production factory in New Delhi, India for last five years and comes home only at festival times. In his home, there are his mother, his wife Tara, one son and two daughters. In the absence of her son, the mother of Balbahadur, Nainkala has been running the household and its day-to-day business. In this situation, while writing the name of household head, write the name of Nainkala Darji.

Column 3: what is the relationship of [the respondent] with head?

[] 1 Head
[] 2 Husband/wife
[] 3 Son/daughter-in-law
[] 4 Daughter/son-in-law
[] 5 Father/mother
[] 6 Husband or wife's father/mother
[] 7 Brother/sister
[] 8 Grandson/granddaughter
[] 9 Domestic worker
[] 10 Other, specify

The relatives of head means the relationship of the person enumerated with the household head. While considering the family combination as per the relationship, in most of family there are husband/wife, son/daughter-in-law, daughter/son-in-law, father/mother, husband or wife's father/mother, grandson/granddaughter, domestic workers, etc. In some families, there are other relatives than the stated in the questionnaire (e.g. sister-in-law, grandparents, nephew, niece, etc.). Similarly, in some families there are people other than the relatives.

[p. 46]

With the information of relation in a family, it would be helpful to enumerate and can make statistical information about the family combination. Identify the relationship of the person to be enumerated with the household head. While writing the relationship, if the person is the main person of the family, circle the reference number 1, household head, if the person is husband or wife of the head, then circle the reference 2. In this way, ask each enumerated person about his/her relation with the head and circle the appropriate reference of the relatives. If the person is not a relative and is a person working in wage (servant, cook, etc.), circle the domestic worker reference 9. If the person falls under other relationship other than the stated ones in the questionnaire, circle the reference 10 and specify the relation (e.g. brother, sister, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, grandparents, nephew-niece, maternal uncle-aunt, etc.). If the person is not relative of head, circle the reference 10 and specify it as "no relative".

Example: Tirtharam Kewat is the main person of the family to manage daily household activities, expenses and dealings. In his family, there are his wife Piratiya Kewat, son Lekhnath Kewat and daughter Lila Kewat. Sita Choudhari who are here as a domestic worker also lives and eats in the same family. Tirtharam's niece Dulari also lives with Tirtharam's family. Then, the following things should be stated in the form.

S.N.: 1
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Tirtharam], Surname [Kewat]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Head [circled]

S.N.: 2
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Piratiya], Surname [Kewat]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Husband/wife [circled]

[p. 47]

S.N.: 3
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Lakhanlal], Surname [Kewat]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Son/daughter-in-law [circled]

S.N.: 4
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Lila], Surname [Kewat]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Daughter/son-in-law [circled]

S.N.: 5
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Dulari], Surname [Kewat]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Other [circled]

S.N.: 6
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Sita], Surname [Choudhari]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Domestic worker [circled]

[p. 48]

Column 4: what is the sex of [the respondent]?

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

In this column, determine the biological sex of each person and circle the reference number 1 if they are male and reference number 2 if they are female. The sex of each enumerated person whether they are male and female should be identified. If the person enumerated is in front of you, you can identify the sex easily and write down. From the name of some persons, you can also easily identify whether the person is male or female. However, some names are used by both male and female. Similarly, ask the respondent to identify whether the small children are male or female. If it is difficult to identify the person whether he/she is male or female, write the sex what the respondent instruct to indicate.

Column 5: what is the age of [the respondent]?
While writing the age of a person in the enumeration form, write the completed age in years.
The age of a person means the time spent from the birth to the till date. It is common practice to indicate the time in years, months, and days. While writing the age, write only the completed years by a person. E.g. If Kamala is now 13 years, 6 months, and 29 days, then only write her age as 13 years. For children born some time ago or who have not reached 1 year, then write "00".

Some parents might not know their children age. It is common if we ask what the age is of..., we generally get the answer "don't know". It is also common that while responding, some respondents give the answer for the age with the figure ending either "0" or "5". Such response might differ from the real age. With wrong answer, the result of the enumeration also comes wrong. Similarly to collection of other information, the age of each person should be written correctly.

If the respondent could not say the exact age, then we can identify the age by comparing the age difference with other members. Similarly, if a person was born at or around the time of some major events of the past, these events might be the basis for identifying age. E.g.: What was your age at the time of mega earthquake in 1934? What was your age when there was people's revolution in 1951? What was your age at the first general election of 1959? Or, how many years after the general election you were born?

Column 6: what is the caste/ethnicity of [the respondent]?
Various castes/ ethnicities live in Nepal. Generally, a caste refers to a group of various class of people under Hindu linage. In it, there are castes who wear sacred thread (Janai) and who do not as well, as Dalits. They have different surname and lineage/clan. Ethnicity refers to various indigenous/ethnic communities having their own mother tongue and culture. E.g. Brahaman, Kshetri, Kami, Rajput, Kayasth, Marwadi are caste, and Limbu, Tamang, Thami, etc. are indigenous/ethnic.

Many writes their surname or sub-ethnicity/caste in place of their caste or ethnicity. If stated like this, specify under which caste or ethnicity those surname or sub-ethnicity/caste belong. There live the people with different caste and ethnicity even in a family. Hence, after asking the caste/ethnicity of the household head and writing it down, ask the each member in the family for their caste and ethnicity and write down it. While enumerating the members of the family, do not take down the caste/ethnicity of the household head as granted for other members' caste/ethnicity.

[p. 49]

In the inter-caste marriage and the caste/ethnicity of the children born through inter-caste marriage might be different. Therefore, while enumerating the members in the family, ask and be clear about the caste/ethnicity of each woman, man, children, elderly people and write it down. The description on caste/ethnicity of the members of same family might be different. While writing the caste/ethnicity of family members, be impartial and write down as per their response.

Column 7: what is the marital status of [the respondent]?
[Ask the person aged 10 years and above only]

[] 1 Unmarried [Go to question 9]
[] 2 Single marriage
[] 3 Multiple marriage
[] 4 Remarriage
[] 5 Widow/widower
[] 6 Divorcee
[] 7 Separated

At the time of enumeration of the question related to marital status of this column, ask the persons only 10 years and above. Circle the appropriate reference number of above 7 status to indicate a person's marital status.

Marriage refers to the male and female couple living together as husband and wife in a time period in their life through mutual understanding or social and religious custom or legal process. At the time of enumeration, if any person (male or female) has been living together as husband and wife (in same place or separate), such male and female are considered as married.

Marital status refers to the marriage status of a person aged 10 years and above among the reference numbers from 1-7 above, at the time of enumeration. In the present society, marital status has been stated in the reference from 1-7 above for the purpose of legal regulation and enumeration. Unmarried status of the reference 1 refers to the status that the person has not married yet in his or her life. Rest of the references from 2-7 are the status that a person has married once in his or her life and might have undergone with other status as well. These statuses has been described as follows:

1. Unmarried - If any male or female in their life has not lived together in a couple as husband and wife at any time till date or has never married in their life, this should be understood as unmarried. If any male or female is found with this status or unmarried, circle the reference number 1.

2. Single marriage - If any male or female has married only once in their life and the male is living with only one wife or the female is living with only one husband, this is single marriage status. If this status is found at the time of remuneration, circle the reference number 2.

[p. 50]

But if the male or female married earlier has left a previous husband or wife or any one of them died and married again with another male or female and now living with that single husband or wife, this is termed as remarriage. For the male or female with remarriage status, circle the reference number 4, but don not circle the reference number 2.

Note: Ask the person with single husband or wife that and be clear whether it is their first marriage or married again after the death of previous husband or wife or divorce with previous husband or wife and then only circle the reference 2 if it is first marriage and circle 4 if it is remarriage.

3. Multiple marriage: During the enumeration time, if a male has been living with more than one wife or a female has been living more than one husband at a place or separately place with mutual consent, this should be considered as multiple marriage. Both husband and wife might have such marital status. In other words, if any male or female has more than one wife or husband at the time of enumeration, this is the status of multiple marriages. Circle the reference number 3 to indicate the multiple marriage of enumerated male or female.

NB:
a. Even though a person under enumeration had a multiple marriage status at any time before the enumeration, but now he or she has a single wife or husband, consider this as single marriage and circle the reference 2. But if any male or female has married again after the death or divorce of their previous wife or husband, consider this as remarriage and circle the reference 4, do not circle the reference 3.

[Image are omitted]

b. If the male or female, who was already married and living with their previous wife or husband, again marry to another person, this is considered multiple marriage. In such status, circle the reference 3 to indicate the multiple marriage.

c. During the enumeration, the status of a male having more than one wife would be of multiple marriage status. But the status of each wife of such person, if they do not have another husband and it is their first marriage, would be single marriage status.

d. If the previous husband is dead or divorced or left for any reason and married to the present husband, this would be the remarriage status.

Ask the marital status of each male or female in detail and only being clear, circle the appropriate reference number.

4. Remarriage - If any male or female had married once already and left the previous wife or husband for any reason (e.g. death, divorce), and has married again and living with single husband or wife, then it is remarriage status. If there is remarriage status of any male or female, circle the reference 4 to indicate it.

[p. 51]

5. Widow/widower - If a woman who has married once before in her life and her husband was deceased already before the enumeration period, and she has not married again until date, then she is widow. Similarly, if a man has not married again until date after the death of his wife, then he is widower. Whether any male or female married once or remarried again before the enumeration time, but after the death of her or his last wife or husband if the person is not remarried again, the he/she still in the position of widower or widow. If any male or female is in widow or widower status at the time of enumeration, circle the reference 5.

But if any widower or widow has married again before the enumeration period and they are living together as husband and wife, then such status is remarried status. Hence, in the remarried status, circle the reference 4.

6. Divorced - At the time of enumeration, it is found that if a husband and wife got separated or living apart legally or according to social custom due to some differences or unable to continue their life together with ill feeling, this status should be considered divorced. Whatever was their status before the enumeration, but at the enumeration time if they are living separately by getting divorced legally or as per the social custom, their marital status should be considered as divorced. If such male or female is found in divorced status at the time of enumeration, circle the reference 6.

7. Separated - If any married couple (husband and wife) has decided to live separately due to some conflict or differences because they could not live together further, then their marital status should be considered as separated.

Until a husband and wife do not get divorced legally or socially and they are living separately due to some ill feeling, their marital status should be considered as separated for the purpose of the enumeration. If any male or female is in separated status at the time of enumeration, circle the reference 7.

Example:
There are 11 members in the family of Madan Bahadur Barma Chhetri: Madan Bahadur Barma Chhetri, his two wives (Tara Barma Chhetri and Sumitra Barma Chhetri), two daughters (Ganga Barma Chhetri and Suprabha Barma Chhetri), two sons (Janak Bahadur Barma Chhetri and Chatra Bahadur Barma Chhetri), two daughters-in-law (Chandraprabha Barma Chhetri and Sulochana Barma Chhetri), one grandson (Dirgha Barma Chhetri), and one granddaughter (Chandrika Barma Chhetri). Janak Bahadur Barma Chhetri's first wife died last year due the delivery complication and later he married Chandraprabha. Sulochana has left her previous husband and married again with Chatra Bahadur Barma. Ganga Raut Chhetri's husband had died three years ago and she has not married again until date. Suprabha, Dira, and Chandrika are not married. All the members in the family are 10 years or above. The marital status of each family member can be stated as following.

S.N.: 1
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Madan Bahadur], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Multiple marriage [circled]

S.N.: 2
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Tara], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Single marriage [circled]

[p. 52]

S.N.: 3
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Sumitra], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Single marriage [circled]

S.N.: 4
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Janak], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Remarriage [circled]

S.N.: 5
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Chandra Prabha], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Single marriage [circled]

S.N.: 6
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Chatra Bahadur], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Single marriage [circled]

S.N.: 7
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Sulochana], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Remarriage [circled]

S.N.: 8
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Ganga], Surname [Raut Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Widow/widower [circled]

[p. 53]

S.N.: 9
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Suprabha], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Unmarried [circled]

S.N.: 10
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Dirgha], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Unmarried [circled]

S.N.: 11
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Chandrika], Surname [Barma Chhetri]
Only to 10 years' or above: what is [the respondent] marital status? Unmarried [circled]

Column 8: what is the age at the first marriage of [the respondent]?
(All person aged 10 years or above and persons already married once)

At the time of enumeration, this question should be asked to persons at the age of marriage. Ask persons about their age at the time of their first marriage and write the completed years.

Married means all persons currently married (single marriage, multiple marriage, and remarriage) or persons who are widow/widower, divorced, and separated. All these marital statuses are the status of having married once. If the person enumerated has already married once, ask his/her age at the time of the marriage. While writing the age at the first marriage of the male or female already married once, write the age in completed years at the time of marriage. If any person has married more than once, write the age at the first marriage. Do not write the age for their second or third marriage.

[p. 54]

If any person is unable to say his/her age at first marriage, the age can be written by asking his/her present age and how long he/she has been married and deducting the age difference. E.g. the present age of a person is 45 years and he has been married for 25 years. Then his or her age at the first marriage comes to be 20 years. Similarly, the age at the first child born and the age difference of husband and wife can also be used to be clear about their first marriage.

Column 9: what religion does [the respondent] follow?
Religion means the culture and belief the people follow. During the time of enumeration, ask the religion of each member in the family is following and write the religion in this column. Keep in the mind that the religion followed by each member in the family might be different and write impartially the religion followed by each member by asking each of them. Some of the gods or goddess are respected by more than one religion or community. E.g. Mahadev, Bhimsen, Buddha, etc. are respected generally by more than one religion or community. Hence, it is not appropriate to identify the religion of a person on the basis of respect or worship to any god or goddess. During the interview, if any member in the family responds that he or she do not follow any religion, this should be written under "not following any religion" as he or she said.

Column 10: what is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]?

[] 1 Mother tongue ____
[] 2 Second language ____

1. Mother tongue - The first language a person has learnt from his or her parents since early childhood and has grown up speaking it at home/family. In other words, the first language a person has learn from his parents since his first speaking and continue it for conversation at home, should be called mother tongue. When writing the mother tongue of newborn baby, write the first language the family speak at home. Different languages are spoken in various parts of Nepal. Write the first language of a person since he or she has been speaking from his first word of early childhood in the family as the mother tongue. If a person is dumb from the birth, then his mother tongue should be written as "sign language." There might be different mother tongue speakers in a family. Hence, there is the possibility that the mother tongue of household head and other members of the family differs.

Mother tongue can be different among different castes and ethnicities. Similarly, even people who are from same caste/ethnic community, their mother tongue can be different due to their living in different social and geographical environment. E.g. even if a person is from Magar ethnic community, he might not know how to speak Magar language. The mother tongue of a child born from the marriage of different language speakers or different castes might be different from the mother tongue of their mother or father.

At the time of enumeration, make the respondents clear about what is mother tongue and ask each person what is their mother tongue and write down. Some of the examples of mother tongues are Nepalese, - Maithili, Tharu, Newari, Bhojpuri, Magar, Thakali, Tamang, Limbu, Awadhi, etc.

2. Second language: Among the enumerated persons, some may know only one language and some can speak more than one languages. Above, we said the first language that a person learn at home form his parents since his first speaking in early childhood is mother tongue. If a person can speak another language besides his mother tongue, identify which language he is usually used to communicate with neighbors, at work or with others, and specify that language as the second language.

[p. 55]

In other words, mother tongue is the first language and among the languages learnt later in life, the commonly used language to speak with neighbors, at work or with others is the second language. Do not write the language learnt by a person later in his or life as second language that are mostly not in use while communicating with others (neighbors, at work). If a person speaks more than two languages, the mostly used language should be written as second language.

If a person does not know well another language besides the mother tongue, to indicate that the person does not know another language write a dash (-), do not leave the space in blank. Do not write the language as second language that is already specified under mother tongue.

Example 1:

S.N.: 1
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Ratna Bahadur], Surname [Sunar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Head [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Nepalese, 2. Second language: Maithili.

S.N.: 2
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Devimaya], Surname [Sunar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Husband/wife [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Nepalese, 2. Second language: Bhojpuri.

S.N.: 3
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Sulochana], Surname [Sunar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Son/Daughter-in-law [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Nepalese, 2. Second language: Maithili.

[p. 56]

S.N.: 4
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Ramala], Surname [Sunar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Husband/wife [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Nepalese, 2. Second language: Bhojpuri.

Example 2:

S.N.: 1
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Chol Kumari (Thuli)], Surname [Ranamagar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Head [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Magar, 2. Second language: Nepalese.

S.N.: 2
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Bodh Bahadur], Surname [Ranamagar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Husband/wife [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Magar, 2. Second language: Bhojpuri.

S.N.: 3
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Kaushalya Kumar], Surname [Ranamagar]
What is the relationship of [the respondent] with the head? Son/Daughter-in-law [circled]
What is the mother tongue and second language of [the respondent]? 1. Mother tongue: Magar, 2. Second language: Maithili.

[p. 57]

Column 11: what is [the respondent] citizenry or nationality?

[] 1 Nepal
[] 2 India
[] 3 China
[] 4 Other ____

Citizenry refers to such person who has entitled to exercise the citizen rights of the concerned country. That means the person who can use the citizen entitlement and right is the citizen of the country. As per the constitution and laws of each country, the citizens of a country are using their citizen rights or can use them and be the citizen of that country. Each person is a citizen of a country but some persons have not taken their citizenship certificate. The people living in Nepal can be divided into two groups on the basis of citizenship - a. Nepalese citizen b. foreign citizen (of other countries).

Law has provided that any person can be a citizen of one country at a time. But all persons might not have received citizenship certificate. For example, children under 16 years do not receive citizenship certificate but they are using the citizen rights. For many reasons, many adult citizens also have not taken citizenship, but are using their citizen rights or have the status to use their citizen rights. Similarly, foreign citizens might have also lived in Nepal for different purposes and work. Foreign citizens covered by the enumeration definition should also be enumerated. In that situation, those people to be enumerated would be citizens of their respective country. Hence, identify their citizenship at the time of enumeration and circle the respective country's reference number. While making circle to the respective reference number to specify the citizenship of a person, circle the reference 1 if they are citizens of Nepal, circle the reference 2 if they are citizens of India, and circle the reference 3 if they are citizens of China. If the person does not belong to any of the above, circle the reference 4 and specify the country by asking him/her (e.g. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, France, Germany, America, etc.). If a person is using the rights of more than one country, write the name of the country to which he prefers to belong most.

Column 12: is there any kind of physical or mental disability in [the respondent]?

[] 1 No disability
[] 2 Physical disability
[] 3 Vision disability
[] 4 Hearing disability
[] 5 Deaf and blind
[] 6 Speech related disability
[] 7 Mental disability
[] 8 Intellectual disability
[] 9 Multiple disabilities
[p. 58]

This question has been put to record information on physical and mental condition of each person to be enumerated. Some people might have one type of different types of physical or mental problem (disability) or do not have any kind of disability. At the time of enumeration, there might be members with disability in a family. While enumerating disabled persons, this should be done at their usual living place.

Definition of disability: Disability is the condition that creates problems in running daily activities normally and full participation in social life due to problems in body parts and physical system of a person, coupled with activity limitations and participation restrictions in the physical, social, and cultural environment, as well as communication. For the purpose of enumeration, different types of disabilities have been divided into eight different categories as above. In order to understand whether a person has disability or not, the following description has be illustrated.

1. No disability - At the time of enumeration, if a person has no disabilities, circle the reference 1 to indicate it.

2. Physical disability: A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity, or stamina due to various problems in the structure and movement of spinal curve, muscle, joints, and bones. E.g. (of body parts) - if there are weak, thin, and deformed hand/leg, bending body or any kind of impairments that restricts the general movement of these body parts, such condition should be understood as physical disability. For example: The disabilities caused by polio, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, loss of physical organs, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury, club feet, rickets, bone deformities, etc. are physical disabilities. Short heights also fall under physical disability. If a person has any of the above stated physical disability, circle the reference 2.

3. Vision disability: Generally if a person has problems in seeing things clearly around him/her, sees the things blurry, or cannot see at all, it is vision disability. In other words, if a person does not have clear knowledge about an object's picture, size, types, and color due to vision impairment, it is vision disability. Vision disability has two types - (a) Blindness, and (b) Low vision.

(a) Blindness: If a person cannot identify or see his fingers from 10 feet distance even with treatment like medicine, surgery, and use of glasses, or cannot read the first line of the Snellen chart, such person is considered with blindness.

(b) Low vision: If a person cannot identify or see his fingers from 20 feet distance even with treatment like medicine, surgery, and use of glasses or cannot read the fourth line of the Snellen chart, such person is considered with weak vision.

If a person has any type of vision disability stated above (blindness and low vision), circle the reference 3.

4. Hearing disability: The problems of a person in the structure of hearing organs, identification of voice, its distance and location, loudness and quality is the hearing disability. Hearing disability are of two kinds - (a) Deaf and (b) Low hearing.

(a) Deaf: A person who is unable to hear, has unclear voice or inability to speak, and needs sign language for communication is deaf. The person is considered deaf who even cannot hear the sound above 80 decibels. In simple sense, a person should be considered deaf if he cannot hear the communication of two persons near him or completely unable to hear.

[p. 59]

(b) Low hearing: A person who cannot hear sounds clearly but speak clearly with minimum hearing and has to put a hearing device to hear is a person with low hearing or moderate hearing loss. Generally, the person who cannot hear sounds that are less than 65-80 decibels sound is a low hearing person.

If any person has the hearing problems stated above, circle the reference 4.

NB: Generally the person who cannot speak or his/her spoken voice is unclear is call dumb. But actually, they are low hearing people. Such person generally cannot hear clearly. But all the people who cannot hear would not be dumb. If a person cannot speak clearly or the spoken voice is unclear and are unable to hear, circle the reference 4.

5. Deaf and blind: The person having both problems of deaf and blind is considered with deaf and blind disability. If there is a person with such problem in the family, circle reference 5.

6. Speech related disability: The person who has difficulty in speaking, unclear voice, has problem of repeating words or letters while speaking due to the uneasiness in the speech related organs is the person with speech related disability. If a person has speech related disability, circle the reference 6. The person with cleft lips or palate is also counted under speech related disability.

7. Mental disability: Mental disability is a kind of illness. This illness may appear to a person at any age or situation due to failure, distress, or depression. It does not come with birth and can be healed with treatment. A person who has difficulty in daily living due to mental illness or distress should be understood as a person with mental disability. If a person has such problem, circle the reference 7.

8. Intellectual disability: The condition which creates problems or limitations to perform age or environment appropriate intellectual activities due to lack of intellectual development before the age of 18 should be understood as intellectual disability or mentally retarded problem. Intellectual disability is not a disease, it is a state. It might come along with birth. In simple words, the state where required help of others for daily activities of life (e.g. for eating, dressing, going to toilet, care, etc.) or has low memory power (quick forgetting) or slow in learning as per the age should be understood as mentally retarded. Similarly, persons with no sign of adaptive behaviors along with the age development, showing unusual reaction, repeating the same activity or unable to be close to other persons or acute mental illness, autism are also come under intellectual disability and to indicate the status of such person, circle the reference 8.

9. Multiple disabilities: If a person has two or more than two disability problems among the above stated disabilities from 2 to 8, circle the reference 9.

Column 13: does [the respondent] know how to read and write (literate)?
(Only to the aged 5 years or above)

[] 1 Can read and write
[] 2 Can read only
[] 3 Cannot read and write

If a person knows how to read, write, and count in any language, he should be considered literate. The person who can only read should not be considered literate. The person who can only count or have numeracy skills for daily general activities should be considered a person who can only count. Therefore, to be literate, one should be able to read, write, and count in a language. The person who can read in a language and copy to write only his or her name, should not be counted as literate.

If a person can only read in a language but cannot write, then just say he or she can read. Some people only can read, but cannot write. If the enumerated person can read and write in any one of the scripts, circle the reference 1. If the person can only read, circle the reference 2. If the person cannot read and write, circle the reference 3. If a person has studied for some years in a formal education system, i.e. in a school, then he should read and write. A person who has not taken formal education (e.g. has not enrolled in school) might have studied at home or studied going to child or adult literacy classes or might have studied in similar ways and learned to read and write. Ask to each enumerated person and be clear about whether he/she knows how to read and write and circle the appropriate reference number.

[p. 60]

Example - The resident of Nuwakot, Jeet Bahadur Tamang, has a family with 3 members. Jeet Bahadur and his wife Suntali Tamang sell fruits at the bus station of Trisuli Bazaar. Suntali manages the income and expenditure of the family. Jeet Bahadur can only read, but cannot write. But Suntali can read and write. Both of them can read the Nepalese currency and do the general accounting orally. Their daughter Naramaya Tamang is 10 years old and is studying in class 4. It this situation, the enumeration should be done in the following way.

S.N.: 1
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Suntali], Surname [Tamang]
[Name of the person], can you read and write? Can read and write [circled]

S.N.: 2
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Jeet Bahadur], Surname [Tamang]
[Name of the person], can you read and write? Can only read [circled]

S.N.: 3
Name and surname of the person usually living in the family: Name [Naramaya], Surname [Tamang]
[Name of the person], can you read and write? Can read and write [circled]

Column 14: does [the respondent] go to school/college?

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

This question should be asked to each person aged 5 years or above.

Going school/college currently means the person going to school or college for getting education or knowledge. The person should have enrolled and going to school, college or university to get education. In the following condition, we should consider a person is going to school/college to get education or knowledge.

- Students enrolled and going to all kinds of school/college.
- Students on vacation.
- Students taking leave for some time from his or her college due to some illness or are in emergency leave.
[p. 61]

A person who has fulfilled one of the above conditions and is going to school/college to get education, circle the reference 1. If they are not going to school/college, circle the reference 2. A person who has enrolled in school/college, but is unable to go due to some other reason or has left, circle the reference 2 to indicate that he or she is not going to school/or college.

Column 15: what is the highest education level of [the respondent]?

[] 1 Grade/level completed ____
[] 2 If above is a (School Leaving Certificate) (SLC), write the key area/subject ____

(Do not ask this question to persons who cannot read or write, nor who do not go to school/college).

The grade/level of education means the highest level completed by persons who have attended the formal education system. Write the completed level of education. If the person has completed above SLC education, specify the area of expertise or major.

1. The level of education completed - Write the highest level of education that the person has completed. If a person has completed various subjects of same level, write the subjects that the person wants to report. Do not write the level that the person is currently studying. In the formal education system, if a person has completed a certain level of school, college or university, he/she would have taken certificate of completion. If the person has only completed school level, it could be from grade 1 to 10 or SLC. If it was college or university level, it could be intermediate, bachelor, master, or PhD. Ask the person which level he/she has completed, and write the completed level. Nowadays, children starts to go in early age. In this condition, the children who are 5 years old but are studying are attending an early grade or can only read and write. Write "00" to specify the completed level of such children.

Example - If Pramila Kumari Choudhari is currently studying in grade 9, then her completed grade should be written as 8. If someone has taken SLC exam but the result is not out yet, write the completed level as 10. For the person who failed SLC, write 10 as completed level. For people who have completed the old Nepalese school, write the current level completed (e.g. Nepalese 7, Nepalese 11, etc.). For the people who have studied Sanskrit, write the completed level as Prathma, Madhyama, Shastri, or Acharya whichever they have completed. For people who have taken some kind of training, write their completed level only if it is specified.

NB: - If a person has learned through informal education or self-study, but has not completed any formal education level, write "informal" in the place of completed level.

2. Main area/subject (If above SLC) - if a person has completed above SLC level (e.g. IA, BA, MA), write main area/subject studied after specifying completed level. If the certificate or above level completed identifies which is the main area of study (e.g. Humanities, Commerce, Science, Education, Engineering, Medicine, etc.) write it.

Example - Shyamkrishn Dhobi is studying his bachelor in Humanities. He has completed ISc (Science). In this situation, write the completed level as certificate level and area of study as Science. If Ratnamaya Nakarmi is studying her bachelor in Civil Engineering, then her completed level would be certificate level (Engineering).

[p. 62]

Examples:

Completed level: PCL and bachelor
Major area: Humanities, Commerce, Science, Sanskrit, Medicine, Engineering, Education, Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock

Completed level: Post Graduate
Major area: Statistics, Population Studies, Rural Development, Economics, Politics, Home Science, Geography, History, English, Nepalese, Hindi, Sociology, Psychology, Culture, Sanskrit, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Botany, Education, Management, Engineering, Medicine, Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock, etc.

Completed level: PhD
Major area: related area

Part 3: Data sheet 2

Information on use of the book containing census data sheet
- The enumerator should complete the data of all households in his enumeration area. In some households, only the data sheet 1 should be completed and in some households, both data sheet 1 and data sheet 2 should be completed. The household where only the data sheet 1 is be completed, use the sheets with rose color cover. This data sheet book will be available in 20 pages and 80 pages.

- In cases where both the data sheet 1 and data sheet 2 must be completed, use the light green books which contain both data sheet 1 and data sheet 2. Generally, both data sheet 1 and data sheet 2 should be completed in all households of the six districts (Manang, Mustang, Dolpa, Mugu, Humla) and 28 municipalities stated in the annex-2. There is no need to select households to complete data 2 in those 6 districts and 28 municipalities. Use only the data sheet books with light green color cover for those district and municipalities.

In the National Census-2068, enumerators have to use two types of data sheets to collect the information - data 1 to collect household and individual information, and data 2 to collect individual information. In the census, two types of data sheet book are available to collect data. The first kind of data sheet book has a light rose color cover, where only data 1 has been included. This book is available in 20 pages and 80 pages. The second kind of data sheet book has a light green color cover in which both data sheet 1 and data sheet 2 have been included. These books are available in 40 pages and 80 pages which need to be used as per the number of household to be enumerated.

The enumerators have to complete the data sheet 1 in all households of their assigned enumeration area/unit and data sheet 2 in the selected household of their enumeration unit. However, both data sheet 1 and 2 should be used for household and individual information collection in all the household of the 6 districts and 28 municipalities stated in annex-2 (the detail information about it will be given in the census training). The enumerators should be clear through their supervisor or census officer on whether they have to complete the data 2 in selected households of their enumeration area or in all households.

Data sheet books: Book with rose color cover (data 1)
Data 1: [Check]
Data 2: [Not check]
Where to use? In 69 districts and 30 municipalities (where household is to be selected): In households that are not selected.
Where to use? In 6 districts and 28 municipalities (where household need not to be selected): Do not use it.

[p. 63]

Data sheet books: Book with light green color cover (data 2)
Data 1: [Check]
Data 2: [Check]
Where to use? In 69 districts and 30 municipalities (where household is to be selected): In the households that are selected.
Where to use? In 6 districts and 28 municipalities (where household need not to be selected): In all households.

The listing of household data in the area, where the numerator works, must be prepared by supervisors. In most of districts and municipalities, among the households listed in "household listing form" some of the households sequence number would have been circled with red ink. These red circled households are the selected households for data 2 completion. As both data 1 and date 2 should be completed in those red circled households, fill the information on the book with light green cover which contains both data 1 and data 2. But, because of both data 1 and data 2 should be filled in the households of the six districts and 28 municipalities stated in annex-2, there would not be any red circled sequence numbers for any of the households in the household listing form prepared by supervisors. In this situation, enumerators should only use the data sheet book with light green cover which has included both data 1 and data 2 and complete the forms. Enumerators should be clear about it with their respective supervisor or census officer.

NB: Respective supervisors will instruct the enumerators about the districts and municipalities that they have to complete the data 1 for household information and in which districts and municipalities they have to use both data 1 and data 2 for household information, and enumerators have to complete the data 1 and data 2 accordingly.

[p. 64]

Part-3

Method to fill up the information

Regarding the columns where individual information of data-2 is to be filled up
Data 2 should be completed in the selected households only. However, data 2 should be completed in all the households of those populated 6 districts and 28 municipalities stated in annex-2. The selection of households for completing data-2 has been done by the supervisor. Before field work, the enumerators should consider whether the households selected in household listing form are confirmed or not. They should consult with supervisors about it. Data-2 is completed as continuation of data-1 and its question starts from column 16 and ends in column 27. For convenience, questions of data-2 have been divided into five sections.

Section 1: four questions to be taken from data-1: columns 2, 4, 5, and 7
Section 2: four questions related to migration: columns 16, 17, 18, and 19
Section 3: questions related to fertility of married women: columns 20 and 21
Section 4: questions related to usual activity in last 12 months: columns 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26
Section 5: questions related to shelter status of children aged below 16 years old: column 27.

As these questions should be asked per sex, age, and marital status, enumerators should be careful about which question need to be asked to whom. For skipping the next question after asking the next question, there would be instruction on the above of concerned column. Therefore, the enumerators should be very careful while asking questions. Otherwise, there is likely to ask questions to unrelated persons and not asking required questions to the related person. While indicating response, the enumerators should circle the appropriate reference number as of data-1. If need to be written, should write clearly in both number and letter.

In data-2, there are two sections for data collection of households. In the first section of the data, there is introductory information on households and in the second section, there are questions for individual information collection. Except for skipping questions as indicated in the questionnaire, ask all other questions compulsorily and fill in the information given by respondent. Write a dash (-) if there is no response of any question asked and leave bank if there is no need to ask questions. If there has not been written anything in response of a question, it means the question has not been asked to the related respondent. The methods for information collection in each section has been described below:

Methods to fill up the introductory information
The introductory information of data-2 for selected households should be entered from data-1. Here the district, VDC/municipalities, ward, enumeration area number, tole/settlement/village, house sequence number of data-1, and the total number of persons usually living in the family, including the number of male and female should be copied from the data sheet-1. The method of data collection and the definition are also the same as in the manual for completing data-1. While making entry of the information, it should be written in the respective space that is clear and easy to understand.

[p. 65]

Individual information
The information of column 1 (sequence number), column 2 (name of persons usually living in the household), column 4 (sex), column 5 (age), and column 7 (marital status) of individual information of selected household in this data-2 form has already been asked while completing the data-1 form and hence, need not to be asked. That information should be copied from data-1.

Columns under individual information to be copied from data-1 to data-2.
The responses of the following four columns should be copied from the data-1.

Column 2: Name of persons usually living in the household
The names of persons usually living in the selected household should be copied sequentially from column 2 of data-1 and be entered into the column 2 of data-2. However, there is no need to write the surnames in this data-2.

Column 4: What is the sex of [the respondent]?
The sex information of persons of the selected household should be entered sequentially from column 4 of data-1 into column 4 of data-2.

Column 5: What is the age of [the respondent]?
The completed age written in column 5 of data-1 should be copied sequentially into column 5 of data-2 and be entered sequentially in the row of the related persons in this column.

Column 7: What is the marital status of [the respondent]?
The marital status from column 7 of data-1 should be copied sequentially into column 7 of data-2.


[p. 66]

Migration [columns 16-19]

Column 16: where is the birthplace of [the respondent]?

[] 1 This district
[] 2 Another district
[] 1 VDC
[] 2 Municipality
[] 3 Foreign country

Birthplace means where a person was born (this district, another district, or foreign country). Ask the person concerned whether he/she was born in this district, another district, or foreign country. If he/she was born in this district, circle the reference 1, if born in another district, circle the reference 2, and write the name of the district where he/she was born, and then also circle either the VDC or municipality where he/or she was born. If the person was born in any foreign country, circle the reference 3 and write the name of the country.

[Image is omitted]

If a person was born in this district (enumerated district), there is no need to ask such questions as how long [the respondent has been] living here (column 17) and what is the main reason to live here (column 18). In this situation, jump to the column 19 (Where [the respondent] was living five years ago?). However, if the person was not born in this district, but in another district then write the name of the other district and again ask whether if the birthplace was a VDC or municipality. If the birthplace was a VDC, circle the reference 1 and if it was municipality, circle the reference 2. If the person was born in another district (circled in reference 2) or in foreign country (circled in reference 3), then ask him/her how long he/she has been living here (column 17) and what is the main reason for living here (column).

Things to be considered while completing column 16:

- Ask the question related to birthplace to all persons (children, youth, and elderly people) and if the birthplace is another district or country, specify the name of such district or country.

- A person's place of birth might be anywhere - own home, hospital, maternity care center, nursing home or places with similar facilities. But for the purpose of enumeration, the place of birth means the place where his/her parents were usually living when he/she was born, and accordingly if it was this district, circle the reference 1, if it was another district, circle the reference 2 or if it was another country circle the reference 3.

[p. 67]

- If the birthplace was in another district, circle the reference 2 and write the name of the district of the birthplace (e.g. Dhading, Kailali, Jumla, etc.). Also identify whether the place was a VDC or municipality at that time, and if was a VDC, circle the reference 1 and if it was a municipality, circle the reference 2.

- If the birthplace was another country, circle the reference 3 and write the name of the country (e.g. India, China, America, Canada, Australia, England, etc.).

- For people who checked reference 1, i.e. the people who was born in the current living district, do not ask the questions related to column 17 and 18.

Column 17: how long [the respondent] have been living here?
(Only for those whose birthplace were in another district or country)

This question is asked to persons whose birthplace is different from where they are living currently, i.e. it was in another district or country. This means the person was not born in this country but migrated from elsewhere. Ask such person how many years since he or she migrated here and write clearly in number. E.g. If he or she has been living here for 3 years and seven months, the completed years is 3 years and write it as 3. If they have not even completed one year, write "00". Living means that the person has been usually in the place.

Example-
Scene: enumeration has been doing in the Sallaghari, Bhaktapur
Household head: Dhanlaxmi Maharjan
Description: Four years ago, Dhanlaxmi Maharjan constructed a new house in Sallaghari of Bhaktapur district and migrated here. Now she is living here. Previously, she was a resident of Thapathali, Khathamndu district. Dhanlaxmi's nine years son, Indra Maharjan, is also living with her mother. Indra Maharjan was born in Patan Hospital, while his family were living in Kathmandu. Dhanlaxmi's parents' home is in the municipal area of Lalitpur district and she was born there. In this situation, while writing the description of column 16 and 17, it goes in this way:

SN (column 1): 01.
Name of person usually living in the family (column 2): Dhanlaxmi.
Where is the birthplace of [the respondent] (column 16): Another district: Lalitpur municipality.
How many years [has the respondent been] living here? (column 18): 4 years.

SN (column 1): 02.
Name of person usually living in the family (column 2): Indra.
Where is the birthplace of [the respondent] (column 16): Another district: Kathmandu municipality.
How many years [has the respondent been] living here? (column 18): 4 years.

[p. 68]

Column 18: what is the main reason that [the respondent] is living in this district?

[] 1 Agriculture
[] 2 Business / trade
[] 3 Job / employment
[] 4 Study
[] 5 Marriage
[] 6 Dependent
[] 7 Conflict
[] 8 Other

This question is asked of only persons not born in this district, i.e. born in another district or country. No one leaves his or her birthplace without any reason. Hence, with the belief that nobody migrates without any reason, this question should be ask. There could be many reasons to leave the usual birthplace (another district or another country) and come to this district for living, these reasons have been divided here into 8 reasons. If a person migrates for agriculture, circle the reference 1, if for business, circle the reference 2, if for employment, circle the reference 3, if for study, circle the reference 4, if due to marriage, circle the reference 5, if any member of a family has migrated and others are dependent (e.g. children, wife, husband) to this person and migrated here, circle reference 6, if a person has been displaced due to conflict (political, ethnic, etc.) and come here to live, circle reference 7, and besides all these above stated, if a person has been migrated here due to any other reasons, circle the reference 8 and specify the reason (e.g. refugee, getting cheap land).

Some families might have migrated to various districts one after another, leaving his usual birthplace. In that situation, whatever the main reason to leave his or her birthplace, write the main reason to leave.

Example:
Scene: enumeration is going on Chitawan district
Household head: Karna Prasad Shrestha
Description: Karna Prasad Shresth was born in Gulmi district. After marriage, Karna Prasad migrated with his family to Baglung district for agricultural activities in the inherited land and living there. After 5 years of agricultural activities, he moved to retail clothes business. After doing retail business for three years, he sees more possibility of this business in Chitawan district and migrated here. Now he is in the Chitawan district for 6 years doing business and at the time of enumeration, even if the main reason to leave his birthplace Gulmi was agriculture, the main reason of migration to this district (Chitwan) is business.

[p. 69]

Column 19: where was the living place of [the respondent] five years ago?
(Only ask to aged 5 years or more)

[] 1 This district
[] 2 Another district
[] 1 VDC
[] 2 Municipality
[] 3 Another country

[Image is omitted]

In this question, living place means usual living place. If the person responded question of column 17 (How long [has the respondent] been living here?) as he/she is older than five years, then we can understand that the person was also living here in this district five years ago. In order to identify whether that answer was true or not, ask the respondent the question of column 19 (Where was the living place of [the respondent] five years ago?) and if confirmed it was this district, circle the reference 1. But while asking question of column 17 (How long has [the respondent] been living here?) if the response is less than five years, then the person was in another district or country five years ago. Therefore, to confirm whether this answer is true or not, ask the question of column 19 (Where was the living place of [the respondent] five years ago?) and if was another district, circle the reference 2. Again, ask whether that living place of another district was a VDC or municipality and if it was a VDC, circle the reference 1, and if it was a municipality, circle the reference 2.

If the living place five years ago was another country, circle the reference 3 and also write the name of that country.

In this question, it has been asked the living place exactly 5 years ago from the date of enumeration. That is, if the remuneration day is 2068/03/04, then ask the person where he was living on 2063/03/03. Here also living place means the usual living place of a person.

Relationship between column 17 and column 19
In question of column 17 (how long [has the respondent] been living here) if the response is five years or more than five years, then the response automatically would be "in this district" and circle the reference 1. If the response is less than five years, it is understood that the person was in another district or another country five years ago. Confirm this and if it was another district, circle the reference 2 and specify the name of the district, and again to specify whether it was VDC or municipality, circle the reference 1 VDC for VDC and reference 2 Municipality for municipality, respectively. If it was another country, circle the reference 3 and write the name of that country.

[p. 70]

Fertility status of married women in fertility age [columns 20-21]

Column 20: has [the respondent] ever given birth to an alive child?
(Ask the married women aged 15-49 years old)

1. Yes
Description: living in the household
Son: _ _
Daughter: _ _

Description: living elsewhere
Son: _ _
Daughter: _ _

Description: dead
Son: _ _
Daughter: _ _

Description: total
Son: _ _
Daughter: _ _
2. No [Go to question 22]

The purpose of this question is to determine fertility rate of married women in fertility age. Therefore, this question should be asked the married women in fertility age (15-49) at the time of enumeration.

Born alive means the child born by giving sound, crying, and movement when out of the mother's womb or giving indication of living. At the time of birth if a child does not give any indication of living such as sound, crying, or movement, then such child is not considered alive. Miscarriage or stillbirth is not also considered alive. If it is stillbirth, there is no need to include in counting. But the living child should not be left in counting.

[Image is omitted]

Ask whether they have alive children to women who have been married once (any marital status from reference 2 to 7 of column 7) and women from 15-49 years old, and if they have, circle the reference 1. Also ask how many alive children they gave birth and their current status (living in the household, living elsewhere, or dead), and accordingly fill up the information in the related box. While writing the number of children, only state the children born from the counted woman's womb. The children born from others, another wife of husband, adopted children should not be written under the children from the woman.

[p. 71]

The questions related to birth are known more to the concerned woman. If you asked these question [to a man], the responses likely to be wrong and hence, such question should be asked to the woman as far as possible.

1. Children living in the household - The children living with the family (or with the mother) should be written in this reference section. Both married and unmarried sons and unmarried daughters generally live with their mother.

2. Children living elsewhere - The number of the children living elsewhere without living with their mothers in the family (e.g. children living elsewhere for study, job, or any other reason for long time or left after marriage, separated with their parents) should be written in this column. If any child live elsewhere in the country or has gone to a foreign country due to various purposes should be written as he/she is not living with his/her mother, but elsewhere.

3. Dead children - If any child was born alive but died immediately after birth or later in the family, then his/her number should be written in this section, separating the numbers of son and daughter. But children from stillbirth should not be included here.

4. Total children (boys and girls) - Among the children born as stated above, after writing separately the numbers of children living together, living elsewhere, and dead, write the total all of these children, by asking them again, in the last row of the table. If the number of children written separately and the total number of children do not match, then ask why it is different and be confirm to correct it if required.

Things to remember for question of column 20

- While asking question, ask carefully and seek to know whether there were any died children immediately after their birth. It is sensitive question to ask, because some of the people try to forget this sad moment and do not prefer to give such information. Also, the might think that such information is not required to provide. But this information is very important for the study of fertility and mortality rate. Hence, while asking such question, the enumerator should be more sensitive and require best efforts to bring factual information related to birth.

- Particularly, there is more possibility missing the information to share about the children who died immediately after their birth or after few days/years.

- Similarly, married daughter might be missed in the counting.

- Hence, give enough required time in information collection related to birth and ask the status of each child one by one. Then, write separately the number of son and daughter.

- Also, do not miss the number of the children born to women who remarried (from their previous husband).

Column 21: did [the respondent] give birth to an alive child in the last 12 months?
(Only to the married women aged 15-49)

Yes
Sex
[] 1 Boy
[] 2 Girl

Year _ _ _ _
Month _ _
[p. 72]

The purpose of this question is to collect information related to fertility of married women aged 15-49 years old. If the married women aged 15-49 have given birth to an alive child in the past 12 months (if the enumeration day is 2068/03/04, then from 2067/03/05 to 2068/03/04), such information should be filled up in the related area.

Details about alive birth have been put in the description of column 20. Even if a child died immediate after being born or at later time, this should be considered as alive birth and must be included in the counting. However, if the child was already dead in the womb and it was stillbirth, such birth should not be counted here.

If the woman counted had given birth to an alive child in the past 12 months, circle the reference 1 'yes'. Then write all other information of that living child (e.g. sex of the child, birth year, and month) in the related box of the table. In the heading of sex, if the child is boy, circle the reference 1 and if the child is girl, circle the reference 2. Similarly, if the year the child was born is 2067, write only 67 and write the month in number (e.g. 10 for Magh month). Write the year and month in separate related boxes. In that one-year period, even if a woman gave live birth to twins or three children, identify whether they are boy or girl and write information of them separately in a sequence with their birth year and month (see the example below of column 21). If there are not enough space to write, take the next page.

If there were no alive children born in the last 12 months, circle the reference 2 'no' and go to the question of column 22.

Example to fill up the column 21
Day of enumeration: 2068/03/04
Description: In the last 12 months (i.e. from the date of 2067/03/04 to 2068/03/03), Rashmi Ghimire gave birth to twins, a son and a daughter (dated 2067/04/10). In this situation, following information should be filled up in column 21.

Did [the respondent] give birth to an alive child in the last 12 months?
1. Yes
Sex: Son [circled]
Year: 67
Month: 4

Sex: Daughter
Year: 67
Month: 4
2. No [Go to question 22]

Here: 67 means the year 2064, and 4 means the 4th month according to the Nepalese calendar.

With the question of column 21, all the questions related to fertility ends.

[p. 73]

Work, economic activity, economically active/inactive manpower (columns 22-26)
Five questions from columns 22-26 are related to economic and non-economic activities. Ask these questions to the people usually living in the family and aged 10 years or older.

Column 22: what works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how much time did you spend for each work?

1. Agriculture / own farming: months _ _
2. Salary / wage: months _ _
3. Own business (non-agricultural): months _ _
4. Extended economic activities: months _ _
5. Job search: months _ _
6. Household works / activities: months _ _
7. Study (student): months _ _
8. Did not work: months _ _
Total: 12 months

In this questions there are two sections - In the past 12 months (reference duration) a. What works did you do? And, b. How much time did you spend for each work?

For the first section (what works did you do?), the work has been divided into seven different types of work. Even if a person has spent most of the time doing only one work in the past 12 months (12 months before the date of enumeration), he or she might have done other works also for a short time period. Hence, in the appropriated column, the works engaged (reference number 1-7) and no work (reference number 8) during the reference period (past 12 months) should be written in months. Therefore, the work refers to the work done most of the time in the past 12 months and the other works done for shorter period of time.

The time taken for each month means the duration or the total number of months taken from each work, whether it is work done most of the time or the works done for a shorter period of time.

Ask the family members aged 10 or above usually living in the family what works they did in the past 12 months and how many months did they spend for each work. Then write the duration of each work done in months. A person might have done different works in the past 12 months. Ask the work's nature as per the given seven categories and write the duration of each work in months. If a person stayed without doing any work, ask him/her how many months he/she stayed in that situation and write the response in the section of reference 8 "did not work".

The above categorization can also be divided into four sections.

1. Economic activities: 1. agriculture / own farming
1. Economic activities: 2. salary / wage
1. Economic activities: 3. own business (non-agriculture)

2. Extended economic activities: 4. extended economic activities: production of goods works done by family members for the consumption of the family. (E.g. firewood collection, fetching water, food production at home or in other places and processing it, stitching/weaving sweater, weaving of bamboo basket, straw mat, etc., are extended economic works).

[p. 74]

3. Job search: 5. seeking employment: the situation or duration of seeking or looking for any kind of economic activities related to the sequence number 1 above.

4. Non-economic activities: 6. household activities: unpaid service provided by family members for the consumption of the family (e.g. cooking, washing, cleaning, care work, etc.)
4. Non-economic activities: 7. study (student)
4. Non-economic activities: 8. did not work

Some persons may not have done the same work for twelve months permanently like government and NGOs personnel. In this situation, it would be easy to take the information on the works that the person has done in the following way.

- First, identify the months a person has spent to perform the economic activities [1. agriculture/own farming; 2. salary/wage; 3. own business (non-agriculture)] and confirming the months write it in the related space. If the person has spent the whole twelve months in the last one year doing an economic activity, do not ask further about the months taken for his or her extend economic activities, job seeking or household activities.

- If the person has spent less than 12 months performing an economic activity, then ask him or her whether they did extended economic activities (e.g. firewood collection, fetching water, food production at home or in other places and processing it, stitching/weaving sweater, weaving of bamboo basket, straw mat, making pickle and other processed food items etc. for household purpose). If he or she did, ask him/her about the months spent doing such works and write the months in related space.

If the total months come to be 12 months for 1. agriculture/ own farming; 2. salary/ wage; 3. own business (non-agriculture), and extended economic works the person did, there is no need to ask the months for job search, household tasks, and study the person did.

- If the total duration of the economic works and extended economic works the person performed is less than 12 months, then ask whether the person was seeking any job in leisure time and how many months were spend for job search, and write the response (i.e. the months) in related space. If the total duration of the economic works, extended economic works, and job seeking time is 12 months, then do not ask the general household task or study that the person has pursued.

- If the total period of economic works, extended economic works, and job seeking time is less than 12 months, the person must has spent rest of the time in non-economic activities (household tasks or study) or stayed without doing any work. In that condition, ask how many months the person has spent for household tasks (e.g. cooking, washing, cleaning, care work, etc. for household purposes) or study or without doing any work and write the response in related column.

Remember: The total sum of the months in these given categories must come to be 12 months.

[p. 75]

Example: In the past 12 months, Shyam Sundar Choudhary spent 3 months for farming in his own land, 2 months for wage labor, and 7 months for his own retail shop business. The description should be written as:

1. Agriculture/own farming: 3 months
2. Salary/wage: 2 months
3. Own business (non-agricultural): 7 months
4. Extended economic activities
5. Job search
6. Household works/activities
7. Study (student)
8. Did not work
Total: 12 months

Example - In the last 12 months, a resident of Humla district, Pasang Lama spent only 1 month for farming in his land. He were unable to work for 11 months due to an accident, falling from hill during his work. In this condition, as Pasang Lama was able to do only agriculture/farming work in the list from 1-7 above, the information should be written as following:

1. Agriculture/own farming: 1 month
2. Salary/wage
3. Own business (non-agricultural)
4. Extended economic activities
5. Job search
6. Household works/activities
7. Study (student)
8. Did not work: 11 months
Total: 12 months

The above stated works have been detailed as follows:
1. Agriculture/own farming - Own farming means the farming/agriculture works for which the person has invested his capital (cash/goods), labor, and risked himself the loss and profit. Such agricultural/farming works could be in his own land or rented land, but may be the case where the respondent or the members of the family work on it. If he/she worked in others' farming activities by taking wages as laborer, then, such time spent should be counted under salary/wage, not under the agriculture/own farming.

Agriculture/farming should be understood as all kinds of agricultural works. All the details below come under agriculture activity.

[p. 76]

Agriculture activities -

1. Works related to the production of food crops (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, etc.), cash crops (sugar cane, jute, tobacco, tea, coffee, etc.), vegetable, fruits (orange, banana, mango, jackfruit, pineapple, apple, guava, etc.), pulse crops, oil crops, and spices.

2. Works related to livestock rearing (e.g. cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, rabbit, poultry, etc.)

3. Works related to fisheries, such as constructing pond, nursery collection, food collection and conservation.

4. Works related to vegetation, such as planting trees, grass, weeding and protection, etc. Similarly, bee hiving, sericulture, horticulture, etc. are also agriculture works.

[Images are omitted]

[p. 77]

But,

- Manufacturing industries (e.g. works which pay salary/wage by working in food producing industries, grinding mill, bamboo items production workshops, saw mill) come under salary/wage, not under agriculture/farming.

- Working in others' farm or land as wage laborer also falls under salary/wage, not under agriculture.

If the enumerated person has worked in his own agriculture/farming in the last 12 months, ask him/her how many months he has worked in agriculture/farming and write the months in number. Other members of the family might also have worked jointly in the agriculture/farming.
If the agriculture/farming works done by taking payment (cash or goods), salary, wage, specify the months of working for the person in reference 2, not in reference 1.

2. Salary/wage: If a person spent his time working for others by taking payment, salary, or wage (either in cash, or goods, or in any other forms), ask how many months spent for such works and write the months in reference 2.

If the enumerated person has worked in a sector (government, non-government, organization, industry, domestic, farming/land, business or others) for a salary or wage, ask how many months spent and write the total months under the reference 2 of salary/wage.

[Images omitted]

[p. 78]

If any persons were domestic workers, such as shepherd, person for land plowing, cook, or bonded laborer in the reference time in salary/wage (either in cash or goods), ask them the total months they worked and write it under salary/wage.

Example - Bed Bahadur Magar family has four members - Bed Bahadur, his wife Dilmaya Magar, daughter Ratnmaya Magar, and domestic worker Bhadra Bahadur Pulami. Bed Bahadur worked as storekeeper in a biscuit factory for last 12 months and his wife Dilmaaya Magar worked as office assistant for cleaning in a government office. Both husband and wife received salary/wage for whole 12 months. Their daughter Ratnamaya worked in farming for six months and the rest of the time, she manages household chores. Bhadra Bahadur Pulami was hired in wages for doing all the housework and he did all kind of works.

[Example table are omitted here]

[p. 79]

3. Own business (non-agriculture): Non-agriculture business refers all kinds of business activities led by the family, other than farming/agriculture, where goods or services should have been produced and sold. If the production was only for household purpose, it should be stated under extended economic activities. And the service for household purpose should be stated under household chores.

Here, own business (non-agriculture) means all the non-agriculture activities that a person or group of persons/members have invested their capital (cash/goods), labor, and risked their loss and profit. The business under partnership also should be stated in this section.

[p. 80]

[Images are omitted]

If the enumerated person has worked to any non-agriculture business of his/her own, ask the total months worked and write it. If other family members also have worked in the non-agriculture business jointly, ask the total months they have worked and write it under the reference 3. However, if a person works in others' non-agriculture business by taking any kind of salary, wage or as laborer, the duration of such work should be written in months under reference "2. salary/wage", but do not write under the reference "3. own business (non-agriculture)."

[Image is omitted]

NB: - All the business (other than farming), such as food or non-food items production industry, trade, transport, construction, hotels, restaurants, etc. are non-agriculture business. Examples of non-agriculture business are presented as below.

1. Small, medium, or large-scale production industry to support the family income - e.g. jam/jelly, pickle, titaura, masyaura, bhujiya, bread, sweets, samosa, pakauda, yogurt, durukha, chhurpi, etc. or similar food or non-food production - are non-agriculture business.

2. Small, medium, or large-scale industries that produce agricultural tools or equipment (e.g. spade, hansiya, wooden plow, plowing metal plate, etc.), metal utensils or similar kind of materials are non-agriculture business.

3. Producing materials from cane, bamboo, jute, or babiyo - e.g. basket, nanglo, rope and similar other works - are non-agriculture business. Small or large industries producing sculpture, picture, and handicrafts materials are non-agriculture business.

4. Small or large industries that produce sacred scent, cotton thread, leaf bowl, candle, and similar kind of materials are non-agriculture business.

5. Small or large industries that produce and sell make-up materials - e.g. bangle, pote, dhago, tika, jewelry items - are non-agriculture business.

6. Small businesses - e.g. selling of cigarette, betel nuts, tobacco, pepper, chocolate, dried cheese etc. in nanglo, cartoon or box; Shops selling paan and betel nuts, fruits, vegetables in basket, meat selling, liquor items selling in wholesale or retail - are non-agriculture business.

[Image is omitted]

[p. 81]

7. Stitching, weaving, cutting, and other services - making sweaters, shocks, caps, hats, globes (to receive a payment); tailoring, clothe sewing, hair dressing, restaurant and tea shop, cobblers and similar other small and large service business are non-agriculture business.

8. Works such as rickshaws pulling, thela, ox-cart, horse-cart, etc. and load carrying laborers and similar other works are non-agriculture business.

[Images omitted]

9. The work of mason, carpenter, and wood related material production and similar other works are non-agriculture business.

Example -
1. Biharilal and Thirtha Kumari has started their construction services with bearing the profit/loss by themselves. They have hired Ram Kumar Giri on salary basis for the work. In this situation, the duration of the works of Biharilal and Thirtha Kumari should be written in months under the reference "3. Own business (non-agriculture)" and the duration of the salaried works of Ram Kumar Giri should be written under the reference "2. Salary / wage".

2. Harilal Lohar has his own iron workshop. His wife Devaki also works in the same workshop. His son Dhaniklal Lohar works in farming. His daughter, Lalita Lohar, owns and runs a shop of iron and other metal items. In that situation, the duration of works done by Harilal and his wife Devoki should be written in months under the reference 3 and the work of Dhaniklal Lohar should be written in months under the reference 1. And, as the works of Harilal Lohar's daughter Lalita is running her own shop of iron and other metal items, the duration of her work should be written in months under the reference 3.

4. Extended economic activities: Extended economic activities means works done by family members for the consumption of the family. E.g. firewood collection, fetching water, food production at home or in other places and processing it or grinding, hammering in home or in mill, or stitching/weaving sweater, weaving of bamboo basket, straw mat, or making processed pickle, titaura, masyaura, etc. are extended economic works. The production for household use might not give direct economic benefit, but it helps to save by cutting expenses and it is put under extended economic activities.

[p. 82]

[Images are omitted]

However, many people classify such works under household chores, which is wrong. Though these works are done for the purpose of household use, they produce some goods or services and for the purpose of census, these works should be considered extended economic works or activities. If any person has done such works in the last 12 months, the total estimated months spent for those works should be stated in reference 4.

NB: From the last Population Census 2058, the production activities performed by family members for the purpose of household use has been counted as economic activities. According to the System of National Accounting 1993, the production of goods and services for household use should be counted as economic goods. The people engaged in the production of such goods are considered workers and have been included in the census. Hence, the works that produces such goods have been included in the extended economic works for the purpose of population census.

5. Job search: Job search means looking or searching for job that gives economic benefit. The person who seeks economic job should has done it so actively and should be ready for doing such works. If the person counted has looked or searched for such job in the last 12 months, the duration should be written in months under the reference 5.

Persons looking for jobs during the reference time - a. The person who did not do any work before or if did, he/she was not in work most of the time in reference duration, but looking for some job, and b. Persons come up the age of work are looking for jobs. Even a person who was qualified enough to do work, he could not get a job and was/is looking for jobs.

People who do not search a job actively or are unwilling to do any job or not available for such jobs should not be considered under the job search category.

[p. 83]

6. Household chores: Household chores means unpaid service provided by family members for their own family - e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, etc. Usually, the service provided by any family member for other family members or for themselves without taking any salary or wages (in cash or in goods) is termed as "household chores." Such works provided to the family or to the self without taking any kind of salary or wages generally are counted economically non-profit jobs.

But, the works to produce some goods for self or for the purpose of family use - e.g. weaving sweater, making processed pickle, collection of firewood, fetching water - should consider extended economic activities and if any person has done such works in the past 12 months, write the duration in months at the reference number 4.

[Images are omitted]

For any enumerated male or female who has worked in such works in the reference time - e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, etc. - write the duration of such works in months under reference "6 household chores."

Similarly, if a person has to take care of a pregnant, new mother, and children, this should be considered under household chores and write the duration spent in the household chores in reference 6.

However, the household chores done for others by taking salary, wage (either cash or goods) - e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, etc. - are the works by receiving economic benefits. Ask a male or female if they have done such works in the last 12 months by taking salary or wage and the total months of such work. If they did, write the months under the reference "2 salary/wage", but do not put it under the reference "6 household chores." For example, if any person (e.g. domestic workers) in the same family do household chores by taking salary/wage in the last 12 months, this is economic works and accordingly the total months of such salaried/waged woks should be written in the time reference number "2 salary/wage."

[p. 84]

There are some examples to distinguish household chores and economic works:

- The following activities are economic works"

a. Activities in own farming without taking salary/wage
b. Any farming or non-farming woks by taking salary/wage
c. Own non-agriculture/non-farming business (e.g. running retail/grocery shop, producing candles, driving, making and selling dhago-pote, etc.)

- Services provided to the own family - e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, etc. - in which there are no production of goods, are household chores. Managing grass and fodder for cattle/livestock in own shed, weeding own land, etc. are economic works and falls under own agriculture/ farming activities.

1. House chores could have done either by a male or female. Because some persons do not distinguish between economically profitable and non-profitable works, people generally state the economically profitable works as household chores (economically non-profitable). Therefore, it would be easy if such distinguish is made on the basis of goods production and services providing. For example, cattle grazing, collecting grass/fodder, selling vegetables or other production in market, or processing food by dhiki-janto (traditional thrasher/grinder) at home for household use are economically profitable works. These works are not household chores, the generate income.

2. If any male or female weaves a blanket, woolen carpet, sweater or produce them for others taking wage or for the purpose of selling it in the market, these are incomes generated from works. These works are not household chores, they are economic works.

[Images are omitted]

3. When asking women about the job that they did during the last 12 months, if they responded "household chores," then again ask what they did as household chores. Some of the possible responses might be:

a. Farming/agriculture works, taking care of livestock, managing foods for livestock, milking, etc.

b. Clothes (saree, dhoti, khasto, topi, blouse, etc.) weaving, sewing or other sewing/stitching and tailoring works, making bamboo baskets, leash, tether, rope, producing bread, jam-jelly, etc. might have written equal to household chores. These are income-generating works, not general household chores.

[p. 85]

c. If the person has performed these jobs - e.g. cotton spilling, leaf weaving, clothe washing, cleaning house premise, caring pregnant or sick people and similar works, providing accommodation (at home) - by taking cash or goods, then these should be counted as income generating (economic) works.

d. Working in wage or as a laborer (e.g. grinding/thrashing work for others in their house) is also income-generating work.

If any counted male or female has done any of the above works that seem as general household chores, this would be income-generating works from the economic viewpoint. In that situation, each works done in the last 12 months and the duration taken in the months should be written in the respective rows 1, 2, 3, and 4. In the reference time, these incomes generating works should not be stated in the reference "6 household chores."

NB: In the column 26, there is reference "2 household" written to indicate the most of the time where no economic activities are done. In that column, the reason for usually not being economically active (not done income-generating works or works for short periods) should be stated. While specifying the works that are not generating income or are short-period works, if these various works -e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, cleaning the yards, etc. - have been done, circle the reference 2 "household chores" to indicate that income generating works has not been done. But if they could not do economic works because they were pregnant or gave birth to children and had to take care of them or had worked only for short time, write the reason why they were unable to perform income generating works or why they worked for short time in such works in reference 7 "other."

7. Study (student): Study means getting education, training or studying regularly with enrollment in school, college, and university, or any other institution.

If the enumerated person has spent last 12 months in study or training, write the time in months on the row of reference 7 "study (student)". In other words, the time (in months) spent during the last year at an educational institution, either by enrolling or not, should be written on the row of reference 7.

If the last 12 months have also been spent in other works (whether income generating or not), not only in study and training, do not state such time in reference 7, but other relevant reference numbers. Similarly, if any person in government, non-government, or other office has taken paid study leave and studied with salary/pay, then the time should be stated in salary/wage reference. If they have studied while taking unpaid study leave, then such time should be indicated in reference 7 "study (student)."

8. Did not work - Did not work refers the situation of not involving any of the activities from reference 1-7 stated above.

The main intention of the question in column 22 is to collect information on works done by a person and the time spent doing each of the works in the last 12 months. Hence, calculate that how much time spent by a person for the activities from reference 1-7 (in months) and if they did not do any of the works listed in the reference 1-7, this non-working period should be indicated in the reference number 8 (in months).

There could be many reasons for not doing work - e.g. being old, sick or ill, bad physical or mental condition, pregnancy, etc. If the non-working period is 12 months, do not ask the column 23, 24, 25 but jump to the column 26 and ask the reason for not working.

[p. 86]

Example - In the family of Divya Kumari Moktan (household head), there are five members - Divya Kumar Moktan (herself), Thirman Moktan (husband), Sarita Kumar Moktan, Kesari Kumar Moktan (two daughters), and Raviman Moktan (a son). Divya Kumari Mokta worked in an NGO for salary for 8 months. She also did daily household chores like cooking, washing clothes, and cleaning the house and its premises. She did poultry farming for three months and could not work for one month due to illness. Thirman Moktan ran a retail business in his home for 5 months. He also worked as a schoolteacher in a local school for 4 months and supported his wife in poultry farming for 3 months. Elder daughter Sarita is a full-time teacher in a local school. Younger daughter Kesari is studying in grade 7. Their son Raviman did farming for 5 months, searched for works for 5 months but did not get any work, supported in poultry farming for two months, and got the opportunity to attend in Grameen Employment Program for 2 months.

S.N.: 01
Name of the person living usually in the family: Divya Kumari
What works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how many months for each work?
1. Agriculture/own farming: 3 months
2. Salary/wage: 8 months
8. Did not work: 1 month
Total: 12 months
S.N.: 02
Name of the person living usually in the family: Thirman
What works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how many months for each work?
1. Agriculture/own farming: 3 months
2. Salary/wage: 4 months
3. Own business (non-agricultural): 5 months
Total: 12 months
S.N.: 03
Name of the person living usually in the family: Sarita Kumari
What works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how many months for each work?
2. Salary/wage: 12 months
Total: 12 months
S.N.: 04
Name of the person living usually in the family: Kesari Kumari
What works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how many months for each work?
7. Study (student): 12 months
Total: 12 months
[p. 87]
S.N.: 05
Name of the person living usually in the family: Raviman
What works did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months and how many months for each work?
1. Agriculture/own farming: 5 months
5. Job search: 5 months
7. Study (student): 2 months
Total: 12 months

NB:
1.a. For persons working in salary/wage during 12 months (e.g. permanent staffs), or farmers doing farming during 12 months, or persons running their own non-agriculture business during 12 months (e.g. retail traders, hairdressers, transport entrepreneurs, etc.), the working period would be 12 months. Even is those persons have done extended economic activities and searched for works, such activities need not be written. If a person who does economic activities for less than 12 months, ask him/her their time (in months) about their extended economic works, search for works, non-economic works or non-working time and specify it. Remember, the total time for spending all eight works should be 12 months, no less or more than 12 months.

1.b. People would have done economic works for the whole 12 months by doing one or more works among the economic activities listed - e.g. 1. Agriculture / own farming; 2. Salary / wage; 3. Own business (non-agriculture). In that situation, the time spent (in months) in the reference time (past 12 months) for each economic works should be written in the spaced provided.

1.c. To know the time about the "extended economic activities" of reference 4 in the column, the enumerator has to dig out carefully with particular inquiry. The production, processing, and collection works done by family members for the purpose of household use (e.g. collection of firewood and water, making processed pickle and masyaura, weaving sweater, etc.) are generally done by women, so these works are generally put under household chores. However, they not the household chores, they are considered extended economic works for the purpose of population census.

1.d. In this column, reference 5 "job search" means searching for economic works. If any person has searched for work in the last 12 months, the amount of time (months) for such search of economic works should be written in figure.

2.a. In the reference period, if any person did an economic work just for one hour in a day, such day should be considered as whole day's economic work. If the person worked less than one hour, it should be considered as non-working day.

2.b. Days with working and non-working should be counted as 30 days equals to one month, and write the response in months. While counting, count the remaining days as one month if it comes to be 15 days or more and count zero if it comes to be less than 15 days.

[p. 88]

2.c. If a person did various works in a month, consider the worktime (days) in months. If the time is equal for two or more works, consider the most paying work to count. If both time and income are equal, then count the work that the person gives priority.

While asking the questions of column 23, 24, and 25, following things should be remembered.

a. Only if the time of economic or extended economic works are one month or above, i.e. (1 +2+3+4) are greater than zero, ask the questions of column 23, 24, and 25. But if the time of economic or extended economic works of the column 22 are six months or above, i.e. (1+2+3+4) are greater or equal to 6 months, the question of column 26 (What is the main reason for [the respondent] not being economically active?) need not to be asked.

b. If the time of economic, extended economic works, and job search is less than 6 months, i.e. (1+2+3+4+5) is less than 6 months, ask all the questions of column 23, 24, 25, and 26.

c. If a person only did job search (reference 5 of column 22) but did not do any economic activity, the questions of column 23, 24, and 25 need not to ask. Also, if the job search (reference 5) was done for 6 months or more, questions of column 23, 24, 25, and 26 need not to ask.

Column 23: what economic woks did [the respondent] usually do?
(Only to persons whose time of (1+2+3+4) [options] of column 22 is greater than zero)

Write information about the economic works done by the enumerated person in the last 12 months. If there is any position or level in the work, such should also need to specify.

Here, for the purpose of columns 23 and 24, work means the works stated in the column 22 - i.e. 1. Agriculture / own farming; 2. Salary / wage; 3. Own non-agriculture business, and 4. Extended economic activities - which are earnings from the economic viewpoint.

For example: If the enumerated person is a doctor, he might have done health checkup and treatment to others most of the time in the last 12 months. If the work is related to health checkup and treatment, write the work he/she did as "health checkup and treatment, doctor" in this column. If the person is nurse, write "health checkup and treatment, nurse". If dentist, write "treatment of teeth, dentist". If they are assistant in the health service, write "dental assistant," "midwife," "medical assistant," "veterinary assistant," etc.

Similarly, for the person working in farming/agriculture, write the name of the crops/farming items and the nature of his task - e.g. "food crops farming, all works", "vegetable farming, showing and weeding," "fruits farming," "tea, coffee farming," "nursery," "flower production/farming," etc.

While writing the work, do not write only "job". Only writing the "job" word does not clarify the nature of the work. In the government and private offices, the nature of work differs with what is required to be performed by each position. Therefore, if a person says he or she is a doing job, ask him/her what types of work it is and where it is done and write accordingly - e.g. "finance administration, account officer," "book keeping, accountant," "data collecting, enumerator," "implementing administration policy, joint secretary," "auditing, auditor," etc. Similarly, write as "to keep account of employee, accountant," "manage records, files, office assistant."

[p. 89]

[Images are omitted]

In the reference time, a person might have done one or more economic activities. He or she might have done some work for longer periods and some work for shorter periods. While writing the information on works in columns 23, 24 and 25, write the information about the work that was done for the longest period in the last 12 months. Even for such economically works that were done for 3, 2, or 1 months, write the work that was done for the longest period. The main or particular income generating work done for the longest period in the last 12 months would be the occupation of that person. Occupation differs as per the nature of work. Occupation is categorized as per the nature of works done being in different position or level. Therefore, in order to categorize the works in appropriate occupation category, the particularly works and the position or level under which that work is performed should be written. Based on the work and position/level, we can identify the occupation of various workforces and categorize them according to their occupation. To specify the occupation of a person based on the work done for the longest period in the reference time, some of the examples are presented below.

In agriculture/farming occupation, there are various types or work - e.g. spalding, plowing, colleting seeds, seedling, planting, irrigation, weeding, treatment of pesticides or diseases, harvesting and storing, etc. These different tasks have to be done for all types of farming activities. For example:

a. Paddy, wheat, maize, barley, millet, buckwheat are produced under food/cereal crops. The category of pulse includes grass pea, lentil, chickpea, horse gram, soybean, and mung bean. The cash crops category includes jutes, sugar cane, tobacco, mustard, sesame, and flaxseed. To specify such works, write the main crops as far as possible. For example, cereal/food crops - paddy; or cash crops - sugar cane; or pulse crops - lentil.

b. The vegetable farming category includes potato, cauliflower, cabbage, radish, rayo, eggplant, bitter guard, lady finger, and pumpkin. The produced vegetable should be written to specify the nature of work. Write the main vegetable crops to identify such works. For example, vegetable farming - cauliflower.

c. Mango, banana, orange, apple, jack fruits, pomegranate, lemon, lime, pineapple, etc. are produced under the fruits crops category. Write, fruits crop - mango.

[p. 90]

d. If someone have been rearing livestock for milk, mean, fur, leather, or has spent most of the time doing shepherd job or caring livestock, write the nature of work as "livestock rearing, shepherd" or "doing all the works rearing livestock."

e. While writing the occupation related to fish production, write "fisheries" or "catching fish."

f. If people are doing poultry farming for commercial purposes (chicken, duck, egg production etc.), write the works as "chicken/duck/egg production."

g. If people are doing silk farming or bee keeping, write "silk farming" or "bee keeping."

h. If people are doing works like vegetation planting, colleting woods or firewood, herbal medicine, write the nature of the work accordingly. For example: collection of yarsagumba.

In the reference time period, the person doing farming might have done one or more of the works. Therefore, while writing the information about their works, write the work that has been done for the longest period of time.

Example:
1. While doing the works stated above, whether the work was done, whether it was done for self or for others taking wage/salary (in cash or goods), all such information need to specify.

2. The particular work of a tailor might be cutting cloth and sewing it. The person engaging in trade might purchase and sell goods or manage these things, or transport the goods. Hence, what works has been done at that time -e.g. "sewing cloth," "selling goods," "retailer" - should be written.

3. Identify the position of the people working in a government office, semi-government, NGOs, organizations, private companies, and particular works they performed in the reference time that can be disclosed by their position or level. E.g. a typist do typing job, sales girl sells goods, administrative officer oversees administrative works, etc. But some people may not do the work according to their position or level. Therefore, even for people doing a job on salary/wage, ask them what they did in the reference time period and write their particular works they performed. For example - "auditor -auditing", "accountant - book keeping", "enumerator - collecting data and information", "joint secretary - implementing administrative policy" should be written. Similarly, write "office assistant - registering and dispatching."

[Images are omitted]

4. For teacher or teaching profession - If they were teaching in the reference time, write "teacher - primary school," "teacher - secondary school," "lecturer - campus or university," "professor - campus or university." If the person is teaching to disable people, write "teacher - physically or mentally disable people."

5. People working in the same office or organization might have different nature of job. E.g. - the people working in the food corporation have different job. Some look after "employee administration" and some oversee "financial administration", some "sells food items", and some "store keeper." If they are drivers of truck, car or jeep, write as "truck, car or jeep driver". If the enumerated person is an employee at fifth level and was selling food items in the food corporation for most of the time in the last 12 years, write it as "fifth level - selling food items."

[p. 91]

6. If any person has worked in a production industry business, write clearly what he/she has done. For example - if the person was readymade garment's marketing manager in a garment industry, write it as "marketing manager" or "assistant marketing manager". If a person sewed cloth or did tailoring job, write "tailor". If a person is doing tobacco processing in a tobacco industry, write "tobacco processor," if he or she is working as a technician for color mixing in a chocolate factory, write "color mixing, technician." If a person has repaired press machines, write "machine repair person" and if a person is a mechanic machine operator, write "machine operator."

If the person is spiller of wool thread in a house, write "spilling wool thread," if he or she is weaving wool carpet, write "weaving wool carpet." If the person has worked with data, ask what particular tasks that he or she has performed as collection or processing or analysis and write the particular work performed along with their position.

7. As the occupation is identified on the basis of nature of work, if they did a work the reference time period while they were in a position, then such position also should be written in this column.

Note: Do not write anything on the four small boxes below the blank space where the response of question under column 23 is written. These four small boxes are for coding purposes.

Column 24: where did [the respondent] do that economic activity?
Economic activity means the area of industry where the person performed the works stated in column 23. It does not refer to places like Hetauda, Pokhar, or Dhulikhel. It refers to the area of economic activity that produces goods or services. Hence, write the name of the industry and the goods or services it produces. For example, Central Bureau of Statistics - data collection and entry; Patan hospital - health service, etc. and such area of industry should be written in this column. Here, area of industry means the area of goods or service production that a person is individually or with a group engaged. The industry written here helps to categorize the country's manpower with their area of industry/business. Sectors of industries have been divided into 17 different industries. For example - agriculture and forest, mining, electricity, gas and water, construction, trade, individual and social service, transportation, etc.

Example -

1. While writing an area of business and production for the people in agriculture/farming, write "in own land - cereal crops, vegetable crops." If working in others land, write "in others farm - cereal crops, vegetable crops, or cash crops." If doing livestock rearing "in own shed/farm - livestock," "in others' farm/shed - livestock."

2. The works of a general medicine doctor are treatment and health checkup. If a person works in a hospital or any other health institution in the sector of treatment or health checkup, the works of such person would be health and social work or personal and community services. And while writing it, write as "district hospital or health institution - health service." Here hospital or health institution is included in the personal and community services - industry and its service or product is health service. But, if the doctor has been doing treatment or health checkup for the workers of garment industry, then the industry would be manufacturing industry. And the response for place of work should be written as "garment industry - garment production."

[p. 92]

3. The nature of work cannot be identified only by name in the case of some of the industry. E.g. From the "sangrila and company" name the nature of work cannot be determined. Therefore, if the company has done transportation of goods, write the business of a person working there as "cangrila and company - transportation service." For the person working in Nepal Telecom, write "Nepal Telecom - communication services."

Write the response of a person working in his own retail shop/grocery as "own shop/ grocery - retail trade of food items". But if the selling job has been done at depot of the food corporation, write "food corporation - food items selling." In the case of the people working in a wage basis or as a laborer, if they did the work in a private house, write "in private house - carpenter work." If a person has done plowing job in the reference time period, write the response "in others farm - paddy production," if planting/seedling cereal or vegetable, write "in others farm - cereal or vegetable production" or similar kind of production as it is.

Note: Do not write anything below in four small boxes under the response writing blank area. These boxes are only for coding purpose.

Column 25: what is the status of work of [the respondent] while working that economic activity?

[] 1 Hiring other people for work
[] 2 Working for others
[] 3 Working for self
[] 4 Only assisting in work

Status of work means the status of a person's work in the usual activity in the last months stated in the column 23. For the purpose of the census, the status of work has been divided into four group.

These four group has been described below.

1. Hiring other people for work - For the person who has invested his capital (cash, goods, or both) in a business/industry with his own responsibility of risk of profit/loss and has hired one or more people in salary/wage (either in cash, or goods, or both) in the reference time period regularly, then the status of work of that person is "hiring other people for work." In other words, if a person has been running some business hiring one or more people, then his status of work is "hiring other people for work." Even if the person has done other works besides the business management; if he usually hires other people for work, circle the reference 1.

But, if a person hires other people in wage/remuneration basis for some days in the peak hours of work pressure (e.g. at the time of harvesting/storing only), then this status is not "hiring others for work."

Example:

1. If a farmer hires different persons for different works in salary/wage basis (cash or goods) regularly for his business of farming, livestock, and fishery or similar other kind of jobs, and he also has been working actively in the business, then the status of work of such person is "hiring others."

If the person who is hired under salary/wages basis does not have a business but worked on household tasks, the status of work of such hired person is "working for others." However, the status of work of the person who made them to do housework would not be "hiring others for work." For the status of hiring others for work, the person who is receiving salary/wage (cash or goods) should have worked in a production unit or industry. Housework should not be included in the work of a production unit.

[p. 93]

2. If the person who is an entrepreneur, business person or running similar types of other business has hired other people in salary/wage (cash or goods) basis and is running them regularly in the reference time period, then the status of work of such person is "hiring other people for work."

3. But, even if there are many people working under the ministers, ministry secretaries, directors of department or corporation, general manager, manager or high level officers of Nepal government, their work status is not hiring others for work, because they are getting salary regularly for their job and hence, they are "working for others." The status of work of all the persons in the public position who take salary/remuneration (from the people's represent or office assistant to chief secretary) are "working for others" and to indicate their status of work, circle the reference 2 "working for others."

2. Working for others for livelihood or sustaining life means that a person is working in agriculture, industry, business, office, or any other business running by others taking salary/wages (cash or goods) monthly/daily or by any other means, so his work status is "working for others." Similarly, people or employees working in government/non-government offices, international organizations, institutions, or private industries, or offices, or in private houses, or in other businesses by taking salary/wage, their work status is "working for others."

If the enumerated person has worked for others for the longest period of time in the reference time period, circle the reference number 2 "working for others" to indicate his work status. Persons working for others work in salary/wage basis and they do not participate directly in profit and loss of business.

NB:

1. If all employees, including ministers, secretaries have worked the longest period of time in different ministries, departments, offices, organization, etc. in the last 12 months by taking salary/wage, their status will be "working for others." To indicate the work status in the reference time period of employees working in ministry, department, office or organizations, circle the reference 2.

2. People working in an industry, enterprise, business, hotel, restaurant or any other organization, private business or private house for the longest period of time in the reference time period by taking salary/wage (cash or goods), their status is "working for others." To indicate the work status of these people, circle the reference 2.

3. Working for self - If a person has invested his capital (cash, goods, or both) in a business with his own responsibility and has been running it for the longest period of time in the reference period and has not hired one or more people for a salary/wage (either in cash, or goods, or both) regularly, then the status of work of that person is "working for self." In other words, if someone, while running his business for longer period of time in the last 12 months, has not worked for a somebody else and has not hired others regularly for a salary/wage, but he has ran his business by himself or jointly with family members with risk of profit/loss on their own, in that condition, the work status of that person is "working for self." Circle reference 3 to indicate such work status.

[p. 94]

Even though, in the case of persons who have hired domestic workers (cook or any others) in a salary/wage for housework, but who are not regularly working on the business ran by these hired persons, then they cannot be considered as hiring other for business work even if they hired for housework. In other words, people who hire others for domestic work, but not for business work are in the status of "working for self."

If other members of the family also has been working full time in the family business, but has not taken any wage/salary, then the status of work of such members is also "working for self" same as the main person of the business. Circle reference 3 to indicate working for self.

But the members of the family who do not work full time in the family business, but are working part time (either morning or evening or in other times), then their work status is "assisting in work."

4. Only assisting in work - People who work in any business run by a family member (either agriculture or non-agriculture) without taking any salary/wage are "only assisting in work."

Other members in the family (husband, wife, son, daughter, sisters, sister-in-law, brother, etc.) might be supporting in the business stated in the column 24 (farming or any other business) ran by a family member. Besides the main person running business and other full time members, if any other family members has been supporting the business stated in the column 23 in part time, then circle the reference 4 to indicate "only assisting in work."

NB: The work status of all male and female working in the reference time in the agriculture or other business ran by family or others should be specified.

a. If a person has been running a business by hiring one or more persons giving them a salary/wage, the work status of the main person who runs the business is "hiring others for work." If other family members also works full time in the business running by him without taking any salary/job, then their work status is "working for self" and circle the reference 3to indicate such private work.

b. If the business has been ran by a main person and other members of the family, and they have not hired any regular workers in salary/wage, the work status of the main person who is running the business is "working for self," and for other family members (husband, wife, son, daughter, sisters, sister-in-law, brother, etc.) who are working in the business in part time (not full time), then their work status is "only assisting in work," circle and reference option 4 to indicate such status. "Only assisting in work" means that the person could have some leisure time or turn to the main person in business or fetching or delivering the goods, for certain hours.

c. In the agriculture or farming work, other family members (husband, wife, son, daughter, sisters, sister-in-law, brother, etc.) might be giving full time or part time in crops planting, seedling, weeding, harvesting, or storing. If another family member has worked full time in the business ran by a family member, his status is "working for self" and circle the reference 3. And, if he is working only part time, then his status is "only assisting in work" and circle reference 4.

d. The work status of the people or person who works for other by taking salary/wage (cash or goods) or any other benefit or under certain terms and condition in the reference period of time is "working for others." Circle the reference 2 to indicate the work status "working for others."

Column 26: What is the reason of [the respondent] for not being economically active in the last 12 months?
(Ask who have a sum less than six months in options 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of column 22)

[] 1 Study
[] 2 Household chores
[] 3 Old age
[] 4 Pension/revenue
[] 5 Disability
[] 6 Illness or chronic disease
[] 7 Other
[p. 95]

Usually not working (any economic or extended economic activity) in the last 12 months means not earning in the last 12 months or earning income for less than six months. Ask the main reason for not earning income regularly in the last 12 months, and circle the related reference number.

While asking the respondent this question, ask them why did not do any of the economic activities stated in the census (column 22, reference 1, 2, 3, and extended economic activities of reference 4, or the search for job of reference 5) or why worked for less than six months if he did.

The possible reasons for not working or working for less than 6 months have been stated above (reference 1-6 of this column). If there are any other reason that stated above, circle the reference "7. other" and specify the reason.

The description of above stated reasons are:-
1. Study - Because of studying in school, campus or any other education or training institution regularly, either with enrollment or not, if the person was unable to do any usual economic or extended economic activity in the last 12 months, circle the reference 1 to indicate it. In this situation, the number of months would be more in the reference 7 (study) of column 22.

But, there might be the possibility of going to school/college/ university in the morning and evening or studying for some time to take a private examination and rest of the time they might be doing income generation work, and this should be identified clearly. In this situation, the reason for not working could be other, not study.

2. Household chores - Household chores are such type of services that are done at home for self or for other family members - e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, cleaning, care work, teaching children or providing education, etc. and there is no direct economic benefits from doing such duties. Circle the reference 2 to indicate household chores for self or family members as the reason for being unable to do any economic activity in the last 12 months.

[Image is omitted]

However, some other production works that can be done at home. For instance, firewood collection, fetching water, food production at home or in other places and processing it or grinding, hammering in home or in mill or stitching/weaving sweater, spilling sacred cotton thread, weaving of bamboo basket, straw mat or making processed pickle, titaura, masyaura, etc. are extended economic works and should not be put under household chores. The production for household use might not give direct economic benefit, but it helps to save by cutting expenses and should be put under extended economic activities. Only the activities of service by family members that are used for the family consumption can be considered non-economic activities and should be counted under household chores. The person doing such works during most of the time in reference time period should be understood, for the purpose of census, as the person doing household chores or no doing any economic activity.

[p. 96]

If anyone has done household chores for most of his time, circle the reference of this column to indicate as a reason for not doing an economic activity.

[Images omitted]

NB:-
a. In our country, the income generating work of women are generally put under household. Hence, to ensure the response of asked question is not wrong, if any person responded household chores as the work they did, then ask complementary question about what they actually did under household chores. In the column 22, efforts have been made to clarify the economic activity, non-economic activity, and household chores. Therefore, be clear about the description of the works under column 22.

But, if any person has done the above stated household works for others taking salary/ wage, then it is an economic activity. The household chores done for others by taking wage/salary should not be included under household chores. Household chores might have done by anyone, either female or male. Therefore, any domestic worker living in the family as a member without taking salary/wage but doing household chores for living, eating, studying there, then such done by the domestic worker should be taken as an economic activity.

b. If any woman or man, for own purpose or for selling, weaves woolen carpets, sweater, or did these following works by taking a wage, sells milk products, spills the cotton thread, weaves leaf, then these small works are also income generating activities, not household chores. If any person has done such work and has taken cash, good, or any other kind of remuneration for doing such works, the total months worked on such activities should be put under the reference "2 salary/wage" of column 22. But do not write it under household chores.

[p. 97]

If reference "2 household chores" of column 26 is circled for the reason for not being economically active in the last 12 months, then the number of months in the reference "6 household chores" of column 22 must be graeter.

3. Old age - If a person is unable to be economically active most of the time in the last 12 months because of old age, circle the reference 3. There might be other reasons also for not doing economic activity by old people. Therefore, ask clearly the respondent the reason and circle the appropriate reference number.

4. Pension/rent - If any person has received a pension regularly for his previous work in any office or organization or has lived from rents (from inherited assets or assets earned by self), and he was not engaged in any economic activity in the last 12 months (did not work for most of the time), then circle the reference "4. pension/revenue."

[Images are omitted]

5. Disability: If any person usually was unable to work in the last 12 months (did not do an economic activity or did for less than 6 months) due to some physical or mental disability, circle the reference 5 to indicate it.

In other words, because of blindness, unable to move limbs, dumb, or any other mental disability, if a person was unable to do any economic activity or did it less than 6 months in the last year, circle the reference 5.

[Image is omitted]

6. Illness or chronic disease - If any person was unable to work on an income generating activity or did it less than six months in the last 12 months due to illness or chronic disease, circle the reference 6.

[Image is omitted]

7. Other - Besides the above stated reason, if any person was unable to do an economic activity due to any other reasons, circle the reference 7 and specify the reason (e.g. beggar, saint, wanderer, traveler, etc.)

NB:-
Some of the reasons must be stated in this category - A person might be unable to do an income-generating work due to pregnancy or care in pregnancy, maternity or to care for maternity, etc. If any of these reasons for not doing an economic activity, circle the reference 7 and specify the reason.

[Image is omitted]

Column 27: Who is [the respondent] living with?
(Ask only persons younger than aged 16 years old)

[] 1 Parents
[] 2 Mother
[] 3 Father
[] 4 Father and step-mother
[] 5 Mother and step-father
[] 6 Other relative
[] 7 Person who hired
[] 8 Other

Ask children who are under 16 years old with whom they are living or under whose custody they are and specify it as described below:

1. Parents - If any counting children under 16 years are living with their parents, circle the reference 1. Also circle the reference 1 if they have stepmothers in the family including their parents.

2. Mother - if any children under 16 years are living with only their mothers, circle the reference 2.

[Image is omitted]

3. If any children under 16 years are living with only their father, circle the reference 3.

4. If any children under 16 years are living with their father and stepmother, circle reference 4. If the family also have a stepfather, including their own father and a stepmother, circle the reference 4.

[Image is omitted]

5. Mother and stepfather - If any children under 16 years are living with their own mother and stepfather, circle the reference 5. Besides their own mother and stepfather, even if there is stepmother, too, circle the reference 5.

6. Other relative - If any children under 16 years old are not living with the above relatives (options from 1-5), but in the custody of other relatives (brother, sister, uncle, aunt, grandparents, maternal uncle or auntie, or any other relatives), circle the reference 6.

7. Person who hired - Any children under 16 years old are living in a family that hires domestic workers for household chores.

Here a domestic worker means the person who has been hired for household chores by giving a salary/wage (cash, or goods, or both, or any other kind of remuneration).

8. Others - If any children, under 16 years old did not mark options 1-7, circle the reference 8 and specify the custodian of that family (e.g. non-relative, friend, friend's parents).

[Image is omitted]

[p. 98]

After completing the enumeration of this family, check if any questions have been missed. If missed, ask the question and fill out all the information. And finally, give thanks to the respondents for their invaluable time and support.

[Sections: 4 "Format of data sheet-1, data sheet 1 and 2 and methods to fill up the cover page", 5 "Map study guideline" and Annexes are omitted except annex 3.2 and annex 3.3].

[p. 123]

Annex 3.2: Some examples of the use of column 22

S.N. Name, surname: 1. Nanda Kumari Gosain
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Fish farming
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 2. Prithwi Bahadur Tamang
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Paddy, maize and other farming
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 3. Chitra Devi Gurung
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Animal husbandry and dairy business
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 4. Bishnu Kumari Kanu
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Fruit Farming
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 5. Rambachan Giri
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Bee/poultry farming
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 6. Deepak Rai
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Grazing
Area where it lies: (own) (1) agriculture/own farming

S.N. Name, surname: 7. Thakur Ram Chaudhary
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Accountant(match factory)
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 8. Gangadevi Sijapati
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Cashier, Nepal Rastra Bank
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 9. Shashikala Bista
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Engineer, Building Department
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 10. Khamba P. Mandal
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Technician, Furniture Industry
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 11. Rant B. Baniya
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Producing oil, Dibya Oil Mill
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 12. Sukhdev Dawadi
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Designer, Sundar Carper
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 13. A, B, C…
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Ministers
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 14. Madhuri Devi Chataut
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Officers of party office
Area where it lies: (others) (2) Salary/Wage

S.N. Name, surname: 15. Laxman Amdangme
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Supervisor in carpet industry
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 16. Sukhani Kumari Rajbansi
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Worker in biscuit factory
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 17. Devi Prasad Bhusal
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Worker in grocery shop
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 18. Ganesh Kumari Bantawa
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Worker in restaurant/hotel
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 19. Dr. Anuradha Devi Pandey
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Worker in clinic
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 20. Chetan Karki
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Advocate in law firm
Area where it lies: (own) (3) own (non-agro) business

S.N. Name, surname: 21. Sita Karki
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Household work
Area where it lies: (6) household chores

S.N. Name, surname: 22. Shiva Basnet
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Student in campus
Area where it lies: (7) study (student)

S.N. Name, surname: 23. Prem Chand Dulal
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Unable to work due to old age
Area where it lies: (8) not worked

S.N. Name, surname: 24. Sharada Dhimal
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Political cadre, no salary
Area where it lies: (8) not worked

S.N. Name, surname: 25. Darch Sherpa
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Not worked due to disability
Area where it lies: (8) not worked

S.N. Name, surname: 26. Mina Tamag
Work mostly done in past 12 months: Collecting firewood
Area where it lies: (4) Extended economic activity

[p. 124]

Annex 3.3: Some examples for use of Column 23, 24 and 25

S.N.: 1
Name: Ramadevi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Paddy, wheat farming for livelihood
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own farm, producing food supplies
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Making others work, keeping workers in beauty parlor

S.N.: 2
Name: Satyadevi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Paddy, wheat farming for income
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Food supplies production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 3
Name: Dil Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Fish farming
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own pond, fish production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, salary worker

S.N.: 4
Name: Chhiring
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Apple farming
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own farm
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 5
Name: Rahat Ali
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Feeding food and water to chickens
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house, production of meat and wool
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, working as a labour

S.N.: 6
Name: Kalawati
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Animal husbandry (cow, buffalo)
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own shed, for milk
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 7
Name: Sadashiv
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Manager for managing agricultural farms
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own farm, vegetables in farm
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 8
Name: Deepa
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Selling vegetables
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In near market, retail business
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 9
Name: Brij Mohan
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Bee farming
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own land, taming bees
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work/ oneself as head

[p. 125]

S.N.: 10
Name: Shakuntala
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Health assistant for medical treatment
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In hospital
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, salary worker

S.N.: 11
Name: Dhan Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Selling fruits
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Retail business in foot path
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, not employing other

S.N.: 12
Name: Ful Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Grazing cattle, cutting grass
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own field and farm
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helping others/ done domestic works

S.N.: 13
Name: Armina Devi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Managing Director
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In commercial bank
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, salary worker

S.N.: 14
Name: Sita
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Prepare beaten rice, rice and similar food supplies
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Producing food materials in own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 15
Name: Diwakar
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Fishing
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Pond, river etc
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 16
Name: Pramalta
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Fruit farm worker
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Fruit farm worker in other’s farm
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/ wage labour

S.N.: 17
Name: Gyalmo
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Supervisor in carpet weaving
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house, carpet production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, not employing other

S.N.: 18
Name: Jagat Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Managed bakery industry
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own bread factory
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Making others work/ paying wages to workers

S.N.: 19
Name: Sita
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Baking breads in oven
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own bread factory
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ Another person as chief

S.N.: 20
Name: Bina
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Weaving woolen mat
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house, weaving woolen mat
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, not employing other

S.N.: 21
Name: Bel Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Worked as fiscal officer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Surya Carpet Industry, Carpet production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

[p. 126]

S.N.: 22
Name: Rupa
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Hair Design
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own beauty parlor
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Making others work, keeping workers in beauty parlor

S.N.: 23
Name: Shyam
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Administration work, officer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In jute factory, jute sack production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 24
Name: Diwakar
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Instrument operation and maintenance work
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Match factory, matches production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, salary worker

S.N.: 25
Name: Brijesh
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Uniform designer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Bhandari Garment
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 26
Name: Shanker Lal
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Packaging chocolates
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Sagar Confectionery, Chocolates production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, working as a labour

S.N.: 27
Name: Bijay
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Operation and maintenance of rice grinding machine
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Santosh Rice Mill, rice production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 28
Name: Ramesh
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Bus driver
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Sajha Yatayat, Transport service
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 29
Name: Dipika Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Supervisor of parts maintenance for bus, truck etc
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In Auto Workshop, maintenance service
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 30
Name: Shanker
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Driving rickshaw
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Oneself as rickshaw rider
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work/ oneself as head

S.N.: 31
Name: Bijay
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Retail merchant of parts of bus, truck etc.
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Own retail shop, retain business
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ Another person as chief

S.N.: 32
Name: Radhika
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Economic transaction, Accountant
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In Solti Hotel, service
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 33
Name: Dhanik Lal
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Arranging goods in shop, selling goods
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own hardware shop
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ another person as chief

S.N.: 34
Name: Binay
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Lower secondary science teacher
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Dibya Lower Secondary School
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/ salary worker

S.N.: 35
Name: Hari Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Working as a clothes washer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Washing clothes in own shop
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ another person as chief

[p. 127]

S.N.: 36
Name: Krishna
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Gate Keeper
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Ranjana Cinema, Entertainment Service
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 37
Name: Rajendra
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Selling tickets for entertainment
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Rastriya Nachghar
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 38
Name: Raadhwendra Prasad
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Building design engineer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Building department
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 39
Name: Sumitra
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing and selling food and drink items
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own restaurant
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ Another person as chief

S.N.: 40
Name: Dr. Yadav
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Dentist
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In nursing home, medical servie
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Making others work/appointing juniors and running service

S.N.: 41
Name: Bijesh
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing sweets, samosa and other food items and selling them
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own home, food items production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 42
Name: Rajesh
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing paper cartoons and envelops
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house, production work
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 43
Name: Bikash
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Done computer programming
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: National Planning Commission, Secretariat
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 44
Name: Shivdash
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Designed technical parts, mechanical engineer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Auto Engineering
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 45
Name: Dr. Rupkala
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Secretary, Health policy development and implementation
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Ministry of Health
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker, government

S.N.: 46
Name: Bijay
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Prepared bamboo basket, round tray etc.
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work/ own as chief

S.N.: 47
Name: Divya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Prepared clay dish and utensils
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Production of clay items
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/ salary worker, personal

[p. 128]

S.N.: 48
Name: Premlal
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing grams
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Production of food items in own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head, preparing and selling grams

S.N.: 49
Name: Hira Devi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing Duna, Tapari, batti for others
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, taking wage for preparing duna, tapari

S.N.: 50
Name: Hari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Doing legal cases, Non-governmental advocate
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: District court, working for lawsuit
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, working in own law firm

S.N.: 51
Name: Gopal
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Sorcery and traditional medical treatment
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Other’s house, health post
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, taking fee for treatment

S.N.: 52
Name: Shanti Ratna
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Making jewelry
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Commercial production in other’s shop
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, working as a wage labour

S.N.: 53
Name: Dil
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Sewing and mending shoes
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Sitting in foot path and mending shoes
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 54
Name: Naramaya (Kanchi)
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Washing skin and preparing
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own shop
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helping in work/ another as chief

S.N.: 55
Name: Laxmi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Weaving bamboo doko, dalo for sale
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Commercial production in own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helping in work/ another as chief

S.N.: 56
Name: Dilmaya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Working as domestic labour
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In house of other people
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 57
Name: Kokila
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Weaving woolen mat
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Weaving woolen mat in own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ Another person as chief

S.N.: 58
Name: Samrajya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Putting color in clothes, technical assistant
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Garment factory/clothes production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 59
Name: Binay
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing spade, sickle, hoe and so on
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Commercial production in foundry of own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work/Another person as chief

[p. 129]

S.N.: 60
Name: Dil Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Sewing clothes
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Industrial production in own shop
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 61
Name: Nanda Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Blacksmith, preparing khukuri and spade
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Industrial production in own foundry
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 62
Name: Hera Maya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Beating stones, labour
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Himal Cement Company, Cement, soft stone production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, salary worker

S.N.: 63
Name: Damber Bahadur
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Sand contractor
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: A river nearby, bringing sand from river and retail seller
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 64
Name: Shanker
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Hitting stone, ballast, labour
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: A river nearby, bringing stones, ballast and producing stones
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work, working as a labour

S.N.: 65
Name: Wakila
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Mining management, engineer, second class officer
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Mine department, government office
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 66
Name: Akhila Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Direction and supervision of construction of power house
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Marshyangdi Hydropower Project
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 67
Name: Krishna Lal
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Trading goods and services
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Trading goods of others
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing personal work, oneself as head

S.N.: 68
Name: Ramkrishna
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Pipe fitting, worked as plumber
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Drinking water foundation, drinking water service
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

S.N.: 69
Name: Shivaraj
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Tanga rider
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Providing transport facilities to people
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helper/ Another person as chief

S.N.: 70
Name: Tetari Devi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Made bidi, filtering tobacco
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Ganesh Bidi Factory, Production of bidi and tobacco
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/salary worker

[p. 130]

S.N.: 71
Name: Mathura
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Trading goods and services
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Of different individuals
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s works/wage based work

S.N.: 72
Name: Sampatiya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Beating paddy, grinding maize and millet
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Beating paddy, maize, millet in other’s house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other’s work/ wage labour

S.N.: 73
Name: Sarif
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Selling meat of goat and chicken
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own shop, selling meat
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing private work/own ownership

S.N.: 74
Name: Bishnu Kumari
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Farming vegetables, green leaves
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Vegetable farming in own land
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helping in work/owner is different

S.N.: 75
Name: Hari Singh
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Namlo, dori woven for sale
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Production in own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing private work/main person as self

S.N.: 76
Name: Ramratiya
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Beating and grinding food items
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing private work/same level as owner

S.N.: 77
Name: Tilak Ram
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Collection of fodder and water
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In own house
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing private work/own house work

S.N.: 78
Name: Kunti Devi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Trading unbaked, baked bricks
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: In brick kiln, brick production
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Doing other's work/wage labour

S.N.: 79
Name: Satani Devi
What economic activity did [name] usually do? [Column 23]: Preparing and selling milk and curd
Where [name] did economic activity? [Column 24]: Selling milk and producing curd
What was [name] position while doing that economic activity? [Column 25]: Helping in work/chief person is different