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National Institute for Statistics and Censuses
Eighth Population and Fourth Dwelling Census, 2005
Enumerator's Manual
Government of Nicaragua
National Institute of Statistics and Censuses

Definitions:

Population Census
A population census is a count of all persons who normally live in a country.

Dwelling Census
A dwelling census is a count of all existing dwellings in a country.

Essential technical characteristics

Individual enumeration
Each person and each dwelling is enumerated separately.

Simultaneity
The census takes place during the same period in all departments, autonomous regions and municipalities in the country.

Periodicity
Censuses must be carried out every 10 years so that the results allow for comparison with other countries.

Universality
The census covers the entire national territory and includes all permanent residents and all dwellings in the country.

Characteristics specific to the 2005 Census

In addition to previous characteristics, the 8th Population and 4th Dwelling Census includes the following features:

Household Census
Unlike the 1995 census, which was a dwelling census, this one is also a household census.

De jure Census
Persons must be enumerated in the place of permanent residence in the territory or territorial waters under the jurisdiction of the Republic, whether or not they are actually present at the time of the census.

Structural Census
Basic information about variables that are not constantly changing across time is gathered.

Statistical unit of investigation
This is the dwelling, the household, and the persons who habitually live in them.

Single form
A single form is used across the nation to gather the data.

Basic definitions:

Dwelling
A dwelling is any premise composed of one or more rooms that are structurally separate and independent and are intended to lodge one or more persons, whether they are related or not.

Household
A household is composed of one person or a group of persons, whether they are related or not, who live under the same roof and prepare the meals together (shared cooking pot).

Permanent resident
This is a person who has lived in the household for six months or more, or who though s/he has been there for fewer than six months, has the intention to live in the household.

Head of household
This is the person who is recognized as such by the other members of the household.

Completed years
This is the age the person reached at his/her last birthday.

Qualified informant
This is the person who is best informed about information related to the dwelling, the household, and the persons who live there. Examples are the head of household, a housewife, or a person age 16 or older who is familiar with information about him/herself and about the other members of the household.

Room
This is the space in the dwelling that is bound by fixed walls made of any permanent material and that may be intended for any use, such as bedroom, living room, dining room, kitchen, etc.

[Pages 11 through 22 are not included]

Section II. Dwelling information

Goal:
To obtain information related to dwelling characteristics, such as type of dwelling, occupation status, construction materials (walls, ceiling and floor), electricity/lighting, water supply, tenure, and health services, as well as to identify the number of households within the dwelling.

Type of dwelling:
For the purposes of this census, the dwellings are divided into private and collective dwellings, and those open spaces that are generally used only for sleeping, which we will call homeless areas [s in vivienda].

Definitions:

Dwelling
This is any premise composed of one or more rooms which are structurally separate and independent, and intended to lodge one or more persons who may or may not be related.

It is separate because it is bound by walls or fences and it is independent because it is possible to enter and exit without going through other dwellings, with direct access from the street or a hallway.

Private dwelling:
House
This is a permanent housing unit built with durable material that is not used for other purposes at the time of the Census.

Country house [quinta]
This is a housing unit with more physical space than a house, generally built in rural areas or on the outskirts of the city.

Apartment
This is a premise generally located in a building and that has an independent entrance from a hallway or stairway, with direct access from the street and independent utilities.

Room in a tenement
This is an independent dwelling located along a common hallway, courtyard or open-air passage/corridor and that has some shared services (water and sanitary services).

Hut or shack
This is a dwelling constructed of rough materials (cane, straw, reed or other). This type of dwelling is most common in rural areas.

Improvised dwelling
This is a dwelling constructed of discarded materials (cardboard, tin cans, plastic, canvas, wood or other) and which is inhabited on the date of the Census. This category also includes dwellings with walls of stone or cement blocks that are not cemented together, abandoned buses, boats, and motor homes/campers.

Premise used as a dwelling
This is a premise that was not originally intended to be inhabited by people but that is used for such on the date of the Census. It may be a cellar, garage, workshop or warehouse, a building in ruins, a partly destroyed building (by an earthquake, war or hurricane) or other.

Collective dwelling
This is a dwelling where a group of persons lives; they generally are not connected by family ties. Examples are hotels, boarding houses, motels, guest houses, hospitals, sanitariums or clinics, rehabilitation centers, asylums, orphanages, religious institutions or boarding schools, jails or juvenile detention facilities, bases or military installations.

In these dwellings only enumerate those people who fit the description of permanent resident.

Homeless area [sin vivienda]
This is a physical space that does not satisfy any of the definitions of dwelling provided above and which some people use to sleep in. Examples are parks, markets, sidewalks, bus stops and other open spaces.

Question 1. Type of dwelling

This question is obtained through observation. If you have a question as to how to indicate this information, refer to the previous definitions.

Mark just one option with an "X" according to the type of dwelling you observe.

If you marked option 8, 9 or 10, go to section II, question 3.

If you marked any of the options 11-19, go to section VI-B, "Total number of persons in collective dwellings and homeless areas".

There are some private dwellings with just one facade, but there may be other dwellings with an independent entrance on the same plot of land. They will need to be enumerated separately.

There are premises like cellars, workshops, warehouses, etc. in which one part may be set aside for lodging. If there are permanent residents, classify these premises as "Premise used as a dwelling" and gather the information about their characteristics.

In private dwellings in which the permanent residents are renters, fill out the form for each household and also for the household of the person who is responsible for the dwelling if he/she lives there.

Enumerate all collective dwellings in your section, except hospitals, sanitariums, jails and juvenile correctional facilities, bases or military installations.

In all collective dwellings investigate whether or not there is a private dwelling where the caretaker, manager, administrator or other person who prepares his/her food separately lives. If there is, enumerate him/her as a private dwelling.

If you don't find permanent residents in option 8, 9 or 10 of collective dwellings, fill out section I, "Geographic location of the dwelling" and section II, "Dwelling information" up to question 11. Exclude question 2, "Occupation status". In question 10 check option 2, "No". In question 11 write "00" and end the interview.

If you mark option 8, 9 or 10 and only the owner or another person who takes responsibility for the collective dwelling lives there, fill out the form with the characteristics of that household and its members.

If you mark option 8, 9 or 10 and only find permanent residents there, mark option 1, "Yes", for question 10. In question 11 write, "00" and then go to section VI-B, "Total number of persons in collective dwellings and homeless areas".

If you mark option 8, 9 or 10 and the owner or another person lives there, fill out a form for these households. If one or more guests who satisfy the definition of permanent resident live there, write them down on the additional form, going directly to section VI- B, "Total number of person in collective dwellings and homeless areas".

If there are no permanent residents in the collective dwellings in options 11-18, fill out section I, "Geographic location of the dwelling", and question 1 of section II, "Dwelling information", then go to section VI-B, "Total number of person in collective dwellings and homeless areas".

If you find an independent household in the collective dwellings in options 11-18, consider it as a collective dwelling and go to section VI-B, "Total number of persons in collective dwellings and homeless areas".

Occupation status

Definitions:

Occupied dwelling
A dwelling is considered occupied if there are permanent residents in it. It may be occupied:

With inhabitants present
This is when there are inhabitants present and a qualified informant.

With inhabitants absent
This is when there are no inhabitants present at the time of the visit.

Unoccupied dwelling
This is when there are no inhabitants in the dwelling, which may be a result of the dwelling being for sale or rent, for temporary use, under construction, under repair, temporarily vacant, abandoned and in ruins, or destroyed.

Dwelling for temporary / seasonal use
This is a dwelling which is vacant most of the time and is generally used for vacation. An example is a summer or country house.

Dwelling that is temporarily unoccupied
This is a dwelling whose residents are moving temporarily for work or other reasons, either within or outside the country, but will return to inhabit the residence.

Question 2. Dwelling occupancy status

This question is obtained through observation. If you have a question as to how to indicate this information, refer to the previous definitions.

Mark an "X" by the appropriate option.

If you marked any one of options 3-9, go to another dwelling.

If you have any question about marking any one of options 3-9, ask a neighbor why the dwelling is vacant.

Keep in mind that if you find people who are permanently residing in a dwelling for temporary use, such as the caretaker or members of the household, you should mark an "X" for option 1, "With inhabitants present".

Dwelling building materials
The most important thing is to find out the basic material of the exterior walls of the dwelling, and not the covering.

Definitions

Panels of Covintec
This is a poroplast panel combined with a high-resistance steel mesh and covered with a mix of cement and sand.

Drywall
This is a laminate made from a base of plasterboard.

Concrete and wood (mini-skirted)
This is any dwelling constructed on a base of concrete, stone, quarried stone or mud brick which generally makes up the bottom half of the building, with the top half being made of wood.

Concrete and other materials
This is any dwelling constructed on a base of concrete, quarried stone or mud brick which generally makes up the bottom half of the construction, with the top half being made of zinc, Plycem or any other material except wood.

Question 3. What is the predominant construction material of the exterior walls?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that if there is more than one material in the walls of the dwelling, you should mark the material that predominates.

Question 4. What is the predominant construction material of the roof?

The most important thing is to find out the roofing material that protects the majority of the dwelling, not the ceiling.

Question 5. What is the predominant construction material of the floor?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that if there is more than one flooring material, you should mark the one that predominates.

If it is clear that most of the floor is dirt, don't ask about the material, just mark option 5, "Dirt".

Do not rely exclusively on the flooring material in the main room/living room because in some dwellings the rest of the rooms may be of a different material.

Question 6. The type of lighting for this dwelling is:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that if more than one type of electricity is used in the dwelling, you should mark the one that is used most.

Electric lighting is light from the public network.

Question 7: This dwelling receives its water supply via:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

If there is more than one type of supply, mark the one that is used most.

The options "Pipes inside the dwelling" and "Pipes outside the dwelling but on the property" are ones that are connected to the public network.

Dwelling tenure

Definitions

Allotted or lent for free
This dwelling is inhabited as a benefit given by a person's work or it belongs to a family member.

Being paid in installments or mortgaged
This is a dwelling which is generally being paid for in monthly installments.

Owned without legal contract
This is a dwelling which still does not have legal documents. It may or may not have a notice of payment from the title office.

Question 8. The dwelling that is occupied is:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Question 9. How far is it from this dwelling to the nearest health center or clinic?

Use two digits to write the answer in the spaces corresponding to kilometers and blocks. Put a "0" before the numbers 1-9.

Use three digits to write the answer in the spaces corresponding to meters and varas. [A vara is unit of length measuring 84 centimeters in Nicaragua. Its exact length varies from country to country.] Put "00" before the numbers 1-9 and "0" before numbers 10-99.

What method of transportation do the inhabitants use to get there?

Mark an "X" next to the method of transportation stated by the informant.

How long does it take to get there?

Use two digits to write the answer in the spaces corresponding to the time it takes to get there. Put a "0" in front of numbers 1 through 9.

For distance and time:
Use only whole numbers and a single unit of measurement, rounding up to the next number. For example, if they declare that the nearest health-care center or station is 1.5 kilometers away, write the answer as: "Kilometers: 02"

Keep in mind that if the informant states more than one method of transportation, you should mark the one that is taken for the most time to get to the nearest health-care center or clinic.

Question 10. Are there persons or groups of persons who prepare their food separately in this dwelling?

This question allows you to determine if the dwelling is inhabited by more than one household. Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 11. Sir/madam, bearing in mind that a household is composed of a person or group of persons, related or not, who live under one roof and prepare their food together (common pot), tell me: How many households are there in this dwelling?

Use two digits to write the answer in the spaces corresponding to the number of households. Put a "0" in front of numbers 1-9.

If the answer is greater than one it means that there is more than one household in the dwelling, and you will therefore need to fill out more than one form.

If on question 1 in this section, options 8, 9 or 10 are marked, write "00" as there is no household and end the interview.

[Pages 29 through 31 are practice exercises for enumerator training and are not included.]

Section III. Household characteristics

Goal:
To gather data about housing characteristics such as crowding, well-being, economic activity and remittances, among others.

Question 1. The type of toilet facility used in this household is:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

If the informant replies that there aren't any, mark an "X" next to option 5 and go to question 3.

If a household says they have both an excusado [code (1)] and an inodoro [codes (2) - (4)], inodoro should have precedence depending on how the waste is discharged.

The toilet (inodoro) that drains into pipes for wastewater [code (2)] will only be classified as such if it discharges its sewage into pipes connected to the public network.

Question 2. Are the toilet facilities for the exclusive use of this household?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that exclusive use means that the toilet facilities are used only by the household interviewed.

Question 3. How many rooms does this household have that are used only for sleeping? (Do not include kitchens, bathrooms, hallways or garages.)

Use two digits to write the answer in the spaces corresponding to total number of rooms used only for sleeping. Put a "0" in front of numbers 1-9.

Keep in mind that you should write "00" if the dwelling only has one room.

Question 4. Does this household have a room that is used only for cooking?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 5. In this household, the primary fuel used for cooking is:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that if more than one fuel is used by the household, you should indicate the one used most often.

Question 6. How does this household dispose of the majority of its garbage?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that if the household uses more than one method of disposing of garbage, you should mark the one used most frequently.

Question 7. This household owns these goods and services:

This is a multiple-response question. Read the options one by one and mark an "X" in the "Yes" or "No" box for each option.

If there are two or more households in the dwelling that share a good or service, mark an "X" next to option 1, "Yes", for the household which owns the good or service.

Include goods which the informant says are in poor condition.

Question 8. This household has a vehicle for exclusive private use, such as:

This is a multiple-response question. Read the options one by one and mark an "X" in the "Yes" or "No" box for each option.

If there are two or more households in the dwelling that share a means of transport for private use, mark an "X" next to option 1, "Yes", for the household that owns the vehicle.

Do not include vehicles that are used as for work or a business, such as: mass transit, taxi service, freight hauling, distribution of products for sale, animals used for the production or transport of sales merchandise, etc.

Include vehicles that the informant says are in poor condition.

Question 9. Does any member of the household carry out any economic activity inside the dwelling, such as:

This is a multiple-response question. Read the options one by one and mark an "X" in the "Yes" or "No" box for each option.

Keep in mind that this question refers to economic activity that is carried out inside the dwelling, and not one that is performed by household members outside the dwelling.

Question 10. Does any member of this household carry out any agricultural activity outside the dwelling as an employer or self-employed owner, such as: farming, nursery production, animal breeding, etc.?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Persons with some type of disability

Definitions

Disability
This is a physical or mental deficiency which limits activities (eating, walking, working, studying, etc.) and social participation (having fun, attending meetings, attending religious or political activities, etc.).

Question 11. In this household, are there one or more persons who:

This is a multiple-choice response. Read the options one by one and mark an "X" in the "Yes" or "No" box for each option.

Remittances to the household

Definition

Remittance
This is money received by at least one member of the household from family members, friends, acquaintances, etc., who are living outside the country.

Question 12. Did this household receive remittances from anyone outside the country during the past 12 months?

Mark an "X" by the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "No" go to section IV, "International emigration in the household".

Keep in mind that goods received from outside the country are not of interest, nor is help in cash or material goods from persons inside the country.

Question 13. How often was money received and how much was received in dollars?

This is a multiple-choice response. Read the options one by one and mark an "X" in the box that corresponds to the frequency with which the informant states s/he received remittances. Use five digits to write the amount in the corresponding spaces, from left to write. Put a zero in front as necessary.

If the household received remittances with the same frequency from several persons outside the country, add up the amounts and write them in the time period indicated.

If money was received in the household in a currency other than the dollar, ask how much money the amount would be in dollars.

If you mark option 9, "Other", write the amount stated in the corresponding spaces.

Example: if a member of the household received 200 dollars monthly, write it as follows: 03 / X / Monthly ... US$ 00200

[Pages 35 and 36 are practice exercises for enumerator training and are not included.]

Section IV. International emigration in the household

Goal:
To investigate migration to other countries of persons who were household members.

Definitions:

Emigrant
This is a person who left Nicaragua and moved his/her permanent residence to another country.

Question 1. Does any person who was a member of this household currently live in another country?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", ask "How many?" Write the number and continue the interview.

If the answer is "No", go to section V, "Deaths in the household".

Keep in mind that the emigrants must have been members of the household being interviewed. It doesn't matter if the person emigrated recently or many years ago.

Name
Start the list with the last person who left Nicaragua. Write in the adjoining space only the name of each person who currently lives in another country.

Keep in mind that the name of any person written in this section should not appear in section VI-A, "List of persons who make up the household". If you have any questions because of similar names, genders or ages, ask the informant.

Question 2. Is [the person] male or female?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that some names are used for males and females. Examples are Guadalupe, Isabel, Carmen, Socorro, Concepcion, Jesus, Dolores, Leslie, Cristian and other names which are not very common. Make sure the information is correct.

Question 3. In what year did [the person] leave Nicaragua?

Write the last two digits of the year the emigrant left the country in the corresponding spaces.

Question 4. In what country does [the person] currently live?

Do not abbreviate the name of the country where the person who emigrated currently lives.

Keep in mind that the name you write should correspond to a country and not a state, county, department, municipality, canton, parish or district of the country where the person who emigrated is currently living. For example, if the informant responds that the person lives in Miami, write "United States".

Question 5. How old was [the person] when s/he left Nicaragua?

Write the age of the person when s/he left Nicaragua in the corresponding spaces.

Write "00" for children less than one year.

Question 6. What was the highest grade or education level successfully completed by [the person] when s/he left Nicaragua?

The grade or year reached in the country where the person is currently living is not of interest here.

Write the highest grade or school year that the person had completed when s/he left Nicaragua.

Write "0" in the corresponding space if the answer is "None", or any pre-school level.

Write "6" next to "Primary" if the emigrant had achieved the "Basic technical" level.

Write "3" next to "Secondary" if the emigrant had achieved the "Mid-level technical" level.

Write "5" next to "Secondary" if the emigrant had achieved the "Advanced technical" level.

[Pages 39 and 40 are practice exercises for enumerator training and are not included.]

Section V. Deaths in the household

Goal
The goal of this section is to gather information about deaths in general and maternal mortality in particular. The information refers to deaths in the household during a reference period, as well as to obtaining a death certificate and the registration of the same.

Reference period
The reference period is from January, 2004 to now (the day of the interview).

Definition

Mortality.
This is the number of deaths occurring in a population in a given time period.

Question 1. From January 1, 2004 until now, did any member of this household die?

Remember to write the deaths of newborns and the elderly.

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", ask "How many?" Write the number and continue the interview.

If the answer is "No", go to section VI-A, "List of persons who make up the household".

You must respect the reference period defined in the question;

It doesn't matter if the death occurred in the dwelling, in a hospital or any other place, including another municipality or country.

Name
Write just the name of the deceased in the corresponding space.

Keep in mind that the name of the person written down in this section should not appear in section VI-A, "List of persons who make up the household". If you have any questions because of similar names, genders or ages, ask the informant.

Question 2. On what date did [the person] die?

Write the day and month with two digits each, and the last two digits of the year in which the person died. For example, if the person died on October 2, 2004, write it as follows:
Day: "02"; Month: "10"; Year: "2004"

Question 3. How old was [the person] when s/he died? (If s/he was less than one year old, write 000)

Use three digits to write the age of the person who died. Put "00" in front of numbers 1-9 and "0" in front of numbers 10-99.

Write "000" for children who were less than one year old when they died.

Question 4. Was [the person] male or female?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that some names are used for males and females. Examples are Guadalupe, Isabel, Carmen, Socorro, Concepcion, Jesus, Dolores, Leslie, Cristian and other names which are not very common. Make sure the information is correct.

Question 5. Did the household obtain a death certificate from the Ministry of Health [MINSA] for [the person]?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 6. Was the death recorded in the Civil Registry?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Maternal mortality

Definitions

Pregnancy
If the death occurred during a pregnancy due to complications related to the pregnancy.

Delivery
If the death occurred during birth.

In the 40 days after delivery
If the death occurred in the 40 days following the delivery and as a consequence of the delivery.

At another time
If the death did not occur for any of the previous reasons, but rather due to illness or accident unrelated to the pregnancy, and for deaths of women who were not pregnant and who died from any other cause.

Question 7. She died during:
(This is only for deceased females between the ages of 12 and 54.)

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

[Page 43 contains practice exercises for enumerator training and is not included.]

Section VI-A. List of persons who make up the household

Goal
The goal of this section is to find out the total number of persons, by gender, who make up the household, and to list them in a predetermined order.

Definitions:

Permanent resident
This is a person who has lived habitually in the household for six months or more, or who has been there for less time but has the intention of living in the household.

Enumerate the following:
1. Nationals or foreigners who habitually live in the household.
2. Persons who habitually live in the household but who are absent for work or vacation, or for reasons of health, etc.
3. Domestic workers and their family members who habitually live in the household.
4. Newborns and the elderly who are part of the household.

Do not enumerate:
1. Persons who are visiting the household.
2. Persons who were members of the household but who left to live permanently in another place.
3. Persons who are working or studying in another place for six months or more, even if they are considered part of the household.
4. Domestic workers who do not sleep in the household.
5. Foreign diplomats and their families.

Question 1. How many persons habitually live in this household, including newborns and elderly persons?

Before you ask this question read the following to the informant: "Sir/Madam, bearing in mind that a habitual resident is one who has lived habitually in this household for six months or more, or who has been here for a shorter time but has the intention of living in this household, please tell me:"

Use two digits to write the total number of persons, the total number of males and the total number of females. Write a "0" in front of numbers 1-9.

Question 2. Beginning with the head of household, what are the first and last names of each of the persons in this household?

Person number:
Write in sequential order each person who habitually lives in the household, beginning with number "1". Number 1 will always be the head of household and may be male or female.

If there are more than 10 permanent residents in the household, use additional forms and follow the sequence of the previous numbering system (11, 12, ... etc.) and transfer to each additional form the information that you filled out in section 1 of the first form, "Geographic location of the household".

First and last names:
Write the first and last names of the head of household stated by the informant.

Write the first and last names of the rest of the persons according to their family relationship with the head of household, and respecting as much as possible the order established in the oval.

Male/female:
Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that some names are used for males and females. Examples are Guadalupe, Isabel, Carmen, Socorro, Concepcion, Jesus, Dolores, Leslie, Cristian and other names which are not very common. Make sure the information is correct.

Question 3. Have you forgotten to mention any newborns, elderly persons, or another person who may be in a hospital, clinic or other place?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", add it to the list after the last person, correct the totals from question 1, then go to section VII, "Personal characteristics".

If the answer is "No", go to section VII, "Personal characteristics".

This question is filled out on the last form for each household.

If there are any errors or omissions when drawing up the list of persons, do not erase or correct them. Leave the list as is and write the omitted persons at the end of the list.

Section VI-B. Total number of persons in collective dwellings and homeless areas

Use three digits to write the total number of persons and the total number of males and females stated by the informant. Put a "00" in front of numbers 1-9 and "0" in front of numbers 10-99. For example, if there are 118 permanent residents in a shelter, of whom 63 are male and 55 are female, write as follows:
Total: "118"; Males: "063"; Females: "055"

If there are no permanent residents in the collective dwelling, write "000" in the corresponding spaces and end the interview.

When there are permanent residents in the collective dwelling and homeless areas, write the information about each of the persons in section VII, "Personal characteristics".

[Page 47 contains practice exercises for enumerator training and is not translated.]

Section VII. Personal characteristics

Goal
The goal of this section is to research characteristics of each one of the household members: his/her family relationship, head of household, marital status, place of birth, previous residence, education and job status. You will also research characteristics related to fertility, infant mortality, indigenous towns and ethnic communities, among others.

Definitions:

Indigenous people/ethnic community
This is a group of persons who maintain historic continuity with their indigenous background and who still share traditions and their own cultural values.

Territorially, indigenous peoples extend to the Pacific and the north-central border of the country with the exception of the Caribbean coast, where the majority of the Indian peoples who are descended from the Myuangnas-Sumus, Miskitus, Ramas and Garifunas and who still maintain their own language have settled. In this part of the territory there are also settlements of ethnic communities like the English- and Spanish-speaking Creoles and Mestizos (mixed European and indigenous).

Level of education:

Basic technical certificate
This is the first cycle or level of technical training; having passed primary school is a prerequisite. Training is held in specialized centers authorized by the National Technological Institute [INATEC]. Examples are carpentry, soldering, mechanics, nursing assistant, etc.

Mid-level technical certificate
This is the second cycle or level of technical training; having passed the first three years of secondary education is a prerequisite. Most degrees take three years to complete. Training is held in specialized centers authorized by the National Technological Institute [INATEC]. Examples are mid-level certificates in commercial accounting or business administration. It includes school teachers.

Advanced technical certificate
This is the highest level within the technical training system accredited by the university. Degrees take three years to complete and having finished secondary education (having a high-school diploma) is a prerequisite for entering the program.

This section consists of four parts. The questions are grouped according to the four age and gender divisions seen in the structure of the form.

Person number and name of the member of the household

Copy the order number assigned to each person and the first and last names written in section VI-A, "List of persons who make up the household". Always begin with person "01", which corresponds to the head of household.

For all persons (Questions 1-10)

Question 1. What is [the person]'s relationship with the head of household?

The point of interest is the family relationship between members of the household and the head of household, and not the relationship of the members amongst themselves.

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the informant states that one of the persons in the household is a cousin, niece, nephew, aunt, uncle or other relative of the head of household, mark option 12, "Other relative".

If there are other people in the household who are not related to the head of household but who should be enumerated with this household, mark option 12, "No family relationship".

If domestic employees meet the definition of permanent resident, mark option 14, "Domestic employee".

If in question 1 (type of dwelling) of section II, "Dwelling information", any option from 11-19 is marked, mark option 15 or 16, as appropriate.

Question 2. Is the person male or female?

Do not ask the person giving the interview this question. Mark the appropriate answer according to your observation.

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that some names are used for males and females. Examples are Guadalupe, Isabel, Carmen, Socorro, Concepcion, Jesus, Dolores, Leslie, Cristian and other names which are not very common. Make sure the information is correct.

Question 3. How old is [the person] in completed years?
(If s/he is less than one year old write "000")

Write the age in completed years at the time of the interview

If the informant doesn't remember his/her age, or that of one of the members of the household, help out by [reminding the person of] an event (earthquakes, hurricanes or wars, among others) or ask him/her to check a document that might contain the birth date, such as a birth certificate, ID card, etc.

Question 4. On what date was [the person] born?

Write the day and month using two digits, and the year using four digits. For example, if the person was born on March 26, 1976, write as follows:
Day: "26"; Month: "03"; Year: "1976"

There is a table of equivalences giving numeric values for each month of the year in the appendix.

Question 5. [The person] is currently:

Do not ask this question of people who are younger than 12; just mark off option 1, "Younger than 12".

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Keep in mind that a single person is one who has never been married or cohabited.

Question 6. Does [the person] consider him or herself a member of an indigenous people or an ethnic community?

The importance of this question is to allow each person to self-identify with an indigenous group or specific ethnicity. Ask the question of every person in the household, regardless of what you may observe or believe.

Mark an "X" next to the alternative stated by the informant.

If the answer is "No", go to question 9.

Question 7. To which of the following indigenous peoples or ethnic communities does [the person] belong?

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

If the answer is one of options 8-13, go to question 9.

Question 8. Does [the person] speak the dialect or language of the indigenous people or ethnic community to which s/he belongs?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 9. When [the person] was born, in which municipality was [the person]'s mother living in?

For the purposes of the census, the person's place of birth is understood to mean the municipality in which the mother was a permanent resident at the time of birth, even if, for reasons of medical care or for any other reason, the birth took place in a municipality other than the mother's permanent place of residence.

If the answer is "Here, in this municipality", mark an "X" next to option 1 and go to question 10.

If the answer is "Other municipality", mark an "X" next to option 2, write the complete name of the municipality and department and go to question 10.

If the mother was living in another country at the time of birth, mark an "X" next to option 3 and write the complete name of the country.

Use four digits to write the year in which the person arrived in Nicaragua and go to question 11. The name you write for the municipality should not correspond to a region, community or town. If you have questions consult the Territorial Political Divisions (DPT) guide in the appendices.

The name you write should correspond to a country and not a state, county, department, municipality, canton, parish or district of the country where the person who emigrated is currently living. For example, if the informant responds that the person lives in Miami, write "United States".

Question 10. This place was a:
This question is related to the previous one and allows us to know if the place where the mother was living was rural (farm, settlement [caserio] or region [comarca]) or urban (city).

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

For persons age 5 or older (Questions 11-18)

Question 11. Five years ago, in this month of 2000, in which municipality did [the person] live in?

If the answer is "Here, in this municipality", mark an "X" next to option 1 and go to question 12.

If the answer is "Other municipality", mark an "X" next to option 2, write the complete name of the municipality and department and go to question 12.

If the answer is "In another country", mark an "X" next to option 3 and write the complete name of the country.

Use four digits to write the year in which the person arrived in Nicaragua and go to question 13.

Question 12. This place was a:

This question is related to the previous one, and allows us to know if the place where the person was living five years ago was rural (farm, settlement [caserio] or region [comarca]) or urban (city).

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Question 13. What is [the person]'s religion?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 14. [The person]:

Read the options and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

A person can read and write when s/he can read and write at least a message or a paragraph.

A person cannot read or write in the following cases:
a) Can read a little but can't write.
b) Can only read and write his/her name or disconnected words.
c) Used to read and write but forgot how.
d) Can write only but can't read.

Question 15. Does [the person] currently attend a pre-school, primary, secondary or technical school or a university?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 16. What is the highest grade or school year that [the person] passed?

This question refers to the highest complete grade or school year that the person passed, and not a grade or year that the person did not complete, or in which the person is currently enrolled.

Write the highest grade or school year passed in the appropriate grid space.

If the answer is "None", write "0" in the appropriate box.

If you wrote a response in any one of options 0-3, go to question 19.

Question 17. Did [the person] complete technical or university studies?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 18. What is the name of the technical career or university major field?

Write the complete name of the degree.

If the person states that s/he is studying for a second degree, write the one that s/he he completed. If s/he has completed two degrees ask the informant which one s/he considers the principal one.

Economic characteristics

Definitions:

Work
This is when a person spends at least one hour a week performing any economic activity and earns profits, wages, or a salary or another type of payment in money or in kind, or as an unpaid worker.

Not work

  • Unpaid household tasks and work on a person's own dwelling.
  • Unpaid volunteer work for a church, fire department or other non-profit institution.
  • Work done by persons who are involuntarily confined to an institution such as a jail, sanitarium, asylum, penal farm, etc.

Principal job
This is the occupation at which the person spends most time in a week. If the person spends an equal amount of time at two occupations, the principal job is the one which provides more income. If the time spent at work and the income are the same, it is the one which the person considers most important.

Occupation
This is the trade or job at which the person spends his/her time.

Branch of activity
This is the activity of the place or establishment in which a person worked in the last week, or worked before becoming unemployed. Ask the person what the factory, industry, workshop, farm or establishment where the person worked did.

For persons age 10 or older (Questions 19-31)

Question 19. Did [the person] work during the last week?

In this question consider persons who worked at least one hour last week.

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", go to question 26.

Question 20. Even though [the person] did not work, did s/he have any job from which s/he was absent because of vacation, leave, benefit pay or illness?
(Include situations like lack of raw materials, damaged machinery, strikes, other impediment, etc.)

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", go to question 26.

Question 21. Did [the person] look for work in the past two weeks?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", go to question 24.

Question 22. [The person] did not look for work because:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

If the answer is option 1, "S/he expects to continue agricultural work", go to question 26.

If the question is option 2 or 3, go to question 24.

"Expects to continue agricultural work" is for someone who has worked in agricultural employment, but who is waiting to take up his/her job again because of the season.

"Already found work" refers to a job that will begin within a maximum of 15 days from the interview.

"Is waiting for an answer from an employer" refers to applications for a job made within the last 12 months, and that have been inquired about within the last 30 days.

Economically inactive population (PEI)

Definitions:

Studies only
This is a person who did not work or look for work during the reference week because s/he was studying. If the person helped with housework in addition to studying, s/he should still be classified as a student.

Housework
This is for a person who only did housework in his/her own home. This person does not receive a pension or retirement income, is not retired, and does not live off of investment income or rent earnings. This person does not have any economic activity that generates goods or services with or without payment or wages.

Is receiving a pension or retirement income, is retired, or lives off of investment income or rent earnings
This is a person who regularly receives income from a pension, retirement fund, investment income, or rent earnings.

Permanently disabled
This is a person with a physical or mental disability that prevents him/her from performing an economic activity.

Elderly
This is a person who is not retired, receiving a pension or retirement income, and does not live off of investment income or rent earnings but who is unable to work due to advanced age.

Question 23. If [the person] does not work and did not look for work, what does [the person] do?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant and go to question 25.

Question 24. Has [the person] ever worked?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Yes", go to question 28.

Question 25. Even though [the person] did not work last week, did s/he perform any economic activity such as:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

If the answer is option 7, "No paid activity", and the person is a female age 13 or older, go to question 32.

If the answer is option 7, "No paid activity", and the person is a female younger than 13, go to the next person.

If the answer is option 7, "No paid activity", and the person is a male, go to the next person.

Question 26. [The person]'s workplace is located in:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" by the one stated by the informant.

If the answer is "Other municipality", mark option 2 and write the complete name of the municipality and department.

If the answer is "Another country", mark option 4 and write the complete name of the country.

If the person works in more than one municipality in the country, whether or not it includes the municipality of resident, mark option 3, "Several municipalities".

The name you write for a municipality should not correspond to a region, community or town. If you have questions consult the guide to Territorial Political Divisions (DPT) in the appendix.

The name you write should correspond to a country and not the state, county, department, municipality, canton, parish or district of the country in which the place or center where the person works is located. For example, if the person responds that s/he works in Miami, write "United States".

Question 27. The work that [the person] performs is:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Question 28. What did [the person] do/used to do in his/her principal job?

Write clearly and with full details the job or occupation that the person states as his/her principal job.

If the person states that s/he has more than one job, write down the one that the person spends more time at each week. If the person has two jobs at which s/he works the same number of hours, write down the job that provides more income. If the hours and income are the same, write down the one the person considers most important.

Don't confuse the person's profession with the job or occupation s/he currently holds. For example:
A) If a certified accountant states that s/he works as a primary school teacher, write "Primary school teacher" and not "Certified accountant" as the occupation.
B) If an auto mechanic states that s/he is working as a driver, write "Taxi driver" or "Bus driver", as appropriate, and not "Auto mechanic".

Definitions:

Employee/worker
This is a person who works for an employer, the state, an establishment or private company in exchange for wages.

Unpaid worker
This is a person who works for someone else (whether or not they are family members) in a company, business or farm and who does not receive wages in exchange for his/her work. S/he may receive some other type of assistance.

Member of a cooperative
This is a person who is a member of one or more production or service cooperatives and who receives some type of compensation for his/her contribution. If the person is simply a paid worker for the cooperative, classify him/her as an employee, worker or laborer.

Day worker or laborer
This is a person who performs work on a specific day in exchange for wages in cash or kind and which is generally related to some sort of agricultural activity. It may or may not be manual labor.

Employer/entrepreneur
This is a person who runs his own company, business or farm, or who works for him or herself in a profession or trade. This person has at least one wage-earning worker.

Self-employed
This is a person who works in his own business or works for him/herself in a profession or trade. This person does not have employees, although s/he may use a family member as an unpaid helper.

Question 29. In this job, [the person] works/worked as:

Read the options one by one and mark an "X" next to the one stated by the informant.

Question 30. What is the primary activity of the place or establishment where [the person] works/worked?

Write clearly and with full details what the place of work or establishment (business, farm, store, company, office) where the person works/worked does.

Keep in mind that there are cases where the person says that s/he works for him/herself (either in the dwelling or not), in which case the branch of activity is generally similar to the occupation; the description will therefore be the same. Examples are a street vendor of vegetables, someone who washes and irons for others, a plumber, etc.

Special situations in occupation and branch of activity:
a) If a person states that s/he works for himself washing and ironing for another person, and s/he does the work in his/her own dwelling or another dwelling, write "Hand launderers and ironers" as the branch of activity.

b) If the security guards [CPF] of security companies (such as ServiPro, El Vigilante, Ultranic, etc.) perform their jobs in places such as stores, shopping malls, banks, the Social Security Institute, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, etc., write down "Doormen, security guards and related" in question 30.

Question 31. How many hours did [the person] work during the past week, or the last week in which s/he worked?

Use two digits to write the number of hours s/he worked last week or the last week in which s/he worked. Put a "0" in front of numbers 1-9.

If the person performed more than one job, add the hours worked in each one and write down the total number of hours. For example, if the informant says that in the last week s/he worked 5 hours washing for others and 3 hours selling bread, write the answer as follows: "08".

For females age 13 or older (Questions 32-38)

This information is extremely important and should therefore be answered directly by each girl or woman as much as possible.

Definitions:

Live-born
This is a child who showed some sign of life at birth (breathing, crying, muscular movement or heart beat), even if s/he later died.

Question 32. Has [the woman] had any live-born children?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the answer is "No", go to the next person.

Question 33. How many live-born children has [the woman] had in total?

Use two digits to write the total number of live-born children, and how many of them were males and how many were females.

If the total number of males and females does not add up to the total number of live-born children, verify the information with the informant.

Question 34. How many of [the person]'s children are still alive?

Use two digits to write the total number of children currently living, and how many of them are males and how many are females.

You should count all children who are alive on the date of the census, regardless of whether or not they live with the household.

The number of currently living children cannot be greater than the number of live-born children recorded in question 33.

If the total number of males and females does not add up to the total number of children who are currently alive, verify the information with the informant.

Question 35. What was the date of birth of [the woman]'s last live-born child?

The informant may confuse information about the youngest child who is currently living and the last live-born child. In this case read the question again and clarify that it relates to the date of birth of the last live-born child, even if the child later died.

Use two digits to indicate the day and month and four digits to write the year of birth of the last live-born child, regardless of whether this child is currently living or has died. For example, if the child was born on June 21, 2003, write the following:
Day: "21"; Month: "06"; Year: "2003"

Question 36. Where was the last live-born child delivered?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

If the informant gives the name of a public or private health center, clinic or hospital, mark option 1, "In a health-care facility".

Question 37. Was a birth certificate from MINSA received for this last live-born child?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

Question 38. Was this child registered in the Civil Registry?

Mark an "X" next to the option stated by the informant.

When you finish the interview review all the information on the form. Say goodbye in a friendly manner and thank the person for the information provided. Write your full name and the date of the interview.

[The rest of the manual, pages 60 to 83, which is made up of appendices, appointment letters and tables is not included]