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[Nepal]
National Population Census 2001
Questionnaire Manual

His Majesty's Government
National Planning Commission Secretariat
Central Bureau of Statistics

[The acknowledgements section is not presented here.]

Instruction of Schedule - 1

Schedule- 1
(Manual for data collection)

Three types of data should be collected in schedule-1

1. Introductory description
2. Household description
3. Personal description

In this schedule the first part is an introduction description. The question description for the household are set on the left hand-side and person question descriptions are set on right hand-side. While collecting the descriptive information, the introductory questions should be asked first, and should be followed by questions of household description and personal description questions, respectively.

The place of introductory description will be the regional introduction of the household/ place. In the household description, information such as the house used by household as a group, land in use, land under women's ownership, cattle, if household runs a small scale business other than agriculture, if any member of the household is abroad, all information should be collected for members who are outside the country. All the social and demographic information about household members should be collected in the individual information.

Identification Information
The following facts should be written in the identification information -

District -The name of the district of the place should be written clearly and in full from where the census is being carried out. For example: Kavrepalanchowk.

VDC/Municipality - This refers to which VDC or Metropolitan location the place of census lies. The name of VDC/ Metropolitan should be written clearly like -- Kathmandu metropolitan, Pokhara sub metropolitan, Itahari Municipality, Rupnagar VDC etc.

Ward Number - The ward number of the VDC/municipality should be written. In every VDC there are 1 to 9 wards and the number of wards in the municipality could range from 1 to 35 wards.

Village/Settlements - There are people living in houses/group of houses at different places. Those places are known by different names. The commonly known name of the village - where the house of the household living is located and whose information is being taken - should be written.

House Serial Number - Every enumerator should write the serial number of the house, which might have been set by the supervisors during the time of listing the houses. If the house number is scratched/erased or faded, the enumerator should confirm the number from the household listing form that was filled previously. For example, if the supervisor had written Ja 3/6 for household serial number, then house serial number be written as 3. If the house number where the household is living is missing, the serial number should be given by the enumerator. When assigning the serial number, it should follow the number that the supervisor previously wrote. For example, if the last serial number in the form is 156 then the enumerator should number the missing house as 157, 158 and 159 respectively. The new serial number of the houses should be added in the house/household form as well. The same serial number of families should be written in schedule 1 and schedule 2 as well.

Note - In every enumeration area, the house number is used to determine the number of the houses and household members. If the enumeration area is smaller than a ward, then all house serial numbers should be listed in the cover page of questionnaire manual of total wards.

Household Serial Number - Every enumerator, while listing the household serial number, should write the same serial number stated above as enlisted by the supervisors in house/household listing. If the house number is missing, give a new serial number to the household. The left-out serial number follows right after the last household serial number.

Generally, a household implies a group of people living together based on the same source of income and take their meal in the same kitchen. A household could be just one person or many person, relatives or not relatives as well. The main basis for identifying household members of a household is decided by income expenses and kitchen concept.

For the purpose of the census, the household can be regarded - and should be noted as a separate one - if person or group of persons are living separately and dining in a separate kitchen without any legal procedures. Usually the counting should be done from the place where household resides. If a person or group of persons are living and dining in a separate kitchen for reason, then the counting should be done from the separate household where they are living not from the main one.

In some households, head of the household or children or other members of the household might be residing in other places or away from home or due to trainings or education, in these cases the current place of residence is the place where counting is done. There could be some misconception that the counting should be done from the original place. In these cases, the respondent from the original household should be informed about the chances of double counting, so that the counting from the household is avoided.

If a person usually resides in the same household but is not present at the time of counting, the counting should be done from the main household. If a person resides away, it is written separately only for census provision; this however does not affect in legal procedure. If any of the household member(s) is working and studying abroad, then in that case the information of that person(s) is taken and the description is given in question number 12 of the household information of schedule 1.
Person refers to a man/woman, child, elderly people of all ages.

Total number of members in the household - When counting the number of total household members residing, children (including infant), old, handicapped man/woman should be differentiated and written separately. The obtained total number of members should match the exact numbers with that of male/female written in personal description of schedule.

Male - Total number of males in the household (including infant boy or child newly born, if any)
Female - Total number of females in the household (including infant girl or child newly born, if any)

Household Information

Q.1 : What type of the house is being used by this household?

[] 1. Permanent
[] 2. Semi-Permanent
[] 3. Temporary
[] 4. Others
House - House is generally a place which is being used by people to live in, having four walls on the all four sides, a roof and one or more room or storey.

Type of house - This indicates the materials used in building the house, wall, roof etc.

Houses are of different shapes, sizes, types and kinds. All houses might not have four walls. Some houses are made on the support of other houses' walls or on cliffs.

In some cases a house might be divided into two houses by raising a partition wall. For entry and exit there is a separate door. For counting purposes, include all types such as: hut, house, building, bungalow, and flat mean a house. The ownership of the house can be of one's own or of others. If a household has been using more than one house for residence, then the main house of residence should be taken as the source for description. If a household is staying in a rented house and had rented/leased its own house to others or has left it empty, then the description of rented/house at the time of enumeration should be noted.

Classifying the type of house is on the basis of wall/roof construction.

[An example has been omitted.]

On the basis of permanent and semi-permanent materials is described as -
Permanent wall - Stones, bricks, cement, blocks etc. are mixed up with mud/ cement - then the wall is concrete.

Permanent roof - Steel roof, tiles, slate, concrete roof are considered as concrete roof.

Temporary wall - Walls made up of mud coat over plank or mud brick, hay or bamboo are considered to be temporary walls.

Temporary roof - Roofs made up of tin, plastics, hay mud or with the plank of container are considered to be temporary roofs.

For the enumeration purpose, as stated above on the basis of structures, houses are divided in 4 classes:

1. Permanent House - The house is considered to be concrete if the outer wall and roof are both made up of concrete materials.

2. Semi-Permanent House - If either the wall or the roof, but not both, are made up of concrete materials, then that house is regarded as a semi-permanent. If the house has concrete walls but temporary roof, then the house is semi- permanent. Likelwise, if the outer walls are temporary but roof is concrete, then that house is semi-permanent.

3. Temporary House - If the walls and roof of the house are made up of temporary materials, then that sort of house is regarded as a temporary house.

4. Others - A place of living that is built up of hay, plastics, bamboo, tent etc. is stated as "other". Similarly made huts or same-kind living places are regarded as "other".

To disclose the type of house, concrete, semi-permanent, temporary and others should be marked as 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively.

Note - The classification of concrete and temporary should be done on the basis of major construction material used - if more than one material is used in the wall or roof. As defined above, the house should be classified as concrete and temporary depending on the majority of materials used in its construction.

Q.2. What kind of house ownership does the household hold?

[] 1. Own
[] 2. Rented
[] 3. Others

House ownership refers to legal ownership; the ownership belongs to the person whose name the house is registered in. In rural areas, usually houses are not registered legally, so house ownership can be in regard to land ownership. House ownership is split into three types:

1. Own - At the time of the enumeration if the residence of the household, house, part of the house or flat is in the legal ownership of any household member, then it is considered owned. If the place of residence of the household member is the ancestral home but legally the registration is not yet transferred, then the house ownership is considered as owned.

2. Rent - The house of residence, part of the house or the flat is not in the ownership of the any member of the household; and if rent is paid (cash/kind) for living there, then the house should be understood as rented. If rent is paid for living in a house, then code number 2 should be marked.

3. Others - If the place of residence is at the place of a relative's house, the place provided by the proprietor, organization or house owner of work, and the house rent should not be paid in cash/kinds, then the house should be depicted as "other". If the house of residence is not of one's own and the permission of authorized person is also not necessary for residing there, then in that case it is marked as "other". In other words, if the house does not belong to the household and the rent is not to be paid either, then code 3 should be marked and the type of residence should be recorded.

Q.3. Does this household have land for agriculture purpose?

1. Yes 2. No

Land for agriculture purpose means land being used for cultivation/agricultural work. During the time of enumeration, if the household holds any land for agricultural purposes, then mark cod number 1; if not, mark code 2.
Agricultural work depicts the following:

Agriculture crop production: production of crops (wheat, maize, corn, etc.), vegetables, fruits, cash crops and other crops.

Raising Livestock: domestication of cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, etc.

Raising Poultry: birds for meat, eggs and other economic benefits

Other Agricultural work: grass tree and tree plant, apiculture, fish farming

Q.3. and Q.4. are interrelated.

Q.4 : How much area is used for agriculture purpose?

Bigha___
Kattha___
Dhur___
Ropani___
Aana___
Paisa___

If the land is in use then, while writing the size of area, consider the following:

1. If one's own land is being used, then it should be included in holding

2. If others' land is being used, then it should be included in holding

3. If one's own land is given to others for earning purpose, then the land should not be included in used land

In other words, whether the ownership of the used land is of the household or of others, the units of total area should be enquired and written. The land area in the ownership of the household and the land owned by others being used under any condition, such land area should be added to the agriculture land holding.

4. The agricultural land holding of the household could be in the same ward where the household is living or it can be in different wards - in one place or in a different place - and can be composed of more than single units. If the units are different but the equipments for production within the districts are the same, the total area that has been labored till the day of the count should all be written.
Kitta does not refer to the land papers, but to the piece of farm land/field in the same place, which is separated from the other used area by a natural wall or any boundary.

Note: While writing the total holding land area, only the total area of the district where the household is residing currently should be written. Despite the district where the household is residing, the land holding in any other district should not be included and written for counting provision.

Unit of the area: in Nepal there is no similarity in measuring unit of the area. Ropani and Bigha are the main unit of area. But there are different local units.

Ropani - This unit is used especially in the Kathmandu Valley, mountain and hilly districts.

1 Ropani = 5,476 sq. ft.

Bigha - This unit is especially used in Terai and the inner Terai districts.

1 Bigha = 72,900 sq. ft.

Other measurements are as follows
1 Ropani = 74 X 74 sq. ft. = 4 Matomuri = 16 Aana = 64 Paisa

1 Bigha = 270 X 270 sq. ft = 20 Kattha = 400 Dhur

To write the unit of area of land, both the units of Ropani and Bigha are given. If the units are other than Ropani and Bigha, then such units should be changed to Ropani, or Bigha and written. The total agricultural holding of a household can be aggregately disclosed in Ropani, Bigha or both. If the farmer gives the information of land area in other units like: seed unit, plough unit, etc., then it should be converted into units of practice for that area and should be written. The enumerator should help to calculate the total land area on the basis of consumption of seeds per area unit, in case the farmer is unable to answer the total land holding.

[Two examples have been omitted.]

Q.5: Does your household raise livestock/poultry?

[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No
Q.6: How many livestock/poultry?
[] 1. Total livestock ____
[] 2. Total poultry ____

Q.5 and Q.6 are related.

Q.5, asks whether the household is involved in domestication/ farming of cattle or poultry. Similarly, in Q.6 asks the total number of cattle or birds being domesticated, and they should be reported separately.

"Livestock or poultry birds for farming purpose" refers to both livestock and birds that the household is rearing either for agricultural purpose or for commercial purpose. For agricultural purpose, both livestock and poultry are domesticated. Cow, ox, yak, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig, rabbit etc. are the major types of cattle. Similarly, hen, duck, pigeon, battai, titra, chyakhura are some of the major birds.

Such cattle/birds that belong to the household, reared in one's own farm, and those belonging to others but reared in the household's own farm are also included. Cattle/ birds like dog, cat, rabbit, duck, etc. that are domesticated for self-interest other than farming or for transportation purpose like ox, buffalo, horse, ass, and sheep are not included here.

Note: Total number of all types of cattle/birds either within the premises of house or taken out in the field on the day of enumeration should be added and written separately.

Q.7. Does the women of this household own any of the following property?

1. House
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

2. Land
[] 1 Yes (Specify)
Area
Bigha ____
Kattha ____
Dhur ____
Ropani ____
Ana ____
Paisa ____
[] 2 No

In Q.7., if any women (one or more) in the household own house or land in her name, or both, then enquire all the following:

If one or more women own the property, then it should be stated "Yes" while specifying for house. For land, the total land area should be specified and, if units are different, they should be stated separately.

Property ownership of women means - property inherited through parents, pewa (own), dowry, pension, income earned by self, through loan and property through any other source.

Pewa/ Dowry means - Tangible or intangible asset/property that is given to a woman by her husband or relatives from the husband side. The increased property thereafter is also pewa. The property tangible/intangible that is given to the woman by her maternal home or increased property thereafter is the dowry.

1. House means - House that is built with any construction material for the purpose of residence or for any other purpose in any district or place of Nepal.
2. Land means - The area or agricultural land that is registered in the name of the woman of the household in any district or place of Nepal. As stated in Q.1., if any kind of house is owned by the woman of the household, then state yes.

If any woman in the household owns a house then mark 1 ("Yes"), if not 2 ("No").

If a woman in the household owns any land (for agricultural purpose or for housing purpose) then 1 should be marked, and if not 2 should be marked. There can be one or more women in the household. If one or more women in the household owns land area, then the name of the woman who owns the land, as well as the total land area should be asked individually, and the total of all should be recorded in Bigha and Ropani. While writing in the total land area, it should be specified whether it is in self ownership or rented out to others for earning in any district of Nepal. If the units of land area are given in seed units like: Bijan, Mana / Pathi other than the actual land area of Bigha and Ropani, the units should be again converted and written in Bigha and Ropani. The conversion table for converting from one unit to another unit is given in index-4.

Q.8 : Do female members of household personally own any livestock/cattle?

[] 1. Yes (Specify)
[] 1. Big Heads........
[] 2. Small Heads..........
[] 2. No
Domestic livestock/cattle means - Cow/ox, calf, buffalo, lamb, horse, ass, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit etc., which is domesticated for farming or used for transportation purpose.

Such domestic cattle that a woman has owned through her parental right, Pewa, dowry, earned by herself, obtained from the loan, or through other means refers to a woman's own cattle.

If the cattle are owned by one woman or more in the household or if cattle is given to others under any condition, then 1 ("Yes") should be marked and all of women's cattle in total - including big heads and small heads - should be specified separately. If no women in the household own domestic livestock/cattle then 2 ("No") should be marked.

Note:

1. As stated above in Q.7. and Q.8., if any woman or women owns a house, land and cattle inherited through parental right, Pewa, dowry or self earned (including Pension) or obtained by taking loan till the day of count, then it should be specified as "Yes". Any woman of the household who doesn't own such property till the day of count should be specified as "No".

2. When counting the total number of domestic cattle, as per above definition in Q.5. (for farming and transportation purpose), both big domestic cattle (cow, ox, buffalo etc.) and small domestic cattle (sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, etc.) should be specified separately. While writing all types of livestock/cattle owned by women in the household on the day of the count either in the shade of the house or outside in the field for grazing, they should be added up, and the big and small heads should be specified separately.

Q.9 : Is your household engaged in small scale economic activities other than agriculture?

[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No
Q.10 : If Yes, which is the main business running?
[] 1. Small/cottage industry
[] 2. Business/trade
[] 3. Transport
[] 4. Service
[] 5. Others ____

Here, (besides agriculture) small /cottage industry means--

1. Operated by the household head or any other member (capital: cash, kind, labor invested in an operation, but not operated through others by paying wage or salary on a regular basis)

2. Conducive to household economic benefit

3. Not introduced as a separate business (not registered with government and non- government or local organization, or not having any signboard)

4. If this is a service business, keep in mind that for these kinds of services to be included, generally the business should have been running till a week before the count.

In other words, besides agriculture, such business/services that fulfill conditions 1 through 4 and are operated at home or outside in order to help the income of the household, and have an unorganized nature of work are small-scale business. Products produced in such a business can be either for the use of the household or for selling. But if the production of the business is a service, then its aim should be sales in the market; if the produced service is only for the household, then it shouldn't be included in the count.

Note:

1. Agricultural work (farming, vegetable crop, livestock, woodland forest, fishery, poultry, apiculture, sericulture etc.) should not be included in as small-scale business for counting purpose.
But businesses based on agriculture (production of food items: yoghurt, milk cream/cake, milk nuts (Durkha/Churpi) etc. being sold, selling of bamboo chair, table etc.) should also be included.

2. If any household runs the business on the given condition as 1 through 4 stated above, then 1 ("Yes") should be marked; if not, 2 ("No") should be marked. If the household runs the business, then the type of business run should be specified by selecting the appropriate code number. If the household runs more than one business, then the main (any one) business should only be marked or specified. All businesses need not be specified.

3. Business introduced separately (registered in any government, non-government, local organization or having signboard) like rice, pulse, matchstick, cigarette, movie theatre, textile factories or other registered business should not be included.

The following examples are given below to separate the business:

1. Small industry (manufacturing) - Small industry refers to the business industry that is involved in the production of food items and non-food items fulfilling the above stated condition in code numbers 1 through 4.

Examples are businesses involved in the production of food items like bread, gram, sweets, milk cake, samosa, pakauda (vegetable chops), Jam- Jelly, yoghurt, churpi etc; thread-making business; manufacturing bamboo items like chair, stool, doko, basket, manufacturing business of nanglo, namlo, damlo, making jute thread, wooden vessel, mana/ pathi; making of hay carpet, mat, pottery, iron or metal utensils, items made from leather, cloth, making toys; bangles, beads or other make-up accessories and other similar production business in manufacturing business industry. Such business activities for household income should be included. But if the above stated condition does not apply, then it is not necessary to include the activity.

If the household operates "small-scale industry", then code 1 should be marked. But if the operated small-scale business is registered somewhere else, then code 2 should be marked.

2. Business - This includes all types of give and take or with the motive of buying and selling, business operated with or without running a shop fulfilling all the stated condition from 1 to 4, investing capital (cash or kind) is. Code 2 should be marked if the household runs such type of business.

But the registered business somewhere else needs not be included.

For example - a woman or man of the household, or both, who run a shop in their own house of residence or some other small retail shop selling items in box/cartoon, have a shop at the foot path, own a Paan, beedi (cigarette), supari shop, a gram and sweets shop, or a similar food items or non-food items-related business is a small-scale business.

3. Transportation - If the head of the household or any other members is involved in transporting people, things, and fulfilling all the condition stated above in code 1 through 4, this business should be stated as transportation. For this kind of business of the household if any, mark code 3.

For example, cart, bullock cart, horse, ass, sheep, chyangra, rickshaw, etc., any kind of means of transport being run signifies transportation business. But if such transport business does not fulfill the condition of 1 through 4 as stated above, in such case it is not necessary to include it in the count.

4. Service - A types of service, help, facilities or entertainment that involves physical/ mental labor provided to and needed by another person or organization, and in turn certain necessary wage is paid by another person/organization fulfilling the above 1 through 4 conditions, should be stated as Service business. If a business is run by any member of the household then code 4 should be marked. The household head or any other member involved in the business of making or selling food items, beverages (including alcoholic drinks) should be listed as having a business of restaurant/tea shop. Restaurant/tea shop running in accordance to the condition to signify service business code 4 should be marked.

E.g. -- The following business are also Service business:

a. Screening of videos, showing dance or circus, or entertainment or similar business of entertaining service

b. Hair cutting, washing of clothes or dry cleaning, sewing and tailoring shop, priest, prophecy, counseling services, Dhami- Jhakri, simple maintenance or polishing, tourist guide, etc.

c. Services like health treatment, health clinic, legal counseling or suggestion etc.

d. Carpenter, sharpening iron utensils, equipments, spade, etc. are service business

5. Others - If other small-scale businesses are being operated other than agricultural business and above stated business, then code 5 should be marked.
For example, construction business, mining business, etc.

Q.11 : Are any absent members in the household abroad?

[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No
[] 3. Don't Know

If 2 or 3 members are absent, then personal description question should not be asked

Q.12 : Give the description of the absent member/s abroad.

Sex (male/female) ____
Age when left (in years) ____
Duration (in years) ____
Reason for absence ____
Destination country ____

Absent from the household or gone abroad : If any member of the household, whose enumeration is being done, has left within the last 6 months or more, or has left a few days before the count but for the duration of 6 months or more, he/she is absent and has gone abroad. Those member/s who have left for less than 6 months for religious visits, health treatment, tourism/visit, or business purpose need not to be included in "Gone Abroad". They should be regarded as in the household and counted.
The information regarding whether the member of the household has gone abroad or not should be taken. If anyone has gone abroad, code 1 should be marked and a detail description should be written, as stated in Q.12. If nobody has gone abroad, then code 2 should be marked. If the member of the household is absent but proper information is not known regarding where he/she has gone, then in that case 3 ("Don't Know") should be marked. Q.12 need not to be asked if code 2 or 3 is marked in Q.11.

If the member of the household who has gone abroad has daughter/son born abroad, in such case the counting of son/ daughter need not to be included.

The number of members abroad should be asked (papers can be added if the lines are not sufficient) and every individual's information should be taken separately as follows:

Sex: Ask whether the person abroad is male or female. If the person is male, code 1 should be marked; if the person is female, then code 2 should be marked.

Age - The age of the person (in years) needs to be written at the time when s/he has left.

Duration of being abroad (in years) - The household member's duration of leave, in completed years, should be written. If the duration is less than 1 year, write "00". I s/he has only been gone for a few days, still the duration - completed from the beginning till now - should be written in years. But if the member is frequently abroad for short periods, then the member need not to be counted as abroad but should be counted as present.

Reason for absence - There could be various reasons for the absent member to be abroad. Some might have gone for educational and some might have gone for economic reasons. In economic reasons, some may have left because of job and some for business or other reasons. The initial reason for leaving should be specified. The following 7 reasons are stated to specify the reasons for going abroad.

[] 1. Agriculture
[] 2. Business
[] 3. Private (Household) Service
[] 4. Institutional/Organizational Service
[] 5. Study/Education
[] 6. Marriage
[] 7. Others

1. Agriculture: If the absent member has gone abroad for his/her own agricultural work (farming, livestock), then code 1 should be marked. But if she/he has gone for others' agricultural work while taking certain wage/salary, then in that case the specification should be given as private or organizational service based on type of service.

2. Business: The process of buying or selling of goods while investing one's own cash or kind (capital) in one's own responsibility is meant as a business. If the absent member of the household has gone abroad for business purpose, then code 2 should be marked. But if the person is taking salary/wage in course of business via others (private or business), then the private or institutional/organizational among code 3 or 4 should be stated.

3. Private Service: The absent member of the household gone abroad whether working in others' house, shop or other private organization paid with any kind of wage or salary (cash or kind) should be specified as private service and be written as code 3.

4. Institutional/Organizational Service : Any member of the household abroad, working in any government/ non-government organization or industry, association, etc. with or without taking appointment should be marked as code 4 to specify organizational or institutional service.

5. Study/Education : If any member of the household is abroad for study/education/training purposes, then code 5 education/ training should be written. Education/ training should be understood as activities to increase educational skill, ability, knowledge.

6. Marriage: Any member of the household (daughter, sister, granddaughter etc.) married to a foreign citizen and currently staying abroad is marked as gone abroad. If the daughter, sister, granddaughter married a foreign citizen and is currently staying abroad, then code 1 of Q.11 should be marked. To indicate the reason staying abroad, code 6 of Q.12 should be marked. Staying in Nepal but married to the foreigner need not to be written.

7. Others: If there are other reasons besides the above stated reasons number 1 through 6 for staying abroad, then code 7 should be marked to specify other reasons.

Country Gone : Each member who has gone abroad for 6 months or more should be specified, along with the name of the individual country as his destination.
If it is known that the member of the household has gone abroad but the name of the country where she/he has gone is not known, then "don't know" should be written.

[An example has been omitted.]

Individual Information

After collecting identification information and household information of Schedule-1, on the right- hand side of the page there are questions for collecting information on individuals. For personal description of each member of the household, use the separate rows. To get the description, follow these guidelines:

Column 1: S.N (serial number)The sequential serial number of the members of the household is written in Column 1. If the household holds up to 7 members, only one page should be used. But if the members are more than 7, then the next page should be used to write, and it should continue with 8. 9, 10, ... instead of 1, 2, 3, ... When members of the household are more than 14 then the serial number should be continued as 15, 16, 17, ... instead of 1, 2, 3, ... If there are less than 7 household members, then the counting for another household should start from next page with S.N.1. Do not count 2 families on the same page.

Column 2: The name, surname of the members of the household
In this Column, the name and the surname of all the members being counted should be written. While writing the name of the person, the common name or the name that is being daily used should be written so that all other people in the village/place could easily recognize the person. If the common calling name of the person is different from the real/main name of the person, then after writing the main name, the common name can also be written in brackets. While writing the name, nicknames like Jetho, Sahili, Kancho, Thuley, Bauka, Langdi, Karia should not be written because they might create difficulty after counting if the person need to be recognized. So the full name and surname should be written. The head of the household's name should be written at the beginning with S.N.1., and then other members' (head of the household's wife, husband, daughter, son, daughter in law, grandson, granddaughter, etc.) name and surname should be serially written, according to the age.

Head of the Household: The main person involved in the managing of daily work task, expenses and practices of the household is called head of the household. The head of the household can be a male or female (generally present in the household). But under-aged children (under 10 years of age) cannot be the head of the household. In most societies, it is found that the eldest member of the household or the most respected member in the household is presented as head of the household. Keeping in mind this commonality, the person involved in the managing of daily work task, expenses and practices of the household should be traced out and written.

Households can have male, female, children, old persons, disable and workers
as head of the household.

A person in the household who has not been present in the household for long time or person who is staying away (inside or outside country) who is unable to manage the daily work, expenses, practices in the household should not be written as head of the household. It would not be appropriate to write head of the household, for the person who is eldest in the household but is incapable to work, ill or sick.

Note:

1. The household can be made up of one person or more than one person. In a household there can be old, adult, teenage, newly born infant and even handicapped. In some families there can be servant, maid, cook and relatives, non- related person as well. While counting, do not miss or repeat individuals. Information about related or non-related persons, whoever they are in the household, should be included.

2. In the household with numerous members (big or joint household), it would be appropriate for the counting to be done serially starting from the main head, from the hierarchy of elder member (like head of the household, wife/husband of the head of the household, eldest son/daughter in law, daughter/son of the eldest son, continue...). The main aim of the counting is to avoid repetition and check that nobody is missed either. Write the name and surname of the person should be written in sequence.

3. While counting the household (taking description) possibly, the inquiry should be done with the head of the household and written. If it is not possible to speak with the head of household, then in that case the description should only be taken from the other main person after household head (mother, sister in law, sister, etc.). Information about the household should only be gathered from reliable individuals. Description taken from a person who doesn't know the household well can be incorrect.

[An example has been omitted.]

Column 3: What is ___ sex?

[] 1 Male
[] 2 Female

The sex of the person being counted should be separated as male or female. During the census, while counting the person in front of you, whether the person is male or female can be separated and written. Whether male or female, some can be easily separated even through their names. But there are many names that are used by both males and females. For small children, infants and babies, the head of the household should be asked to find out whether the person is male or female. To separate the person being counted as either male or female, code "1" should be marked to specify male and "2" should be marked to specify female. If the sex is indistinguishable, then whichever sex is stated by the respondent should be marked.

[An example has been omitted.]

Column 4: What is ____ age?The age of the person denotes how much time has passed since birth. There is a trend of denoting time in years, month and day. While counting, the age completed by the person should be written, not the running age. Babies younger than 1 year of age or the age of an infant baby born a few days back should be written as "00".

Many parents have no idea about the age of their own children. While asked "What is the age?" the answer is generally "don't know". When answering about the age, the answer is often given in digits ending with "0" or "5". This type of reported age can be different than real age by 5 to 10 years. If the answer given is incorrect, then the outcome of the census can also be incorrect.

If the age cannot be answered clearly, then the approximate calculation can be done by finding out the age gap relative to other members. Relating to some major incidents or happenings in the past, the age can be calculated. For example, when you were born, how long it had been since the earthquake of 1990 B.S. took place? How old you were during the revolution of 2007 B.S.? What was your age when the general elections of 2005 B.S. took place? etc. can be helpful to know the real age of the person.

Column 5: What is ____ caste/ethnicity ?In Nepal there are people of various castes. In general, caste means different group and community according to Hindu caste system. Among them there are those wearing Janai (sacred thread), not wearing Janai and Dalits. They all have different surnames and Gotra.

Ethnic group means native group having own separate mother tongue and culture.

For example - Brahmin, Chhetri, Kaami, Rajput, Kayastha, Marwadi, etc. are castes whereas Bhote, Limbu, Tamang are ethnic groups.

Many respondents denote their surname or sub-caste instead of their caste or ethnic group. In such cases, the caste or ethnic group in which that surname or sub-caste falls should be clearly written. A household can be comprised of members with different castes or ethnic groups, due to which - after writing the caste or ethnic group of the head of the household - each individual should be asked about their caste or ethnic group to which they belong and that should be written. The other members' caste should not be written if it is the same as the head of the household after asking the caste/surname of the head of the household.

In inter-caste marriage, the son or daughter born in inter-caste marriage can be of different caste/surname than that of mother or father. So in the course of enumeration, caste/ethnic group or surname of every member of the household (female, male, children, and old) should be confirmed and written.

If the respondent finds difficulty in separating caste/ethnic group and surname then some examples are given in annex-1.

Column 6: What is the ____ relation to the head of the household?

[] 1. Head of the household
[] 2. Husband/wife
[] 3. Son/daughter
[] 4. Daughter in law
[] 5. Father/mother
[] 6. Others (Specify) ____

Relation to head of the household means the relationship or kinship between the person being counted to the head of that household. According to kin, relation of the household, in the structure of the household, there often is husband/wife, son/daughter, daughter in law, father/mother etc. In many families other relations also exist besides the relationships stated in the questionnaire, like brothers, sisters, aunt, father in law, mother in law, grandfather, grandmother, daughter-in law, granddaughter, grandson, nephew, niece etc. Similarly, in many families there are unrelated members. Due to the information of kin and relation among the household members, it would be helpful for the enumeration - and also for the statistical data - if the composition of the household could also be provided.

The relation/kin of the head of the household with the person being counted should be specified. When stating the relationship, code "1" should be marked to specify the head of the household. If a person is the wife or husband of the head of the household, mark "2". Similarly, by speaking with each member, the appropriate relation should be marked as mentioned. In addition to the relation/kin stated in the form of the questionnaire, other kin should be specified by marking code 6 and should be stated with the appropriate relation, like: brother-sister, brother in law, sister in law, grandson/daughter, mother/father in laws, grandfather/mother, daughter in law, uncle, aunt etc. If the person is not related to the head of the household, write "not related". But persons kept as servant, paid on wage, salary and people not related should be written as "house maid" or "domestic worker".

[An example has been omitted here.]

Column 7: Which religion do ____ follow?

[] 1 Hinduism
[] 2 Buddhism
[] 3 Islam
[] 4 Kirat
[] 5 Jainism
[] 6 Christianity
[] 7 Others ____

Religion is the tradition and spiritual denomination that a person follows. To determine a person's religion, record the help of priests performing death rites and celebrated festivals/occasions. While performing rites, if a Brahmin priest is used, then the religion is Hinduism; a Lama for Buddhism; a Mullah for Islam; a Nokcha or Fedangma for Kirat; a Priest for Christianity. If a traditional indigenous priest is used, then the religion can be Aadim.

Similarly, if the respondent pays respect to the Gods Shiva or Bishnu, then the religion is Hinduism. Worshipping Buddha is Buddhism. Paying respect to Mohammad is Islam. Following Jesus Christ is Christianity. Despite this kind of tradition, many god/goddesses like: Mahadev, Bhimsen, Buddha, etc. are followed and have their respects paid by different communities, so it wouldn't be appropriate to distinguish religion based on worshipped God/ Goddesses alone.

To depict the religion of the person being counted, religion should be enquired. Then "1" should be marked to specify Hinduism, "2" for Buddhism, "3" for Islam, "4" for Kirat and so on. If other than the stated religion is followed by any member, then code "7" should be marked and specified with the name of religion being followed.

Column 8: Which language does ____ speak?

1. Mother tongue
2. Second language

1. Mother Tongue - This is the first language taught by the parents and spoken since childhood in the household. In other words, the first language a person speaks from when they are taught how to speak and is spoken in the household is the mother tongue. When recording the mother tongue of newly born infants, the language spoken in the household should be written. Different languages are spoken in various places of Nepal. The first language that anyone speaks in the household since childhood should be written as the mother tongue. If the person is unable to speak, then indicate mother tongue as "Sign Language". There can be members speaking different mother tongues in one household. So, mother tongue of head of the household and other members of the household could be different.
Mother tongue can be different according to the caste/ethnic group. A person from same caste/ethnic group can have different mother tongue due to difference in social, cultural, geographical situation. For example, a person of Magar caste might not know Magar language. Children born from the parents with different caste/ethnic group might have different mother tongue than that of their parents.

In the course of enumeration, the meaning of mother tongue should be made clear to the respondent, and the mother tongue of every individual in the household should be asked and written. Examples of the mother tongue are as follows: Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Magar, Thakali, Tamang, Limbu, Awadhi, etc.

2. Second Language - Persons might speak only one language and some might speak more than one language. As stated above, the first language taught by the parents and spoken since childhood in the household is the mother tongue. If some people know any other language besides mother tongue and frequently use that language while speaking with neighbors or others, then that language should be denoted as the second language.
In other words, the mother tongue is the first language, and language learnt after the mother tongue and frequently spoken with neighbors and others is the second language. If many languages are spoken, then the most frequently spoken language among them should be written in "second language".

If no other second language is known besides the mother tongue, then to signify that no second language is known a horizontal dash (--) should be given; the space shouldn't be left empty.

[Two examples have been omitted.]

Column 9: Which citizenship do ____ have?

[] 1. Nepali
[] 2. Indian
[] 3. Chinese
[] 4. Others

A person who utilizes the nation's civil rights is denoted as a citizen. According to constitution, if the person has civil rights of a country, then the person is said to be a citizen of that country.

Every person is a citizen of some country, but not everyone may have taken the certificate of citizenship. In Nepal, many people haven't taken the certificate of citizenship but they have their civil rights.

According to citizenship, in Nepal people can be divided into two groups

a) Nepali citizens
b) Foreign citizens (other country)

There is a provision for one person to be a citizen of only one country at a time. Foreign nationals have been living in Nepal for different objectives and work motives. Foreign Nationals included by the definition of the count should also be counted. To separate the identity of the country of each person, citizenship should be revealed. To reveal citizenship, inquire about a person's native country. While recording the citizenship of every individual, citizenship should be confirmed and marked. If there is doubt concerning the person stating Nepali citizenship, ask the question again regarding the year of issue of the citizenship. To specify citizenship: if Nepali 1 should be marked, if Indian 2 should be marked, if Chinese 3 should be marked. Besides these, if the individual belongs to some other country, then 4 should be marked and specified with the name of the country, like: Bangladeshi, Bhutanese, Afghan, Pakistani, German, American, etc.

Column 10: What is ____ type of disability?

[] 1. Physically disabled
[] 2. Blind
[] 3. Deaf
[] 4. Mentally retarded
[] 5. Multiple-disability
[] 6. Not disabled

If the person is disabled/handicapped, the type of handicap should be specified. Different kinds of disability/handicap are divided and explained.

1. Physically Disable/Handicapped - Disorders of the body such as hand/leg being loose or short, paralyzed or bending of whole body or dysfunctions of any other part signifies physically disable or handicapped. Code 1 should be marked in case of physically disable or handicapped.

2. Blind - This disability is for individuals who are unable to see the surrounding things clearly, seeing things in a blur, or unable to see completely signifies blind.

3. Deaf/Dumb - This disability is for individuals who cannot hear simple conversations by two people nearby, or who cannot hear completely should be understood as deaf. If the person is deaf, then code 3 should be marked.

One who cannot talk or who stammers unclearly is defined as dumb. Mostly dumb persons are deaf too. But not all deaf people are dumb. If the person cannot speak or her/his speech cannot be understood, and if she/he cannot hear as well, she/he should be marked in code 3.

4. Mentally retarded - If the person needs help in doing day-to-day activities like eating, dressing, toileting and taking care of oneself, or suffers from memory loss (absent minded) or is not able to do and learn things as per age, she/he is understood as having a mentally retarded condition. If any person has a mentally retarded abnormal condition, then she/he should be marked in code 4. If any person is gone insane then, to signify handicapped condition, she/he should be marked as code 4 as well.

5. Multiple disabilities- If two or more disability conditions exist in one person, then code 5 should be marked.

6. Not disabled- If a person does not have any kind of disability condition, then code 6 should be marked.

Instruction of Schedule 2
Schedule 2

Information Collection Instruction Manual
It has already been mentioned that the population census 2001 has administered two types of schedules. Schedule 1 collects household information as well as individual information, and the information collection method, rules, and definitions have been presented already.

In this schedule (Schedule 2), the information that has to be collected from the household and individual will be collected from all household in some district and municipalities. But in most of the districts and municipalities, the information should be collected only from those household that have been selected from the household listing form created by the supervisors. The districts and municipalities, where the information should be collected from the sampled household in Schedule 2, will be assigned from the center. In this schedule, the detailed information of household and household population on social status (place of birth, migration, literacy, marital status, fertility etc) should be collected.

Note: In which districts and municipalities this schedule should be administered in all household, and in which districts and municipalities this schedule should be administered only in sampled household, and how to find out the sampled household: the concerned supervisor will provide the direction about this before starting the enumeration (field work). The enumeration work should be done accordingly.

For information collection purposes, the questionnaire includes introductory information on the top of the schedule, household information in the second part, and individual information in the third part.

Introductory Information
Introductory Information of selected Household:-

District, village development committee / municipalities, ward number, village / settlement / tole, house number from Schedule 1, household member from Schedule 1, and name of the household head has to be copied from Schedule 1. The rule definition and the information collection procedure of this information has already been described in Schedule 1.

District:- In which district the household resides and is going to be enumerated. The name of that district should be recorded clearly where the space for district is provided. E.g., Kavrepalanchowk.

VDC/municipality:- The VDC/Municipality of the enumerated household. The name of that VDC/Municipality should be recorded clearly where the space is provided.

Ward number:- In which Ward Number the household that is going to be enumerated resides. The number of that Ward should be recorded clearly in the space provided.

Village/settlement/tole:- The village/settlement/tole in which the household is going to be enumerated should be recorded clearly in the space provided.

House Number of Schedule 1:- The serial number from Schedule 1 of the house that was selected for the interview has to be copied here.

Household Number of Schedule 1:- The serial number from Schedule 1 of the household that was selected for the interview should be copied here.

Name of the Household Head:- Which member of the household should be the household head and what should be understood as defining the household head have already been mentioned in the instruction manual of Schedule 1. The name of the household head of the selected households for the interview should be copied here from Schedule 1.

Total Household Member

_______. Male____Female____..

How many members are there in the household - male and female - must be written separately.

Household Information

Q.1: What is the main source of drinking water in the household?

[] 1. Tap/Pipe
[] 2. Well
[] 3. Tube-well
[] 4. Spot water
[] 5. River/Stream
[] 6. Others

The main source of drinking water in the household is defined as the source for cooking and drinking water in the household. Drinking and cooking water collection center must be understood as the major source of drinking water. The source of drinking water might be different for different places and purposes, and also could be different in different seasons. the source should be recorded as the usual source for the purpose of drinking.

Some major sources of drinking water are tap/pipe, well, tube-well, etc. The source of drinking water and the water used for livestock and poultry may be same or different. The source of water used for livestock and poultry should not be mentioned.

What might be the main source of drinking water and how this source could be understood is defined as follows.

1. Tap (piped): if the source of water used for drinking is from high density metal or plastic pipe, managed by individual or public or both, then code 1 should be encircled to denote the tap (pipe) water.

2. Well: if the source of water used for drinking is from a covered or uncovered well, then code 2 should be circled to denote the well.

3. Tube-well: if the source of water used for drinking is from ground water like tube-well, rower pump, jet pump, then code 3 should be encircled to denote tube-well.

4. Spout water: if the source of water used for drinking is from spout water, then code 4 should be encircled to denote spout water.

5. River/stream: if the source of water used for drinking is from river, stream, or canal, then code 5 should be circled to denote river/stream.

6. Others: If the source of water used for drinking is from another source than mentioned above, then encircle code 6 and specify the source of drinking water.

Q.2: What is the main source of cooking fuel in the household?

[] 1. Wood
[] 2. Kerosene
[] 3. LP gas
[] 4. Bio gas
[] 5. Cow dung
[] 6. Others

Things or materials used for light, heat or energy are called fuel. In this references wood, kerosene, diesel, petrol, coal, etc. are examples of fuel. Fuel used for cooking refers to the fuel used predominantly for the preparation of principle foods.

The source of cooking fuel may vary due to the availability of fuel, affording capacity of using and places among the household. Here fuel used predominantly for preparation of principle foods should be given.

The difference sources of cooking fuel and how this source is understood is defined as follows.

1. Wood: if the main source of cooking fuel is any type of firewood then encircle code 1 to denote firewood.

2. Kerosene: if the main source of cooking fuel is kerosene then encircle code 2 to denote kerosene.

3. LP gas: if the household is using LP gas as the main source of cooking fuel then encircle code 3 to denote LP gas.

4. Bio gas: if the household is producing bio gas by using cow dung and other as the main source of cooking fuel then encircle code 4 to denote bio gas.

5. Cow dung: if the household is using dry cow dung, circle code 5.

6. Others: if the household is using other sources than mentioned above as the main source of cooking fuel, like crop residuals (for example cereal straw from maize, wheat, paddy rice, rice hulls, coconut husks, ground not shells), then encircle code 6 and specify.

Q.3: What fuel do you usually use for lighting in the household?
The commonly used source of lighting in the housing unit should be asked, and code 1 should be encircled if the answer category is electricity. If the source comes from kerosene, then encircle code 2. If the source is bio gas, then encircle code 3. If the housing unit is using other than the source mentioned above, then encircle code 4 and specify.

Q.4: What is the type of toilet used by the household?

[] 1. Flush/modern
[] 2. Ordinary
[] 3. No toilet

A toilet is defined as an installation for the disposal of the human excrements of the household. Toilet may be named differently in different places, like: latrine, toilet, restroom, etc. The toilet used by the household should be inside the house or in the housing compound, or near the home on his/her land. Public toilet should not be included here.

Toilet can be categorized in different categories by its types; however toilets are grouped in the two categories for the purpose of census taking.

1. Modern or flush toilet
2 Ordinary toilet

1. Modern/flush toilet: A flush/modern toilet is defined as a toilet installation having automatic system, or manual system, or water poured by hand for flushing to discharge wastes by water and linkage with sewerage or safety tank.

2. Ordinary toilet: This type of toilet is defined as not having discharge facilities, like: pit latrine, holes etc.

If the household is using modern/flush toilet, then encircle code 1; or if it is ordinary, then encircle code 2.

3. No Toilet: If the household has no toilet or the household members have any specific or non-specific or free places for the disposal of the human excrements, then encircle code 3 to denote the household has no toilet facilities.

Q.5 : What type of facilities this household possesses?

1. Radio
2. Television
3. Cycle
4. Motor
5. Motorbike
6. Other vehicle
7. Refrigerator
8. Telephone
9. Nothing mentioned above.

Modern facilities used by households refer to the durable household appliances. Durable appliances are things that last for more than a year. These appliances include communication facilities, while some are transportation facilities. In transportation facilities, both modern facilities and traditional facilities are captured. The traditional transportation facilities include: horse, cart (drag by ox and buffalo) etc. The type of household facilities mentioned in the questionnaire, if available in the household, should be asked and collected.

If household facilities like: radio, television, motor, motorbike, refrigerator, telephone, etc. are currently used, they should be asked and they code should be encircled in the available household facilities. While collecting information, if a cycle is available in the household, then circle code 3. If any type of radio is available in the household, then code 1 should be encircled to denote the availability of radio facilities in the household. Similarly, if both cycle and radio facilities are available in the household then encircle both codes 1 and 3.

A simple description of household facilities is as follows:

1. Radio: all types of radio and transistor that can be operated by electricity or battery fall in this category. If household is using a radio, then encircle code 1 to denote the radio.

2. Television: if the household is using black and white or color television that can be used by battery or electricity, then encircle code 2 to denote the television.

3. Cycle: if any type of cycle that may have gear or not is used by the household, then encircle code 3 to denote the cycle.

4. Motor: If any type of automobile - motorcar, bus, truck, minibus, tempo, tractor, etc - is available in the household for the transportation facilities of the household members, then encircle code 4 to denote the availability of the motor facilities in the household. Facility includes those things or goods that are in the using condition on the day of enumeration. Facilities that were before but currently are not in the condition of use should not be included in the availability of household facilities, since they are unavailable.

5. Motorcycle: if the household has any type or brand of motorcycle for the purpose of transportation of the household members, then encircle code 5 to denote the availability of the motorcycle facilities in the household.

6. Other vehicle: if the household has been using other vehicles for the use of transportation facilities like horse, cart, horse cart, etc., then encircle code 6 to denote the availability other vehicles in the household.

7. Refrigerator: A refrigerator is used to protect food stuffs, medicine, etc. for them not to rot or expire. If the household posses this type of goods or refrigerator facilities, then encircle code 7 to denote the availability of the refrigerator facilities in the household.

8. Telephone: if the household has its own telephone facilities - it may be local, STD, ISD - in the household, then encircle code 8 to denote the telephone facilities.

9. Nothing mentioned above: if the household doesn't have any household facilities mentioned above, like: radio, television, cycle, motor, motorbike, other vehicle, refrigerator or telephone, then encircle code 8 to denote the household does not possess the above mentioned household facilities.

Note: If a household possesses more than one household facility then encircled all codes for those facilities available in the household. It does not matter the ownership of the household facilities. Currently, if the household is using other facilities as if its own, then mention as having the facilities in the household.

Q.6 : During the last 12 months was there any death occurred in this Household?

[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No
Q.7 : If yes, give the description of the deceased persons?
In the past 12 months prior to the census day (enumeration takes place on June 2001, so last 12 months refers from the June 2000 to June 2001), whether any death occurred in the household or not should be mentioned here. The death of a household member may occur in the housing unit or in other places (hospital or other places). Death may be natural, accidental, due to diseases or due to natural disaster. The death of female member may occur due to pregnancy, child birth, and also after some period of child birth (post-partum period). The death of any household members may occur in this reference period. In the reference period of 12 months, the death of any household member occurred or not in the household should be asked, and encircle code 1 of Q.6 if the death occurred, or encircle code 2 to denote no occurrence of death in the household during the last 12 months.

If encircled code 1 ("Yes"), then all deaths occurred in the reference period should be reported separately as accurately and as correctly as possible, including the following information for all household death.

Sex of deceased person (male or female): whether the deceased person was male or female should be asked and recorded: 1 for male and 2 for female.

Age of deceased person: the completed age of the deceased person at the time of death should be asked and recorded. For example: if the person's death occurred at the age of 41 years and 7 months, then mention 41. If the death of a child occurred before completing one year, then mention 0.

Date of deceased person: To denote the date of death, indicate the year and month. The enumeration takes place in June 2001 (Jestha, Asar) so the last year of reference period include the months of both years 2000 and 2001 (2057 and 2058, e.g If the enumeration day is 29 Jestha of 2058 (June 2001) past 12 months refers from 30 Jestha of 2057 (June 2000) to 29 Jestha of 2058 (June 2001). So when the death of the household member occurred, it should be mentioned in year and month as well. If death occurred in June 2000 (Asar, 2057) then 2000 (2057) should be mentioned in year and June (Asar) in month.

Causes of Death: Death can occur due to different reasons. What is the cause of death of the deceased person should be asked and mentioned. Natural disaster or diseases or accident might be the cause of death. So ask the cause of death for all deceased person and record the cause of death for all deceased person.
Example: the cause of death for a child might be diarrhea; the cause of death for women in reproductive age might be maternal death. Likewise cause of death might be by accident, heart diseases, encephalitis, Jaundice, Typhoid, AIDS, T.B., tetanus etc. If a person was suffering from more than one disease, then mention the major diseases; e.g. person suffering from TB had also fever then mention TB as the cause of death because TB may be the cause of fever. If a woman was suffering from fever at the time of the delivery, the cause of fever might be any other reason.

Note:

1. Infants or children who died immediately after birth are usually under reported. Please do not forget to report the birth- and death-related incident. During the information collection period, any death that occurred or not in the household in the reference period should be confirmed by asking the female members of the household. More than one death might be occurring in the household, then list all household death serially as 1, 2, 3... etc.

2. Death reporting by household might have possibilities of missing and duplicating. the incident reporting time of 12 months or one years of reference period is long and other social incidences that occurred in this time may affect the reporting of the death statistics, e.g. if any common member (father, mother) of the household is dead in the reference period and after the death the sons are separated, then the death count might be duplicated or be missing in both places. If the concerned household is living in the same enumeration area (village development committee, ward, etc), the death must be confirmed with both the respondent and the control from duplication and missing.

(After completing the interview of the household questionnaire, see carefully if there is a question remaining to ask or left to write any information, and if left to ask or write complete it and fill the individual questionnaire).

Schedule -2
Individual Information

The information on Serial number of column 1, full name of the column 2, sex (male, female) and age of column 3 of this schedule should be copied exactly same from the selected household of Schedule 1 as follows.

Column 1: SN (serial number):
This serial number is the individual serial number of the selected household. The full name of the household member should be written in the column 2 by matching the serial number with Schedule 1.

Column 2: Full name of the household members:
The full name of the selected household member should be copied from the Schedule 1 by matching the serial number of column 1. After writing the full name of the household member, sex of the individual should be denoted from the column 4 of Schedule 1. To denote the male or female, under the name of the member encircle code 1 to denote male and 2 for female.

Column 3: Age
Age of the household members reported in the column 2 should be copied serially from the age column 5 of the Schedule 1 in the row of related person.

Column 4: Where is ____ place of birth?

[] 1. Same district
[] 2. Other district ____
(1) VDC
(2) Municipality
[] 3. Other country ____

Place of birth means where a person was born: indicate district if it is in Nepal and country if it is in another country. Birth may take place in a house, hospital, nursing home or other places like the ones mentioned above. For the purpose of enumeration, the place of birth refers to the usual place of residence of the mother during the birth of a person. If it is in the native country then the district should be recorded, or if it is in another country then the name of the country should be recorded. Even though the place of birth is in hospital, nursing home or other places like the ones mentioned above, which is used for the facilities, the place of birth should be the usual place of residence of mother at that time.

In the counting process, the birth place of all persons of all ages (infant, child, young, old) should be mentioned. If the birth place of a person is in Nepal, then mention the name of the current district of that place e.g. if the place of birth is in the currently living district (at the time of enumeration) then encircle code 1 to denote the same district. If place of birth is in the other district then encircle code 2 and specify the current name of the district of that place, e.g. Dolakha, Kailali, Bajhang etc. For denoting the place of birth as rural (VDC) or urban (Municipality) at the time of birth, encircle code 1 if it was VDC or 2 if it was municipality. If the place of birth is another country then encircle code 3 and specify the name of the country where the birth took place e.g. India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Germany etc.

Note:

1. The question on place of birth should be canvassed for all persons (infant, children, young and old) and the place of district or country should be specified.
2. For the person whose place of birth is in the currently living district - or having encircle code 1 of this column - there is no need to ask column 5 of this Schedule.

Column 5: What is duration of stay here?(Only for that person whose place of birth is another district or another country; it means that the birth place is not in the current living place).

Duration of stay in this district refers to the interval of time, from birth up to the census, in the place of enumeration and also the interval of time of living in other places in the same district regularly from the initial moment. The duration of residence should be mentioned in the completed years; if one year is not completed then write '00'. If the complete duration stay is 3 years and 7 months then write 3 years only. Residence refers to the usual place of residence.

Example: Four years ago, Dhanalaxmi Maharjan was living in Kathmandu district, currently she is living in Bhaktapur. Indra Maharjan aged 9, the son of Dhanalaxmi Maharjan is also living with his mother. The birth of Indra Maharjan was taken place in Patan hospital when they were living in Kathmandu. The parent's home of Dahanalaxmi Maharjan is Patan and her birth was also taken place in Patan. Now for the purpose of expressing the place of birth and duration of stay for both persons, the place of birth for Dhanalaxmi is Lalitpur and duration of stay in this district should be mentioned 4 years. For Indra Maharjan, the birth place is Kathmandu and duration of stay in this district 4 years should be mentioned.

Column 6: What is ____ reason for staying in this district?

[] 1. Business/trade
[] 2. Agriculture
[] 3. Service
[] 4. Study
[] 5. Marriage
[] 6. Others ____

The reason for moving into this district by changing the original birth place should be mentioned. Reasons for coming and for staying in this district might be different. Some of the reasons are mentioned above. The reasons for staying in this district might be business/trade or agriculture, or study or service etc. On specifying the reason, the code of the suitable reasons should be encircled; e.g. if the reason for staying is marriage, then code 5 should be encircled. But if the person has migrated after some years of marriage then the reasons for moving may be different. If the reason of moving is other than the reasons mentioned above, then encircle code 6 and specify, e.g. labor, refugee, etc.

Column 7: Where was ____ living 5 years ago?(Only for aged 5 years and above)

[] 1. Same District
[] 2. Other District
(1) VDC
(2) Municipality
[] 3. Other country ____

Where were ____ living 5 years before means -- where were you living exactly 5 years before the date of enumeration. In other words, on counting from the date of 19 June 2001 (4 Asar, 2058), where were ____. living on the date of 20 June 1996 (5 Asar, 2053) is asked to mention. On specifying the place of residence five years ago, as mentioned before on place of birth (column 4), the name of the district or the name of the country living at that time should be mentioned. Place of residence refers to the usual place of residence.

If the place of residence five years ago is in the same district of enumeration (or the place of residence is five years or more in column five) then encircle code 1 of same district. If place of residence is in another district (or place of residence is less than five years in column 5) then encircle code 2 and specify the name of the district of residence; and also encircle code 1 if that place is VDC at that time or encircle code 2 if that place is Municipality (urban). If the place of residence five years ago is another country then encircle code 3 and specify the name of the country of residence. In the case of other country, no need to mention rural or urban (municipality)

Note: If the place of residence is another place (another district or another country) the duration of residence (in years) in this district is asked in column 5. If the duration of residence is five years or more, then it help to ask the question of this column and also to encircle code 1. If the duration of residence is less than five years, ask the place of residence five years ago; and also specify the name of the district, mentioning VDC or municipality in code 2 or specifying the name of the country in code 3.

Column 8: Can ____ read and write?

(Only for person aged 6 years and above)
[] 1. Read only
[] 2. Read and write
[] 3. Illiterate

If a person can read, write and is able to do simple mathematics in any language, then she/he is said to be able to read and write, or literate. The read only is not to be literate. The person who is able to solve simple mathematics (addition, subtraction) in daily work is said to be able to do the simple mathematics. Thus to be literate, a person should be able to read, write and to do simple mathematics in any language. If the person can read only and also can write the name as imitation (art), then the person should not count as a literate person.

If a person can read only in any language then she/he is said to be able to read only. For the person who can read only but cannot write, she/he is said to be able to read only. Some people might be able to read only but might not be able to write. If a person can read only then code 1 should be encircled. If a person can read and write then code 2 should be encircled. If she/he cannot read and write then code 3 should be encircled. If the person has taken formal education or admitted in school and studied some years, then he /she can read and write. Each respondent should be asked and confirmed that he/she can read, write or not, and encircle the suitable code.

[An example has been omitted.]

Note: If the person can read only and is illiterate or answer category is 1 and 3 of this column then column 9 should not be asked.

Column 9: What ____ is level of education passed?

[] 1. Level passed ____
[] 2. Field of study for SLC above ____

This question has two parts: level passed and field of study for SLC and above. The meaning of level of education passed (for read and write) refers the level passed of formal education or which of the level of study is completed by the respondent. For collecting the information on educational qualification, level passed should be written. If the level passed is SLC and above then the major field of study should also be mentioned.

1. Level passed: For the level passed, the educational qualification of the highest level passed by the respondent should be mentioned. If the respondent has passed the examination of different subjects of the same level then any one among the level passed should be mentioned as reporting interests of the respondents; however, the ongoing level should not be mentioned. In case of formal education, if the person studied in all types of educational institution like school, campus (college) or university and passed some level, then he/she should have the certificate of educational level passed. If the level passed is in school level then level passed should be ranges from 1 to 10 or SLC. For campus or university level, level passed might be certificate level (intermediate), diploma, degree, PhD etc. The respondents should be asked for their highest level passed and should be written after confirming it.

Example: If Pramila Kumari Chaudhary is studying on class nine, then level passed for her should be mentioned class 8. If any person appeared in SLC but the result is not published then the level passed should be written as class 10. For those people who failed the examination of SLC the level passed should also be written as class 10. For those who have old Nepali educational qualification, they should be asked for their level passed and it should be mentioned same as their answer e.g. Nepali 7, Nepali 11, etc. For the person studied Sanskrit, the level passed: prathama (level first), madhyama (intermediate), Sastri (equivalent to diploma) acharya (equivalent to master degree) should be asked and written carefully. For those respondents who have taken training only, mention the level passed only if their level is clear.

Note: If the person can read and write but a formal level is not passed, then "simple" should be written for mentioning the level passed.

2. Major Field for SLC above: If the level passed of the respondent is SLC or above, IA, BA, MA, etc., then the major field should be mentioned after specifying the level passed. For those respondent whose level passed is certificate and above, the major field of study among humanities, commerce, science, education, engineering medical science, etc., should be mentioned clearly.

Example: Shyam Krishna Dhobi is studying for a diploma level (humanities). He has passed the certificate level in science (I.Sc.). In this case of counting, level passed should be written certificate and for mentioning the field "science", chemistry should be written. Similarly, Ratnamaya Nakarmi is studying for a diploma in civil engineering, then her level passed should be certificate and the major field civil engineering.

[An example has been omitted.]

Column 10: Is ____ currently attending school?

[For those aged 6 and above and less than 25 years and who have not passed class 10]
[] 1. Yes
[] 2. No

This question should be asked for all persons - those who cannot read or write (illiterate), or those who can read and write (literate) - who have not passed class 10 and are less than 25 years of age.

Currently attending school is defined as school attendance for the purpose of gaining knowledge (education) in the time of enumeration period (reference period). In this case, the person should have enrolled in school or campus and currently be attending school or campus for study.

In the following cases, a person should be considered as attending school for gaining knowledge or education:

- all school-going children registering their name in any type of school
- children who are in holidays as per the rule of school
- children admitted to school but currently not attending due to the illness or taking casual leaves.

If children fulfill the above criteria and are attending school for gaining knowledge (education), then code 1 should be encircled to denote "Yes". If currently not attending school, code 2 should be encircled. Even if admitted in school, if the child is currently not attending school due to any reasons, or the child dropped out of school, then code 2 should be encircled to denote that currently the child is not attending school.

Column 11: What is ____ marital status?

(Only for persons aged 10 years and above)
[] 1. Never married
[] 2. Once married / single spouse
[] 3. Married / multiple spouse
[] 4. Re-married
[] 5. Widow/widower
[] 6. Divorced
[] 7. Separated

A marital relation between any woman or man at any time of his/her life cycle by marriage law or by social or ritual norms of the country or by understanding is called marriage. If the married couple are living together with marital relation (same place or in different place with understanding) in the time of enumeration, then it is said to be marriage. The answer category 1 mentioned above is the never married in the lifetime. But codes 2 through 7 are the status of once married and also are the different marital statuses of the marriage.
Marital status refers the marital status category 1 through 7 mentioned above of persons aged 10 years and above at the time of enumeration.

Marital status is categorized from category 1 through 7 on the basis of marital status in the current society and legal provision for the purpose of enumeration. These marital statuses are defined as follows.

Never Married: A person who is not married in any way (legally, religiously or socially), or who has not lived as husband or wife even once at the time of the census is known as a person who has never married. If man and woman have this marital status at the time of enumeration, then encircle code 1.

Married: If a person who has not lived as husband and wife even once in their life time by consensus or by their social, religious, customs norms is known as a person who has never married. If any person (male or female) has this marital status then encircle code "1" to denote never married.

Living with One Spouse: Those persons that are living with only a single spouse at the time of census enumeration are recorded in this category. Even though wife and husband are living separately with consensus and have only a single spouse, they are categorized as "living with one spouse". Even if a person is used to have more than single spouses in the past, but she/he is currently living with only single spouse due to divorce or separation or death of other spouses, then the person is included in this category of marital status. However, a person married again after a divorce or separation or death of a previous spouse/s is not included in this category though s/he is currently living with a single spouse at the time of enumeration. Such person is to be included in the remarriage category. For example, a widowed person marries with a never married person and is living with single spouse at the time of enumeration; they will not be kept in the same category. The married widowed person is categorized as "remarriage" and the other in "living with one spouse" categories.

Note: For those persons having one spouse in the time of enumeration, it should be asked and confirmed that this was the first marriage or if it was the remarriage after the death of spouse, divorce etc... If it was the first marriage, then encircle code "2"; and if it is the remarriage, then encircle code "4".

Living with more than one spouse (multiple marriages): Any person living with more than one spouse at the time of census enumeration is categorized in this group of marital status. Those spouses may live in different places with consensus and all spouses are not bound to live in the same place and to eat in the same kitchen. In this way, this category includes all polyandry (a woman has currently more than one husband) and polygamy (a husband has currently several wives) cases at the time of census enumeration, then encircle code "3" to denote the multiple marriage of the enumerated male and female.

Note:

A. Even if a person used to have more than a single spouse in the past, but she/he is currently living with only single spouse due to divorce or separation or death of another spouse, then code 2 should be encircled to denote living with one spouse. But if after the divorce or separation or death of spouse she/he married again with another spouse, then encircle code 4 to denote the remarriage; code "3" should not be encircled. If any person living with the spouse of earlier marriage and also married again with another spouse then this is the status of the multiple marriage; to denote it encircle code "3".

B. If any male has more than one wife at the time of census then the marital status of male should be multiple marriages. But the marital status of his wife should be once married if they have no other husband at the time of enumeration. The marital status of each male and female should be asked clearly and encircled appropriate status of the marriage.
Remarried: This refers to currently married person who is married more than once and is currently living with only a single spouse. If a divorced or separated or widowed person marries again with another person of any marital status, then the person is included in this "remarried" category. If a person has the marital status of remarriage at the time of enumeration, then encircle code "4".

Widow/widower: If the wife is dead at the time of the census, the person is known as a widower. If the wife loses her husband on account of his death she is known as a widow. In the case of such persons, if they have not remarried at the time of census they are known as widower or widow. To specify the marital status of such male or female encircle code "5". But if they are remarried they are considered to be married again.

Divorced: The married person who has broken the marital status legally or by any means is known as divorced. If the husband and wife continue to live separately for ever they are considered to be divorced. If the wife has chosen another husband but if the husband has not yet remarried at the time of the census, the husband is considered divorced. To specify the marital status of such male or female, encircle code "6". But once the husband and wife have divorced and live separately and after sometime both remarry other people, they are considered to be married.

Separated: A person who has not broken the marital union legally or by any means but living separately from his/her husband or wife without any relationship to each other is considered separated. To specify the marital status of such male or female at the time of census, encircle code "7" to denote the separated.

[An example has been omitted.]

Column 12: What was ____ age at first marriage?[For all people who ever married, who are 10 years or older]

The marital status of those who are currently married (once married, multiple marriage and remarried), widowed, divorced, separated is known as married. All these marriage statuses are ever married. If the enumerated person is ever married then ask what the age at first marriage was. To specify the age at first marriage of men and women, the completed age at the time of first marriage should be mentioned. If any person has been married more than once, then mention the age at first marriage. The age at second, third... marriage should not be mentioned.

If a person cannot recall the age at first marriage then, by asking the current age and the duration of first marriage and by subtracting one from the other, the age at first marriage can be recorded. Similarly, what was the age at first child bearing, age difference of husband and wife: these will help to find out the age at first marriage. So confirm the age at first marriage and then write it accordingly.

Column 13: How many children were ever born alive____? [Only for ever married women between the ages of 15 and 49 years]

1. Living together son ____ daughter ____
2. Living separately son ____ daughter ____
3. Dead son ____ daughter ____
4. Total son ____ daughter ____

Born live means -- children that give signs of live birth by crying or by some movement after the birth are known as live births. If children don't have any sign of live birth like crying or movement, sound, then this birth could not be a live birth. Still birth (abortion or end pregnancy) should not be counted; however all the live birth should be enumerated.

For all women ever married (marital status of codes 2 through 7 in column 11) and aged 15-49 years, it should be asked how many children (son/daughter) were ever born alive, and recorded in the form. The fertility-related questionnaire should be administered to concerned women only. The answer category obtained by asking men might be wrong.

To minimize the problem of undercounting all live birth children, the current status of children living together in the household, living separately, or dead should be asked and reported separately, and the total should also be written. For the purpose of enumeration, only the number of children delivered by concerned women should be mentioned. Children delivered by other women, like adopted sons or daughters, should not be included on her number of child born.

1. Sons and daughters living together: The number of sons and daughters living in the same household (with their mother) should be mentioned here. Usually unmarried and married sons and unmarried daughters live with her mother.

2. Sons and daughters living separately: The number of sons and daughters living separately, if they are not living in the same household or with her mother (migrants due to marriage or living outside for study), should be mentioned in this column. If any sons or daughters are living separately inside the country or outside the country, they should be enumerated as not living together with her mother.

3. Dead sons and daughters: The number of sons and daughters who died immediately after live birth or dies after some times. The number of sons and daughters should be mentioned separately. But still births should not be included.

4. Total sons and daughters: As mentioned above, among the total number of children born alive, the separate total of sons and daughters living together, living separately or dead should be mentioned separately. If separate totals and the grand total are not consistent (different), then ask the reason of difference and make corrected accordingly.

Note: While administering these questions, the sons and daughters dead after live birth should be asked in depth. However, the topic of dead sons and daughters is a very sensitive subject, so some may refuse to give information on dead sons and daughters. Some may have the concept that this information need not be reported. But for the purpose of fertility and mortality related study, this information is important. Especially the children dead immediately or after some time of live birth are considered to be under reported. For collecting information on fertility, special time should be allotted and the status of sons and daughters should be mentioned separately.

Column 14: Have ____had any live births during the last 12 months?

[For all ever married women aged 15-49 years
[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

For the purpose of counting fertility, during the last 12 months refers the reference period of last 12 months from the day of counting (enumeration). Usually the enumeration day will be 22 June of 2001 (Jestha-Asar, 2058), the last 12 months includes from 23 June 2000 (Jestha-Asar, 2057) to June 2001 (Jestha-Asar, 2058). If women have had any live births during the last 12 months, they should be counted. To understand live births, the meaning is mentioned already in column 13. In that reference period, if any children are born and die immediately or after sometime, they are a live birth and should be included in the counting. But still births should not be included.

If the enumerated women have had live birth in this reference period then encircle code 1 and if not encircle code 2.

After encircled code 1 to denote yes,

Sex of live birth (male or female) ____ year of live birth ____ month ____should be mentioned.

If there is more than one live birth in the reference period, all the children should be counted and sex (male or female) should be denoted by code, and year and month of all children born should be mentioned separately. In the reference period of one year, if any woman has had twin or triple live births, then the year and month of all children should be noted respectively by denoting the sex of children. If the space is not sufficient, the next page should be added to denote the live births.

[An example has been omitted.]

Column 15: What work usually doing during the last 12 months?

[For all persons of age 10 years and above]
[] 1 Agriculture/ own cultivation
[] 2 Salary/ wage
[] 3 Own non-agricultural enterprises
[] 4 Extended economic activity
[] 5 Job seeker
[] 6 Household work
[] 7 Student
[] 8 Not working

The question regarding the work done during the last 12 months period has two sections: economic work done by the individual and the non-economic activity of the individual.

The question "What work are you usually doing during the last 12 months?" is the question regarding the work done during most of the time by the individual in the preceding 12 months or 1 year from the enumeration day.

Work is defined as the activities that may or may not generate income. There may be economic or non-economic activities. The enumerated individual may do the activities from serial code "1" through "7" as mentioned above, or may not do any work (as serial code "8") in the 12 months preceding the census enumeration day. But in this question, the intention is to explore the most frequent activity done by the individual in terms of time spent. The enumerator should encircle or indicate the proper code of the activity that was done for most of the time during the last 12 months.

Example: If the enumerated individual has contributed 3 months of time period in his own agriculture activity, 2 months in salary/wage, 4 months in his own business, 2 months in household work, and during remaining 1 month, s/he did not do any kind of work, then the enumerator should encircle in the code "3" (Own non-agricultural enterprises) on which the time duration devoted is more than other activities.

The activities mentioned in the above from serial number or codes "1" through "8" are divided into 4 sections.

1. Economic works: This category includes own agriculture or farming activities; activities on salary/wage; own non-agricultural business/enterprises. In other words, the above mentioned activities from serial code "1" through "3" are economic works.

2. Extended economic work: This includes the work done by the household member/s in the course of production of the goods or services for the household consumption like firewood collection, fetching drinking water, production at home or elsewhere, or processing of foodstuff. Such activities should be included in the above code "4" as an extended economic works.

3. Seeking economic work: This includes the economic work seeking by the person as mentioned in above code "5".

4. Non-economic work: This category includes the household work, studies, and no economic activities done. In other words, the activities mentioned in code "6", "7" and "8" are included in this category.

For the purpose of census enumeration, the above mentioned activities are further elaborated as following.

1. Own agriculture/farming: The category own agriculture/farming includes all activities related to agriculture. The activities included in the agricultural work are elaborated as following. (Also in the household information of Schedule 1, the details about the agricultural works and farming are mentioned in the questions 3 to 6)

Agricultural Activities:

1. All the activities like digging, plowing, planting, sowing, weeding, caring, cutting or chopping, harvesting, drying, sifting or removing impurities, packing, collecting seeds etc. in the course of production of crops (rice, wheat, maize, millet, barley, etc), cash crops, vegetables, fruits (orange, banana, mango, jackfruit, apple, peer, guava etc.) are known as the agricultural works or farming activities.

2. Similarly, all the activities like raising livestock: cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, rabbit, etc., and raising poultry like chicken, duck and other birds with the purpose of meat or egg production are also included in the agricultural work or farming activities.

3. Activities like making of fish-ponds, breeding of fish and collection, collection of fish feeds, and their protection works are agricultural works.

4. The activities like planting of trees in the wood land and forest, weeding, planting the grass, weeding the grass, and related protection activities are also agricultural work. Similarly, bee-hiving, farming of silkworm are also included in the agricultural work.

But agriculture works do not include the activities carried out in manufacturing industries like food stuff production industries, grinding industry, bamboo related materials or goods production industries, and saw-mill, etc.

Own agriculture or farming means the agricultural works or farming activities that have been operated by the enumerated individuals investing their own capital in cash or kinds, or both, and labor, and who bear the profit or loss from their production.

If the enumerated person has involved most of her/his time during reference period of last 12 months in own agricultural work or farming, then enumerator should mark or encircle the code 1 to indicate "own agriculture or farming". If the enumerated person has also invested most of her/his time in the agricultural activity operated by anyone of the household members, then the enumerator should encircle the code to indicate "own agriculture work or farming" for each person who is involved in agricultural activities.

But if the enumerated person has involved most of her/his time in agricultural activities operated by others in charge of salary or wage or any kind of labor participation, then the enumerator should encircle code "2" to indicate the activity as salary or wage.

2. Salary/Wage Activity: The category includes the person who works for salary/wage most of time during the 12 months of the reference period. The enumerator should encircle code "2" to indicate salary/wage activity.

If the enumerated person has spent most of the time in any kind of activities in the sectors like government or non-government institutions or manufacturing establishments or private home or business during the last 12 months of reference period, then the enumerator should encircle code "2" to indicate salary/wage.

The domestic workers like gothala (shepherd or cowboy or herdsman), hali (ploughman), cook, or kamaiya (bondman) are kept for doing any activity in account of salary/wage, then for this case also the enumerator should encircle code 2.

Example --

Bad Bahadur Magar's family consists of four members (Bed Bahadur, his wife, his daughter and domestic worker Mr. Bhadra Bahadur Pulami). In the last 12 months period, Bed Bahadur had worked in a biscuit factory and his wife Dil Maya had worked in government office. As Bad Bahadur and his wife had worked in industry and government office, they had received salary or wage for working. Hence, enumerator should record these activities by encircling the code 2. But Ratna Maya, daughter of Bed Bahadur did her own farming activities during the last 12 months of period. Hence, the enumerator should encircle code 1 to record Ratna Maya's work. As such the different activities done by Bhadra Bahadur Pulami in charge of salary should be recorded in "salary/wage" activity.

3. Own non-agriculture enterprises or business: Non-agriculture enterprises include all kinds of business or enterprises operated by the household except one's own agriculture or farming activity.

One's own non-agricultural enterprise is defined as any kind of business activities operated by household or member(s) investing capital (in terms of cash or kinds or labor) and bearing the profits or losses of the business.

If the enumerated person has contributed most of her/his time in own any kind of non-agricultural enterprise or business in the reference period, then the enumerator should encircle code "3" to indicate her/his activity.
Also if any of the household members has operated any kind of non-agricultural enterprise and the enumerated person has devoted most of her/his time in that enterprise during the reference period, then her/his activity should be encircled in code "3".

But if enumerated person has worked in a non-agricultural enterprise or business receiving any kind of remuneration like salary, wage, or labor, then the activity of the person should be encircled in code "2". The activity of such person should not be encircled in code "3".

Note:
Activities (except agriculture) like all kinds of manufacturing establishments or industries, foodstuff or non-food stuff production industries, business, transportation, services, hotels, restaurants, lodges etc. are included in non-agriculture enterprises. Some of the examples related to non-agriculture enterprises are illustrated as following:

1. The industry whether small or big, operated with the purpose (lentil nuggets) of supporting income generation of household, like making jam, jelly, pickle, titaura (rolled and dried fruit juices, tamarind ), masyaura (dried preparation of the pulse for curry), bhujiya (snacks), bread, making sweets, samosha pakauda (a particular kind of fried dish made of combination of flour, boiled potato, onion etc. with spices), making curd, durkha or chhurpi (a variety of dried milk) etc. or similar types of food or non-food stuff production related to small- or big-scale industries or businesses are non-agriculture enterprises.

2. Big or small-scale industries or businesses, like making or selling cosmetic goods, for example bracelets, bangles, pote (a kind of glass head necklace that is worn by married woman), red thread, tika, jewels, ornaments and similar kind of cosmetics on big- or small-scale industries or businesses are non-agriculture enterprises.

3. Big or small-scale industries related with the production of goods like agricultural tools e.g. kuto, kodalo (spade with short handle and long handle), or hansiya (a Nepalese curved fodder cutting knife) or plough tool, phali, clay pots, metal pots and utensils, or producing or selling similar types of goods are also non-agriculture enterprises.

4. Producing goods like batti kaatne (handmade thread lamp of cotton that is used for worshipping activities to set alight in Hindu religion); making duna-tapari (leaf bowls and leaf-plates and making similar kind of stuff with purpose of selling in market are also non-agriculture enterprises.

5. The activities like making goods from bamboo, jute, babiyo (a kind of grass for making paper or used for thatching), e.g. doko (big eyed bamboo basket for carrying grass, fodders, fuel wood etc.), dalo (bamboo basket used to keep food grains), nanglo (bamboo winnowing tray), rope and similar kinds of works are non-agriculture enterprises. Similarly crafting on stone, wood and cloth, for example, making idols, painting and handicrafts related small or large scale establishments or businesses are also non-agriculture enterprises.

6. Small or large scale businesses, for example, street mobile shops with the purpose of selling cigarettes, supari (nuts), bidi ( a kind of local handmade cigarette), paper, lwang (a kind of cardamom, clove) chocolate etc., shops with the purpose of selling things like paan (leaf of betal nuts that is eaten with areca nut and lime), fruits, vegetables, meat, wine and spirit, selling vegetables and all kinds of retailer and whole sale businesses or shops are non-agriculture businesses.

7. Activities such as knitting, weaving, sewing and other services like weaving and selling sweater, cap, socks, gloves etc., weaving in contract for others, sewing clothes, hair cutting, operating restaurant and tea/coffee shops, cobbler work like mending shoes and slippers, and such kinds of all small or large scale or service activities are non-agriculture enterprise related works.

8. Activities such as operating rickshaws (a three wheeler bicycle to carry passenger/s), thela (three or four wheeler to carry materials and supplies), cart, ekka-tanga (a horse coach or cart), porter job and similar kinds of jobs operated by household member(s) are non-agriculture works.

9. The activities of mason, carpenters' wood crafting work, and such types of small or large scale services are non-agricultural work.
Examples:
1. Bihari Lal and Tirtha Kumari have operated a construction company bearing profit or loss from it. Ram Kumar Giri has been employed in the company with fixed salary. In such condition, the activities of Bihari Lal and Tirtha Kumari should be encircled in code "3" to indicate their job as their own non-agriculture enterprise while the activity of Ram Kumar Giri should be encircled in code "2" to indicate his job as salary/wage.

2. Hari Lal Lohar has his own AARAN which is an iron furnace to make iron tools and utensils. Hari Lal Lohar and his wife Mrs. Devaki Lohar both work in their furnace. Their son Dhanik Lal Lohar works in a farm. In such condition, the activities of Hira Lal Lohar and Devaki Lohar should be encircled in code "3" to indicate their own non-agriculture enterprise while the activity of Dhanik Lal should be encircled in code 2 to indicate his activity as his own agriculture work.

4. Extended Economic Work: Extended economic work is defined as activities like collecting firewood, fetching drinking water in the household for own consumption. Processing food and grinding grains in dhiki, janto (traditional grinding tools) or in a mill, or kelaune (picking grains) work; making pickle, titaura (rolled and dried fruit juices, tamarind ), masyaura (dried preparation of the pulse for curry), or similar kinds of making food stuff for the consumption of the household. If any member(s) of household has contributed most of her/his time in such activities, then the activity of the person should be encircled in code 4.

Note: In previous censuses, activities such as production of goods or services by household member(s) for household consumption or production works for such goods were not counted as economic work. According to revised System of National Accounts (SNA), 1993, the production of goods by household member(s) for household consumption is enumerated as economic goods. Person(s) involved in producing such goods are also counted as doing economic work. Thus, activities that relate to producing such goods are included in extended economic activity for the purpose of population census.

5. Seeking Economic Work: Seeking job is defined as the activity of looking for or searching job- or work-related activities to generate income. In such conditions, the person seeking job should be actively involved in seeking a job or work and should be available for work.

If the enumerated person has contributed most of her/his time in seeking work or job during the reference period (last 12 months period), then her/his activity should be encircled in code "5". The persons who have sought a job during the reference period may be categorized in the following groups:

i. Person who never worked or, if they worked, then it may not be within the reference period and the person might have sought a job during the reference period
ii. Persons entering into the working age group who may be seeking a job

Although the person is able to do income generating work, she/he may not find work while seeking job during the reference period. The persons who have not actively looked for a job or work and are not available for work should not be mentioned as seeking a job.

6. Household Work: Household chores or work means the activities carried out by a person like cooking, feeding household members; taking care of children, aged persons, and ill member(s) of household; teaching their own children; cleaning the house and its courtyard, and washing related works. When the household member who often undertakes such activities for other household member(s) does so without any remunerations or wages, then such activities are called "household chores". Such activities carried out by the person for own self and family member(s) without any salary or wage is counted as not income generating work with economic perspective.

If any of the enumerated male or female persons has contributed most of his/her time during the reference period in activities like cooking, feeding for household members; taking care of children, aged persons, and ill member(s) of household; teaching own children; cleaning the house and its courtyard, and washing related works, then her/his activity should be encircled in code "6" to indicate household chores. Similarly, if the person was not able to do any income generating work or has worked for short duration due to the reasons of pregnancy or Sutkeri (woman who has just given birth to a baby) or taking care of children, then the activity of such person should be encircled in code "6".

But if any person undertakes these activities like cooking, feeding for household members; taking care of children, aged persons, and ill member(s) of household; teaching their own children; cleaning the house and its courtyard, and washing related works for any remuneration like salary, or wage (cash or kinds), then such activities are income generating works. As mentioned above if an enumerated male or female person has carried out such activities while receiving remuneration during the reference period, then her/his activity should be encircled in code "2" to indicate salary/wage but should not be encircled in code 6.

Some examples to distinguish household chores and economic work:

1. Household works can be done by both males and females. Most of the income generating activities is reported in household chores due to inability to distinguish between income generating and no income generating activities with economic perspective. If any person, most of the time, undertakes activities like his/her own agriculture, farming vegetables in kitchen garden, grazing domestic animals, collecting fodders; selling green vegetables and spinach to market places; or processing food from traditional grinders for household consumption, then such activities are income generating or economic activities. These works are economic works and not household chores.

2. If a person (male or female) has undertaken activities like weaving raadi-pakhi (blanket of wool), weaving carpet, knitting sweater for oneself or for others in contract or selling such materials in the market places, then such activities are income generating activities. These works are also not household chores but are economic work.

3. If the question "What work did you usually do during the last 12 months?" is asked to females of working age group, and if the response would be "household duties or household chores", then enumerator should compulsorily ask supplementary question "what works were undertaken while doing household chores?" for the enumerated person. Some of the probable answers may be as following for supplementary question.
a. Doing farm work, grazing and caring of domestic animals like cows, buffaloes, sheep, goat etc., collecting fodder for domestic animals, preparing and feeding domestic animals, milking cow etc.

b. Weaving clothes like sari dhoti (a woman dress), khasto (shawl) , cap, cholo (woman dress or typical Nepalese bodice) etc., knitting clothes and others, making (big eyed bamboo basket for carrying grass, fodders, fuel wood etc.), dalo ( bamboo basket used to keep food grains), nanglo (bamboo winnowing tray), damlo (big and thick rope to den cow-buffalo), making ropes, bread, jam-jelly etc. may be reported as household chores. These activities are economic or income generating work but not household chores.

c. Activities such as batti kaatne (handmade lamp thread of cotton that is used worshipping activities to set alight in Hindu religion); making duna-tapari , that is knitting leaf plates (leaf bowls and plates from Sal trees), washing clothes, smearing or clay plastering, caring of pregnant or sutkeri (lactating mothers) or ill person, etc. are done for others receiving certain remuneration in terms of cash or kinds or if such work was done for others instead of free house rent, then such activities should be considered as equivalent to economic or income generating activities.

d. If a person has undertaken household works for others, such as grinding grains or cleaning house and courtyards and receiving remuneration or wage, then such activities are also counted as economic or income generating activities.
The enumerated person (male or female) might have undertaken activities most of time during reference period that seem to be household chores. If such different activities have been carried out by the enumerated person, then the activity should be encircled in codes "1", "2", "3", or "4" appropriately as per responses. In the reference period, if the person (male or female) has devoted most of the time in income generating or economic works, then their activities should not be reported as household chores.
Note:
In code "2" of column 20 of census Schedule 2, a household chore is mentioned to indicate the reason for not doing economic work most of the time. In the column, enumerator should mention the reasons for not doing economic work or doing economic work for fewer periods. If the enumerated person has carried out most of the time such activities like cooking for his/her own household members, taking care of aged member(s) or ill member(s), teaching his/her own children or assisting own children in study, cleaning own court yards, washing clothes etc..., then the activity of the person should be encircled in code "2" of column 20 as household chores to indicate reasons for not doing economic or income generating activities during the reference period of time.

But if enumerated person was not able to do economic or income generating work or worked for only fewer periods due to pregnancy or sutkeri (woman who has just given birth to a baby), then the reason should be encircled in code "7" of column 20 and mention the appropriate reason of not doing economic work in census reference period.

7. Study (student): Study (student) means the student (boy or girl) who has enrolled or not in school, college, university or other any academic institutes for achieving education or any kind of training during the reference period.

If the enumerated person has devoted most of her/his time in studying or training, then her/his activity should be encircled in code "7" of column 15. In other words, if enumerated persons have contributed most of time in study or training by enrolling on not enrolling in academic institutes like school, college, or academic institutions, then their activity should be encircled in code "7" to indicate the work to which they have dedicated the most time.

Although the person has enrolled in academic institutes for study or trainings and has not contributed most of time in study or training but most of time if the person has involved in other activities, whether it be economic or not economic, then the activity of person should be encircled in appropriate code as per the kind of his activity. In such condition, the activity of the person should not be encircled in code "7".

8. No work done: If a person has not undertaken any economic or income related activities (activities mentioned in codes "1", "2", "3", or "4"), or not even sought any job or not doing non-economic work (activities mentioned in code 6 and "7"), then the person's activity status is "no work done".

In the above questions, if a person has carried out one of work from code "1" to "7", then s/he should be asked as what work s/he did most of the time during reference period. If activity of a person is encircled in code "8", then it is understood that the persons has not undertaken any works referring to code "1" to "7" during reference period of time. Or if any person has not undertaken works from code "1" to "7" then the activity status of the person should be encircled in code 8 to indicate any work not done.

Persons might not have worked due to different reasons like being aged, or ill or sick; being physically or mentally handicapped, being pregnant etc.

Example-
1. Divya Kumari Moktan has five family members with her husband Thirman Moktan, two daughters namely Sarita Kumari Moktan and Kesari Kumari Moktan, and one son Rabi Man Moktan. In the last 12 months of period, Mrs. Divya Kumari Moktan served in a non-governmental organization getting salary/wage for about 8 months including doing jobs like cooking, washing clothes, cleaning house yards etc. She did poultry farming for about 3 months and she could not do any activity due to being sick for one month. Thir Man Moktan did retail shopping work for 5 months, undertook teaching job for 4 months in local school, and assisted her wife in poultry farming for 3 months. The elder daughter was a full time teacher in local school during past 12 months' period. The younger daughter is studying in class 7. Son Rabi Man undertook his own farming activities for 3 months, assisted in poultry farming for 2 months and took training of rural employment program and looked for job for 5 months but could not get any job. While reporting the mostly carried out activities of household members during the last 12 months period, the activity of Divya Kumari should be encircled in code "2", the activity of Thir Man in code "3", the activity of Sarita Moktan in code "2", the activity of Kesari Moktan in code "7", and the activity of Rabi Man Moktan in code "5" of column 15.

As after encircling the appropriate code of activity in column 15, enumerator should mention the time duration for each of the activity as coded in column 16.

Column 16: How many months did you work during the last 12 months?

(Specify approximately the number of months spent in each category)
[] 1 Economic work done
[] 2 Extended economic work
[] 3 Seeking work
[] 4 No work done

This question has two parts; in the last 12 months (reference period),

i. What works did you do?
ii. How many months did you work?

The first section "what work did you do" is related with activities in column 15. In column 15, only one activity (which was usually undertaken in the last 12 months) should be encircled for any one of the codes from "1" through "8". But a person can do different categories of activities during the reference period. Although the person might have worked most of the time in any one activity of column 15 in the last 12 months, she/he also might have worked in other categories of work for shorter periods related with column 15.

Thus types of work include both categories of work that were usually undertaken for most of the time and jobs done for shorter time periods in the last 12 months.
The time duration involved for work means the time duration contributed in each category of work during the last 12 months. However, there may be a main job and works done for shorter time periods.

As mentioned above, the work done in the last 12 months is categorized into four groups with economic perspective for the census purpose.

a. The total time duration (including duration of mostly done and work done for fewer periods) in months while undertaking economic work (any activities of codes "1", "2", and "3" of column 15) should be recorded in code "1" of column 16.

b. The total time duration in months while undertaking extended economic work (activities of codes "4" of column 15) should be recorded in code "2" of column 16.

c. The total time spent in seeking a work or job in the last 12 months (seeking job for activities of codes "1", "2", and "3" of column 15) should be recorded in code "3" of column 16.

d. Economic work not done: The total time duration spent in the activities of codes "6" and "7" of column 15 and time spent for not doing any work (code 8 of column 15) should be recorded in code "4" of column 16.

First of all, the works undertaken by the enumerated person during the last 12 months should be explored. Then the total time duration spent in each of the four categories, namely: economic work done, extended economic work done, seeking job, and work not done should be recorded separately as mentioned earlier.

The total number of months recorded in each category "1", "2", "3" and "4" should be 12 months. If the total months exceed 12 months or is less than 12 months, then it should be corrected spontaneously by asking the respondent.

Note:
1.

a. If the enumerated person has undertaken either of the activities of code 1 or 2 or 3 or all these activities of column15 fulltime during the reference period, then the total number of months should be 12 in category 1 of column 16. In other words, if any one of the codes 1, 2, or 3 of column 15 is encircled, then category 1 of column 16 should not be blank or 0. If the enumerated person did not undertake any one of these activities (codes 1 or 2 or 3 of column 15), then only 0 should be written in category 1 of column 16.

b. If code 4 of column 15 is encircled, then category 2 of column 16 should not be blank or 0. But if the enumerated person did not carry out any extended economic work during the reference period, then category 2 of column 16 should be 0.

c. If the code 5 of column 15 is encircled, then category 3 of column 16 should not be blank or 0. But if enumerated person did not undertake seeking job or work during reference period, then the category 3 of column 16 should be 0.

d. If any one of the codes 6, 7 or 8 of column 15 is encircled, then category 4 of column 16 should not be blank or 0. In category 4 of column 16, the enumerator should write the total months by summing the number of months involved in code 6 and 7 activities and the number of months being idle or not doing any economic work (code 8) of column 15.

e. In last 12 months, although the enumerated person might be involved most of time in activities, as mentioned in codes 6, 7, and 8 of column 15, the person also might undertake other economic works, as mentioned in codes 1, 2, 3 of column 15 for shorter periods. If the enumerated person has performed economic works during the reference period, the total number of months involved in economic works should be written in category 1 of column 16. Also, if the enumerated person has performed extended economic work (code 4 of column 15) for shorter periods, the total number of months involved should be written in category 2 of column 16.

f. In addition to the total months, as mentioned in above section a , b, c, the number of months for activities like economic work, extended economic work, seeking job, work not done at all of categories 1,2,3,4 of column 16 respectively ranges between 0 and 12 months. The sum of months of all categories 1, 2, 3, and 4 of column 16 should be 12 months; otherwise the number will be incorrect.

2.
a. During the reference period, if any person has worked for one hour in a day, then it is assumed to be equivalent to doing economic work of a full day. If a person has undertaken economic work for less than an hour then it is assumed to be work not done at all for that day.

b. But answer should be written in months for total time period in such a way that 30 days (including working days and not working days) is equivalent to 1 month. While deriving the months, the total number of days is divided by 30 days. If the remainder is more than or equal to 15 days, then it is assumed as one month and if the remainder is less than 15 days, it is assumed to be 0 months.

c. If the person has undertaken different activities within a month, then the activity on which most of the time was contributed should be taken into account for enumeration purpose. If the amount of time is equal in different activities, then activity by which the income or profit is more, should be taken into account. In the case if the activity on which amount of time and income are equal, then enumerator should take that activity for which the respondent gives the priority.

The following should be taken into consideration while asking questions of column 17, 18, 19 and 20.

a. If the number of months by summing category 1, 2, and 3 of column 16 >= 6 (six months or more), then the questions on columns 17, 18 and 19 should be asked and the question 20 should not be asked.

b. If the number of months by summing category 1, 2, and 3 of column 16 is less than six months and more than 0 month, then the questions on columns 17, 18, 19 and 20 should be asked.

c. If number of months of category1 of column 16 = 0 and number of months of category 4 of column 16 =12, then the questions on columns 17, 18, 19 should not be asked but the questions on column 20 should be asked.

Column 17: What work ____usually do? (For all, the time period of 1+2+3 greater than 1month in column 16)

The economically active population may have remained active at some time during the last 12 month, that person may be engaged more or less time in the economic work. The enumerator should find out what was his/her usual activity in the reference period. If the person had some post or status of work, it should be mentioned.

The meaning of work for the column 17, 18 and 19 is the income related economic work which is mentioned in categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 of column 15.

In the reference period, a person can have done any one or more than one above mentioned economic activities that generate income. Person may have done some of the work for longer duration and some for work shorter duration. While writing the description of work in columns 17, 18 and 19 the description of work that the person has done for the majority of time should be written in the respective columns. If the income generating activities (work) have been done for 3 months, 2 months or only for 1 month, it may be the usual major economic activities done mostly during the reference period.

The usual major activity of the enumerated person in the reference period should be written in this column; in short and clear words.

The income generated work done by the person in the reference year usually or for some time is the specific work done by the person is the occupation. According to the nature of the work done by the people, their occupation may also be different. The classification of the occupation can be done by the nature of the status of the work done. So, to classify the work into occupation, the specific work done by the people should be written, and if it is possible to write the post or position or level of the status of the work done, it should be also mentioned. According to the work and level as mentioned above, it is possible to separate the occupation of the manpower of Nepal at that time, and the occupation classification of the manpower could be done.

Some of the examples are given below, to find out the occupation of the people in the reference period according to the nature of the usual economic work.

There are different types of work in agricultural activities. For example; digging, ploughing, collection of seeds, growing seed, planting, irrigation etc.

The following different work may be done in all the agricultural activities. Examples:

i. In cereal crop/cash crop -- paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley, etc. are produced. In pulses group lentil, chicken pea, pigeon pea, black gram, grass pea, horse gram, soybean and others are produced. In cash crop jute, sugarcane, tobacco, oilseed, mustard etc. are grown. What was the actual work done in the cereal crop or cash crop should be written.

ii. In vegetable crops -- potato, cauliflower, cabbage, radish, brinjal, lady finger, pumpkin, etc. are produced. What was the actual work done in producing vegetables should be written here.

iii. In fruits -- mango, banana, orange, apple, guava, pear, durian, pomegranates, lemon, lime, pineapple, etc. are produced.

In the agricultural activities, what usual activity person had done should be written. For example, "all the work related to cereal crop", "vegetable crop related activities like planting, "fruit crop", tea , coffee crop, "nursery", "flower production", etc.

iv. Some person has done livestock work for producing milk, meat, hair, skin and others. If their usual work was livestock related activities like grass cutting, grazing and other sanitation work of livestock like cows, buffalo, sheep/goat, pig, etc. it should be written as 'livestock/cow boy" or "all activities of livestock"

v. If the person was engaged in fishery, it should be written as "fishery" or "activities related to fish catching"

vi. If the person was engaged in professional poultry work of cock/hen, ducks, battai should be written as "poultry"

vii. Similarly if the person was engaged in silkworm farm for cocon production, bee keeping in bee hives and honey production, it should be written as silkworm farming, bee keeping.

viii. If a person was engaged in planting the trees in jungle (forestation), collection of fire wood, collection of medicinal plants (herbs) it should be written as according to her/his usual activity.

In the reference period, the person may engage in more than one agricultural-related activity, as mentioned above. If the person had done different activities, the description of usual activity (which works done for longer period) should be written.

Examples

1. To mention the above work, where did the person do the work, what was the employment status, like: employer, employees, own account worker, it should be also mentioned.

2. If the enumerated person is a doctor, she/he may be engaged most of the time in the last 12 month in health checkup and medical treatment. If the doctor was engaged in health checkup and medical treatment, then in this column it should be written as "health checkup and medical treatment - doctor". If the working person is a nurse, it should be written as "health checkup and medical treatment - nurse". If the doctor is a dentist, then it should be written as "treatment of teeth - dentist". If the person is an assistant in health services, it should be written as "dental assistant", "midwife", "health assistant", or "livestock health assistant".

3. The special work of tailors may be to design and cut the piece of cloth, stitching cloth. The work of traders may be "to manage or to buy and sell the goods, to transport the sold goods". So, during that time, what work was done should be written as "tailor", "trader" etc.

4. For the workers who work in the government office, semi government office, corporation, private company: their nature of work can be identified by the name of post. For example, a typist is doing typing work, a sales girl is selling the goods, an administrative officer is related with administrative work, etc. In this way, the person who did the job-related work in the reference period can be identified. But some others are not doing the work as their post. So, for the paid worker, it should be identified what job they did in the reference period and should be written the actual work they had done. For example: "account officer, account administration", "accountant, book keeping"; data collection, enumerator"; "administration policy implementation, joint secretary"; "administrative record keeping, office assistant"; "record file management" should be written.

5. For the teachers - if they were engaged in teaching at the reference period, "teacher, primary school"; "teacher, secondary school", "teacher, campus or university", should be written.

If they teach for physically or mentally disabled people, then it should be written as "teacher of physical/mental disabled people".

6. The nature of the work of the people may be different in the same organization or office. For example, the employees of Food Corporation have different types of job. Some of the employees are engaged in "personnel administration", some are engaged in "selling of food products", and some of them are "security guard". For truck, car or jeep driver, it should be written as "truck, car or jeep driver". If the enumerated person was an employee of the Food Corporation in the fifth level and in the last 12 month she/he usually engaged in the selling of food products, then it should be written as "selling of food related materials, fifth level".

7. If the person was engaged in the manufacturing profession, then his job should be written clearly. For example, if the person was market manager of the readymade garment, then it should be written as "market manager", "assistant market manager". If the person was engaged in cloth stitching, "cloth stitching" should be written. If in a cigarette factory the person was engaged in tobacco winnowing, it should be written as "tobacco winnowing". The technician who mixed up the color in a chocolate factory should be written as "color mixer". In the press, if the person was repairing the machine, it should be written as "machine repairer". When operating the machine, it should be written as "machine operator". In the house, if a person was doing wool-related activities, it should be written as "making wool, weaving blanket". In the manufacturing industry, if the person was doing data-related activities then it should be written as "data collection or processing or analysis" according to the nature of the work and also should be mentioned the post.

8. Occupation is distinguished by the nature of the work. So it should be mentioned the usual work done by the male or female in the reference year. It should also include the post or level of the job. It should not be written "job" only. "Job" cannot describe what work was done.

Column 18: Where did ____ do the work? (Industry)
The location where the person does the work indicates in which economic unit or organization the enumerated people do the actual work that is mentioned in column 17. To find the industry, the name of work place sector (Industry sector) should be written in this column. The place of work intends to determine the industry. Industry for the census purpose refers to the principal type of economic activity of the establishment (goods and services produced by the establishment) in which an individual worked during the reference period. The industry mentioned here is used to find out the manpower of the country who was engaged in different industry sectors.

"Where" does not mean the place like Hetauda, Pokhara, or Dhulikhel. It means the different sectors of economic activities that produce goods and services. The sector of economic activity is divided into 17 industry groups. For example: agriculture, mining, electricity, gas and water, construction, trade, personal and social service, transport, etc. To write the answer of where did ..... do the work, it should be mentioned the place of work done by the enumerated people: the name of organization/corporation, the establishment and the production of goods and services. For example, "Central Bureau of Statistics, data collection, tabulation, etc."

Nobody must be double-counted or missing: female/male, boy/girl and their ages.

Examples

1. Who is doing agriculture, the place of work done (industry) and production can be written as: "own land, cereal crop, vegetable crop". Who is doing the cultivation in other people's land: "other's land, cereal crop, vegetable crop, cash crop" should be written. If they were doing livestock or poultry, then "livestock, own farm", "other's farm", etc.

2. The job of the doctor of general medicine is health checkup and treatment. If the treatment and health checkup was done in health organization then his/her industry is health and social work or personal and community service. So, to write industry, hospital or health organization, health service should be written. Here, hospital or health organization is personal and community service. Industry and the production of goods and service is health service.

But if the doctor was doing health checkup and treatment of the workers in the establishment of cloth, then industry should be manufacturing industry. "Where was the job done?" should be written as: "establishment of cloth, cloth production".

3. Only by the name of the organization we cannot understand the nature of the work of that organization. For example: "Sangrila and company". It is not clear by the name of this organization what work was done by this organization. So, if this organization was doing the transportation work, then to write the answer of this question, first should be written the name of the company and then it should be mentioned "transport service". For the employees of Nepal Telecom, it should be written as "Nepal Telecom, communication service"
If the enumerated people were doing retail service, then for the answer of the question "where did do the job" it should be written "own shop, retail service". But if this job was done in the sales office of Trade Corporation, it should be written "national trade corporation, trade". If the enumerated person was employed on daily wage on the personal house, then for the industry it should be written as "personal house" and mentioned the work done by her/him. For example: making quilt, mattress etc. If the enumerated person was ploughing the field of another, then for the answer of the question "what did you do in the reference period", it should be written clearly as "personal field ploughing, cereal crop or vegetable crop production" or similar other production, whatever they produce.

Column 19: What was ____ employment status?

[] 1. Employer
[] 2. Employee
[] 3. Own account worker
[] 4. Unpaid family worker

Employment status description is reported in column 17 as the status of the usual activity in the last 12 month. For enumeration purpose, the employment status is divided into 4 categories as mentioned above. The description of these 4 categories is given below.

1. Employer - An employer is a person who operates her/his own economic enterprises or engages independently in a profession or a trade and hires one or more employees.

In other word, if the person is operating her/his own profession or business by hiring employees regularly in the reference period, then the employment status of that person is employer.

To mention the employment status of employer, encircle the "employer" option given in category 1. If the employer did other activities than management at that time, the status is still "employer".

But while operating his/her own activity at the peak time of the season - for example, planting, harvesting in agriculture related activities - a person may hire some people for 2-4 days only. At that time the status of the person is not "employer".

Examples

1. If a farmer was hiring people to operate her/his agricultural activity - like crop farming or livestock or fishery or others related to these activities - by paying in cash or kind and her/himself also engaged in that activity as a main person, then the status of that person is "employer".

But if the hiring person was engaged in housework, then the status of the people who got cash or kind by doing housework is employee but the status of the person who hires these people is not employer. To become the employer, the employees who are being hired (in cash or kind) should work in the productive unit, profession, industry. The house worker should not be included as an employee of a productive unit, industry.

2. Industrialists, businessmen, traders and others who conduct their business by hiring people (in cash or kind) in the reference year regularly, then the status is "employer".

Many employers are working under ministers, secretaries, directors, general managers and other higher officials but the status of ministers, secretaries, directors, general managers and other higher officials are not employer, they are also employees. So, to mention the status of these people, should be encircled the category 2, "employees".

2. Employees - An employee is a person who works for public or private employer and receives remuneration in terms of wages, salary, commission, piece rates or pay in kind.

The status of the person becomes employees if she/he works in a government office, non-government office, corporation or private enterprises or office, private home doing any profession in the industry sector and getting salary, wages.

In the reference period, if the enumerated person was usually engaged in doing work for others by getting salary or wages, then her/his employment status becomes employees. Employees are getting salary or wages but they are not directly related to the profit and loss of the industry.

Note

1. Minister, secretary and other official of Ministry, Departments, offices, and other organizations who were engaged in the last 12 months and getting salaries, then their status becomes employees and should be encircled in category 2.

2. The enumerated people who were usually working in industry, establishment, hotels or other organizations or in personal household in the last 12 months by getting salary, wage or any other type of remuneration, then their status should be written as employees. To mention their employment status should be encircled category 2.

3. Own Account Worker - An own account worker is a person who operates her/his economic enterprises or engages independently in a profession or trade and hired no employees in the last 12 month. The status of own account worker should be encircled in category 3.

People who are engaged in household work like servant or cook, and getting salary or wages regularly, but they are not engaged regularly in economic enterprises, are only for the housework purpose and not for industry. So, their employment status is own account worker.

The economic enterprises (industry) that is conducted by any member of the household and other members also work there without taking the salary, wage then the status of other members is also like the main person who conducts the industry "own account worker". To denote this employment status encircle the category 3.

But the profession which is adopted by any member of the household and other members only helps her/him partially (Morning, evening or other time) then the status of that persons will be the "unpaid family worker". To denote the unpaid family worker it should be encircled on category 4 not in category 3.

4. Unpaid family worker - An unpaid family worker is a person who works without pay in economic enterprises operated by a person living in the same household.

The industry mentioned in column 18 (agriculture or others) which is conducted by any household member and other members (husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, brother in law, etc) can support the activity without taking salary or wages. Except the people who are included in the occupation of column 17 - the main person who conducts the industry and the full time engaged members - other members who help partially for that industry should be included in the category 4. To denote their employment status, the category 4 "unpaid family worker" should be encircled.

Note - The members of the household who are engaged in the industry conducted in the household, like agriculture and others in the reference period, should be mentioned in the employment status for all male and female members.

i. If the economic enterprise is conducted by hiring at least one paid employee then the main person who conducts the enterprises has the employment status "employer". If other members of the household engage fulltime in the economic enterprise conducted by the household, then the employment status of other members will be "own account worker".

ii. If the economic enterprise is conducted by the household members, without hiring people, then the main person of that enterprise will have the employment status of "own account worker".

Also all the household members who help partially in the enterprise will have the employment status "unpaid family worker". To denote this encircle the code category 4.

The employment status of male or female who works for others by taking salary, wages or any other facilities and conditions in the reference time will be the "employee". To denote this, the code should be encircled in category 2.

Unpaid family worker means: someone who helps the main person in his/her trade by acting as a substitute for some time, doing other works of the trade, etc.

In the agricultural-related activities (planting, harvesting, etc.), the other members of the household - for example, husband, wife, son, daughter, sister, brother, brother in law - may work fulltime or part-time without taking wages. If any member had done - in the last 12 months - fulltime work for these activities, that person has the employment status "own account worker" and encircle in category 3.But if any member has done partial work then she/he has the employment status of "unpaid family worker". To denote this encircle code category 4.

Column 20: What was the reason for usually not working during the last 12 month?

(For 1+2+3 is less than 6 months in column 16 or 4= 12 months for all)
[] 1. Student (study)
[] 2. Housework
[] 3. Aged
[] 4. Pension
[] 5. Physically and mental handicapped
[] 6. Sickness or chronic illness
[] 7. Others

The reason why a person could not do the work in the last 12 months should be mentioned; or, if she/he has done work for some time, why she/he was not employed in the reference time. The main reasons of usually not working applies to the last 12 month, when she/he has not done any income generating activities or has done income generating activities for less than 6 month.

Ask the respondent why the income generating work (mentioned work of category 1, 2, 3 and 4 of column 15) was not done in the reference year or if income generating work had been done for some time, and why this work was not done for more than 6 month. Possible reasons for not doing income generating work in the reference year or possible reasons for doing income generating work for short time are given above (category 1 through 6 in this column). If there are other reasons for not doing or partially doing income generating work, then it should be encircled in category 7 and the reason should be mentioned.

1. Student (study) - For enumeration purposes, a student can be defined as being enrolled or not in school, campus or any other educational institution and regularly studying or taking training. If the usual activity of the last 12 month was study, then it should be encircled 1 in the given category.

But if the usual activity of the person is income generating activities (1, 2 or 3 category of column 16) and doing study in the morning/evening in school/campus or participating in the private exam in the partial time, then it should be enumerated in the income generating activities (1, 2 or 3 categories of column 15).

2. Housework - The activities that are done in the house or home compound - like cooking, cleaning, washing cloth of household members and teaching own children - are "housework". These works are done only for the household members and these works are not enumerated as income generating work. In other words, for the use of household works that are done by the household members, these works are not treated as economically income generating work. If the household members (male or female) were usually doing this work in the reference period, then for the population census purpose these work are treated as housework or non-economic work.

If in the reference period, someone had done mostly housework as mentioned above, to
denote that the person is not doing economically income generating work, it should be encircled in category 2.

Note :

i. In our country, we have the tradition that the income generating activities that are done by women are also counted as housework. To avoid misinterpreting the meaning of this question, probing should be done if the respondent has answered as housework in the question of what work you had done in the last 12 month. In the description of column 15 it is tried to make clear what are economically income generating work, not income generating work, and house work. The description of work given in column 15 should be understood clearly.

But if someone had done the above mentioned housework for others by taking salary or wages, then these activities should be the economically income generating work. It should not be included in the housework if the person was doing housework for others by taking salary or wages (in cash or kind or in other form). Male or female: any person can do the housework.

ii. The economically income generating work - except housework that was usually done by male or female in the reference period - should be encircled in the related work as mentioned in the category 1, 2, 3 or 4 of column 15. It should not be encircled in the housework or not doing any work category.

iii. For own use or for selling purposes, some males or females may be engaged in weaving blanket, carpet, sweater; similarly some may be engaged in the production of dairy products like cheese/churpi, and they may sell them in the market; some may be engaged in the production of cotton lamps for others. All these activities are income generating activities. These are not housework. In the last 1 year, if they had done these activities and got the cash or kind or other remuneration, then it should be encircled in the related category of column 15. It should not be encircled in the housework category. In column 15, there is also the category of housework. In this column, it should be mentioned the usual activity. To mention the work of the reference period - cooking for household member, care taking of aged and children, teaching own child, cleaning house, washing cloth of the household members - if these activities were done then it should be encircled in the category 6.

3. Aged - Aged can be defined as a person(s) who cannot do work due to old age. Simply, the person having age more than 60 and cannot do work is known as aged. If the person having the age less than 60 but cannot do income generating work or doing income generating work for less time, that may have other reasons, is not aged. It should be asked clearly to the respondent about the reasons for not working. If the person had not done any economically income generating activities in the reference period due to this reason, it should be encircled in the category 3.

4. Pension - If the enumerated person was not doing any economically income generating work or partially doing the work due to receiving of the pension of the previous work done in the office or corporation or maintaining her/his life expenses due to the hereditary property or by the income of the previously kept property in the reference period, it should be encircled in the category 4.

5. Physical and mental handicapped - If the enumerated person was not doing any economically income generating work in the last 12 months or had done economically income generating work for less than 6 month due to physical or mental problem, then it should be encircled as category 5. In other words, due to blindness, deafness, mentally retarded or by physical disability, if the person has not done economically income generating work in the last 1 year or if the work was done for less than 6 months, it should be encircled in the code category 5.

6. Sickness or chronic illness - If the enumerated person became disable due to disease or due to sickness or chronic illness and could not do any economically income generating work in the last 12 month or if some work was done only for less than 6 months then it should be encircled in the code category 6.

7. Others - If the enumerated person was not doing any economically income generating work in the last 12 months due to some other reasons except as mentioned above. Then, it should be encircled in the category 7 and the reason should be mentioned. Some of the reasons may be beggar, Yogi, etc.

Note : In the last, some of the other reasons could be: cannot do work due to care taking of aged and children, due to pregnancy. If the person had not done economically income generating work in the last 1 year due to these reasons, then it should be encircled in category 7 and the reason should be mentioned clearly.

Column 21: Which of the following living arrangement does ____ adopt?

[Only for children below 16 years]
[] 1. Mother - father (both)
[] 2. Mother
[] 3. Father
[] 4. Father and step mother
[] 5. Mother and step father
[] 6. Other relatives
[] 7. House servant
[] 8.Others ____

The living arrangement of the children below 16 years of age of the enumerated household should be asked about their guardianship according to the categories mentioned above. The description is given below.

1. Mother - Father (Both) - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with her/his biological parents, then it should be encircled in category 1. If the step mother is also present in the same household and the child is living with their biological parents and step mother, it should be also mentioned in this code category 1.

2. Mother (only) - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with her/his biological mother only, then it should be encircled in category 2.

3. Father (only) - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with her/his biological father only then it should be encircled in category 3.

4. Father and Step Mother - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with her/his biological father and step mother then it should be encircled in category 4. If the step father is also present in that household besides biological father and step mother, then also it should be encircled in the same category 4.

5. Mother and Step Father - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with her/his biological mother and step father then it should be encircled in category 5. If the step mother is also present in that household besides biological father and step mother then also it should be encircled in the code category 5.

6. Other Relatives - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with other relatives not mentioned in the 1 through 5 categories - for example brother, sister, uncle/aunty, grandfather/grandmother, etc. or other relatives - then it should be encircled in category 6.

7. House Servant - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living as a house servant then it should be encircled in category 7. House servant means the person who is kept for doing housework by taking salary or wages (in cash or kind)

8. Others - If the enumerated boy or girl below 16 years of age is living with the person who is not included in the category 1 through 7, then it should be encircled in this category 8 and it should mention his/her mode of living arrangement. For example: not relative or others.

Note : Thanks should be given to the respondent after finishing the enumeration work of this household.

[Instructions for Filling up the Book Cover and appendices have been omitted.]