Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart



Republic of Nicaragua, Central America
Executive Census Office

Enumerator's manual

National Housing, Population, and Agricultural Census 1971

[Pages 1-18 were not translated into English]

[p. 19]

Housing Census 1971

Definitions of basic concepts adopted for the Housing Census

1. Unit of enumeration
Every dwelling unit, occupied or not, that exists in the country at the time of the Census constitutes the unit of enumeration.

Dwelling units are classified as a) private dwellings; and b) collective dwellings.

a) Private dwellings
A private dwelling is understood to be a structurally separate and independent place of abode that has been constructed, transformed, or adapted for human habitation. This is only the case if, at the time of enumeration, it is not being used completely for other purposes.

The dwelling may be made up of a room or a group of rooms, in which a person or a group of persons live together under the same roof if the dwelling satisfies the conditions of separateness and independence. Separateness is understood to be the fact that the building is surrounded by walls, partitions, or dividers that isolate it from other buildings. Independence means that the building has a direct entrance from the street or from a hallway, stairway, corridor, etc., that allows the occupants to enter and leave without passing through other dwellings.

Therefore, private dwellings constitute the following: A family house or an independent part of it, a poor, rustic dwelling, a hut, an improvised shelter made from debris or waste material, an apartment, a room in a tenement, and those buildings not meant for human habitation but are used for that purpose at the time of the census.

b) Collective dwellings
Collective dwellings comprise those buildings that are structurally separate and independent, meant to provide shelter for large groups of persons. This includes hotels, hostels, guest houses where more than 5 persons are lodged, hospitals, welfare institutions, convents, boarding schools, workers' camps, barracks, etc.

[p. 20]

Instructions for obtaining and recording housing information on the Census Form
The questionnaires for Housing and Population are contained in the same form.

The information corresponding to the location, then the dwelling information, and finally the information concerning the Population of the census household is collected adhering to the following procedure:

Form number:
In the upper right part of the census form there is a box where the order number of visits made to each dwelling is recorded. Therefore, the first dwelling visited will receive the number 1, the second the number 2, and likewise successively until the last dwelling of the enumeration area is enumerated. In the space "Form #____", the order number is recorded and after the last dwelling is enumerated, this last number is recorded in the space "of ____". Therefore, if the last dwelling visited was the twentieth visited, the forms are numbered in the following manner: Form # 1 of 20, Form # 2 of 20... Form # 15 of 20... Form # 20 of 20. Unoccupied dwellings and dwellings occupied by people who are absent are also included in this numbering.

The operation of numbering [the forms] is designed to control the order number of each form and the total number of forms filled out in the enumeration area.

A. Geographic location
In order to orient the enumerator, a "Map and/or sketch of the area" is included in the folder. Some location information is included in this map and should be transcribed into the appropriate spaces on the census form.

The correct positioning of the enumerator in the respective area and, therefore, the adequate location of the dwelling and population in the area should be carefully verified. Therefore, the enumerator should be careful to be well oriented before beginning the enumeration.

The following items should be transcribed textually from the map or sketch of the area onto the form:

[p. 21]

1. Name of department
2. Name of municipality
3. Segment number
4. Category: urban or rural

Urban or Rural status of the area is indicated on the map or sketch. Spaces have been provided on line 5 of the form where an "X" should be marked in the corresponding box.

Also, the name of the locality, neighborhood, colony, or settlement, as well as the building and dwelling number should be investigated.

Once this information for lines 1-5 is recorded in the census form, the name of the locality, i.e. city, town, county center (cabecera municipal), or settlement is recorded in line 6. In cases of small localities, the name by which it is most commonly known is recorded (see definition of locality).

Definition of locality:
A locality is every grouping of population, also called a populated center, which can form a city, town, village, or settlement, whose inhabitants live in dwelling units that are close together. A locality has a name or a territory that is locally recognized.

A dwelling is not considered to be in a locality when it is found to be extremely separated from other dwellings and is distant from the populated center. In this case, the word "Scattered" is recorded in line 6.

Urban area enumerators:
The name of the neighborhood or urban district within the locality is recorded in line 8.

The street or avenue number is recorded in line 9. When the official name or number is not known, the name by which the street or road is known locally is recorded.

The building number, according to the municipal registry plate, is recorded on line 10. Generally, the building number will be the same as the dwelling number that is recorded on line 11. When a municipal plate does not exist, the number marked by the "SNEM" is recorded.

[p. 22]

The name of the region (comarca) in which the dwelling and population are located is recorded in line 12. The enumerator should always be aware of his/her location because it is possible that the enumeration area be made up of areas from different regions.

Generally, a region (comarca) is made up of various localities and scattered dwellings.

The name of the road or path on which the dwelling is located is recorded on line 13.

The rural dwelling number, taken from the "SNEM" and corresponding to the principal shack (rancho) or house, is recorded on line 14.

[p. 23]

Specific instructions for filling out the dwelling information section of the housing form

B. Dwelling information
Question #1

Type of dwelling

Private dwelling

a. How to carry out the investigation
1. Family house: A family house is a room or group of rooms situated in a building constructed of materials with a guaranteed durability of 10 years or more, or located in a structurally separate part of the building. The manner in which the building was constructed, reconstructed, or adapted is designed to be the place of abode for a household. It is only considered a family house if it is not being completely used for other purposes at the time of enumeration. Every dwelling, in this case "family house", should meet the conditions of separateness and independence and should have a direct entrance from the street, hallway, garden, or property.

2. Hut, shack (rancho): A "rancho/choza" is a room or group of rooms constructed of rustic materials without any special treatment. These structures generally have a roof made of vegetation (palm, straw, etc.) and their durability does not usually exceed 10 years. These can also be defined as typical rural constructions of light materials, separate and independent.

3. Improvised dwelling: (debris, waste, tent): An improvised dwelling is a type of shelter principally constructed of waste materials and is found to be inhabited at the time of the census. Included in this category are mobile dwellings such as trailers, vessels [boats] and railcars used as dwellings at the time of the Census.

4. Apartment: An apartment is a place of abode located in a permanently constructed building meant to shelter multiple households, and that has an independent entrance from a hallway, stairway, or other common space in the building. An apartment can also have direct access from the street that allows the occupants to enter and exit without passing through structures occupied by other persons.

5. Room in a tenement: A room in a tenement is a place of abode in a tenement building that constitutes an independent dwelling. It is located in a common-use hallway and basic services are shared.
[p. 24]
6. Place not intended for [human] habitation but used as a dwelling: Included in this category are stores, workshops, granaries, garages, warehouses, or other structures that were not originally designed for human habitation but at the time of the census are found to be occupied for this purpose.
Collective dwelling
7. Hotels, hostels, and guesthouses: These are places of abode where 5 or more persons are lodged.

8. Other type of collective dwelling: These are structures designed to shelter large groups of persons; e.g. hospitals, convents, boarding schools, encampments, penal centers, welfare institutions, or other types of dwellings.
b. How to record the data
Once the "type of dwelling" is determined, the corresponding box is marked with an "X".

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 1 on the census form]

[p. 25]

Question #2

Occupancy of the private dwelling

a. How to carry out the investigation
The first item to be investigated is whether or not the dwelling is found to be "occupied" (by occupants who are present or absent) or "unoccupied" at the time of enumeration. If the dwelling is uninhabited, the reasons for this condition are investigated only for "family houses", shacks, huts, apartments, and rooms in tenements. Investigating the reasons for the condition of "unoccupied" brings up the problem of finding a qualified informant, especially when the owner does not live in the building where the dwelling is located and it is not possible to find him/her. In these cases, the information should be requested from a person who lives next to the unoccupied dwelling, on the condition that he/she has knowledge of the reason.

b. How to record the data
Once the occupancy has been determined, the corresponding box is marked.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 2 on the census form]

Reminder: questions 3-15 only correspond to dwellings with occupants who are present and that fall in the categories 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 of question #1: dwelling type.

[p. 26]

Question #3

Number of rooms and bedrooms

a. How to carry out the investigation
The following definitions should be taken into account in investigating this topic:
Room: A room is the space situated in a dwelling that is separated by walls that rise at least 2 meters from the floor and that have enough room for an adult-sized bed, or are at least 4 square meters in size. The following are considered to be rooms: bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, servant's quarters, and other rooms that can be used as lodging for persons or that are designed for that purpose. The following are not considered to be rooms: hallways, open galleries, foyers, etc. as well as bathrooms and rooms used exclusively for commercial or industrial purposes.

Bedroom: A bedroom is a room (see definition above) that is used principally for sleeping.
b. How to record the data
The total number of rooms and the total number of bedrooms is recorded. For dwellings with only one room, "zero" (0) is marked for bedrooms.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 3 on the census form]

Question #4

Tenure and monthly rent

a. How to carry out the investigation
The following definitions will allow the dwelling's tenure to be investigated correctly:
[p. 27]
Tenure is understood to be the arrangements by which the household occupies the place of abode. That is, the form in which the household possesses the dwelling.
Owned: The dwelling that belongs to a member of the household occupying that dwelling.

Included as owned are those dwellings that are being acquired via payments but are not completely paid for.

Rented: The dwelling that does not belong to a household member occupying that dwelling and that is being occupied through a payment of rent.

Monthly rent: If the dwelling is rented, the amount of monthly rent paid for the right of occupying the dwelling is requested.

Other forms of tenure: These are cases where the dwelling does not belong to a household member and is not rented. Such is the case for caretakers or employees whose dwelling is provided by the owner or company.
b. How to record the data
After the tenure is determined, an "X" is marked in the appropriate box. If the dwelling is rented, the amount of monthly rent is recorded in the space provided.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 4 on the census form]

[p. 28]

Questions #5, 6, and 7

Predominant construction materials

a. How to carry out the investigation
This topic refers to the type of materials used most in the construction of the exterior walls, the roof, as well as the material that covers most of the floor of the dwelling.

b. How to record the data
An "X" is marked in one of the boxes according to the predominant material used: in the walls (question 5), in the roof (question 6), and in the floor (question 7) of the dwelling. Only one box is marked for each question.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of questions 5, 6, and 7 on the census form]

[p. 28]

Question #8

Water

a. How to carry out the investigation
The form in which water is supplied is investigated.
Via pipes inside the dwelling: Faucets installed under the roof of the dwelling, connected to a public or private water system.

a. Connected to a public system: Plumbing connected to a water supply service, generally provided by the municipality and in some cases by private entities through the payment of established taxes.

b. Connected to a private system: Plumbing connected to a private tank or storage container belonging to the dwelling.

Via pipes outside the dwelling but inside the building: This is the case where the faucet is installed in the patio or in another place in the building for the purpose of providing water for one or more dwellings. This generally is the case for tenement buildings.

Via pipes outside the building: This refers to the cases where the faucet is installed in a public area to provide service to the neighborhood or community.

By carrying [the water]: When there is no plumbing in the dwelling or building and there is no water storage outside of the building, other water sources are investigated. These can be:
a) From a well
b) From a river, spring, lake, or lagoon
c) Other
[p. 30]
b. How to record the data
An "X" is marked in the box corresponding to the principal form of water supply. Only one box is marked.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 8 on the census form]

Question #9

Toilet Facilities

a. How to carry out the investigation
The following definitions should be taken into account in investigating this topic:
Toilet facilities: This is the installation or means that permits the elimination of human waste. This elimination can be via a "Toilet" with running water or through a latrine, which is commonly called an excusado.

Toilet: This is the installation for the elimination of human waste that is plumbed with pressurized water and connected to the sewer, a drain, or to a septic tank.

Excusadoor latrine: This is the installation used for the elimination of human waste but that is not connected to a sewer or to a septic tank.
Taking into account the preceding definitions, the enumerator should also ask if the toilet facilities are for the dwelling's exclusive use or if they are for common use among various dwellings.
[p. 31]
b. How to record the data
The box corresponding to the type of toilet facilities and whether it is for exclusive or common use is marked with an "X".

If the dwelling does not have a toilet or a latrine, box 7 "Does not have" is marked. Only one box is marked.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 9 on the census form]

Question #10

Bathroom

a. How to carry out the investigation
It should be asked if the dwelling has a bathroom; it should also be asked if it is for exclusive or common use and if it is connected to a sewer, drain, or septic tank.

b. How to record the data
The box corresponding to the type of bathroom and whether it is for exclusive or common use is marked with an "X".
[p. 32]
If the dwelling does not have a bathroom, box 5 "Does not have" is marked. Only one box is marked.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 10 on the census form]

Question #11

Lighting

a. How to carry out the investigation
Electric: The type of electrical service in the dwelling is investigated. This can be electric lighting from a public service, from a private generator, or from another source.

From a public service: This is understood to be the service provided by the National Light and Power Company (ENALUF) or by a municipality or by a company that sells or provides electricity service to various dwellings.

Private generator station: This refers to the electricity obtained via an installation privately owned by the dwelling's occupants.

Other source: Those other cases not contemplated in the above definitions.

Other type of lighting: This refers to the lighting from gas (kerosene) lanterns or other forms of lighting (carbide, gasoline, or alcohol lantern, candles, torches, etc.)
b. How to record the data
The box corresponding to the type of lighting most commonly used is marked with an "X". If electric lighting, box 1, 2, or 3, according to the source of electricity is marked.
[p. 33]
If kerosene gas, box 4 is marked and if another source (carbide, gasoline, candles, etc.) box 5 is marked.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 11 on the census form]

Question #12

Kitchen

a. How to carry out the investigation
It is investigated, according to the following definition, whether the dwelling has a "kitchen" or a "cooking space".
Kitchen: The room used for cooking in the dwelling that is equipped for the preparation of principal meals.

Cooking space: The place or space in the dwelling that does not meet the conditions of a "room" but that is used and equipped for the preparation of principal meals.
b. How to record the data
Once it is determined that there is a kitchen used for this purpose [cooking], or a place for cooking, either box 1 or 2 is marked according to the case. Box 3 is marked if there is no kitchen in use or if there is no place for cooking.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 12 on the census form]

Question #13

Fuel used for cooking

a. How to carry out the investigation
The type of fuel used in the preparation of principal meals is investigated.

b. How to record the data
Once the type of fuel that is used most is determined, the corresponding box is marked with an "X".

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 13 on the census form]

[p. 35]

Question #14

Household appliances

a. How to carry out the investigation
The informant should be asked if the household has a radio, television, electric iron, and refrigerator.

b. How to record the data
According to the informant's answer, the corresponding boxes are marked with an "X". For this question, one or more boxes are marked according to the appliances available to the household.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 14 on the census form]

Question #15

Year of construction

a. How to carry out the investigation
The purpose of this topic is to investigate, on one hand, the number of buildings or dwellings whose construction was finished between March of 1970 and April of 1971; or "One year or less before the census date". The other item investigated is the number of buildings whose construction was finished previous to March of 1970.

b. How to record the data
If the dwelling's construction was completed between March of 1970 and April of 1971, an "X" is marked in box 1
[p. 36]
located after the sentence "One year or less before the census date". If the dwelling was completed before March of 1970, the year of construction is written in the space provided.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 15 on the census form]

Question #16

Occupants
Even though a dwelling is a place of abode meant to shelter one household it can be used to house more than one census household at the time of the census.

Census household: A census household is a person or group of persons, related or unrelated, who live under the same roof and who share a common budget in order to satisfy their basic needs.

a. How to carry out the investigation
The purpose of this topic is to find out the number of households, family nuclei, and occupants in each dwelling.

In order to determine the number of households, the occupants of the dwelling are asked if they defray their food and shelter costs with a common budget, or if there are different groups who defray their costs individually.

b. How to record the data
If all of the occupants share a common budget; that is, they constitute only one census household, the number "1" is written in the corresponding box. The information for each and every one of the persons in the household is then recorded in the part of the census form corresponding to "Persons in the census household".

If the dwelling is shared by two or more groups of persons, each defraying their costs separately, for each group constituting a census household the corresponding number

[p. 37]

is written in the space "Number of households". The information for the first household is then recorded in the part of the census form corresponding to "Persons in the census household". For the second household, a new census form is used. In the dwelling section of the new form, only the location information is recorded. In the "Persons in the census household" section the information of each of the household members is recorded. This pattern is followed for the successive households if they exist.

The annotations for number of nuclei and of occupants are made afterwards in the office.

c. Example:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 16 on the census form]

Care should be taken to not confuse "More than one household in a dwelling" with "More than one dwelling in a building or house". According to the definition of a "Dwelling unit", if the households occupy separate and independent parts of a building, each one of these parts constitutes a dwelling.

[p. 38]

Population Census 1971

A. Definitions of basic concepts adapted for the population census

1. Type of Census
The National Population Census is "de hecho" or "de facto". This means that all of the persons present in the territory and jurisdictional waters of the Republic should be enumerated on the date of the census: April 20, 1971.

2. Census moment
So that the data collected accurately reflects the demographic, economic, and social situation of the country at a given time, it has been determined that the census will take place with reference to zero hours, April 20; that is, 12 midnight of April 19, 1971.

a) Persons who should be enumerated:
Taking into account the "type of census" and the "census moment":
i) All of the persons present in the territory and jurisdictional waters of the Republic who were alive at zero hours of April 20, 1971 are enumerated.

ii) In each dwelling, each and every person who slept therein the night of April 19 to 20, including:
1) Children who were born alive before 12 midnight of April 19.

2) Those persons who passed away after 12 midnight of April 19.

3) Domestic servants and their families, guests, etc., if they slept in the dwelling the night of April 19.
[p. 40]
4) Those who because of work, social reunions (parties, wakes, etc.), or other reasons were temporarily absent but who normally sleep in the dwelling.
b) Persons who should not be enumerated
According to the "type of census" and the "census moment" the following persons should not be enumerated:
i) Children born after 12 midnight of April 19 and persons who passed away before that time.

ii) Those who were momentarily present as visitors in the dwelling the night of April 19 due to a party, wake, etc.

iii) Those that live in the dwelling but who, on the night of April 19, were lodged in another house, hostel, or hotel. Also not included are those who were hospitalized, imprisoned, living in a boarding school, etc. These persons will be enumerated in the place where they slept.

iv) Those who live in the dwelling but who are not in the country; only if they left before 12 midnight of April 19.

3. Duration of the Census
Taking into account that the census will last 5 days or more, the enumerator should always be aware of the "type of census" and the "census moment". In other words, even though household members are enumerated on April 24, all of the persons who were part of the household and were present at 12 midnight of April 19 should be included in the census form.

4. Census unit
The census unit is the person who is alive at 12 midnight of April 19.

5. Census household and persons who do not live in households

a) Census household (in a private dwelling)
A census household constitutes an additional unit of enumeration because it allows the identification of census units.
[p. 41]
A census household can be one of two types:
i) One-person household: a person who provides for his/her own basic nutritional and housing needs without joining with anyone else.

ii) Multi-person household: A group of two or more persons who associate with each other in order to provide for their basic nutritional and housing needs. A multi-person household can be composed of related persons, of unrelated persons, or of related and unrelated persons.
b) Persons who do not live in households (in collective dwellings)
This includes those who live in barracks, convents, hospitals, boarding schools, jails, etc. These are persons who are not living with each other to provide for their basic needs, rather they live together for reasons of health, discipline, and other reasons not related to household life.

Also considered as persons not living in a household are those who are sheltered in hotels, hostels, guest houses, brothels, and merchant vessels anchored in the bay.

6. Identification of the population that lives in one-person households and in multi-person households.

a) Identification of the population that lives in one-person households
Conforming to the concept of the "population that lives in one-person households", these persons are identified by the fact that they live alone in one dwelling unit (apartment, house, room, or other type of dwelling). They satisfy their nutritional needs without joining with another person. The lone person can eat self-prepared meals or acquire meals in a restaurant or a family house paying for them with money, in-kind compensation, or with services. Typical examples of these persons are students who rent a room in a place of abode.

b) Identification of persons that live in multi-person households
The identification of the persons who live in multi-person households should take place taking into account the type of family.

Generally, the persons in reference are classified as belonging to a nuclear, extended, or mixed family.
[p. 42]
i) A nuclear family is a family that is made up of a father, a mother (or either one of these), and unmarried children.

ii) An extended family is made up of a father, a mother (or either one of these), unmarried children, and other persons linked by family relationship.

iii) A mixed family is made up of a father, a mother (or either one of these), unmarried children, other persons linked by family relationship and unrelated persons who live there because of work or another cause.
These families are commonly linked together in order to satisfy their nutritional and housing needs, among other reasons.

Also, a head of household is recognized by the household members. This contributes to the identification of those who live in multi-person households.

Less frequently, groups of two or more unrelated persons can be found living together to provide for nutritional and housing needs; e.g. students, office workers, etc. These persons rent a dwelling (room, apartment, or house) and prepare their own food or hire someone else to provide this service. These persons, by definition, constitute a multi-person household.

B. Sections of the census form, usage of additional pages, and order of enumeration of household members

1. Sections of the Census form
The Population section of the census form is divided into five sections: A. Personal characteristics; B. Geographic characteristics; C. Educational characteristics; D. Economic characteristics; and E. Fertility characteristics. Specific instructions for filling out each section are given below.

2. Use of additional forms
There are two possible cases in which additional forms will be used: a) When there is more than one household in the dwelling; and b) When the number of household members is greater than 9.

a) When there is more than one household in the dwelling

When more than one household is identified in the same private dwelling, a new form is used to record
[p. 43]
the information of the additional household in the dwelling. However, the dwelling information should not be repeated in the additional forms; this information is only found in the form of the first enumerated household in the dwelling. Geographic location information should be included in the additional forms, copied from the first household's form. The form number of the dwelling is also copied into the appropriate space in the upper right-hand corner of the population form: "of dwelling number ____". In the first part of this space, "Household number ____", the order number in which the household has been enumerated in the same dwelling is recorded, e.g. if there are 2 households in dwelling number 14, the information is recorded in this space in the following manner:

For the first household: Household number 1 of dwelling number 14.
For the second household: Household number 2 of dwelling number 14.

In all of the cases of dwellings with one household, the number 1 is recorded in the space: "Household number ___" and the corresponding dwelling number is recorded in the space: "Dwelling number ___".

b) When the number of household members is greater than 9

The form has capacity for the information nine (9) persons. If the number of household members exceeds 9, additional pages are used, proceeding in the following manner:
1) The household number, dwelling number, and location information is repeated in the new forms.

2) The dwelling information section of the additional form is crossed out with a large "X". The column designated for the "first person" is also crossed out and the information of the tenth person is recorded in the column designated for the "second person". The words "second person" are crossed out and the number 10 written in above this column. The information of the remaining persons is recorded successively in the remaining columns while changing the numeration: 11 for "third person", 12 for "fourth person", etc. The letter "A" is written in the upper right-hand corner of the census form that says "Form ___". The letters "B", "C", etc. are written on successive additional forms.
Continuing with the example presented in part a), supposing that there are 11 household members in the second household (household number 2) of the dwelling number 14 (the additional form for the second household in the dwelling will be labeled: household number 2 of the dwelling number 14, as explained above).
[p. 44]
Because the number of household members exceeds 9, an additional form is used to enumerate the remaining 2 persons. The forms are numbered in this way:

In the first form: Household number 2 of the dwelling number 14 Form A
In the second form: Household number 2 of the dwelling number 14 Form B

3) Order of enumeration of multi-person household members

The names and surnames of each household member are recorded first and then the relationship with the head of household is recorded in the following order:
(1) Family of the head of household
a) Head of household (code 0)
b) Spouse (code 1)
c) Unmarried children, step-children, and adopted children from oldest to youngest: (code 2)
(2) Family of each married child, step-child, or adopted child
d) Married child:
e) Spouse of child: (other relative: code 5)
f) Unmarried children, step-children, and adopted children: (grandchild: code 4)
(3) Parents or in-laws of the head of household, spouse and/or unmarried children.
g) Parents or in-laws: (code 3)
h) Spouse of father or father-in-law: (code 3)
i) Unmarried children of father or father-in-law: (other relative: code 5)
[p. 45]
(4) Family of other relatives of the head of household (siblings, nieces/nephews, and others, with spouse and/or unmarried children)
j) Other relative: (code 5)
k) Spouse of relative: (other relative: code 5)
l) Unmarried children of relative: (other relative: code 5)
(5) Family of domestic employee
m) Domestic employee: (code 6)
n) Spouse of domestic employee: (other non-relative: code 7)
o) Unmarried children of domestic employee: (other non-relative: code 7)
(6) Family of other non-relative of the head of household
p) Other non-relative: (code 7)
q) Spouse of non-relative: (other non-relative: code 7)
r) Unmarried children of non-relative: (other non-relative code 7)
(7) Parents or in-laws without spouse or children present: code 3

(8) Other relatives of the head of household, without spouse or children present: (other relative: code 5)

(9) Domestic employee without spouse or children present: code 6

(10) Other non-relatives of the head of household, without spouse or children present (other non-relative: code 7)

In order to identify the different nuclear families, the persons who form each nucleus are bracketed. The first line of the population form is used to identify each nucleus (bracketed). A nuclear family is composed of: (a) a married couple without children; or (b) a father and mother (or either of these) and unmarried children, step-children, or adopted children.

[p. 46]

Couples who live in a consensual union are considered to be married.

C. Specific instructions for completing the form

Personal characteristics
This part of the form is designed to investigate the composition and distribution of the population according to type of household, sex, age, marital status, and orphan status.

Questions 1-6 are presented to all persons without exception adhering to the specific instructions given below.

Question #1: Names and surnames

a. How to ask the question:
What is the name and surname of each person who slept here the night of April 19 to 20?

Clarification:
Before asking for the name and surname of the person or persons who form the "census household", the following tasks should be completed: (a) the informant is selected; (b) the persons in the household to be included in the investigation are selected according to the definition of the concepts "Type of Census" and "Census moment"; and (c) the persons in multi-person households are put into the order as specified in the pertinent instructions (order of enumeration).

b. How to record the information:
The names and surnames of each and every household member are recorded, taking into account the above mentioned order of the interview. The names and surnames are recorded in a horizontal manner; that is, from left to right, beginning with the head of household.

After recording the names and surnames, the questions necessary to discover cases of omission are asked. Informants frequently omit the names of persons under the age of 5, especially newborns, as well as the names of those who only slept in the dwelling the night of April 19 to 20 and then moved to another place.
[p. 47]
For newborns who do not yet have a name, the word "Newborn" is recorded.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 1 on the census form]

Question #2: Relationship

a. How to ask the question:
What is the person's relationship to the head of household?

The association between the persons recognized as the head of household and all of the household members is required. This association can be through a family relationship (spouse, child, etc.) or through another cause (domestic employee or other non-relative).

b. How to record the information:
1) First, an "X" is marked in the box located after the word "Head". This person's information is always in the first column of the census form.

2) An "X" is marked in the box corresponding to the relationship of each of the household members.

3) An "X" is marked in the box "Unknown" only when the informant does not know the relationship between a household member and head of household. These cases are, obviously, exceptions.
c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 2 on the census form]

[p. 48]

Question #3: Sex

a. How to ask the question:
Is the person a man or a woman?

b. How to record the information:
An "X" is marked in the corresponding box.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 3 on the census form]

Question #4: Completed age

a. How to ask the question:
What is the person's age, in years completed?

The information obtained for each person is the number of years completed at the last birthday and not the number to be completed at the next birthday.

Taking into account the importance of this topic, all possible effort should be made in order to obtain the age in the most exact manner possible. It should be remembered that persons, when declaring their age, tend to raise the number in some cases, and to lower the number in other cases. It is also frequent that persons declare, because of ignorance or other reasons, the age in numbers ending in zero or five (20, 30, 40, or 25, 35, 55, etc.). In these cases, it is convenient to request the year of birth as a control. If there is an inconsistency between the two pieces of information, it should be pointed out to the informant and an attempt should be made to obtain the correct information. If a person claims to not know their age, indirect questions should be asked to deduce the age; for example: if the person is married and has children, the age of the oldest child and the age of the person at the time of the birth of the child can be asked. As a last resort, the age should be estimated based on whichever resources are available, such as relating the age to a national or international event such as the beginning of the century, the Earthquake of Managua, the Second World War, etc. Only if the informant does not know the age of a household member and there is no other way to confirm the information is this fact recorded on the census form.
[p. 49]
b. How to record the information:
The following is written above the line located before the word "Years":
1) For those age 1 year or older, the number of years completed;
2) For those younger than 1 year, the digits "00";
3) The word "Unknown" is recorded for those persons whose information was impossible to obtain.
c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 4 on the census form]

Question #5: Marital status

a. How to ask the question:
Is the person unmarried, married, in a consensual union, widowed, or divorced?

The following definitions will help in the correct classification of each person according to their marital status or conjugal situation:
1) Single: The person who has never been married and who does not live in a consensual union.

2) Married: The person who has entered into a civil and/or religious marriage and who lives conjugally with their legal spouse.

3) Consensual union: A person who, without being legally or religiously married, lives in a conjugal union with another person of the opposite sex and has formed a family.

4) Widowed: A person, having been married or in a consensual union, whose spouse has passed away and who has not remarried and who does not live in a consensual union.

5) Divorced: A person whose marriage was legally dissolved and who has not remarried and who does not live in a consensual union. Included in this category are those in a de facto separation from a religious and/or civil marriage and who does not live in a consensual union.
[p. 50]
b. How to record the information:
The different categories are mutually exclusive; therefore, only one box is marked with an "X" in the box corresponding to the marital status or conjugal situation of the enumerated person. The box unmarried is marked for minors.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 5 on the census form]

Question #6: Orphan condition

a. How to ask the question:
Is the person's mother alive?

b. How to record the information:
If the enumerated person's mother is alive at the Census moment, an "X" is marked in the box located directly after the word "Yes". If, on the other hand, the mother has passed away, an "X" is marked in the box corresponding to "No".

A box has been provided to record those cases when the informant does not know if the household member's mother is alive or not. This situation should be an exception.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 6 on the census form]

Geographic characteristics
Questions related to geographical characteristics (place of birth, year of arrival to Nicaragua of the foreign-born population, current usual place of residence,

[p. 51]

place of usual residence in April of 1966) are presented in order to study the internal and international migration of the population. The total number of migrants, the direction and tendency of the movements, as well as the principal characteristics of this population are investigated.

Question #7: Place of birth

a. How to ask the question:
In which municipality was the person born?

If the person was born in Nicaragua, the name of the department to which the municipality corresponds is requested.

If the person was born abroad, the name of the country is requested.

b. How to record the information:
If the enumerated person was born in Nicaragua, the following information is recorded in order:
1) The name of the municipality where born; and
2) The name of the department to which the municipality corresponds.
If the person was born abroad, the name of the birth country is recorded.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 7 on the census form]

Question #8: Year of arrival in country
This question is only presented to those born abroad.

a. How to ask the question:
In which year did the person come to live in Nicaragua?
[p. 52]
b. How to record the information:
The year declared by the informant is recorded.

If the informant does not know the year of arrival to the country of one of the household members, the word "Unknown" is recorded in the space provided for the year.

An "X" is marked in the "Native ___" box that has been provided for those born in Nicaragua. This [box] is provided so that no box is left blank on the census form.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 8 on the census form]

Question #9: Current place of usual residence
The current place of usual residence is understood to be the place where the person is living for work, business, family life, etc., for a period of 6 months or more, or for a shorter period of time if the person arrived with the intention of settling there.

a. How to ask the question:
In which municipality does the person currently live?

The name of the department to which the municipality corresponds is requested.

If the person resides abroad, the name of the country of usual residence is requested.

b. How to record the information:
If the person resides in Nicaragua, the following information is recorded in order:
1) The name of the municipality; and
2) The name of the department to which the municipality corresponds.
[p. 53]
If the person resides abroad, a line "--" is drawn in the space designated for the municipality and the name of the country is recorded in the space provided for the department or country.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 9 on the census form]

Question #10: Place of usual residence in April of 1966
This question is only presented to those persons age 5 or older.

a. How to ask the question:
In what municipality did you reside in April of 1966?

The name of the department to which the municipality corresponds is requested.

If the person resided abroad, the name of the country of usual residence is requested.

b. How to record the information:
If the person resided in Nicaragua, the following information is recorded:
1) The name of the municipality;
2) The name of the department
If the person resided abroad, a line "--" is drawn in the space designated for the municipality and the name of the country is recorded in the space provided for the Department or country.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 10 on the census form]

[p. 54]

Cultural [educational] characteristics
Questions 11, 12, and 13 refer to the studies that the enumerated person has completed or is completing. Because of this, these questions are only presented to those persons age 6 or older.

The purpose of these questions is to investigate the population's level of education in relation to demographic, economic, and social characteristics.

Question #11: Literacy
This question is only presented to those persons age 6 or older.

a. How to ask the question:
Literate: The person who is capable of reading and writing a brief and simple presentation of facts relating to daily life.

Taking into account the above definition, the following question is asked:

Does the person know how to read and write?

b. How to record the information:
If the answer is affirmative, an "X" is marked in the box located after the word "Yes". If the answer is negative, an "X" is marked in the "No" box.

An "X" is marked in the "Unknown" box if the informant does not know if a household member is literate or not.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 11 on the census form]

Question #12: Level of instruction

a. How to ask the question:
What is the last year of study or grade completed in primary [elementary], secondary, or higher education?

[p. 55]

Note that two pieces of information are required:
1) The highest type or cycle of education; and
2) The last grade or course completed within the last cycle of education.
The regular system of education in Nicaragua is comprised of the following cycles:
1) Primary [elementary]
2) Middle or [secondary school], and
3) Higher
The following definition will assist in correctly classifying the population for this characteristic:
Primary [elementary] education: the education providing the first elements of instruction.

Middle or secondary education: the education that provides instruction that is either general, specialized, or both. The minimum requirement for entrance is the completion of primary education.

Higher education: the education provided by universities, superior technical schools, and normal superior schools that require the completion of secondary education as a minimum condition [for entrance].


b. How to record the information:
Various boxes are provided for recording the answers of the enumerated person. The box "None___" is designated for those who have not completed any education; that is, those who have not completed any grades in primary [elementary] school.

The spaces appearing after the different types of instruction: "Primary___", "Middle___", and "Superior___" are designed to allow the simultaneous recording of information related to level of instruction as well as the highest grade completed within the respective level. Therefore, if the person only went to primary school, where the last grade completed was the fifth, the number 5 is recorded in the space after the word "Primary___". If the last grade completed was the second of middle school, the number 2 is written in the space after the word "Middle___". The same procedure is followed for higher education.
[p. 56]
Finally, the box "Unknown___ 99" is provided for the cases in which the informant does know a household member's level of education.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 12 on the census form]

Question #13: School attendance

a. How to ask the question:
Does the person currently attend a primary, secondary, or higher educational institution?

b. How to record the information:
If the informant claims that the enumerated person is regularly attending a primary, secondary, or higher educational institution, an "X" is marked in the "Yes" box. In the other case, an "X" is marked in the "No" box. If the informant does not know if the person is attending an educational institution, the "Unknown __ 9" box is marked.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 13 on the census form]

Economic characteristics
The questions included in this section (type of activity, principal occupation, industry, and employment status) are designed to investigate the population that participates in the production of goods and economic services, the occupational structure, the economic sector where the occupations are carried out, employment status, and the related demographic and social characteristics. The structure of the population that does not participate in the production of goods and economic services and demographic and social characteristics of this population are also investigated.

[p. 57]

Because of these objectives, questions 14, 15, 16, and 17 are only presented to those persons age 10 or older.

Question #14: Type of activity
This question is designed to determine both the "economically active population" and the "economically inactive population". They also have as a goal the determination of the groups that constitute the above mentioned types of population [active vs. inactive].

a. How to ask the question:
The following questions are presented:

What did the person do for most of the week of April 12-17?

The different alternatives are immediately read so that the informant can exactly determine which of the answers translates to the situation of the [enumerated] person during the week of April 12-17.

The different alternatives are read in the same order in which they appear on the census form.

The following definitions will help the enumerator in carrying out the work in a satisfactory manner:
Did the person work?
a) If the person carried out a remunerated (in money or in kind) job during all or part of the week of April 12-17.
b) If the person has a business or if he/she works on own-account.
c) If the person regularly works in a business or company of a family member, even if not paid a wage or salary (family worker).
Did not work, but employed?
If the person did not work during the week of April 12-17 but has a business or employment and was temporarily absent because of vacation, inclement weather, machinery breakdown, strike, etc.
[p. 58]
Looking for work, having worked previously?
If the person was not employed during the week of April 12-17 but was previously employed and is waiting to be recalled [to the previous employment] or is looking for a new employment.
Looking for work for the first time?
If the person had never been employed but actively sought employment during the week of April 12-17.
Lived from investments or retirement?
Included in this group are those who have stopped working and are receiving income exclusively from a retirement or pension. Also included in this group are those who do not work but receive income from investments in a business or company. Those who receive a nutritional pension or alimony are not included in this group.
Did the person study?
If the person regularly attends school, high school, or the university and did not carry out a paid job during the reference week.
Cared for the home? [domestic duties]
If the person did not carry out any remunerated activity during the week of April 12-17 and was dedicated exclusively to domestic duties.
Other?
If the person cannot be classified into the previous categories.
b. How to record the information:
The problem lies in the adequate selection of the type of activity for each person age 10 or older. The following recommendations will allow the work to proceed efficiently:

1) An answer should not be recorded unless it is certain that the informant has understood the question correctly and the answer is coherent with the pertinent definitions.

2) A person cannot be classified into more than one category, even if the informant gives double information (worked and studied; worked and received retirement income;
[p. 59]
cared for the home and worked; etc.). The criterion used in selecting the type of activity is to give the first preference to the economic activity. When selecting between two categories of the economically inactive population, the categories of studying and domestic duties are given preference, in that order.
An "X" is marked in the box corresponding to the answer selected. The "Unknown" box is designated for those cases in which the informant cannot respond to the question because the answer is not known.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 14 on the census form]

Question #15: Principal occupation
This question is only presented to those classified in alternatives 1, 2, and 3 in question 14.

a. How to ask the question:
What occupation, trade, or type of work did the person carry out during the week of April 12-17 or for the last employment held?

If the person claims to have carried out more than one occupation, the principal occupation is selected.
[p. 60]
"Principal occupation" refers to the occupation to which more hours are dedicated.

When dealing with a person who was previously employed but did not work during the week of April 12-17, the following question is asked:

What was the last occupation carried out?

b. How to record the information:
In the space provided, the principal occupation is recorded.

A word exactly describing the type of work indicated by the person should be used when recording the occupation. If a word is not sufficient, a sentence should be used.

Generic terms that do not give a clear idea of the work carried out should not be used (e.g. laborer, worker, employee, etc.).

To further illustrate, a list of examples of inappropriate terms along with appropriate terms is provided below:

[The list of examples is omitted]

[p. 61]

Finally, it is necessary to establish that in the case of professionals, the occupation corresponds to the profession. However, a certain number of professionals can have carried out occupations outside of their specialization during the week of reference. In this case, the occupation carried out is recorded, not the profession; e.g., if a medical surgeon acted as a hospital director, this occupation is recorded; if a lawyer acted as a manager of a textile company, this occupation is recorded, not the profession.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 15 on the census form]

Question #16: Industry
This question is only presented to those who declared an occupation in question 15.

[p. 62]

a. How to ask the question:
What is the activity of the operation, establishment, factory, workshop, service, etc., where the person works or last worked?

b. How to record the information:
The activity of the operation or establishment where the person carried out the occupation declared in question 15 is recorded in the space provided. If the establishment, operation, factory, etc., dedicates itself to more than one activity, the principal activity is recorded.

Generic terms such as factory, ranch, workshop, etc., should be avoided when recording the industry. The name of the establishment should not be used (e.g., "Fábrica Santa Inés", "El Artesano", etc.), except in cases of government agencies.

To further illustrate, some examples related to the establishment's name and the (supposed) principal activity are provided below:

[examples were translated into English]

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 16 on the census form]

[p. 63]

Question #17: Employment status
This question is only presented to those who declared an occupation in question 15.

a. How to ask the question:
What category or position did the person hold in the principal occupation indicated?

(question 15)

The different alternatives are then carefully read, one by one, until the informant classifies the person correctly.

The definition of each alternative should be taken into account.
Employer: Those who have (if worked) or had (if employed previously but looking for work) one or more salaried workers to carry out an economic activity; that is, workers who receive remuneration or pay in money or in kind. Therefore, those persons who do not have employees are not employers.

Own-account: Those who work independently, do not have remunerated employees, and who are not employees of anyone else. The own-account worker can count on the help of family workers and can work alone or association with others.

Employee with salary or wage: Those who work for a public or private employer and who receive, in exchange, a wage, salary, commission, or pay in kind.

Unpaid family worker: Those who carry out an unpaid occupation in an establishment run by a relative who lives in the same household. Unpaid family workers work at least one-third of the time.
b. How to record the information:
An "X" is used to mark one of the alternatives provided on the census form.
[p. 64]
The "Unknown ___ 9" box is marked only when the informant does not know the employment status of the enumerated household member.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 17 on the census form]

Fertility characteristics
Questions (18, 19, 20, and 21) included under this title are designed to provide information to carry out studies on the fertility level of the population and on the differential characteristics of this component of population growth.

These questions are also designed to obtain information to carry out studies on the level and past tendencies of the mortality of the country's population.

The adequate investigation of such important topics requires that the enumerator be delicate and extremely diligent. Questions 18 and 19 are presented to every woman age 15 or older. Question 20 and 21 are presented to women ages 15 to 49.

Question #18: Total number of children born alive
This question is presented to all women age 15 or older, irrespective of marital status.

a. How to ask the question:
How many children born alive has the person had?

The following definition should be remembered when asking this question:

Born alive: A child who breathed, cried, or moved at birth. If any of these signs of life were present and the child later passed away, it is counted as a child born alive and therefore
[p. 65]
should be recorded on the census form. If the child did not show any of the previously mentioned signs, it is considered to be a child born dead.

b. How to record the information:
Before recording the answer, it should be verified that no child born alive has been omitted and that no child born dead included. For this purpose the definition of "Child born alive" has been provided.

Enumerated women frequently forget to declare children born alive that passed away during the first hours, days, or months of life. Because of this, as many additional questions as deemed necessary should be asked until the correct information has been obtained.

Given the above warnings, the number of children born alive is recorded above the space provided after the word "Number___".

If the enumerated woman has not had any children born alive, the box labeled "none___ 00" is marked.

The box "Unknown ___99" is only marked if the informant does not know the number of the enumerated woman's children born alive. These cases should be exceptions.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 18 on the census form]

Question #19: Total number of surviving children
This question is presented to all women age 15 or older, irrespective of marital status.

a. How to ask the question:
How many children are currently alive?

The following definition should be taken into account upon asking this question:

[p. 66]

Surviving children: Surviving children are those who are alive at the time of the census, independent of whether they live with their parents or if they live in another geographical location in the country or abroad.

b. How to record the information:
Before recording the answer, it should be verified that no surviving child has been omitted and that the information provided corresponds to the pertinent definition.

Given the above warnings, the number of surviving children is recorded above the space provided after the word "Number___". If the enumerated woman does not have any surviving children, the box labeled "None___ 00" is marked.

The box "Unknown ___99" is only marked if the informant does not know the number of the enumerated woman's surviving children.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 19 on the census form]

Question #20: Children born alive in 1970
This question is presented to all women ages 15 to 49, irrespective of marital status.

a. How to ask the question:
How many children were born alive between January and December of 1970?

b. How to record the information:
Before recording the answer, it should be verified that the informant has not made any omissions and is not confused.
[p. 67]
Once the information's veracity is confirmed, the number of children born alive in 1970 is recorded in the box labeled "Number___".

If the enumerated woman has not had any children born alive in 1970, the box labeled "None___ 00" is marked. Only in exceptional cases when the informant does not know the number of children born alive of the enumerated woman is the box "Unknown ___99" marked.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 20 on the census form]

Question #21: Children born alive in 1970 who passed away in 1970

a. How to ask the question:
How many of these children passed away in 1970?

b. How to record the information:
Before recording the answer, it should be verified that the question was understood and that the information provided is consistent with the information provided in question 20.

Once the information is verified, the number of children who were born alive between January and December of 1970 and died within this same year is recorded above the space provided after the word "Number___".

If it was reported, in question 20, that no children were born alive in 1970 or if any of those born alive in 1970 did not die in 1970, the box labeled "None___ 00" is marked.

The box "Unknown ___99" is only marked if the informant does not know the number of children who were born alive and passed away in 1970 of the enumerated woman.

c. Examples:

[These instructions refer to a graph of question 21 on the census form]