Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart

Enumerator's Manual
National Census
VII of Population and III of Dwelling, 1995
Republic of Nicaragua
INEC (National Institute of Statistics and Census)


The National Institute of Statistics and Dwelling has prepared this manual with the goal of careful and illustrated orientation for the enumerators, for the better understanding of their responsibilities in taking the Census, and so that they carry out their census tasks efficiently.

This manual contains the basic concepts about the functions and obligations of the enumerator, as well as explanations for carrying out the interview and instructions for filling out the Census Form and Enumeration Summary forms.

The enumerator's manual will be the basic tool of the enumerators, both during the training as well as during the enumeration, this being the principal document for consultations about possible doubts that can come up during the interview.

It is of vital importance to emphasize that to be able to understand the instructions during the training period as well as when it is necessary to consult the manual requires the conscious attention and study on the part of the enumerator.

What is the Census of population and dwelling

Population Census
The Population Census is a count of all of the persons who habitually live in the country

Dwelling Census
The Dwelling Census is the count of all of the dwellings that exist in the country.

Importance of the Census
The National Census of population and dwelling are of great importance to the country, because they permit us to know:

a) The total population by sex and age
b) How many have jobs and how many are unemployed
c) The level of literacy and grades of education
d) How many foreigners live in the country
e) The total of dwellings in the country, distributed by department, municipality, and rural and urban areas
f) The predominant construction materials of the dwellings
g) Basic services of the dwellings: water, lighting, drains, etc.
h) Other characteristics of the persons and dwellings

All of this information is the basis for government, private industry, service institutions, and private individuals using it in the formulations of:

Educational programs, dwelling programs, health programs, work programs, and many other development plans that allow us to improve development and the living conditions in our country.

The VII Population Census and the III Dwelling Census will be carried out at the national level both in the urban and rural areas.

The information will be collected from all of the persons who are residents of the country, including the newborns, the elderly, the handicapped, etc., and from all of the dwellings that exist in the national territory on the date of the census, without omissions or duplications. Said information will be collected during five days in the urban areas and ten days in the rural areas, taking as a reference point the moment and time period that has been previously determined.

[Note: The copy that I am translating does not contain pages 3 and 4 of the original. The previous page is numbered "2" and the next is "5".]

Instructions for the use of the cartographic materials

Definition and importance of the cartographic materials
There is a map or drawing that will be used by the enumerator to know and determine the boundaries his/her work area. This material is necessary, because in addition to indicating the exact boundaries, it indicates the different routes that link the various parts of your segment (highways, roads, railroad lines, rivers, streets, avenues, etc.). Also indicated are other reference points, such as: schools, bridges, churches, movie theaters, etc.

Symbols and meanings of the cartographic materials
This is the set of graphic signs or symbols that are used to present the communication routes of the segment and to identify established reference points. Below you will find the principal symbols or signs that are used.

[Symbols and illustration follow for the following landmarks:]

Individual dwelling
Building or dwelling under construction

Commercial and dwelling
Hotels and boarding
Gasoline stations

Social services:
Educational centers
Radio transmitter
Parks or plazas
Movie theaters or theaters
Hospitals, clinics, dispensaries
Red Cross, fire department
Asylum, infant care center, orphanage
Services and dwelling

Permanent roads and highways
Paved roads
Gravel roads
Railroad lines
Landing strip
Vehicle bridge
Pedestrian bridge
Intermittent creeks
High tension cable
Embassy, consulate
Government buildings
Well or spring
Artesian well, pumping station
Industry and dwelling
Limit of urban area

Census map or drawing: uses
The census map has been created specifically for use in the enumeration of rural segments.
The census drawing has been created specifically for use in the enumeration of urban segments.

Urban or rural segment: we will understand as a segment (urban or rural), a piece of land that is limited by natural and cultural references, perfectly identifiable on the land, and that constitutes the enumeration unit.

Use of the map or drawing of the segment: you should use the map or drawing of the enumeration segment to:

1) Verify that you are located in the geographical area that has been assigned to you.

2) Determine in what manner you are going to follow a route of the segment and, in particular, what you will use as a starting point.

3) Transfer to the Census questionnaires or the Census forms the geographic localization that is noted on the map or drawing.

How to arrive at the segment
For this, you will have to study your map or drawing of the segment in the Census office where you will find the census map and drawing of the municipality. There you can analyze the point of your segment in reference to the place where the Census office is found.

Before beginning the route to the segment, the Enumerator should:

1) Extend and observe all of the details contained in the map.

2) Study the routes that are indicated in the map of the municipality for arriving at the assigned segment. For this, you can also get help from other persons who can indicate the most convenient route and its accessibility.

Following the direction of the roads indicated in the map, you will start out in this direction to get to the place of work.

If in the trajectory of your route you have any doubt about the direction that you are following, you can ask for the references that you have noted from what you learned from the municipal map or drawing, for example:

In what direction is the place called "San Antonio"?
In what direction is the hill "Posimtepe"?

Based on the references that you are given, you will follow your selected route in the indicated direction to arrive at your segment.

When you believe that you have arrived at your segment, you will extend your map and you will point it to the north.

Orienting the segment map or drawing towards the north
One of the most important aspects for knowing that you are located in your segment (or work area) is the orientation of the map.

The orientation of the map should be done at the beginning of the enumeration work and also when, for whatever circumstance, you have to change route or direction, during the trajectory of your route. To orient the map in the rural areas, you should follow determined indications.

To orient the map:

Observe that on the map there is an arrow that indicates the north. In the cases where you can easily find north in the land, you should rotate the map to the manner that the arrow is found pointing at or indicating this direction.

To know the direction for North:

1) If it is before mid-day (noon):
Stand facing where the sun comes up and extend your left arm horizontally at shoulder level. The direction indicated by your left arm is the north.

2) If it is afternoon:
Stand facing where the sun goes down and extend your right arm horizontally at shoulder level. The direction indicated by your right arm is the north.

When you know which direction is north, you should rotate your map so that the arrow that indicates north is pointed in this direction.

Another simple way of orienting your map:
Based on the most important elements that appear represented on the map, such as: rivers and ditches, hills, highways, roads, bridges etc., rotate the map so that these coincide with the direction that they have on the ground.

Segment boundaries:
You will observe all of the elements that you can see and you should verify if they appear on your map. To make sure that you have correctly identified the boundaries of the segment, you will verify the names of the elements and details that appear on your map with the inhabitants of the place.

If it is correct, you will proceed to walk, following the boundaries that are indicated on your map, completely sure that you are perfectly located.

If in the trajectory of your route, at any moment you have doubts about the direction in which you are moving, you will re-orient you map with the north and you will observe the cultural and/or natural elements in your trajectory to see if they coincide with the position that you have concerning these observable elements, and that they are associated with the map in regards to the path. If they do not coincide, you have to return to the last point at which you are sure that you were correctly located.

We understand location as: the grouping of at least five dwellings in a continuous format and that is generally known with the names of city, village, town, hamlet, ranch, processing plant, etc.

In your map, when the location has a size that is smaller than a segment, it will be identified by imaginary boundaries, and in these cases you should verify that this location exists. Include all of the dwellings that are found within 100, 200, or 300 meters from the last house. All of this information should be included in what refers to the respective location, and therefore, you should be very careful to clearly note on the form the name of the location, where the dwellings are located and what they are called by the inhabitants, indicating it on the form, "List of locations."

If for whatever reason you encounter a group of houses that conform to the given definition and it is not included in the map, you should enumerate the dwellings as belonging to a location. You will include this group of houses on the map and you will indicate the name on the List of Locations.

Urban areas: We consider "urban areas" to be those locations that have the seats of authorities, such as the case of departmental and municipal seats. In the same manner, we consider those locations or population concentrations of one thousand inhabitants or more, with certain characteristics, such as: planned roads, electrical lighting services and commercial establishments.

Rural areas: These areas are made up of populations of less than one thousand inhabitants that do not meet the indicated minimal urban conditions and, in addition, have population in dispersed dwellings.

General instructions for carrying out the interview
Who should be enumerated
You should enumerate all of the dwellings that are found in your segment, even if they do not appear indicated in the map or drawing, and all of the persons who habitually live in each of them.

What you should do when you arrive at the dwelling
You should verify if it is a space in which one or more persons live and also if it is one dwelling or more.
If by direct observation or from information from the neighbors, you verify that the dwelling is uninhabited, you should mark "Unoccupied dwelling" on the form "Enumerator's route."

What to do when you do not carry out the interview
In the case that the dwelling is inhabited but the persons who inhabit it are absent or there is no adequate informant, leave a Notice that you will return a second time and make a brief note of the date and time for the re-visit on the Enumerator's route form. On the form, you should note the information for: geographic location and location of the dwelling. In addition, you will note the information about the dwelling that you can obtain through observation.

If, when you return to the dwelling on which you left the Notice, you find that the persons are still absent or there is no qualified informant, you will leave a citation for the persons to show up at the indicated Census office and mark this on the Enumerator's route form. This form should be turned in to the Supervisor, who will pass this on to the municipal delegate who will attend the meeting and will attend to the person who received the citation.

What to do when you find unoccupied dwellings
If the dwelling is found unoccupied for whatever reason (for sale or rent, seasonal use, under construction or another reason), you will note on the Enumerator's route form that the dwelling was not enumerated because it was unoccupied and you will mark the corresponding box, which, in this case, will end the interview.

What to do when you find occupied dwellings
If you encounter the dwelling occupied with persons present: Greet the persons who receive you and identify yourself as and enumerator for the population and dwelling Census, showing your identification.
You should ask for permission to enter the dwelling.

Who you should interview
Every time that you arrive at a dwelling you will request to speak with the head of household, the housewife, or a person who is over 16 years old and belongs to the family group that resides in this dwelling. Once you have contacted one of these persons, you will politely explain to them the reason for your visit, with the goal of obtaining the census information.

Explain to the informant the motive for your visit, supporting your information with what you know about the census and its importance. You will show your credential that identifies you as an enumerator.

General instructions for managing the form

a) Read each of the questions on the form out loud and clearly, exactly as they are written and in the established order; you should not ask any questions that are not part of the interests of the census.

b) You cannot frighten the informants nor enter in any type of discussion.

c) You will always note what the informant answers and you should never suggest nor anticipate the answers.

d) You should arrive alone at each of the interviews without permitting anyone to accompany you, to respect the confidentiality of the information.

e) Before you conclude the interview, you should review the completed form to verify that none of the questions remain unanswered, and at the same time you will verify that you have not omitted any persons. If any information is missing, you will have to request it immediately.

f) The form has capacity for interviewing ten persons. If there are more than ten persons living in any of the dwellings that you visit, you will use another form and on it you will continue the list, starting the second form with number 11 so that you can obtain the information about all of the persons who habitually live in the dwelling.

Enumeration form
To follow the description of the form, you should have a copy of it on hand, where you can observe the following parts.

First page:

General heading
Quantity of Forms to be used in the dwelling
Location and geographic location of the dwelling
Information about the dwelling (questions 1 and 2)

Following pages:

Characteristics of the dwelling (questions 3 to 13)
List of persons (questions 1 and 2)
Mortality (questions 1 and 2)
Persons of the dwelling for all of the ages (questions 1 to 4)
Questions for persons five years old and more (questions 5 to 11)
Questions for persons ten years old and more (questions 12 to 18)
Questions for women fourteen years old and more (questions 19 to 25)
Questions about agricultural production and cattle ranching (A, B, C, and D)
Recommendations for completing the form
a) Ask the questions in the order that they appear and exactly as they are written.

b) Mark or write the answer that the informant gives and not what you consider to be correct.

c) Write clearly using a graphite pencil.

d) If you make a mistake when writing, carefully erase it and then write the information in the correct format.

e) Follow all of the instructions that appear on the form.

f) Be aware that you should note the information for only one person in the two pages that correspond to Section V, asking all of the questions up to where they correspond according to the person's age.

g) Respect the indications of "Continue with", since this will help you complete the form more easily. When there is no indication of "Continue with", you will continue with the next question.

h) Take into account that there are three manners of writing the information on the form:

First: Mark only one box with an (X) when there are various answer options.
Second: Write the answer obtained over the lines, as complete answers, without using abbreviations.
Third: Write the quantities over the spaces provided.

i) When a person declares that he/she is age 98 or older, you should note "98".

j) Use a separate sheet when any problem arises in filling out the form and you need to note any observation. When you arrive at the Census office you will staple it to the corresponding form. These cases can be when you consider that the information that has been provided is doubtful, when the answer that you noted needs greater explanation or when the persons refuse to give any of the information. You will make note, if possible, of the reasons for which the informant refused to give you the information, whether total or partial.

k) You should use an additional form in the following cases:

  • When more than ten persons habitually reside in the dwelling.
  • When the persons declare that more than three persons from the dwelling have died during the past year and the present year.
  • When there is more than one agricultural producer residing in the dwelling.

In these cases, you should:

1. Number the additional form in the following manner: If you used two forms, on the first you will note: "Form 1 of 2", and on the second form you will note: "Form 2 of 2".
You should proceed in the same manner when you use three or more forms.

2. Repeat the information about geographic localization and location of the dwelling that you noted on the first form used for this dwelling.

3. You should leave the following blank on this second or third form: The information about the dwelling (questions 1-13).

4. In the section of the list of persons, you will note the names of the persons, starting with person number 11, 12, etc.

5. You should leave questions 1 and 2 of "Mortality" blank in the second form, unless there were more than three persons who died in this dwelling. If this is the case, you will ask the questions about the fourth, fifth, etc., persons who died.

6. For persons 11, 12, etc., you should ask questions 1 to 25 that appear on the inside of the form, being careful to write the number and name in the corresponding space, starting with number 11.

7. When you have additional forms, the total of persons, men and women who live in the dwelling, should only be noted on the first form, at the beginning of section V.

8. When you encounter more than one agricultural producer or rancher in the dwelling, you should:
Repeat the information about geographic location and location of the dwelling.

Leave the following information blank: about the dwelling (questions 1 to 13), "List of persons who live in the dwelling" (questions 1 and 2), "Mortality" (questions 1 and 2), and "Persons in the dwelling" (questions 1 to 25).

Use of the form "Enumerator's route"
The Enumerator's route form will be used for keeping track of the trajectory within the assigned segment, with the goal of detecting the occupied and unoccupied dwellings, and buildings under construction for uses other than dwellings.
You will use a number for each of the dwelling or for each construction that is used as a dwelling and a line without a number for the other constructions such as churches, movie theaters, stores, etc. that are not dwellings nor are used as dwellings, including those that are under construction.
This form is fundamentally for the manual counting of the dwellings and population by sex.
The information collected in this form will also serve as a foundation for future polls and for this reason it is important that every enumerator correctly fill in the form "Enumerator's route".
Once you are in your work area, if it is a place where the blocks are defined, such as in cities and towns, you will begin your route in the northeast corner of the segment, going around each block in the same direction that the hands move around the clock, from left to right without crossing another street. When you finish this block, you will go to the next one, also starting in the northeast corner and completing the route before you move on to the next, and continue in the same manner.
If you are located in the rural area where the houses are disperse, you will select one point of reference to begin your route, which is easy to identify such as a school, a bar (pulpería), a street corner, a tree, etc. and from this point you will begin your enumeration, beginning with the first dwelling that is located to the right of this point of reference, then following your route in the direction that the hands move on a clock, which means from left to right.

How to fill in the "Enumerator's route" form
1. Before you visit the first dwelling, you should note the following information on the Enumerator's route Form, which you will find on the map of the corresponding segment. This information should be identical to that which appears in your briefcase:

  • The department name and code
  • The municipal name and code
  • The codes for segment and area of supervision

In column 1, you will note the order number of the dwelling, starting with the number "01" through the last dwelling that you have in your enumeration segment.
In column 2, you will note the name and last name of the head of the dwelling or the name of the commercial space that is not used as a dwelling. Once you have registered this information, you will proceed to fill in the Census form, following the instructions that are indicated starting on page 26.

2. When you finish filling in the form, you will take your Enumerator's route form to complete the information in the following manner:

  • In column 3 or 4, you will mark an "X" if the dwelling is private or collective.
  • In columns 5, 6, 7, or 8, you will mark with an "X" the reason for which the dwelling was not enumerated.

If the persons are still absent, you will leave a notice and you will write in column 9, in abbreviated form, the date and time of the re-visit. Later, if with this re-visit you do not manage to enumerate the dwelling, you will mark column 10 and you will leave a citation form (See the instructions for filling in the "Notice and citation forms" in the appendix of this manual).

3. If the persons were present and you completed the interview, you will mark "Dwelling enumerated" in column 11 and you will count the inhabitants within the dwelling by sex and you will note:

  • In column 12, the number of males younger than 15.
  • In column 13, the number of females younger than 15.
  • In column 14, the total of persons younger than 15 living in the dwelling.
  • In columns 15 and 16, you will note the number of males and females age 15 or older.
  • In column 17, you will note the sum of males and females age 15 or older who are regular inhabitants of the dwelling.
  • In column 18, you will indicate the total number of forms that you used in each dwelling.


a) In the dwellings where you left a notice (See column 09), if in the re-visit you complete the interview:
You will mark column 11, in the corresponding line, without erasing the annotation in column 09, but making a diagonal line through it. Then you will proceed to note in columns 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, the number of persons by sex and the number of forms you used to enumerate.

b) If in the route of your segment you encounter an unoccupied building that was constructed for a purpose other than habitation, you will note in column 2 the name that was given to this commercial space.
For example: Rex movie theater, garage for the Red Cross, Hasbani factory, National Bank of Development, Evangelical church, etc. In these cases, you will not write any number in column 1, nor in columns 3 through 18.

c) If in the route of your segment, you encounter a commercial space or building constructed for a purpose that is not habitation, but that is inhabited, you should consider it as you would a dwelling and you will write the information as such.

d) If you encounter a building that was constructed as a dwelling, but that is unoccupied, you will write the order number and the address, and mark column 8. In this case, the census form should appear completed with this information:
  • Form 1 of 1
  • Geographic localization
  • Location and exact address of the dwelling
  • Type of dwelling
  • Condition of occupancy
  • The information about the characteristics of the dwelling that you can observe

After having completed the form, you will do the following:

  • Write the subtotals of the columns and note the corresponding number on this form on the first line where it says Sheet number __ of __, and do the same in the following pages, taking care to note for the first page 1, for the second the number 2, etc. in the same manner that was explained for when you used three forms or more.
  • When you complete the route of your segment, you should add up the subtotals of all of the previous forms and accumulate these numbers with the ones from the last form, writing the totals in the last line. After accumulating these totals, you will continue by filling in the second line where it says Number __ of __. For this, you will write on all of the second lines the last number that you wrote on the first line of the last page.
  • On the next page, you will observe an example of the correct form to fill in the Enumerator's route form.
Instructions for completing form "Enumerator's route CNPV-95-3"
Note the name and code of the department, municipality, and the code of the area of supervision and of the segment where you will carry out the enumeration.

Column number:

1) Note the order number of the dwelling within the assigned segment.

2) Write the names and last names of the head of the dwelling or the name of the church, school, CDI, factory or any commercial space that is not used as a dwelling that appears in your route.

3) Mark with an "X" if it is a private dwelling.

4) Mark with an "X" if it is a collective dwelling.

5) Mark with an "X" if you noted that this dwelling is under construction.

6) Mark with an "X" if the information was refused.

7) Mark with an "X" if the persons are absent and you left a re-visit notice.

8) Mark with an "X" if the dwelling is uninhabited.

9) If you left a notice, identify in abbreviated form the date and time when you will re-visit.
Note: When you complete the re-visit, make a diagonal line through the date and time and mark all of the information that is indicated starting with column 1.

10) Mark with an "X" if you left a citation form. If you completed the interview, mark that the dwelling was enumerated in column 11.

12 and 13) Note the total of males and females younger than 15 who inhabit the dwelling, and [write] the total in column 14.

15 and 16) Note the total of males and females age 15 or older who inhabit the dwelling, and [write] their total in column 17.

18) Note the number of forms used in the dwelling.

When you complete the information on the page, add up each of the columns and write the subtotals in the spaces on line 19. On the last page that you used to note the route of your segment, you will note on line 20, "Total", the sum of all of the sub-totals.

Instructions for filling in the Census form

I. Geographic location and location of the dwelling
In this section we define the location of each and every one of the dwelling that will be enumerated.

A) The enumerator will transfer to the forms the complete names and codes that are found detailed in the briefcase that contains the Census materials for the enumeration segment and which refer to: department, municipality, supervision area and Census section.

B) To note the name of the locality, you will find out the name in the place where you are carrying out the enumeration, since it could be that you are located in a locality that has boundary conflicts or that has changed its name. If there was a change of name, you will have among your control forms one that is called "List of localities", on which you should write the actual name and the previous name.

I. Geographic localization and location of the dwelling

  • Department
  • Municipality
  • Locality
  • Supervision area
  • Census section
  • Dwelling number within the section
  • Neighborhood or village
  • Exact address

The information for 1, 2, 4, and 5, should be noted on the forms before you arrive to do the interview. As for the information for numerals 3, 6, 7, and 8, you will obtain it from the dwelling itself; they will be completed in the following manner:

3. Locality:
You should write the name that the informant indicates and find out if it had another name previously so that you can fill out your form, "List of localities". In the Census office, the corresponding code will be assigned.

6. Dwelling number within the segment
The Enumerator will assign "01" to the first dwelling that he/she visits, "02" to the second and will continue successively until the last dwelling to be enumerated. You will be careful that this correlative enumeration coincides with the established dwellings of the section route, including the dwellings that are occupied and unoccupied.

Note: You will remember that the points that indicate the beginning of the route are very important and you will always carry your section map or drawing with you.

7. Neighborhood or village
To note this information, you will have to find out the name in the place where you are carrying out the enumeration and you should note it on the line.

8. Exact address
In this part, you will note the complete name of the street or avenue or the complete address starting with one of the known reference points, noting the blocks starting at this point.

You will note all of the precise signs that permit getting to the dwelling with the most ease. In the case of the rural area or disperse dwellings, you will note first the name of the place or location and then the road, highway or other references that will permit location the dwelling, exactly as you are instructed by the informant.

Name of the enumerator and date of the interview
The enumerator will note, on the corresponding line, his name and the date of the interview.

  • Name of the supervisor and revision date

This part of the form corresponds to the supervisor, here he/she will write his/her name and the date of the revision of the form.

II. Information about the dwelling

Concept of dwelling:
This is all places delimited by walls and roof where one or more persons habitually reside, which means that they sleep, prepare food, and are protected from the elements. It also means that the persons can enter or leave the dwelling without passing through another dwelling, using direct access from the street or through a corridor. You should be aware that there are dwellings with one front but in the interior there can be other dwellings, which you will have to enumerate separately.

Type of dwelling:
You will understand type of dwelling as the form in which each of them is occupied. For the purpose of the census, they are divided into two large groups: private or collective.

Question 1
Private dwelling:
This is every dwelling that is occupied by one or more groups of persons or one person, linked or not by family ties. This type of dwelling should be structurally separate and independent. Private dwellings are also classified into the following types:

01. House
This is a habitation unit that has a solid construction, made to be inhabited permanently.

02. Country house (quinta)
This is a habitation unit that has a solid construction, made to inhabit permanently, and generally built in the outside of the city or in a rural area.

03. Room in a tenement
This is a habitation unit in a rooming house that constitutes an independent dwelling. The rooms are located along a common corridor and generally have some common services.

04. Hut or shack
This is any habitation built with rustic materials, generally tending to have a roof of palm, straw, etc. of limited durability. These are very common in the rural zones.

05. Improvised dwelling
This is a habitation unit built with discarded materials, such as cardboard, pieces of metal, plastic, scraps of all types, etc. This will include dwellings that are semi-destroyed by the earthquake, the war, and those in spontaneous settlements that have these characteristics and are occupied on the date of the census. Also this includes mobile homes such as boats, motor homes, etc.

06. Apartment or flat in a house or building
This is a habitation unit located in a building of permanent construction that has an independent entrance through a corridor or stairway with direct access from the street, that permits the inhabitants to enter and leave without passing through spaces occupied by other persons, and that generally have independent services.

07. Premise used as dwelling: (warehouse, garages, etc.)
This is a commercial space or construction that was not originally destined to be inhabited by persons, but that is occupied for this purpose on the date of the census. This could be a warehouse, workshop, store, abandoned railroad cars or buses, etc.

Collective dwelling:
This is a habitation or building where a group of persons reside without family ties among them and who share the habitation for reasons of housing, health, studies, religion, old age, orphans, etc.

Among the collective dwellings we include:
08. Hotels, hostels and guest houses

09. Jails and juvenile detention centers

10. Hospitals and sanitariums

11. Asylums and orphanages

12. Convents and boarding schools

13. Other type of collective dwelling

a) The dwellings that house five or fewer guests or renters as habitual residents, for the purpose of the census, should be considered private dwellings.

b) The enumerators will enumerate all of the collective dwellings except the military institutions and the prisons, which will be enumerated by members of the Ministry of State and Defense.

c) In every collective dwelling you should investigate if within them, there is a dwelling for the caretaker, supervisor or administrator, or of any other person who does not share the common life of the rest of the residents and has a dwelling with his/her own family. In this case, these persons will be considered as residents of a private dwelling, and therefore you will complete a separate form.

d) The collective dwellings will be enumerated as if they were private dwellings, which means that you will fill in all of the form, with the exception of "Characteristics of the dwelling" and the question regarding family relationships.

Question 2: Condition of occupancy
1. Occupied with inhabitants present
This is a house or dwelling in which one or more persons reside in habitual form for the time defined by the census.

2. Occupied, with inhabitants absent
This is a house or dwelling in which one or more persons habitually reside, but at the moment that you pass on your route, the person or persons are not present or you only encounter persons who cannot give the information requested on the Census Form.

In this case, you should note on your route form that you did not enumerate the dwelling because you did not encounter the occupants and you will leave a notice for them. On the notice, you will indicate the date and time at which you will return to do the interview, saving the form for this purpose.

If when you return to the dwelling you encounter the occupants and complete the interview, make a diagonal line over the date and time that you have previously marked to make the return visit and note all of the information that are indicated starting with column 11.

If, on the contrary, when you return to the dwelling the occupants are still absent, you will leave a Citation so that these persons go to be enumerated in the respective office of Census.

3 [to 6]. Unoccupied dwelling
If the dwelling is unoccupied for whatever reason (for rent or sale, seasonal use, under construction or repair, or any other reason) you will note on your Route Form that you did not enumerate the dwelling because it was unoccupied and you will mark the corresponding box, considering the interview concluded. If at the moment that you do the enumeration it is inhabited, you should mark it as unoccupied only if the occupants are vacationers.

Question 3: Predominant material of the walls
You should consider only the exterior walls of the dwelling. What is important is the base material of the construction and not the covering. In this question you should mark only one of the boxes. If in the dwelling there is more than one material, you should mark the predominant material.

1. Clay brick or blocks
The wall of clay brick or blocks is constructed with sand and cement in a metal framework. This can be covered or not covered.

2. Cement blocks or concrete
This is a dwelling built of concrete blocks, sand, and cement, sustained by columns and beams of concrete.

3. Adobe or taquezal
This wall is made of a base of dirt mixed with grass, sustained primarily with a framework made of wood.

4. Quarried stone
This is a wall that is primarily built with stones extracted from quarried mines.

5. Barul, cane or palm leaves
This type of material is used to build rustic shacks that are primarily located in rural areas.

6. Wood
Generally, these are built with boards that are sustained with a beamed framework.

7. Wood/concrete (mini-skirting)
These are built over a base of concrete that generally makes up to half of the construction, with the upper portion made of wood.

8. Plycem or Nicalit panel
Built primarily with asbestos sheeting, cement panels, or concrete sheeting [Plycem is a specific type of sheeting, roughly translated as concrete plywood]

9. Rubble or discarded materials
This type of material is found primarily in squatted or marginal dwellings and refers to pieces of wood, plastics, cardboard, tin, etc.

10. Other
Any material that is not included in the previous categories, such as metallic sheeting, tarps, etc.

Question 4: Predominant material of the roof
The roof refers to the material that protects the majority of the dwelling (does not refer to ceiling in the interior). You should mark only one of the alternative answers. If there is more than one type of material in the roof, you will mark the predominant one.

1. Zinc
Generally, this is corrugated metal sheeting.

2. Clay or cement tiles
This is commonly made with baked clay.

3. Plycem or Nicalit panel
This can be smooth, waved, channeled, or another decorative format.

4. Straw, palm leaves and similar materials
Materials that are used to build rustic shacks in rural areas.

5. Rubble or discarded materials
Materials used in marginal dwellings such as pieces of wood, plastic, cans, etc.

6. Other
Materials not included in the above categories.

Question 5: Predominant flooring material
In this case, we want to know the material that covers the floor in the dwelling. If the floor of the dwelling is built of more than one material, mark the predominant one.

What is the predominant material used for flooring? [The following choices are described by illustration]

1. Wood, tambo, etc.

2. Floor tiles

3. Clay brick

4. Cement brick, or stone/mosaic/ceramic tile (terrazzo)

5. Dirt

6. Other
These are the materials that are not included categories above, such as: marble, stone, discarded materials, etc.

Question 6: Number of rooms
Room: This is a space within the dwelling that is delimited by fixed divisions of any material. You should count as rooms: the living room, the dining room, the bedrooms, the combined living room/dining room, but you should not include in the count: the bathroom, hallway, kitchen, garages, storage room, workshop, etc.

Note the total number of rooms that the dwelling has, and of this total, note the number that are used for sleeping as long as the room does not have another use during the day.

Question 7: Kitchen
Check if the dwelling has a room that is used only for cooking when it meets the characteristics of "room" defined above.

Mark only one of the answers. If the answer is positive, ask the question: Do people also sleep in the room used for cooking?

Question 8: Water service
We are interested in knowing in what manner the occupants of the dwelling obtain water. The enumerator should read the question and mark one of the answer alternatives.

1. Piped inside the dwelling
This is a dwelling that has at least one water pipe or faucet inside of the dwelling, which can be in the kitchen, in the bathroom, or in any room of the dwelling.

2. Piped outside the dwelling but inside the property
This is when a pipe or faucet is installed on the patio or other place that is outside of the dwelling, with the goal of supplying water to one or various dwellings, as commonly occurs with rooming houses.

3. River, spring or stream
This is a dwelling that obtains water from a river, a spring, or a stream.

4. Public standpipe
This is a faucet or pipe that is situated outside of the property and is available to all of the dwellings of a community or village.

5. Public or private well
This is when water is supplied through holes made in the ground to capture subterranean waters.
Public well: This well is for the common use of various dwellings.
Private well: This well is for the use of only one dwelling.

6. Other form
This is any other manner of obtaining water supplies not included in the above categories, which can be rain water, from a lake, from a truck, etc.

Question 9: Toilet facilities
This is the installation to eliminate fecal materials. It can be an outhouse or latrine, it can be a toilet connected to a sewage network, connected to a septic field or septic well or it can discharge to a river or ditch.

Read the question and each one of the alternative answers and mark the one that is indicated by the informant. If in any dwelling you are told that there is a toilet and an outhouse, you should mark only one of the answers. In this case, you will mark the box for toilet.

1. Outhouse or latrine
This is a sanitary service used for elimination of fecal material that is not connected to a sewage system and does not have any drainage. It is built of materials like wood or concrete and its base is mounted over a hole in the ground.

2 [to 4]. Toilet
This is a sanitary service that through a pressurized water system permits the removal of human residue which is drawn through pipes in the public drainage network or another system.

5. None
When the dwelling does not have any type of sanitary service available and the fecal material is deposited out in the open.

Question 10: Lighting service
The lighting service can come from a public network or another means. You should mark only one alternative based on the informant's answer.

1. Electric lighting
This is the provision of electrical energy that can come from the public network or private generators.

2. Gas (kerosene)
This fuel is used in burners, gas fuel burners, and gas lamps (ordinary or Coleman type).

3. Other
This includes the type of illumination not included in the above categories, such as: candles, propane gas, alcohol burners, etc.

Question 11: Type of tenure
This refers to the form of possession or legal situation of the dwelling. You should mark only one of the alternatives.

1. Owned with legal contract
When the dwelling belongs to any of the persons who live in it, whether because it was purchased and is totally paid for or because it was inherited.

2. Owned without legal contract
This is the dwelling where property rights have been acquired with the passage of time but the person has no legal document that accredits ownership, it has permission of OOT or has a mortgage that is being paid.

3. Rented
When the dwelling is occupied in exchange for an amount in the concept of rent, in agreement with the owner.

4. Other
In this group you should include the cases not listed above, which can be: loaned, ceded, or other.

Question 12: Workshop or industry in home
With this question we want to know if in the private dwelling, in addition to occupying it for living purposes, it is also used to carry out any economic activity.

A. When in the dwelling they carry out any type of processing goods or manufacturing. For example: workshop for producing clothing, shoes, artisanal goods, food, and other things that can be sold there or elsewhere.

B. When a product or article is sold there that is not manufactured or made there, such as: basic cereals, carbonated drinks, clothing, shoes, or others.

C. When they provide a service there, such as: radio, TV, or refrigerator repairs; medical services, beauty parlors, hairdressers, or others.

Question 13: Health

13A. How far away is the nearest health post?
This refers to the distance from the dwelling of the person to the place where the nearest health center or health post is located. You will note the distance in blocks or kilometers that are traversed to arrive at the health center.

13B. How long does it take to reach?
Take into account that this tries to estimate the total time that is taken to get to health care. Note the time that it takes to get to the health center in hours or minutes. Remember that this refers to a one-way trip.

13C. What means of transport is used to get there?
This refers to the means of transportation that the person uses to get to the health center. If the person uses one or more to arrive at the health center, you will note the one that is used most frequently.

Population data
The above point makes reference to the dwelling and its characteristics. The other part deals with the persons who live or habitually reside in the dwelling during the period of census taking.

For the adequate management and interpretation of the themes that will be investigated in this respect, you should carefully study the following definitions, examples, illustrations and instructions:

Census moment
As an example, if the Census were to begin on March 12, 1995, the census moment is the instant that marks zero hours, zero minutes, zero seconds, which would be hour twenty-four (12 midnight) of the day Saturday, March 11, 1995.

Setting the census moment or census date permits eliminating confusion at the moment of deciding who should and should not be enumerated, especially in the case of persons who are absent, newborns, or recently deceased.

This means that you should enumerate all of the persons who were alive at midnight on the night of March 11, including newborns even if they died after this moment. In the same manner, you should not enumerate persons who were born after this moment.

For example: Suppose that you arrived at a dwelling on March 14 and the informant tells you that among the members of the dwelling there is a girl who was born on Sunday, March 12 at four o'clock in the afternoon; this same day you visited another dwelling where the informant's father died on Monday, March 13 at three o'clock in the morning. What will you do when you encounter these cases?

a) In the first case, you will not enumerate the newborn.
b) In the second case, you should collect the information about the recently deceased.

Population Census
This is a set of functions that consists of collecting, elaborating, analyzing, and publishing data that is demographic, economic, and social regarding the inhabitants of a country, in a given moment or a determined period.

Type of Census
The National Census of Population in 1995 will be de jure or "of rights", which means that the persons should be enumerated in the habitual place of residency, within the territory and waters under the jurisdiction of the Republic, whether or not they are present at the moment of the Census.

Definition of habitual resident
We consider a habitual resident to be a person who has been established in the dwelling for a period of six months or more and those who have the intention of residing in the dwelling, independent of the time that they have been established in it.

It is very important that you count all of the persons. For the occupants of the dwelling that are being enumerated, you should remember at the moment that you carry out the interviews, that it is the informant who should know the number of persons who habitually live in the dwelling. Only if the informant has doubts about including a person or not, then you can assist him/her in considering those that:

Should be enumerated:

1) National or foreign persons who habitually live in the dwelling.
2) Persons who are temporarily absent from the dwelling for reasons of work, health, vacations, etc., but who habitually live in the dwelling.
3) Domestic employees and their family members if they live in the dwelling.
4) Newborns -- children of women who are occupants of the dwelling, if they were born before the 0 hour of the day of the beginning of the census moment.
5) Deceased persons who died after the 0 hour of the day of the beginning of the census moment.
6) Persons who are present in the dwelling who do not have a fixed place of residency.

Should not be enumerated:
1) Persons who are visiting the dwelling and have a fixed place of residency.
2) Persons who went to live permanently in another place, for reasons of study, work, and others.
3) Persons who, despite being members of the family, study or work in another place and have been gone for a period longer than six months.
4) Domestic employees who do not sleep in the dwelling.
5) Newborns -- children of women who occupy the dwelling, who were born after the 0 hour of the beginning of the census moment.
6) Deceased persons who died before the 0 hour of the day of the beginning of the census moment.
7) Foreign diplomats and their families.

Should not be enumerated:
Neither the persons who were born after this moment, nor the persons who died before the 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0 second of the day that the census begins.

Should be enumerated:
All of the persons who were alive at the 0 hour, 0 minutes, and 0 seconds of the day that the census begins, including the newborns even if they died after the census moment.

III. List of persons who inhabit the dwelling
The goal of the list is to achieve an ordering and grouping of all of the persons who are habitual residents of the dwelling by family group but including the non-family members who live in the dwelling, and also to group all of them by age and sex.

For the purpose of the census, the "head of household" is considered to be the person recognized as such by the rest of the family members.

The enumerator should write on the list the name and last name of each of the persons who are habitual residents of the dwelling in the following form:

You will begin the list by noting the head of household, which can be male or female.

The rest of the persons are noted according to their relationship to the head of household, in the following order:

a) Spouse or companion of the head of household
b) Unmarried sons/daughters of the head of household, noting them from eldest to youngest
c) Married sons/daughters of the head of household who live in the dwelling
d) Spouse or companion of the married sons/daughters who habitually live in the dwelling of the head of household will be noted immediately following the corresponding spouse
e) Grandchildren of the head of household will be noted from eldest to youngest and immediately following his/her father and/or mother who occupy the dwelling.
f) Parents or parents-in-law of the head of household.
g) Other relatives of the head of household (siblings, uncles/aunts, cousins, nephews/nieces, etc.).
h) Domestic employees who sleeps in the enumerated dwelling.
i) Other persons who are not related to the head of household. Note: Do not forget to note the children, newborns, and elderly persons.

Use of an additional form
a) When there are more than 10 inhabitants in the dwelling.
b) When there are more than 3 persons from the dwelling who died in the period specified in the form.
c) When there is more than one agricultural producer or rancher in the dwelling.

What should you do when there are more than 10 persons in the dwelling?

If more than ten persons reside in the dwelling, you will use as many additional forms as necessary, which will be completed in the following manner:

1) If there are more than 30 persons in one dwelling, you should mark the first one as form 1 of 4, the second as form 2 of 4, the third as form 3 of 4, and fourth form as form 4 of 4.

2) You will complete the information about geographic location, copying the information exactly from the first Form.

3) You will annul Section II Information about the dwelling, type of dwelling, and condition of occupancy, making a diagonal line across the respective box.

4) You will annul the second part of Section II, Characteristics of the dwelling, making a diagonal line across the entire page.

5) In the box "List of persons who inhabit the dwelling," you will note the names of the persons, numbering them correlatively on the second form from 11 to 20, on the third form from 21 to 30, and so on.
IV. Mortality

Question 1
You will register the persons who lived in the dwelling and have died in the period between January 1, 1993, to the census moment, including children and elderly persons.

The date will be noted in numerical form. For example, the day May 2, 1994: You will note the number that corresponds to the day, then the month, and at the end the last two digits of the year.
You will write: 02/05/94.

In the column of sex, you will make an X over the corresponding box and in the next column you will write the age of the deceased in completed years at the time of death in numeric format. For example: "45" (forty-five), "52" (fifty-two), and "00" (zero zero) for children younger than 1 year and "98" for persons who died at age 98 or older.

Question 2
If in the dwelling they declared that one or more persons died, you should ask the question "Was a death certificate obtained from MINSA in respect of the deceased person(s)?" marking an "X" in the alternative that corresponds to each person.

V. Persons in the dwelling
This part of the Form corresponds to the heading of each page. On each one, you should copy the corresponding order number, name and last name of each person noted on the "List of persons". It is convenient to fill in both sets of information at once for all of the persons following the same order in which they appear on the list.

Question 1: Relationship
We want to know the person's relationship to the head of household and not the relationship between each of the members. Option 3, "Son/daughter", also includes adopted children and step-children. If the informant declares that any of the persons is a brother/sister, grandparent, cousin, nephew, or uncle of the head of household, then you will mark option 7, "Other relative". Remember that the head of household or the qualified informant should also answer Section VI about agricultural information. This Section VI should be completed on the first form in the case that you complete two or more and there is only one producer.

Question 2: Sex
The question, "Is the person male or female?" will not be asked of the persons who are present, you will just write the answer by simple observation. In the case the informant responds for other members of the family, be sure that the information is correct, since there are names that are used for both males and females. For example: Guadalupe, Isabel, Carmen, Socorro, Concepcion, Jesus, Dolores, Maria, etc.

Question 3: Age and date of birth
The age will be noted with numbers in the corresponding boxes, placing the completed years exactly as the informant declares, without suggesting or calculating ages.

If the person is younger than 1 year, you will note "00"; and if the person is age 98 or older, you will note "98".

In regards to the date of birth, you should write the day, month, and the last two digits of the year of birth of the enumerated person.

If they declare that the person has completed 23 years, you will note this same number in the corresponding boxes.

If the date of birth of this person is October 21, 1971 then you will write: 21/10/71

Question 4: Place of birth
For the purpose of the census, we consider the place of birth of the person as the municipality of the habitual residence of the person's mother at the time of birth, even if the delivery occurred in another municipality distinct from the one of the mother's habitual residence, because of medical care or other accidental reasons. If for the census you do not indicate the birth of the child in the place of the mother's residence, then we will have a false result for migrations. Therefore, you should be very careful with this question.

You will ask, "In which municipality of the country were you born?" But explaining that you want to know in which municipality the person started to grow up.

If the person was born in the same municipality where you are conducting the interview, you will mark the box that corresponds to Category 1 (Here, in this municipality) with an "X" and you will leave the rest blank.

If the person was born in another municipality, you will write the name of the municipality. For those who were born in another country, you should be careful to write the complete name of the country of origin clearly and at the same time, write the year of arrival in Nicaragua when the person intended to stay here. Leave the boxes to the right blank; they are for office use.

Questions only for persons who are age 5 or older

Question 5: Mother tongue
We consider the mother tongue as the language that was habitually spoken in the dwelling of the person since the person's infancy or childhood. For mutes, you will note the language of the mother. You should mark only one of the alternatives with an "X".

Question 6: Religion
You should mark the religion that the interviewed person declares to profess, independent of whether within the same dwelling there are members with distinct religions.

When the informant declares to belong to one of the following religions: Adventist, Jehovah's Witness, Mormon or other religions, you should mark the category "Other".

Question 7: Place of previous residence
This refers to the last municipality, department or country where the person resided immediately before moving to the municipality where he/she resides at the census moment.

Ask: "In which municipality, department, or country did you reside in the year 1990?"

If the municipality of habitual residency in 1990 is the same as at the moment of enumeration, select category 1, "Here, in this municipality" and you will leave the rest of this question blank.

If the person resided in a different municipality from the current habitual residency, you will write the name of the municipality and department in the corresponding spaces.

If the person resided in another country, you will write the name of the country in the respective space.

Leave the boxes to the right blank; they are for office use.

Question 8: Literacy
A person is considered literate when he/she knows how to read and write; if he/she can write and read at least a message or paragraph.

A person is considered not able to read and write in the cases where they respond:

  • Only knows how to read a little, but does not know how to write
  • Only knows how to read his/her name or a few words
  • Used to know how to read and write, but has forgotten
  • Only knows how to write, but does not know how to read

In these cases, you will mark choice "3".

Question 9: School attendance
You should mark "Yes" when the person is currently studying and is registered for the current year, even if at this moment the person is on vacation, waiting for exams, or in another situation such as being ill, due to bad weather, etc.

You will only mark "No'' when the person does not attend or did not attend school at any moment of the year, even if he/she was registered and when the person has already completed his/her studies.

Question 10: Schooling
This question refers only to the grade, year, or level that was passed completely. This is not the grade or year that was left unfinished or the current one. This is the last, highest grade passed.

Question 11: Degree obtained
These questions will be asked of all persons who studied at the levels of basic technical, secondary technical, higher technical, and university.

You will note the name of the studies or field that he/she studied and completed.

You should consider as "Graduated" and "Obtained a diploma" if the person declared that he/she already completed the studies noted in the same question 11.

Questions only for persons who are age 10 or older
The goals of these questions are to know the current marital status of the persons and the principal economic characteristics of the population that participated in the production of goods and services, as well as those who are dedicated to non-economic activities, such as: household chores, studying, etc.

If the person is younger than 10, continue with the next person.

Question 12: Marital status
For marital status, the census includes the situation of each person in relation to the laws or customs related to marriage or cohabitating that exist in the country.

Mark with an "X" the marital status that the informant declares.

For those younger than 12: If the person, male or female, is younger than 12, do not ask the question about marital status and mark with an "X" the box that corresponds to category 1 ("Younger than 12").

2. Cohabiting/partnered:
This is every person who lives in a married state without having a contract of marriage. This union is also called free union or de facto union.

3. Married:
This is a person who has a contract of civil or religious marriage and lives with his/her spouse.

4. Separated:
This is a person who having separated from his/her spouse or companion has not remarried nor lives in cohabitation.

5. Divorced:
This is a person whose marriage has been legally dissolved and has not remarried nor lives in cohabitation.

6. Widow/widower
This is a person who was married or cohabitating and whose spouse or companion died and he/she has not remarried nor lives in cohabitation.

7. Single
This is a person who has never married or cohabitated.

Note: If a person was already married or cohabitating, for the purpose of the census, this person cannot be considered single; be careful with this question because many persons who have separated or widowed or divorced have the custom of considering themselves single.

Question 13: Working status
Last week this person:

With this question we want to know who had work the week previous to the census and who was unemployed.

Before asking this question, be aware of the following definitions:

For the purpose of the census, the following are considered "Work":

a) When the person carried out any economic activity, which means, he/she worked for income, earnings, salary or other type of payment in money or in kind.

b) When the person worked in a business or farm administered by a family member, with the goal of obtaining products for his/her own consumption and that of his/her family (example: a son works without pay in his parents' store, helps with agricultural labor, etc.)

c) When he/she works for his/her own business, professional practice or as an independent worker (self-employed).

d) Any other labor that is carried out during the reference period for which payment is received in money or goods. This includes the work of a seamstress or others carried out in the person's own house for other persons or businesses, as well as food preparation, candy making, etc., which will be sold.

From this question 13, the alternatives "01" to "04" will indicate the number of persons who worked in the week before the census. From the answers "05" to "07" we will obtain the information about those persons who , being part of the economically active population, are unemployed. From the answers of the alternatives "08" to "13" we will obtain the information about the persons considered economically inactive.

For the purpose of the census, the following will not be considered work:

a) The tasks carried out in the household, such as household chores (except the domestic employees who are paid) and activities that persons carry out in their own homes.

b) The tasks of unpaid volunteers in churches, as firemen, or other charitable organizations; also included are the tasks of persons who are involuntarily confined in institutions (prison, sanatoriums, asylums, penal ranches, etc.).

Taking into account the definition of "work", ask the person being enumerated, "What did you do during the majority of the time last week?"
01. Worked:
We consider a person as such who carried out labor, paid or not, during the reference week equivalent to at least one hour of work.

02. Did not work because he/she was on vacation/leave:
You should mark this box if the person during the week before the census, although he/she has a job, did not work because he/she was on vacation or leave.

03. Did not work because he/she was sick/receiving subsidy:
You should mark this box if the person, during the week before the census, although having work, did not work because he/she was receiving a subsidy or was sick.

04. Did not work because he/she was waiting to continue agricultural work:
These are the persons who did not have work during the reference week because they were waiting for the harvesting season, cane cutting season, etc.

05. Was waiting for replies from an employer:
In the reference period these persons did not actively look for work because they had done so and were waiting for an answer.

06. Was waiting to start a new job:
These are the persons who were waiting to soon start a new job because they already had a positive answer from a previous application.

07. Looked for work having worked before:
We consider a person as such who did not have work during the reference week because he/she left his/her job because of being fired or another cause, and during the week he/she actively looked for work. For example: visiting factories, farms, completing applications, looking in newspapers, asking friends or relatives, etc.

08. Looked for work for the first time:
We consider a person as such who has never had a job before and during the reference week actively looked for work or employment for the first time.

09. Lives from a pension, is retired or has private means:
This refers to persons who have retired having completed the period of service in a job and having reached the age established by law, or, who for reasons of illness, accident or other cause, receives a pension. "Has private means" are those who live off of the interest of money in savings accounts, long-term deposits or by renting out dwellings. These persons do not carry out any paid activity.

10. Does housework:
These are the persons who do not carry out any paid activity during the reference week, being exclusively dedicated to household tasks.

11. Is a student:
These are the persons who are exclusively dedicated to attending public school, private school, or university during the reference week, as long as they have not carried out any work.

12. Is permanently disabled:
These are the persons who are totally incapacitated for work due to suffering from some physical or mental impediment.

13. Other:
In this group you will register all of the persons who cannot be placed in any of the previous categories.

Remember that you should only mark one answer.

If the person responded any of the answers "08" to "13", you should continue with question 14. You must continue to mark one of the options, even if it will be "07": "No activity".

Question 14: Last week the person worked in
With this question we try to collect information from those persons who during the reference week carried out some activity inside or outside of the dwelling that provided income in money or goods.

Within these activities we find: laundering, ironing, sewing for someone else, making bread, tortillas, candy or other foods to sell, making artisanal goods to sell, field work, and other activities.

If the person responded to any of the alternatives 1 to 6, you will continue with question 15 and write for the principal occupation the class of task that the person carried out as paid work, whether in money or goods, even if their principal work was that of housewife or student. Then, you should continue with questions 16, 17, and 18.

If the person answered alternative 7 (no activity) and is a woman who is fourteen years or more, you will continue with question 19 without marking anything for questions 15 to 18. If the person is a man, you will continue to the next person, but remembering that if this is the last informant for the dwelling, you should continue with Section VI about agricultural information.

Question 15: Main occupation
With this question we want to know what the person did, has done, or does in his/her principal work, which means the tasks the person carries out. What occupation did the person have, what was the person's position, or what type of work did the person do in the week before the day of the census or in his/her last day of work?

If the person has more than one occupation, you will note the one to which the person dedicates the greatest number of hours, or if he/she dedicated the same number of hours, the one that provided the greatest income. If it is the case of the same number of hours and equal income, then the principal occupation will be the one that the enumerated person considers to be the most important.

1) The occupation should be noted clearly and with all of the details.

2) Do not write in general terms, such as: salesman, employee, office worker, worker, assistant, driver, etc., instead it is necessary that you clearly explain as shown in the following cases:

  • Salesman: door-to-door salesman, salesman who roams from area to area, newspaper salesman, salesman in a clothing shop, wholesale salesman, retail salesman
  • Worker: construction laborer, carpenter, framer, baker, lathe worker, plumber
  • Agricultural worker: milker, pruner, coffee harvester, cutter of sugar cane, coffee, cotton, etc., corral worker
  • Employee/office worker: typist, commercial secretary, executive secretary, bilingual secretary, commercial accountant, public accountant, bookkeeper
  • Mechanic: automobile mechanic, motorcycle mechanic, dental mechanic, aviation mechanic, refrigeration and air conditioning mechanic
  • Teacher: elementary school teacher, high school teacher, university professor, physical education teacher, teacher of dance, singing, swimming, beauty, etc.

3) Do not note write the profession of the enumerated person, especially if the person does not currently practice it. Consider the following examples:
a) If a public accountant worked as an elementary teacher, you should note "Elementary teacher" as occupation, and not "Public accountant".
b) If a civil engineer worked as the manager of INAA, you should note "Manager of INAA" and not "Civil engineer".
c) If an architect worked as a bank teller, you should note "Bank teller" and not "Architect".
d) If an automobile mechanic worked as a driver, you should note "Driver" (of a light vehicle, bus, or cargo truck) and not "Automobile mechanic".

Question 16: Status in Occupation
With this question we want to know what status the person had in the principal job that he/she did during the week previous to the census. This means, we want to know if the person was an employee or worker, a laborer or day laborer, self-employed, employer or business owner, unpaid worker, member of a cooperative, or other.

1. Employee/manual worker:
This is a person who works for a boss, the state, an establishment or private business in exchange for a salary.

2. Day laborer:
This is a person who did manual or non-manual labor in exchange for a salary or commission or other form of payment in money or goods.

3. Self-employed:
This is a person who works in his/her own business, company, farm, etc. and all of those who practiced a profession or occupation on their own account. Also, they do not have employees or workers on payment or salary even if they might use a family member as an unpaid assistant.

4. Boss or entrepreneur:
This is a person who exploits his/her own business or company or who practices a profession or occupation on their own account, having one or more employees, workers, day laborers, etc. for payment or salary.

5. Unpaid worker:
This is a person who works in a business, company, farm, or agricultural enterprise that is administered or owned by any member of his/her family and does not receive any salary in exchange for his/her labor.

6. Member of production cooperatives:
This is a person who works and who is a member of one or more production cooperatives for which he/she receives payment in exchange for contributions to these cooperatives. If the person is only a paid worker in the cooperative, he/she will be classified as an employee, worker, or day laborer.

Question 17: Branch of activity
We understand branch of economic activity as the activity of the establishment in which an employed person worked during the reference week or during the person's work before becoming unemployed.

This means that you will ask about what was done at the factory, industry, workshop, farm, or establishment where the person did some type of work.

Describe, in the corresponding space, the activity of the establishment in which the enumerated person carried out the principal occupation declared in question 15.

In different situations we may find some artisans, roaming salespersons, those who have a vending position in the street, and persons who carry out some economic activity in their homes; the majority of them work as self-employed, as is the case of those who sell at stoplights. These persons do not have an establishment where they carry out their work, and therefore generally their branch of activity in which they work is going to be the same as the description of their principal occupation.

Do not forget that you should note that to which activity the business, store, company, office or place where the person worked is dedicated to doing. If the person did not work in any of these places, you should note what the person manufactured, repaired, cleaned, sold, transported, cultivated, or did.

When you describe the branch of activity, do not use general terms such as: Factory, ranch, workshop, store, etc.

You should clearly explain as shown in these examples:

  • Factory: Shirt factory, footwear factory, factory of food products, clothing factory, factory of plastic products
  • Workshop: Sewing workshop, automobile repair shop, lathe workshop, shoe workshop, carpentry workshop
  • Farm: Coffee farm, corn farm, tobacco farm, cattle ranch, bean farm

The information about the branch of economic activity of the establishment where the person works is important for knowing the productive structure of the country.

Whenever it is answerable, you should not leave this space blank.

Question 18: Hours worked
With this question we want to know how many total hours the person worked in the week before the census. If the enumerated person worked at more than one job, you should add up the hours worked in each job and note the total hours worked.

If the informant does not know the hours that the person works per week, you should ask how many days the person worked the week before, do the corresponding multiplication and note the answer.

If the enumerated person had work, but did not work during the reference week, you will note the normal number of hours that the person works per week.

If during the week before the census the person worked extra hours, you should add them up to obtain the total number of hours worked.

Questions only for women who are age 14 or older
This series of questions will only be asked of women age 14 or older. For the case of all of the females younger than 14 and all males of any age, you will annul the questions from 19 to 25 by making a diagonal line through each of the boxes.

Question 19: Has the woman had any live-born children?
We understand as live-born the boy or girl who at the moment of birth shows signs of life: breathing, crying, muscle movement or palpitations, even if the child died immediately.

This question should be asked of all women age fourteen years and more. If the answer is "No", continue with the next person and make a diagonal line through each of the questions from 20 to 25.

Question 20: How many live-born children has the woman had in total?
In the boxes of this question you should note exactly the number of live-born children in total, including those who have died and those who are currently alive, whether or not these children are residents in the dwelling and even if they live in another country or were born in another country.

Question 21: Of these children, how many are still living?
Here we count all of those children, male and female, who are alive on the date of the census, where or not they lived with the mother.

a) The number of deceased can never be greater than the number of live-born children noted in question number 20.

b) In question number 20, the informant could have omitted or forgotten the children who were born alive and died and when question number 21 is asked, it reminds them of these children, therefore you will correct the information previously noted in question number 20 and write the correct information.

Question 22: What is the date of birth of the woman's last live-born child?
You should note, in numerical format, the day, month, and year in which the last child was born alive whether or not the child is alive or has died.

For example, if the child was born on the 28 of October, 1958, you will note it like this: 28/10/58

In regard to the year, you will only note the last two digits.

Note: In this question, the informant can confuse the youngest son or daughter that is currently alive. You should clearly make the distinction that this is the date of the last child that was born alive even if this child is deceased.

Question 23: Is the woman's last live-born child still alive?
This question refers to the child who was born alive and who is currently alive or died after being born, even if the child only lived for seconds, minutes, or hours, or if the child died after a few days, weeks, months, or years of life. There are two alternative answers, which are alive or deceased.

a) Remember the definition that is given for live-born children in question number 19.
b) The informant should understand clearly that this question is only for the last child who was born alive and that is referred to with question number 22.

Question 24: If the woman's last child was born in the last five years, was a birth certificate obtained from MINSA?
You should only note "Yes" if MINSA provided a certificate at the moment of birth of the person's last live-born child.

If the informant or you are not clear to which child this refers to, verify this with question 22 in which you note the date of birth of the last son or daughter who was born alive.

Question 25: If the woman's last child died within the last five years, was a death certificate obtained from MINSA?
You should note "Yes" only if MINSA provided the certificate at the moment of death of the last live-born child.

Be aware that this question is closely linked to questions number 22 and 23.

VI. Directory of farms and agricultural producers
Concepts for the agricultural section:

Civil or legal person who exercises administrative control over the operations of a unit of production and makes the principal decisions regarding the utilization of the available resources. The producer has technical and economic responsibilities regarding the farm.

This is real estate property whose land is dedicated to agricultural and/or agropecuary [plant and animal] production, independent of the property title, legal status or size.

A parcel is any fraction of the land that is used for production or farm that is totally surrounded by land, water, farms, etc. (that are not part of the production unit). A parcel can consist of one or more property units, plots, or fields that are next to each other. By definition, two parcels of the same production unit or farm are not next to each other. The term parcel as it is used here should not be confused with the same term when it is used for tax purposes. For the purpose of the census investigation, a parcel can consist of lands where the producer is the owner, such as lands that have been taken through a lease or other forms of ownership.

Ownership of the land:
This refers to the arrangements or rights through which the producer owns or uses the land. A farm can be exploited through one or various arrangements or forms of ownership.

Owned: This refers to the surface of the farm, over which the producer possesses the property title and has the right to determine the nature and limits of its use.

Rented: This refers to the surface that the producer has rented or leased, usually for a limited period of time, regardless of the form of payment.

Other: Included in this classification are the surfaces for which the type of possession cannot be registered in the previous categories, and it refers to those that are exploited by occupants without titles, shared forms of ownership, etc.

Ranching population:
This is the number of animals that are present on the farm at the moment of taking the census, no matter who the owner is. The ranching population consists of the animals in transit (going towards the property) at the moment of enumeration.


  • The information will permit us to structure a list of producers by principal activity of the farm.
  • We will be able to incorporate a framework of areas by the different crops indicating those that principally affect the economy.
  • We will know the area dedicated to the production of basic grains (corn, beans, soy), at the national level.
  • We will be able to incorporate a framework over the existence of beef cattle, pigs, and corral poultry with the goal of carrying out future cattle polls.

General instructions:

  • Ask the questions in the order that they appear and exactly as they are written.
  • You will mark or write the answer that the informant gives you and not the one that you consider to be correct.
  • With question 3, part A and all of the alternatives of part C want to know the surface of the farm in "manzanas" [Note: This is a unit of surface measurement that varies by country and sometimes by region. Often it is about 1.5 acres.]. When the informant declares an amount in manzanas with portions or fractions, as for example three and one quarter (3.25) manzanas, three and a half (3.5), etc., the enumerator should convert the portions and fractions to decimals and round it to one decimal.
  • This decimal will be noted in the corresponding box next to the line after the decimal point that is already on the form.

If the informant declares that he/she farms corn:
a) 20 1/2 manzanas = 20.50 you should note 20.5
b) 20 1/4 manzanas = 20.25 you should note 20.3
c) 20 1/3 manzanas = 20.33 you should note 20.3
d) 20 1/5 manzanas = 20.20 you should note 20.2
e) 20 3/4 manzanas = 20.75 you should note 20.8

In "Observations", you will note any information that you consider necessary to clarify any doubt that may come up in the office.

Instructions for filling out the agropecuary section
When more than one producer and/or rancher resides in the dwelling, you will use as many forms as necessary to collect the data for each of them.
Remember that when you have to complete more than one form, on the additional forms you should repeat the information about location and geographic location, and indicate the number of forms per dwelling.
Section VI will be applied when the informant of the dwelling tells you that any or some of the persons who reside in the dwelling are dedicated to agricultural cultivation or the management of beef cattle, pigs, or corral poultry.

1) Note the name and last names of the producer and/or rancher.

2) Note the names and last names of the other persons who participate together with the producer or rancher in the economic and technical responsibility of the farm.

If the informant is not the producer, be sure that the informant is a qualified person who knows the information very well.

3) You will note the name and address of the farm, the name and code of the department and municipality and the name of the hamlet where the farm is located. In the case that they declare that the farm is in another department, municipality or hamlet, different from where you are enumerating, leave the codes blank and they will be noted in the central office.

4) You will note, in digits, the surface of the farm that is managed by the producer or rancher.

For the fraction of manzana, you will use one decimal and note it in the space that is to the right side of the decimal point (in the box). In the case that there is no fraction, you will write zero.

B. Form of possession
Mark only one of the alternatives with an "X".

C. Surface dedicated to:
You will register the land surface (in manzanas) that is dedicated to the crops mentioned in this question. If on the farm there are crops or vegetation that are not included in the classification, you will note them in "Others" and you will verify that the sum of these coincides with the total surface that is managed by the producer or rancher.

For fractions of manzanas, use one decimal in the space that is to the right of the decimal point, and in the case that there is no fraction, write zero.

D. Cattle and corral poultry
This refers to the number of animals under the responsibility of the producer, whether or not they are the producer's property.

Beef cattle:
In the corresponding box, you will note the number of head of cattle that the producer or rancher manages, by sex and age, on the day of the interview.

Pigs and corral poultry:
In the corresponding box, you will note the existence of pigs and corral poultry that are managed by the producer or rancher.

Final instructions
Revision of the form and preparation of the report
You will read the enumerator's manual daily, taking it with you at all times and consulting it each time you have a doubt and if the manual does not clarify the doubt, you will immediately speak with your supervisor.

Reviewing the forms:
When you finish each day as an enumerator, you will review the forms to verify if all of them are complete, and if there is any question that is not answered, you will return to the dwelling to request the information.

Enumerator's report:
Finally, the enumerator will prepare a report, which will help evaluate the census process as related to his/her job. This report will consist of a brief summary of your work and a summary presentation of the successes and difficulties experienced during the taking of the census.