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National Bureau of Statistics Abuja, Nigeria
General Household Survey [2010/2011]

[Post-Planting Instruction Form for Panel Households]

Interviewer Instruction Manual, July, 2010

[Table of contents omitted.]

Chapter 1: Introduction
In the past decades, Nigeria has experienced substantial gaps in producing adequate and timely data to inform policy making. In particular, the country is lagging behind in producing sufficient and accurate agricultural production statistics. The current set of household and farm surveys conducted by the NBS cover a wide range of sectors, usually in separate surveys, except for the Harmonized National Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) which covers multiple topics. However, none of these surveys is conducted as a panel. As part of the efforts to continue to improve data collection and usability, the NBS plans to streamline two of its current surveys into one panel survey that covers multiple sectors with a focus to improve data from the agriculture sector. The NBS plans to implement the Nigerian General Household Panel Survey (NGHPS) which will be integrated into the current General Household Survey (GHS) and will be conducted every 2 or 3 years.

Towards the goal of improving agricultural statistics, the World Bank, through funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), will support seven countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in strengthening the production of household-level data on agriculture. The over-arching objective of the LSMS-ISA program is to improve our understanding of agriculture in Sub- Saharan Africa – specifically, its role in poverty reduction, and how innovation and efficiency can be fostered in the sector. This goal will be achieved by developing and implementing an innovative model for collecting agricultural data in the region.

Objectives

Allowing welfare levels to be produced at the state level using small area estimation techniques resulting in state-level poverty figures

With the integration of the longitudinal panel survey with GHS, it will be possible to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of poverty indicators and socio-economic characteristics

Support the development and implementation of a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) application for the paperless collection of GHS

Developing an innovating model for collecting agricultural data

Capacity building and developing sustainable systems for the production of accurate and timely information on agricultural households in Nigeria

Active dissemination of agriculture statistics

Coverage

The survey will cover all the 36 states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT)

Both urban and rural enumeration areas (EAs) will be canvassed

Scope
The survey will cover a wide range of socio-economic topics which are highlighted in three different questionnaires to be used for data collection. These are Household Questionnaire, Agricultural Questionnaire and Community/Prices Questionnaire.

Household Questionnaire will be used to collect information on:

Household identification

Household member roster, demographic and migration

Education Status

Labour and Time use (Adults and children 5 years and above)

Credit and Savings

Household Assets

Non-Farm Enterprises

Consumption of food (recall)

Non-food consumption expenditure

Food security

Other non-labour income sources

Agricultural Questionnaire will collect information on:

Basic crop, livestock, poultry, fishery, forestry production, storage and sales
Productivity of main crops, with emphasis on improved measures of:
Quantification of production

Plot size

Production stocks (pest, etc)
Land Holdings
Size and tenure/ titling

Transaction
Access to and use of services, infrastructure and natural resources
Agricultural Extension Services

Infrastructure (including roads)

Credit (both for agriculture and other purposes)

Education and health

Market access

Access to information

Access to natural and common property resources
Input use and technology adoption
Family and hired labour

Use of technology and farming implements

Seed varieties

Fertilizer, pesticides etc.
GPS measure of plot size, etc

Community/prices questionnaire. This will be used to collect data on community and prices components.

Community component
Assess to community characteristics including infrastructure

Access to public services, social networks, governance, investment projects and necessary community empowerment etc.
Prices component
Item specification

Unit of measure
Observation 1
Price

Quantity

Outlet
Observation 2
Price

Quantity

Outlet, etc

Chapter 2: Sample Design and Organization of Field Activities

The frame of EAs of 2006 Housing and Population Census conducted by National Population Commission NpopC will be used

The National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) – 2007/2012 Master Sample Frame (MSF) will be adopted for the survey

However, the NISH 2007/2012 master sample was constructed from LGA master sample which may be called master frame

In order to select the NISH sub-sample of EAs in each state:

The 30 master sample EAs in each LGA for that state were pooled together

Hence, the total number of EAs in the LGA master sample for each state is equal to 30 times the number of the LGAs in the state except in FCT, Abuja where it is 40 times

Then, systematic sample of 200 sample EAs were selected with equal probability across all LGAs within the state

The NISH EAs in each state were divided into 20 replicates of 10 EAs each

The sample EAs for most national household surveys such as the GHS are based on a subsample of the NISH master sample, selected as a combination of replicates from the NISH frame

However, the Household Panel Survey will be subset of the GHS EAs 2010

A stratified multi-stage sample design is used for the GHS 2010

As mentioned earlier, the GHS is based on a subsample of replicates from the NISH frame

A total of six (6) NISH replicates with 60EAs for each state are identified in the frame with NISH RIC 10 to 15

At the second sampling stage, 10 households are selected in each sample EA for the GHS systematically with equal probability

The GHS is designed to have a 50% rotation of the replicates of sample EAs each year, providing a 50% overlap in the sample from one year to the next

This sample rotation scheme will improve the estimates of trend over time when comparing the GHS results from one year to the next

However, there is no overlap in the sample EAs for GHS rounds of two (2) years apart

A longitudinal methodology will be used for the panel survey

This will involve selecting a subsample of EAs and households that are included in GHS 2010, and following this sample in 2011 and subsequent years

However, one limitation of a panel of sample households is that it suffers from attrition over time as some households move, split or cease to exist

Although, there are plans to follow the households that move or split in order to reduce the level of attrition and measure the characteristics of these households

But given the costs of following households that move or split, certain criteria will have to be established to determine which cases can be followed

Finally, in the case of a new household living in the same household as the original sample household that moved, it can automatically be selected for the survey; it will be treated as “natural” replacement, but it may not be considered part of the original panel of sample households for the longitudinal study

Pilot Test

A total of six (6) states were covered for the pilot test

Each of the six geo-political zones of the country were represented by a state

Two (2) EAs, one (1) urban, one (1) rural were canvassed in each of the selected state

Five (5) households were studied in each EA

Two levels of training were adopted, that is training of trainers (TOT) for headquarters staff and zonal/state training for the field personnel

The 1st level training lasted for 3 days while the 2nd level last for 4 days

A team comprising of one (1) supervisor, 4 interviewers carried out data collection in each selected state

Data collection lasted for 5 days

Main Survey

500 EAs will be canvassed throughout the Federation and FCT, Abuja

Ten (10) households will be studied in each EA, making a total of 5000 households to be interviewed nationally

Number of EAs / households to be covered varies from state to state

p. 9

[Omitted: Organization of field activities]

p. 12

Chapter 3: General Survey Procedures

The structure of the questionnaire
The questionnaire is composed of the household questionnaire, the agricultural questionnaire, and the community questionnaire. The community questionnaire is described in a separate manual because this questionnaire is administered by the supervisor. The sections of the questionnaire are described below.

The household questionnaire

[Section, section name, and description of areas covered]

Cover
Cover: Identification of household and location. Administrative data about field staff and the conducting of the survey at the household

Section 1
Roster: This section provides a list of household members and is used to record basic demographic information about these members

Section 2
Education: Education and qualification of household members five years and older. Also collects information about students in school. This includes in the type of school, distance and mode of transportation, class level and costs.

Section 3
Labour: This section collects information on the labour activities of all household members five years and older. Information on the type of work that individuals do, either on their own account (as their own boss), for others, or in household enterprises will be collected. The hours and income earned will also be recorded in this section.

Section 4
Credit and savings: This section collects information on the use and type of credit that individuals 15 years and older within the household have taken. Information about individuals savings practices are also collected.

Section 5
Household Assets: Measurement of household asset holdings, who within the household owns these items and their value.

Section 6
Non-farm enterprises: Description of non-farm activities including the type of activity, the revenue from these activities, and the costs of operating these enterprises.

Section 7A
Meals away from home: Food consumption that is taken away from the home by individuals within the household

Section 7B
Household food expenditures: Food consumption of household members over the past 7 days, including food consumed, food purchased, food consumed from own-production, and food received as gifts.

Section 8
Household non- food expenditures: Non-food expenditures of all household members including frequent and non-frequent purchases.

Section 9
Food security: Information regarding the regularity of food consumption and vulnerability of household to food insecurity.

Section 10
Other income Savings interest and other income sources are collected in this section

Contact information: Information to follow up with the household on subsequent visits.

[Numbers and names of sections, and their descriptions for the agricultural questionnaire have been omitted here.]

P. 15

[Omitted: The interviewer’s task.]

P. 19

General instructions on filling out the questionnaire

How to use the Flaps

There is one flap in the household questionnaire. After the cover has been completed, the next step is to open flap A. All the information on this flap should be completed for the household. The row where a person's name is placed on the flap will be the row in which all the information about that person will be given in sections 1 to 6. The flap is kept open so that the row that corresponds to the person will always be visible.

[Figure 1 is omitted.]

Listing members
The first step in Section 1 is to list the names of all members of the household on the flap. The person listed in the first row will always be the head of the household. If the respondent to the questionnaire is not the head of the household, the head of the household will still be listed in the first row (not the respondent).

The process of listing household members should be done carefully to ensure that no one is missed. All person who usually eat and sleep in the dwelling are considered to be household members. To ensure complete coverage, the interviewer should explicitly ask about three types of persons which are commonly overlooked by survey respondents. The first is persons who are temporarily absent; they should be included. The second are servants. Finally, the interviewer should ask whether there are any infants or small children who have not been listed, as very young children are often overlooked in accounting for household members. As many as 12 persons can be listed in the Household Roster. If there are more than 12 household members, the

p. 20

interviewer will need to use a follow-up questionnaire.

Note: Children at boarding school are to be included.

The space provide after the individual number is for you to write member names. First household member listed should always be household head. Note that the supervisor will give the interviewer the name of the 'household head' so that you can search for the household. If the respondent identifies a different household head to that which was provided by the supervisor, then double check that you are interviewing the right household. Once you have established that this is the right household, then continue the interview with the household head indicated by the respondent (not the one given by the supervisor). In such cases always provide a comment in the comments box thus making sure that there is an explanation for the confusion.

How to read the questions
Each question should be read clearly and exactly as presented in the questionnaire. You should make sure that the way the question is read preserves the sense of the English question, rather than a word by word translation. If you have questions about how to phrase a question, you should ask your supervisor and refer to your notes from the training where the phrasing of questions in local language will be discussed in detail. After reading the question, time should be allowed for the respondent to answer. If it appears the respondent did not hear the question, it should be read again and time allowed for a response. In cases where there has to be translation, the question should be translated as literally as possible.

Upper and lower case texts (capital letters and small letters)
Texts written in upper case (capital) letters are instructions to the interviewer and should not be read to the respondent. Other texts that you will see written with upper case letters are lists and codes. These also should not be read to the respondent.

Text written in lower case (small) letters should be read directly to the respondent.

For example, in Question 9 (see Figure 2 below), you should read: “In what year did you get married to your current spouse”. You should not read the text below that because it is written with upper case (capital) letters. The text in upper case letters is an instruction to you.

[Figure 3 is omitted.]

P. 21

Data collection strategy

Different number of visits: the questionnaire modules can be filled during one or more visits, depending on the level of cooperation from the household, household size, time and availability of direct respondent at the time of interview.

Where certain household members are not at home, the interviewer should schedule another visit to the same household when that person is expected to be at home and available for interview. That other visit should be scheduled during the period when it is envisaged that the interviewer would be in that area.

Direct respondent interviews: In this survey, unlike many other surveys, we collect data directly from the respondents. This is in contrast to surveys where the head of household or his/her spouse are the only respondents who answers on behalf of all household members. Instead, in the GHS Panel Survey, each person 5 years and above should respond directly to the interviewer for him/herself. For children under 5, a parent or care giver is respondent. The only exception to the age limit rule is where there are other respondent age restrictions as indicated in the various sections of the questionnaire.

In some cases a household member may be away from home during the whole period when the interviewer is in that area, or the member might be in poor health/disability and cannot answer the questions for him/herself. It might also be that the individual is not allowed to answer. In such cases, the interviewer can ask the most knowledgeable person to answer instead of household member that is unavailable.

In order to collect information directly from each household member, interviewers should visit the household as many times as necessary to get information from each individual member. Compliance with these procedures would ensure quality, reliability and accuracy of collected and entered questionnaire data.
p. 22

1. Data entry and correction of inconsistencies: Immediately after each visit, data will be entered and checked for consistency and completeness. Information would be revealed on any inconsistency, error or omissions, and the supervisor would inform the interviewer on all such corrections which are to be made on a return visit. This system enables data correction by the ones who are most competent to do it: the respondents who gave the original answers themselves.

2. Organization of work: In order to enable implementation of this methodology, workload by interviewer per certain period of time is to be defined. The interviewer is responsible to complete such work during the given time.

Keep in mind that the households to be interviewed could have different cultural background and different reactions, attitudes and behavior in terms of the survey. The interviewer would have to interact with households of different structure, social and economic status, different level of education, employment status, habits, religion, etc. It means that the interviewer should have to develop significant capability of understanding and communication in order to be able to establish good relation with different persons, and that way to achieve success in different situations which he/she could face during the survey, particularly difficult ones. Besides the above mentioned, the interviewer must establish confidence with the respondent, which would enable him/her to get reliable and positive survey results.

1. Access to information: The moment when the interviewer and respondent meet for the first time is crucial for interview success. Thus, first impression is important, interviewer's appearance; his/her attitude at the very beginning and what he/she says is crucial for further work. Interviewers should be properly and professionally dressed for their work.

Once selected households are located, the interviewer should ask to talk to the head of the household or his/her spouse. He/she should kindly and in a friendly manner greet the person and introduce him/herself. Then the interviewer should explain briefly and concisely the purpose of the survey, importance of the project and the need for cooperation by all household members in carrying out the GHS Panel Survey in Nigeria.

[An example of how the interviewer could introduce him/herself is omitted]:

It is important that the interviewer has a friendly attitude towards the respondent with self- confidence. If the interviewer gives the impression of nervousness or insecurity, he/she would not provide enough confidence to the respondent in order to obtain the necessary cooperation, participation and attention.
p. 23

The interviewer should always try to maintain the same mood throughout the interview: if the respondent for any reason gets tired or disturbed, allow a few minutes break or offer to return the following day or the next most convenient time.

2. Communication: Communication is to be established after the interviewer introduces him/herself, explains that this survey is being implemented throughout the country, and inform the respondents of the value of cooperation for those who would analyze options for addressing existing problems in the country, until the interviewer becomes ready to start filling the questionnaire. During this short period, the interviewer must explain the purposes of the survey, and emphasize that collected data are confidential. The later is crucial to avoid any fear of misuse of the answers given. All data would be used for statistic purposes, and the data which identify in any way any person or any household would not be used.

Keep in mind that at the beginning of the interview, level of attention, communication, confidence, participation and data provision is low. Interviewer's task is to gradually increase the respondent's attention and interest and to maintain it at the highest possible level throughout the interview. Rhythm of the survey, tone of questions, adequate speed in question formulation, dynamics of the interview itself, knowledge about the questions and their order are all factors that determine success of the interview. If the interviewer reads questions with monotonous or nervous voice, or without any rhythm, the obtained information are likely to be of poor quality and the respondent would not be interested to answer.

The interviewer should not give the impression that he/she considers him/herself an important person because of the assignment he/she performs on behalf of the government institution. He/she should be open, friendly and decisive and show that he/she is an experienced professional person. He/she should not be authoritative or aggressive. Best communication can be established when the respondent sees that the interviewer is honest and up to his/her task.

3. The interview: When the interview starts, try to comply continuously with the following instructions:

Plan sufficient time for the interview,

Behave appropriately throughout the interview,

Do not give any information about which we are not sure, it is better to seem uninformed, but honest. To avoid any conversation or attitude which could lead to a discussion or argument with the respondent, limit the conversation to the survey topics only.

Give neither promises nor offer anything as an incentive for the respondent to participate in the survey,

To the extent possible, try to avoid conducting the interview in the presence of a person who is not a household member; the respondent could give different answers in the presence of another person,

Do not show surprise by any answer given by the respondent, either by the tone of your voice or action.

Comply strictly with the order and format in asking questions from the questionnaire. In other words, comply strictly with instructions given. Any modification could jeopardize the integrity of the information.

Read questions without applying any pressure on the respondent in any way. Never say something like: "You worked last week, right?”. Never assume that you know the answer in advance.

In terms of the rhythm of the interview, keep in mind that the interview consists of questions, answers, moment of silence and breaks. Read questions trying to keep the same rhythm all the time, give the respondent time to think about the answer. The interviewer must assess the level of respondent's understanding: question reading speed would depend on this. Besides the interviewer must pronounce every single word he/she reads clearly.

Read obligatory questions literary as they are written in the questionnaire (without any modification). In the case that the respondent does not understand it, read it again. If the respondent does not understand it after the second reading, explain carefully to him/her the purpose of the question, taking care not to amend in any way the original meaning of the question and without any influence on the answer.

Allow the respondent enough time to answer the question. Try to ensure that respondent does not amend the meaning of the question. Do it in a friendly way: experience will show which are best ways to achieve this.

To complete the interview, express thanks for the information received: be kind. Try to make good impression during the first visit to the household, keep in mind that you would have to come again to the same household.

Do not offer copies of the questionnaire or any other material or anything else, that the interviewer is not authorized to distribute.

When leaving the household, thank all the respondents for their cooperation in the survey, time they spent and the efforts they invested.

4. Concepts and main definitions: In order to manage the survey properly, a list of key terms have been established, which should help interviewers in carrying out their work. Detailed definitions are provided in relevant Chapters on individual Modules.

Population: Set of elements which make the whole. That could be all the people in a country or an entity, all households, all household, etc.

Sample: a part of population representing the whole population. Sample selection is a subject of statistical methods that take into account characteristics of both the population and individual members of the population.

Direct interview: Procedure by which information on certain person is collected directly from the person. The person giving information on him/herself is a “direct respondent”.

Reference period: Period about which the respondent is asked questions. The survey uses different reference periods depending on type of required information, respondent?s ability to remember and objectives of each topic to be analyzed.

Household is social unit consisting of one or more persons who use joint accommodation and food. In other words, a household is a group of person who

p.25

normally live in the same household unit (“live under the same roof”), who are or are not related and who eat together (“eat from the same pot”).

Head of the household: is a person defined as such for the purpose of the survey, irrespective of reason (the oldest by age, decision maker in the household, a person who earns the most income, based on tradition, etc.).

Guest: a person who use joint accommodation and food free of charge together with household members. Guest who stays longer than six months is considered household member.

Tenant of the household: a person who pays for accommodation in a part of a household. This person is not a member of the household whether they eat on his/her own or prepare food seperately. Such tenant is considered a separate household.

Students who study in another town, but they are supported by the household are treated as household members, although they more than six months absent.

Household members: Anybody who meets the following criteria:
Members
A household member is present at the moment of interview, if that is the place where he/she spent at least 6 months of the previous 12 months. The household head should be listed as a member even if they did not spend 6 of the previous 12 months in the household.

Person absent at the moment of interview, if he/she is absent less than six months during the previous 12 months.

Guests or other persons who live in the household longer than six months during the previous 12 months.
Newborn babies irrespectively of duration of their stay in the household as well as the head of the household.

Students who are absent longer than six months but are supported by household members.
Non-members
Person absent from the household longer than 6 months (including ones serving military service, in prison, religious service, etc.)

Those who live elsewhere, visitors or tourists who are in the household less than six months.

Tenants who eat and who do not eat with the household.

Those who eat in the household but live elsewhere or live in the household but eat elsewhere.

Similar to tenants, students who pay for accommodation and food to the household.

5. Organization of the questionnaire. In order to maintain respondent's attention, to achieve good rhythm of the interview, get information in a such form which facilitates questionnaire

P. 26

filling, the questionnaire is designed with specific structure and order by which the topic on which questions are asked, are organized.

The questions in the questionnaires are organized into Sections which are ordered in sequences one after another, and each is on one of the surveyed topics.

The interview must be carried out in exactly the same order defined in the questionnaire. The following tables provide a list of Sections and the topics covered. Detailed information on each section can be found in subsequent chapters of this Manual.

Household Questionnaire
[This section outlines sections covered in the questionnaire, the topic associated with each section, and who is the respondent in each section]

Cover
Cover: To be completed by the field staff

Section 1
Roster: to be filled by the head of household or spouse.

Section 2
Education: all individuals for themselves unless under age 12, then collect the information from parent or guardian

Section 3
Labour: all individuals for themselves unless under age 12, then collect the information from parent or guardian

Section 4
Credit and savings: all individuals 15 years and above

Section 5
Household assets: Head of household or eligible adult

Section 6
Non-farm enterprises: Owner or manager of enterprise

Section 7A
Meals away from home expenditures: Most knowledgeable person

Section 7B
Household food expenses: Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases

Section 8
Household non-food expenses: Most knowledgeable person or person who is responsible for household purchases

Section 9
Food security: Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases

P. 27

Section 10
Other income: Household head or eligible adult

Contact information
Contact information: Household head or eligible adult

P. 28

[Omitted: The outline of agricultural activity questionnaire.]

6. Type of information: the GHS Panel questionnaire requires different types of information depending on the topic which is to be analyzed, age, and level of details and accuracy of required information. In all cases, the interviewer asks for direct respondent

In case of persons older than 12, such person is the direct respondent.

Besides in sections on specific topics, such as consumption, agriculture and family business, direct respondent is person who is most knowledgeable about this subject (enterprise owner, person who does farming, person in the household in charge of supply, etc.).

See previous Table for information on the most suitable respondent for each Module of the questionnaire.

7. Questionnaire filling: The questionnaire includes different elements:

Question: it is to be literarily read to the respondent based on which information required in the survey is obtained. Each question is numbered.

Answer modality or core: these are possible answers, the interviewer selects answer code which is closest to the respondent's answer. (Pay attention that in many questions there are not offered modalities, but measure units to be used in the answer (year, KM, kg, etc.)).

Answer box: it is a place envisaged to enter given answer

Instruction for interviewer: these are printed in CAPITAL letters, which facilitates survey implementation.

Skip patterns: Questions are normally asked in order one after another. However, in some cases given answer defines which question to ask next, or which question is to be skipped. Questionnaire uses certain marks which show which question is to be skipped.

P. 30

[Omitted: Figure demonstrating how questions are filled in]

8. Question types: There are two types of questions used in the GHS Panel questionnaire:

Closed questions;

a) both question text and question code are read: for this type of questions the interviewer must literally read both question and, slowly, one by one, list of offered codes. In such questions both question and code are printed in small letters.

b) only question text is read: for this type of questions, the interviewer reads only the text of the question, waits for the answer and then selects corresponding code and enters it. In this type of questions, question text is printed in small letters and question codes are printed in capital letters.
Open questions: for this type of questions, the interviewer reads only question text and then enters answer exactly as given by the respondent. For such questions there are no offered answers, and the interviewer enters either words or numbers depending on the question and answer. “Respondent's name” is an example of open question where the interviewer enters words.

p. 31

9. Note for the interviewer
Anything printed in capital letters presents instruction for the interviewer and should not be read loudly. Capital letters are used in three cases:

Instructions for interviewer: these are instructions for the interviewer on how to ask question, how to enter data, what to do after the answer is given.

[Examples are omitted here.]

P. 32

Brackets and capital letters: it means that the interviewer has to replace the word in the brackets by another word, when he/she asks the question. In certain sections of the questionnaire, the word “name” is often written in brackets [name]. In such cases this work should be replaced by actual name of the person interviewed at that moment.

Figure 3 below shows flap A open with a part of section 1 – roster, shown.

If Mrs. Onyido is the respondent on this section of the questionnaire then following the rules of filling out the questionnaire, you would seek answers for the person in the first row of the section, in this case Mr. Onyido.

In asking the question, you should replace [name] with the name of the person on the flap. You would read question 12 as follows:
“What is Mr. Onyido?s main religion?”

p. 33

[Figure 3 is omitted here.]

If the person is answering for him or herself, the [Name] should be replaced with either “You” or “Your” as appropriate

[Example is omitted here.]

p. 34

Preventing influence on the answer: In question where an opinion is requested, answer modalities are often written in capital letters (that is the other type of closed question). It means that the interviewer does not read answer modalities and waits for the respondent to answer him/herself. (In other question modalities are written in small letters and interviewer should read them loudly)

[Example is omitted here.]

10. Order of asking questions and skip pattern.
In order to maintain logical sequence of filling questionnaire a system of skip patterns, which enables interviewer to follow course of the interview depending on received answers from the respondent, has been developed. Depending on the answer given by the respondent some questions would be asked, another would be skipped. In order to ensure this, the questionnaire is to be filled in order moving from left to right. It helps interviewer to carry out interview without going back and force and checking previous answers.

The questionnaires are to be filled, in order question by question, except in cases of special instruction, everybody is to be asked question 1, then question 2, 3 etc, see Figure 5.

For example, in section where a flap is used, you should record the data one row (or person) at a time. At the end of the section, or where you are instructed to go to the next person, you should

P. 35

record information for the next person in the row below. This should be done until you have completed all persons for that section.

[Figure 5 is omitted here.]

But, not all respondents should answer all the questions. For example, if person is not employed, he/she should not be asked about his/her job- such questions would be inappropriate. Besides, it would make interview longer and annoy the respondent. For these reasons, the questionnaire includes clear skip patterns, which indicate to the interviewer, which person should not be asked which questions, depending on the answer to previous question.

There are numerous instructions for skipping questions and moving to another part of the questionnaire in the most efficient and logical way. Examples of such questions are given below: since they present key component of the questionnaire, their proper understanding would have significant impact on the quality of the answers and duration of the interview.

The following signs are used to identify skip patterns:

If there is no any sign, then all the respondents are asked the next question, irrespectively of their answer to the previous question.

[Example is omitted here.]

P. 36

If there is arrow followed by 'q' and a number q18, it means that the interviewer should move directly to the question with the number, in this particular case question number 18.
P. 37

[Example is omitted here.]

Sometimes all persons asked certain question skip to another question, Section or Person. In that case instruction in the box is printed in capital letters.

[Example is omitted here.]

P. 38

12. Types of data to be entered: There are two types of data to be recorded based on the information direct and transcript.

Direct: Direct one is when the interviewer needs to enter verbatim what the respondent says. It could be numerical data (quantity or price) or textual data (respondent's name, employment sector).

Transcript: It is when there are predetermined codes for expected different answers. The interviewer should identify corresponding code and enter it in the relevant box.

P. 39

[Instruction information]
In order to avoid errors in transcription the interviewer must be particularly careful, taking due care to enter data in the box envisaged for the interviewed person. Since answer box envisaged for interviewed person is distant from individual's ID and distant from the place where question text and modality are loaded, the interviewer must take care to make proper entry.

13. Measurement units

For all question when the respondent is asked to specify certain quantity, amount, frequency, different measure units are offered (e.g. kilogram-sack, month-year, meter-kilometer, etc.) among which the respondent can choose the most suitable measure unit to him/her, and which is easiest for him/her to give answer to required question. The respondent can choose, within the same section, to give answers for different items in different measure units (e.g. seed use for different crops could be expressed in different measure units).

After the interviewer asks, household or individual first chooses the unit of measure in which they want to answer, and then give answer on quantity, amount or frequency. The interviewer enters measure unit code in the corresponding column, and after that the amount, quantity or frequency.

The interviewer enters data on such measure unit as the respondent says and does not do any conversion. All necessary conversions would be done by computers during data entry or survey analysis process. Questions would be answered either by whole numbers or by decimal numbers. Decimal is to be separated from the whole number by comma (,).

14. Lack of information

When the respondent, for any reason, gives no answer to the asked question, the interviewer should record 9999 if the respondent does not know or cannot remember the answer or refuses to answer in the relevant box.

15. Entering “0” as an answer

If the question is about quantity (e.g. number of days, hectares, value, km, etc.) zero is correct answer and should be always entered if the respondent gives such an answer.

If the question contains categories, rather than value, zero is not valid answer. The interviewer should enter number, or in case of no answer 9999.

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In case there are more answers offered for asked question, and the respondent gives only one answer, the interweaver should enter hyphen (-) in the other columns, to indicate that only one answer was given.

16. Correcting errors in the questionnaire

The questionnaire is to be filled by pen. In case of error, the interviewer should strikethrough the data so that one is still able to see the original and enter correct answer in the same box.

The following chapters provide instruction for filling out the questionnaires and their sections.

Chapter 4: The Household Questionnaire

Cover

Household Identification (household ID): six (6) cells provided
The first two cells are for the state code and next cells are for serial number of the questionnaire used in the particular state. Let us use Abia State as an example the state code for Abia state is 01 if this is the 1st questionnaire then it will have code 0001. You should enter the information as 01001. If you use more than 1 questionnaire in a particular household then you must copy the household ID of the household questionnaire to all other questionnaire in that particular household.

Questionnaire of total: This refers to number of questionnaire administered in each selected household E.g. one questionnaire in an household should be filled in as 1 of 1, while two questionnaires in an household should be filled in as 1 of 2 for the household questionnaire and 2 of 2 for the other questionnaire.

The information for filling out the questions below should be copied from the EA line map and selection sheet

Zone: The name and code of the zone where the interview was conducted should be recorded in the space and box provided

State: The name and code of the state where the interview was conducted should be recorded in the space and box provided

L.G.A: This is the Local Government Area (LGA): the name and code of the LGA where the interview is being conducted should be written in the space and box provided

Sector: A sector can be either urban or rural; one box is provided for entry of 1 for urban and 2 rural.

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E.A code: The E.A. name should be written first follow by the code E.A. The EA code is make up of four digits and if it less than four digits there should be leading zero.

RIC: This is the replicate identification code number of the E.A.


Household number:
The household number is also represented by three digit code. This is the serial number obtained from the listing form in each selected EA and this can be copied from the listing form or selection sheet.

Name and address of head of household
This can be confirm from the selection sheet and should be printed boldly in the space provided.


Supervisor/interviewer name:
The interviewer/supervisor will write his/her own name and the code assigned to him/her during training as a form of control to ensure the quality of data collected.

There are two large boxes on the right hand side of the cover page of the questionnaire in the 1st box we have questions S1 to S3 in the second box questions AG1 to AG3.

Questions S1: The Supervisor will respond to the question indicating if this household is or is not replacement household. If this is not a replacement household the questions S2 and S3 should not be answered.

Questions S2: Only answer this question if response to S1 is yes. The Supervisor will insert the ID of the household that this replacement household replaces.

Questions S3: The Supervisor will indicate the reason the selected household was replaced. This can be either that the selected household was vacant or could not be located.

The questions AG1-AG3 are used to determine if the agriculture questionnaire should be administered to the household. Questions AG1 and AG2 should be completed by interviewer based on responses from the household head.

Questions AG3: Please pay attention to this particular question. If response to questions AG1 and AG2 is no, then make sure the household has no other agriculture activity including any livestock or fishery activities. Recall that the definition of an agricultural activity is: Agriculture is the system of cultivating soil for production of crops, horticulture, livestock/poultry, fishing, forestry and in varying degrees. If the response of AG1 and AG2 is 2 and the household has no other agricultural activity, place “2” as response to this question. In the case of all other responses to AG1 and AG2 response to AG3 must be “1” 42

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Date of interviews (first, second and third)
This is a six digit number to represent the Day, Month, and Year that the first, the second and the third interview were carried out.

Time of interview (first, second and third): These questions seek to determine the time spent conducting the interview. The starting and ending time must only include the period the interview is being conducted. Note: the times should be recorded in GMT (24 hours) e.g. if the time is 1pm the correct recording will be13: 00.

Questions 15a, 18a and 21a: These questions serve as a check list for the sections of the questionnaire yet to be completed at the first visit, second visit and the third visit. At the end of the first day of interview in a household, the interviewer should mark the sections yet to be completed. At the second or third visit the check list will guide the interviewer to know the sections to concentrate upon in order to complete all the sections of the questionnaire required in that household.

Cover Page 3: There are two questions. These questions should be answer when the field work for the household has been completed.

Question 1: This gives the status of the interview process with the household. That is, it relate to all questionnaires for that particular household.

Question 2: This gives the status of data entry for all questionnaires from that particular household.

Section 1 – Roster

The purpose of section is to: -
Main objective of this section is to identify all the persons who should be considered household members and collect general demographic information on them, such as age, gender, marital status, etc.

The first step in completing the roster is to open flap A. Flap A is on page 24 of the questionnaire and contains question 1 to question 4. This flap must be completely filled out before answering any other question in the roster.

Respondent: This person should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head in the household should be interviewed. This person should be a member of the household and must be capable of providing all the necessary information on each household member. The interviewer may have to ask a few questions to be able to identify suitable respondent. Note that other members of the household can help by adding information or details in the questions concerning themselves.

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Household: In this survey, a household will be defined as a group of people who have usually slept in the same dwelling and taken their meals together for at least 6 of the 12 months preceding the interview. The following are examples of a household: -

A household consisting of a man and his wife/wives and children, father/mother, nephew and other relatives or non-relatives;

A household consisting of a single person;

A household consisting of a couple or several couples with or without their children.

All listed persons who have been away from the household for more than three months are not considered to be household members except:-

Person identified as the head of household even if he has not been with the household for 6 months or more;

Newly born children;

Students and seasonal workers who have not been living in or as part of another household.

Head of household: Usually the head of the household is the person who provides most of the needs of the household and is familiar with all the activities and occupations of the household members. He will be the person named when you ask the question "Who is the head of this household?"

Instructions for filling out the roster
The household roster must be filled out with the greatest care. The following steps must be followed:

Completion of flap A

1. Fill-in the name of the household head in the first row of question 1. This should be done even if the household head is absent.

2. Next, enter the names of members of his/her immediate family (wife or wives/husband, and children) who sleep and also take their meals together in the dwelling. If he has more than one wife record their names according to their ranks with their children, i.e. the most senior wife followed by her children, and then the next wife and her children all in that order.

3. Enter the names of other persons who are related to the head of household and his/her wife or husband who also sleep in the dwelling and take their meals with the household.

4. Other persons unrelated to the head of household or his/her wife (or wives)/husband who sleep in the dwelling and take their meals with the household, e.g. servants, etc.

5. Also list those people who have slept under the same roof as the household during the night preceding the interview even if they do not normally live with the household.

6. Lastly, list all the persons not present at the time of interview, but who normally live, sleep and eat together with the household who have re, i.e. those who are temporarily away for schooling, temporarily left for marriage, vacation, seasonal work, illness, giving birth, etc.

Specifically:

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Question 1: The interviewer should make a complete list of all individuals that normally live and eat their meals together in the household, starting with the head of the household (see Figure XX below). The individual ID has already been filled for the interviewer at the left-hand side of the name. Provision is made for 12 household members. If there are more than 12 household members, a second household questionnaire should be used and the first person on that questionnaire should be number 13 and so on. The interviewer should confirm that household head here is the same as household head listed on the Cover page.

Question 2: Against each of the names listed in question 1 indicate the sex by putting the correct code. For instance, if you write Elizabeth as a wife and Helen, as daughter to the head of household, then you will write code “2” for her sex. The interviewer must also ask the sex of small children when in doubt. For example, in communities where some names are unisex such as Inobong, Iniobong, Toyin, Tayo, Ngozi, Ifeanyi and yemi.etc always ask for the sex of a child before recording it.

Question 3: Against each of the names listed, indicate the relationship to the head of household by printing the appropriate code. For instance, Cletus and Helen are members of the household and they are children of the head of the household. In this case, the interviewer should write code 3 in question 3 against the names of these two persons. Mabel is the sister of the head of household so code 7 should be entered in her case; while Justina who is Lawrence's mother will have code 10 as the entry for this question.

Definition of Relationships
1- Household head: The member who makes key decisions in the household and whose authority is acknowledged by other members. It should be borne in mind that the key decision maker may not necessarily be the oldest. Other factors within the household can determine who the head is such as what proportion of income is member's to total household income.

2- Spouse is the married or partner by mutual consent of the head.

3- Own child refers to biological child.

4- Stepchild: The biological child of a spouse in a previous union (marriage).

5- Adopted child: A child acquired from orphanage

6- Grandchildren: Children from your son(s) or daughter(s)

7- Brother/sister: A male/Female children born of the same parent

8- Niece/nephew: The daughter/Son of the brother/sister of the head of the household.

10- Brother/sister in –law: Brother/sister of the spouse of the household head.

11- Parent in-law: Parent of the spouse of the household head.

12- Domestic help (resident): (servant, guard, cook, baby-sitter among others) refers to a person who lives with the household and who is paid for services rendered in the household either in cash or kind.

13- Domestic help (non-resident): (servant, guard, cook, baby-sitter among others) refers to a person who does not live with the household and who is paid for services rendered in the household either in cash or kind.

14- Other Relation: Other relatives of the head of the household.

15- Other Non-Relation: Other non-relatives.


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Question 4: Age is an important variable for most socio-economic analysis and must be established as accurately as possible. This refers to age as at last birthday. The age of each person will be recorded in completed years. This is the age of the person at their last birthday. If someone will be 25 years old in two weeks after the date of interview, the recorded age would be 24. Ages of nine years or less will be recorded with a leading zero for example '03'; infants less than one year old will be recorded '00'. For older individuals who may have problem determining their exact age, the interviewer will probe to obtain an estimate. Try to make the best possible estimate. Please make use of the national calendar of events to assist in determining the ages of such individuals. The field supervisor should also be of great help in determining the age of the elderly. Information supplied in question 4 above should be a guide here. Note also that for children aged 5 years and less, the age is very important in interpreting child malnutrition. The age of persons 100 years and older should be recorded as 98.

How to use the historical calendar:
Ask of any historical event (national or local) which occurred around the time of birth or childhood.

Ask how old respondent was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth.

Then use the information obtained to calculate the age. For example, if respondent was 15 when Nigeria obtained independence, this person should be 15 + 45 (i.e. 1st October 1960 to 23rd September 2005) = 60 years. If still this methodology fails try the next approach.

Simply estimate how old the respondent may be based on some district historical events, some events which occurred.

[Table on flap to be used with section 1 to section 4 is omitted here.]

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Question 5: Ask household members in what day, month, and year was the person born. Record "99" for months and "9999" for years if the respondent states that they don't know. But try as much as possible to establish the year, the person was born by probing. The date of birth should match with the age that the respondent has stated in question 4.

Question 6: asks the respondent how many months the household member has been away in the last 12 months. Probe to get the correct number of months and proceed to question 7.

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Question 7: Interviewer should determine who is a household member by following the criteria listed. Exclude domestic help (non resident) from question 3. Exclude individuals who have not been resident in the household for more than 6 months (question 6). Include newborn babies and students who have not been living in or part of another household, and new spouses in the household.

Question 8: present marital status refers to the respondent's marital status on the day of interview.

Definition of marital status
1- Married (monogamy) includes all types of marriages e.g. civil, traditional and common law to only one woman. It is also a state of having only one sexual partner at any one time. The word monogamy comes from the Greek word called Mono which means one or alone and the Greek word Gamos which means marriage or union.

2 - Married (polygamy) includes all types of marriages e.g. civil, traditional and common law to more than one woman. It is also defined as having more than one wife or husband at the same time, usually a man with several wives.

3 - Informal/loose union refers to a relationship contracted by two adults living together without civil or traditional recognition. Such people may report that they are married, so probe carefully and sensitively to find out the actual marriage contract.

4 - Divorce: When a marriage is legally dissolved

5 - Separation: Living apart without legal backing

6 - Widowed: A situation where one of the couple is dead.

7 - Never married: A situation where the respondent is single and has never been married before.

Question 9: This is the year in which the marriage took place e.g. 1982. If this question concerns a male with multiple wives, the interviewer should enquire and record the year of marriage to the first wife only.

Question 10: This questions seeks to determine if the household member's spouse is currently a member of the household. In the case of a male in a polygamous relationship, the interviewer should enquire of the first wife only.

Question 11: Write in the Individual ID code of the spouse that has been identified as living in the household in question 10.

Question 12: This question should be answered by all persons in the household. The religion of the household member is required. As there are countless large and small religions, many of which cannot be verified to be real or legitimate, do not try and query what denomination as this creates friction and may result in non-response to the rest of the interview. Note that the religion of small children should also be recorded although this is normally the same as their parents.

Question 13: asks if the household member's biological father lives in the household. This information is useful for determining whether the child's (natural) father is alive and to measure the

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prevalence of orphan-hood and child fostering in the population. The response is either yes or no, (and if no skip to question 15)

Question 14: Copy ID of the biological father from the household roster and skip to question 18

Question 16: record the highest education level reached by the father of the respondent by printing the code for the response. You may need to probe for the type of school attended. Then ask, "What is the highest level (name)’s biological father completed"

The highest educational qualification achieved is that attained after completing an educational level or course by sitting for the qualifying examinations. A student who dropped out from school will not achieve the qualification for that level. For instance, if one dropped out in JSS 3 then one would probably have achieved the Primary 6.

None: The person went to school but never completed any level.

FSLC: First School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in primary school.

MSLC: Modern School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in the primary school and three years of modern school

VOC/COMM.: Vocational/Commercial is a certificate obtained after going through artisan/art craft training e.g. Mechanic, Tailoring etc.

JSS: Junior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of the first three (3) years in secondary school.

SSS (O’ Level): Senior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of six (6) years in secondary school.

A Level: Advance Level is a certificate obtained after two (2) years completion of higher secondary school (HSC)

NCE/OND: (NCE) National Certificate of Education is a certificate obtained after completion of three (3) years in college of education. (OND) Ordinary National Diploma is the certificate obtained after completion of first two (2) years in the polytechnic.

School of Nursing: This is a certificate obtained after spending three (3) years in the school of nursing.

BA/BSc./HND: Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science/Higher National Diploma are obtained after three (3), four (4), five (5) or six (6) years of university or polytechnic education

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Technical or Professional Diploma: It refers to a Diploma Certificate obtained from any Polytechnic or University.

Masters: Refers to any Masters degree. It is the second degree obtained in the university after Bachelors (first degree). Examples include Master of Science (MSc), Masters of Business Administration (MBA), Masters of Arts (MA).

Low Lower Six refers to the old education system and this is six years of Secondary education.

Upper Six refers to the old education system and this is seven years of secondary education, i.e. three years of Junior secondary and three years of Senior secondary.

Modern schooling is six years in the primary school and three years secondary schooling after obtaining First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC).

Doctorate: Refers to PhD: Doctor of Philosophy is the third level degree obtainable in the university after Masters

Question 17: Ask if the biological father of the respondent is engaged in economic activities; record the code corresponding to the industry of the occupation of the respondent's father. If the father is late or deceased or retired, we would like to know what employment they were engaged in when they were working.

Question 18 asks if the respondent's biological mother lives in the household. This information is useful for determining whether the child (natural) mother is alive and to measure the prevalence of orphan-hood and child fostering in the population. If no, skip to 20.

Question 19: Copy ID of the biological mother from the household roster and skip to next person

Question 20: asks if the respondent's biological mother is alive. Two options are provided i.e. Yes or No. print the appropriate code against the respondent.

Question 21: record the highest education level reached by printing the code for the response. You may need to probe for the type of school attended. Then ask, "What is the highest level (name)’s biological mother completed?" The code is already given.

Question 22: Ask if the biological mother of the respondent is engaged in economic activities; record the code corresponding to the industries of the occupation of the respondent's mother. If the father is late or deceased or retired, we would like to know what employment they were engaged in when they were working.

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Section 2 – Education
The objective of this section is to measure the level of education or formal schooling of all household members. The key educational indicators that are of interest are enrolment rates and dropout rates. Dropouts are persons not currently attending school, were attending school the previous year, and have not completed their studies. Additional educational indicators include the highest grade completed and the type of school attended (private or public). The section also collects information on literacy levels and education expenditure. Print the individual number (person ID) of the person actually interviewed and responding on behalf of other household members.

There is flap attached to this section (flap A on page 24) and the interviewer should have this flap open for use with this section.

This part covers general information related to education in the past 12 months. Questions are asked on the highest grade and qualification attained, and the expenses incurred on education in the past 12 months.

Respondent: Information should be collected on all household members who are 5 years and above in the household. Proxy answers are allowed as parents/guardians can answer for their children who are under 12 years old.

Question 1: It is very important to note if this answers is being provided in proxy or not (i.e. is the person answering for him/herself) if yes write 1 and skip to question 3 but if no indicate by writing 2 and continue to q2.

Question 2: The interviewer should write the individual ID number of the person from household roster that is answering the questions. (e.g. if Mrs Adebayo is answering for her husband and her individual ID is 2 this 2 will be indicated in column 2.

Question 3 This question seek to know if the respondent is literate in any language, the interviewer should ask the respondent if he/she can read and write in any language, and record the response either yes or no in the space provided. Any language here includes English language, local Nigerian language or other foreign languages.

Question 4 Is for every member of the household whose response is either yes or no to question 3, the interviewer should ask the respondent if he/she has ever attended school. If yes skip to q6 and if no the interviewer is to ask q5.

Question 5 What was the main reason you never attended school multiple responses is not required. You should probe further to know the main reason, after the response the interviewer is to skip to question 24 for further interview.

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[The section below defines school]

The term 'school' includes primary, secondary and post-secondary schooling, as well as any other intermediate levels of schooling in the formal school system. It also includes technical or vocational training beyond the primary-school level, such as long-term courses in mechanics or secretarial work.

Schools that carry out non-formal education are also included here. Ensure that respondents understand what is meant by 'non-formal education'. A non-formal education includes religious schools, such as Quranic schools, that do not teach a full, standard school curriculum. If a school teaches religious courses but also includes the standard curriculum – such as many Catholic schools – it would be coded as a standard school.

Pre-school' is listed for children who do not attend grade 1 at age 5, but do attend some form of organized learning or early childhood education programme, whether or not such a programme is considered part of the school system. The definition of organized early learning programme does not refer to programme offering only babysitting or child-minding.

Question 6: The interviewer should ask the respondent at what age did he/she starts schooling. The interviewer is expected to probe further may be with stories, events and illustrations that happened for the elderly ones to assist them to recall from memory the age.

Question 7 and 8: If the person has been to school, record the highest educational level reached, by printing the code for the response e.g. for person in JSS2, code 22 will be recorded for him/her. The interviewer is to probe further in question 8 to know what is the highest grade (name) attained

From the example given earlier the code for this question 8 will be 2 that is “first school leaving certificate”

The highest educational qualification achieved is that attained after completing an educational level or course by sitting for the qualifying examinations. A student who dropped out from school will not achieve the qualification for that level. For instance, if one dropped out in JSS 3 then one would probably have achieved the Primary 6.

Enter the highest grade completed. If less than one grade, enter '00'. For instance, if a person has attended school but did not complete the first grade, then grade will be entered as '00'.

00- None: The person went to school but never completed any level

01- N1 and N2 refer to pre-school education level, i.e. before child beginning P1.

27- Lower Six refers to the old education system and this is six years of primary education.

28- Upper Six refers to the old education system and this is six years of secondary education, i.e. Three years of Junior secondary and three years of Senior secondary.

33- Modern schooling is six years in the primary school and three years secondary schooling after obtaining First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC).

FSLC: First School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in primary school.

MSLC: Modern School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in the primary school and three years of Modern school

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32- VOC/COMM.: Vocational/Commercial is a certificate obtained after going through artisan/art craft training e.g. Mechanic, Tailoring etc.

22- JSS: Junior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of the first three (3) years in secondary school.

26- SSS (O’ Level): Senior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of six (6) years in secondary school.

A Level: Advance Level is a certificate obtained after two (2) years completion of higher secondary school (HSC)

34- NCE/OND: (NCE) National Certificate of Education is a certificate obtained after completion of three (3) years in college of education. (OND) Ordinary National Diploma is the certificate obtained after completion of first two (2) years in the Polytechnic.

School of Nursing: This is a certificate obtained after spending three (3) years in the school of nursing.

43- BA/BSc./HND: Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science/Higher National Diploma are obtained after three (3), four (4), five (5) or six (6) years of university or polytechnic education

Technical or Professional Diploma: It refers to a Diploma Certificate obtained from any Polytechnic or University.

Masters: Refers to any Masters degree. It is the second degree obtained in the university after Bachelors (first degree). Examples include Master of Science (MSc), Masters of Business Administration (MBA).

Doctorate: Refers to PhD: Doctor of Philosophy is the third level degree obtainable in the university after Masters.

Question 9 This ascertains respondent who were in school 2009-2010. If the interview is carried out during the school year, then the question should be worded to refer to the current school year. (If response is yes skip to question 11 and if no=2 proceed to question 10).

Question 10: the interviewer should ask the respondent why he/she is not currently in school (main Reason) only one response is required, after the response skip to question 24.

Question 11: the interviewer should ask the respondent what type of school is household member attending. For those currently in schools, the interviewer will record what type of organization that runs the school. The field supervisor will be advised to educate him/herself regarding the types of schools in the area, as some respondents may have difficulty reporting this information. The supervisor can then assist in properly coding the type of organization from the name of the school.

Do not expend too much effort in determining exactly what type of school the individual attends. As noted earlier, unless there is obvious evidence to the contrary, one should take the respondent's answers as sufficiently accurate.

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If the respondent does not understand the question, ask what the name of the school is and try to assist by probing. Typically the name of the school may/will give you enough information to determine what type of school it is. Otherwise the Supervisor will have to assist the interviewer in this response as it is expected that the Supervisor will more be conversant

1- Federal govt is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states united by a central ("federal") government.

2- State govt is the self-governing status of the state and is a component of the federal government. It is the second hierarchy of the government.

3- Local govt is the political administration of the smallest subdivisions of a country's territory and population. It is the third level of the government.

4- Community based run schools may be public or private as they are managed by the community. However, most community run schools are public institutions.

5- Religious body is a school managed and supported by a church or mosque (religious organisation). The question does not ask for denomination or sect so interviewer must be very careful when probing for a response.

6- Corporate organisation is an institution that owns and manages a school. Example is Nigeria National Petroleum Company (NNPC), Nigeria Electric and Power Authority (NEPA)

Institutional are institutions that run primary and secondary schools. Examples are University of Ibadan staff school, University of Lagos staff school. This does not mean that students in these institutional managed schools get automatic admission to their respective university.

Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is said to include a wide range of local organizations that are recipients of both local and foreign assistance. It is a voluntary non-profit grouping of individuals with a purpose of enhancing the legitimate economic, social and/or cultural development organization.

Group partnership is a group of people or entities that come together to open and manage a school jointly.

Individual (sole) is a school that is owned by one person. It is a sole entity.

Question 12: the interviewer should ask the respondent by what means does name go to school.

Note only one option is required (e.g. if a child always walks to school and just one day or sometimes his friends parents drop him with a car the means of that boy is foot =code1).

Question 13: the interviewer should ask the respondent how much time does it take him/her to get to school and the recording should be in minutes. If it took him between 16-30minutes by foot the interviewer should use code 2).

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Question 14: the interviewer should ask the respondent if he/she received any scholarship during the 2009-2010 school years, a yes or no response is required. If no skip to question 18, but if yes continue the interview.

Question 15: The interviewer should ask for an official document (if any) and copy out the amount, otherwise ask the respondents for the actual amount. The value of the scholarship for 2009-2010 may include one or two school years. However, the amount to be entered is the value for the year. If during the last academic year the student in question received a scholarship but is not receiving one for the current year, ask how much each term scholarship payments were, and the number of months in the past 12 months that the scholarship was received, and then calculate the total. If during the past 12 months the person had two scholarships of different amounts the total amount for each must be calculated taking into account the number of months in each case. For example, if the amount is N99, 000 then you enter it into the box provided as 99000.

Question 16: Question 15 seeks to know how many school years that the scholarship covers. Only academic years should be recorded not months of scholarship. If a student receives a partial scholarship for the academic year, it is counted as having some scholarship for that year.

Question 17: Seeks to know the organisation that provides the respondent with the scholarship. Multiple responses is allowed please probe further to get the main/major one. Only one option should be recorded here, know multiple options.

Question 18: These questions are intended to determine education expenses for all household members that were in school at any time during the 2009-2010 school year. These expenditures may be in cash or kind and include all amounts that falls within the last 12 months. When the respondent is unsure of the amount, you should probe and, if possible, ask for an approximate value and enter in appropriate column. In most cases, the authorities of the school will send the parent/guardian a fee schedule, so you can ask for it and copy out the expenses under each category. But make sure that this fee schedule is for the whole academic session and not one school term. The amount should be recorded in absolute value.

Note
Categories A-G: If expenditure is reported in some (but not all) of these categories then the amounts should be recorded in the appropriate column and 0 entered in the other categories where no expenditure is reported.

Category H: This category is used in order to report other education expenses that is not one of those identified in categories A-G. In entering values in columns A-G,

Category I: This category should be used when the respondent cannot individually identify the areas of education expenditure. If the amount is stated in category I, no amount should be placed in any of the other columns. The spaces of the other columns should be filled with a dash.

Questions 19-22 school repetition

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Question 19: This asks if the respondent ever repeated any schooling. To repeat a class means studying in the same grade/class for 2 or more academic session instead of promotion to a higher grade/class. If the response is no, skip to question 23. But if yes, primary school only use code 1, if yes, secondary school only use code 2, but if both primary and secondary school use code 3 and continue the interview.

Question 20: The interviewer should ask the respondent what was the last class name repeated? If the person repeats primary 6 use code 16 and if it is JSS2 use code 22.

Question 21: The interviewer should ask the main reason for repeating the grade specified in q20.

Question 22: Asks for the number of times the respondent repeated the class specified in q19.

Question 23: The interviewer should ask the respondent if he/she has plans to go back to school in the next school year. The response is either yes or no.

Section 3: Labour

In this section, we collect information on the labor activities of men, women and children in the household. It is important not to confuse labor activities with a person's main activity. These are not the same things. A person's main activity may be to be a housewife or a student, but they may have other labor activities that should be recorded in this section. For example, a wife who has her own plots or her own small business should not be excluded from this section, even if she primarily works in domestic activities. Domestic activities are not included in this section of the questionnaire, but her other activities would be included, even though she may consider being a housewife her “job”. A child who is a student may consider themselves to be primarily a student without a job, but they may help their parents as unpaid family labor with their businesses or agricultural activities. For example, if a child works on his parent's farm or in their carpentry shop, the child's farming or carpentry activities should be included, even if the child does not receive payment directly for the work.

Respondent: This section concerns all household members aged 5 and above. You should confirm eligibility of the household members to respond to the questions. For children under 12, the parents or adult member of the household could answer on their behalf. Where some household members are absent, proceed with the interview for all those present but make the necessary arrangements to call back and continue the interview with absentee members after ascertaining the appropriate time that they would be available. If it is not possible to interview the person directly, a proxy response is possible.

Question 1: This question will be asked to confirm the eligibility of the household members to provide information in this section.

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Question 2: This question is to confirm whether information is being provided in proxy or by the household member himself.

Questions 4 - 6: These questions seek to capture information on the various types of work that each eligible member of household is engaged in the last 7 days. The respondent should answer each question. While question 4 asks about engagement in paid work, question 5 seeks information about engagement in farming activity owned or rented by a member of household and question 6 ask if there is engagement in own account work or business in enterprise belonging to him or someone in the household e.g. trader, carpenter, etc.

Question 7: Interviewer should check if there is any “yes” response in questions 4 or 5 or 6. If there is a "yes" response, the interviewer should skip to question 13. Otherwise, he should continue in Question 8.

Questions 8: Those who were not engaged in any economic activities in the last 7 days should indicate whether they took any step to look for job. And for those who did, the interviewer should skip to q10.

Questions 9: The household members who did not look for work in the last 7 days will give the main reason why they did not look for job and the interviewer should thereafter skip to q12.

Questions 10: Those who took steps to look for job should again indicate whether they were available for work in the last 7 days. For those members who were available for work, the interviewer should skip to q12.

Questions 11: Those who were not available for work should indicate the main reason why they were not available.
Questions 12: Everybody who was not engaged in any economic activity in the last 7 days should say whether they have ever done any work for pay or profit or gain. The last time the work was done should be given and if no work has been done in the last 12 months, the interviewer should skip to q50. However, if no any work has ever been done, the interviewer should leave the space blank.

Some definitions and terminology used in the questionnaire include: -

Main occupation: This is the work to which most time is devoted when a respondent has more than one job. For instance, the main occupation for the past 7 days of a respondent who farms mostly and also goes fishing during the dry season is farming.

The last 12 months: This refers to the period of 12 consecutive months just before and including the interview day. During the interview, you should be specific. For example, if the interview takes place on August 10, 2010 then we refer to all the preceding months down to August 9, 2009.


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Questions 13: Those who have ever worked in q7, the description of the primary activity in the main job should be given by the respondents. The interviewer should thereafter code the activities.

Questions 14 - 15: The economic activities in the main jobs and the employers should be indicated by the respondents.

Questions 16 - 18: The number of months in the last 12 months and the number of weeks during these months as well as the number of days in the last 7 days did the working respondents actually worked.

Questions 19 - 23: The respondents are required to provide information on the payment they have received or give reasons if they did not receive payment.

Secondary occupation: This is the work to which much of the respondent's time is devoted after the main occupation. In the example given above, fishing would be the secondary occupation of the farmer in the last 7 days.

Second Job:

Questions 24-37: Details about the status of the respondent's second job are asked in these questions.

For somebody who says yes in questions 4, 5 or 6

Question 24: Asked for primary occupation in the main job. The actual job the respondent is engaged in should be written followed by the occupational code. Question 27 asked the number of months in the past 12 months did the respondent worked in the employment, question 28 asked the number of weeks in total did he/she worked in the employment and question 29 asked the number of hours that he/she worked in the job in the last 7 days.

Other Activities:

Questions 38: Eligible members of the household are required to confirm whether they contribute to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).

Questions 39: The respondent is required to state the number of hours and minutes spent during the previous day of the interview to collect or chop firewood or other fuel materials for the use of the household.

Questions 40: The respondent is required to state the number of hours and minutes spent yesterday in collecting or fetching water, including waiting time, for the use of the household.

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[Sections on credit/savings, household assets, non-farm enterprise, meals away from home expenditures, food expenditures, non-food expenditures, food security, other income, contact information, and agriculture questionnaire are omitted.]

[Post-Harvest Instruction Form for Panel Households]

Interviewer Instruction Manual February, 2011

[Table of contents and chapters on introduction, sample design and organisation of field activities, general survey procedures, and in chapters 4 (sections on roster, education, labour, health, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), remittances, and household asset sale and acquisition) are omitted.]

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Section 8: Housing
This section aims at measuring the quality of housing occupied by the household. It seeks information on the ownership of the dwelling, rent expenditures, as well as the physical characteristics of the dwelling.

It also deals with the measure of the degree of access to a number of basic infrastructures believed to be particularly sensitive to economic conditions such as water, sanitation, fuel, etc.

Respondent: The main respondent is the head of the household/or an adult household member living in the household who have adequate knowledge about the household. It is a face to face interview.

Question 1: It seeks information on the ownership of the dwelling and to determine whether the dwelling is owned by the household; provided by the employers; free authorized; free, not authorized or rented. The interviewer is expected to record only one option in the space provided. Only one option is expected. If code 1, i.e. owned, then the interviewer should continue to q2. If it is code 2, 3, or 4, the interviewer skips to q3, and if code 5, skip to q4

Definition
Dwelling: This includes all types of structures occupied by members of a household. It may consist of a room(s) inside a house, a group of houses, a multi-storeyed house, and a hut or group of huts.

Owned means that the dwelling/building is owned by the household, either built personally or purchased by the household.

Employer provides: It means that the employer provided the dwelling for the household because he/she is the employee of the employer.

Free authorized means that the household lives in the dwelling with full permission of the owner of the dwelling and the household is not paying for it.

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Free, not authorized means that the household life in the dwelling without the permission of the owner of the dwelling and nothing is paid. The owner of the dwelling can eject the household any time without any legal implication.

Rented means that the household paying for the dwelling and he/she is paying an agreed amount to the owner regularly based on the term agreed on, either yearly, quarterly, or monthly.

Question 2: This is to know the current estimate value of the dwelling if the household is the owner and he/she is willing to sell the dwelling now at current market value. The interviewer is to write the amount in absolute value nearest whole number in Naira.

Question 3 helps to estimate the monthly rent the household is expected to be receiving if the dwelling is rented out. The amounts should be recorded in absolute naira. In addition, the time unit code must be indicated whether it is on monthly or yearly in the space provided.

Question 4 seeks to know the amount the household is paying for the dwelling if the household rented the dwelling, i.e. if it is code 5 in question 1. The amounts should be recorded in absolute naira. In addition, the time unit code must be indicated whether it is on monthly or yearly in the place provided.

Question 5 seeks to know the year the dwelling/house was built. The interviewer is expected to ask and write the year when the dwelling/house was built. If it is not known write ‘9999’.

Question 6-8 deal with physical characteristics of the dwelling that are observable easily without posing the questions to the respondent. However, the interviewer is always encouraged to check from the respondent if in doubt or not sure.

Question 6 deals with the outer (exterior) walls of the main dwelling of the household. It is to know the main/predominantly materials, the outer wall are composed of several materials, for instance, one part of the wall is of bamboo, another part of earth and yet another part of concrete, choose the main/predominantly material and only one option is expected to choose.

Mud includes all materials such as wet clay use to erect outer wall of a dwelling.

Compacted Earth is the type of outer wall made up of mixed with stone, bamboo, wood and other readily available materials to form walls.

Mud Brick (unfired) is the local mud bricks or blocks that is not smoked or fired.

Burnt Bricks is the block or mud that was smoked or fired.

Concrete is the block made of cement as well as wall made of pre-fabricated concrete panel.

Wood includes timber, wood, cardboard and plank wall.

Iron sheets are processed or galvanized iron or steel sheets.
Note: If there is more than one type of material used for walls, the interviewer will record the main/predominantly one.

Question 7: Type of the roofing material: The interviewer will record the main/predominantly roofing material.

Grass includes thatch or any form of natural vegetation for roofing.

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Iron sheets are processed or galvanized iron or steel sheets or aluminium sheets.

Clay tiles are the type of roofing using wood/bamboo first before covered it with blocks.

Concrete roofing is the type of roofing with cement and stone.

Plastic Sheeting is the type of modern day roofing that is transparent in nature.

Asbestos sheets/tiles are roofing sheets that are made from a soft Grey mineral that are used as a building material. When made into solid sheets, they become good protection or insulation against fire and heat. They are also used for industrial purposes as protection against perishable things.

Other includes tin from cans, cardboard among others.
Note: If there is more than one type of material used for roofing, the interviewer will record the main predominantly one.

Question 8: Type of the floor material: The interviewer will record the main predominantly floor material. Interviewer can easily observe it, but for clarity, it could be confirmed from the respondent if in doubt.

Sand/dirt/straw is a type of floor made of different type of straw, palm front leaves mixed together with sand to smooth it, commonly found among nomadic or interior north.

Smoothed mud is a mud floor smoothed very well without concrete on top.

Smoothed cement is a floor with cement on top of it.

Tiles are the types of floor using different colour of tiles or ceramic on the floor.
Note: If there is more than one type of material used for floor, the interviewer will record the main predominantly one.

Question 9 is about the number of living rooms that the household’s members used for living. These exclude bath-rooms, toilets, store-rooms or garage. Interviewer should record the number of rooms in the space provided.

Question 10 – 11 deal with main source of fuel for lighting and cooking that the household used in their dwelling.

Question 10 asks for the main source of lighting fuel the household used and the interviewer should ask for only main source of lighting fuel and record in the space provided.

Only one option is required

Question 11 deals with the main source of cooking fuel and only one option is required. Interviewer should record the answer in the space provided.

Question 12 is to find out whether the household ever collects firewood. If the answer is no, then the interviewer will skip to q15, if yes, continue.

Question 13 asks where the household goes to collect firewood. Only one option is expected here.

Question 14 asks how long it takes the respondent to walk from the dwelling to where he/she usually goes to collect firewood, just one way. The time taken to go and

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collect firewood just one way is required and should be recorded in the space provided with the unit must be recorded either in minute=1 or hour =2, in the space provided.

Question 15 is about the quantity of firewood purchased out of the quantity of firewood used by the household in the past week. Interviewer should ask only the quantity of firewood purchased in the past week and record it in the space provided. If it is code 1, i.e. Did not use firewood, interviewer should skip to q17

Question 16 is about the total value of the firewood the household used in the past week, whether gathered or purchased (estimate the total cost of gathered firewood and add it to the total cost of firewood purchased and record the amount in naira in the space provided).

Question 17 seeks to find out if the household have electricity working in his/her dwelling. The interviewer should ask the functionality of the electricity, not the one that is connected but not working. If the response is no, the interviewer skips to q25 but if yes, he continues to q18.

Question 18 seeks to know the source of energy use by the household for lighting and cooking whenever there is a blackout. The interviewer should record the main source of energy the household used for lighting and cooking in the space provided .lighting and cooking.
Blackout means without electricity light for some periods of time.

Question 19 asks about the source of electricity supply to the household. Only one option is expected here. If the response is 6, the interviewer should skip to q24.

Question 20 seeks to know whether the household have to apply to get electricity connection in the household. The response is either yes or no. if no, skip to q23.

Question 21 seeks to know how many weeks the household had to wait for a technician to come to connect the house following his/her application to PHCN

Question 22 is seeking information whether the household have to pay an unofficial fee to get a connection. The response is either yes or no.

An unofficial fee means a tip, kickback, or bribe before you get your right.

Question 23 seeks to know how frequently the household experience blackouts in their area. Only one option is expected here. The interviewer should record the answer in the space provided.

Question 24 seeks to know how many hours of electricity supply the household had electricity from the main public system during the last 7 days. It should be recorded in hours in the space provided.

Question 25 is about the electricity being paid by the household. The interviewer should try to ask for the bill or evidence, if the respondent does not remember the amount. Also the time period must be indicated, either pay daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. The response must be recorded in the space provided. After answered the question, the interviewer should skip to q29.

Question 26 is directly to the household that do not have electricity in the dwelling, yet the interviewer should ask the respondent whether the village/neighbour have access to electricity. If the response is no, then the interviewer skips to q29, if yes the interviewer continues to q29.

Question 27 seeks the reasons why the household does not have electricity. The interviewer is to list up to two reasons and record it in the space provided.

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Question 28 wants to know how many weeks the household has been waiting for the connection to public electricity supply. The interviewer is to record the response in weeks in the space provided.

Question 29 is only interested in the landline telephone that is in working condition. The interviewer should ask the respondent if there is one in the dwelling. If the response is no, skip to q31.

Question 30 seeks to know the total cost for using landline telephone in the household and the period the cost is referring to, whether daily, weekly, monthly or yearly. Interviewer should record the answer in absolute naira and the time unit in the space provided.

Question 31 seeks to know if there is any member of the household that owns a GSM phone (Cell Phone) that is in working condition. If no, interviewer skips to q33, if yes, continue. Question 32 seeks to know the estimate total cost for cell phone services for all household members last month. The interviewer should try as much as possible to collect the total cost of cell phone services of all members of household last month from the respondent, add them together and record it in naira in the space provided.

Question 33 seeks to know the main source of drinking water for the household during dry season and wet season. If more than one source is used, only the main one should be recorded in the space provided.

Wet season means raining season.

Question 34 wants to know how long it will take to walk to the source of water (one way) from the dwelling. Interviewer should record the response in the space provided.

If water is in house or in yard, write ‘0’ in time amount and leave time unit blank.

Question 35 deals with total cost of drinking water for the household last month. The total cost must be estimated and recorded in naira in the space provided. The interviewer should enter ‘0’ zero if there is none i.e. if the household did not spent money on drinking water last month.

Question 36 is to determine the type of toilet facility used in the household and record the main one in the space provided.

-Flush toilet: A flush toilet or water closet (WC) is a toilet that disposes of human waste by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location. It uses a cistern or holding tank for flushing water. The concept of flushing is the criteria and the forms are: -

-A sewer system is an artificial conduit (or pipe) or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage.

-A septic tank is a single-story, watertight, on-site treatment system for domestic sewage, consisting of one or more compartments, in which sanitary flow is detained. Septic tanks have limited use in urban areas where sewers and municipal treatment plants exist.

-Flush to pit latrine is where sewer is flushed straight to a pit latrine via pipe connection.

-Flush to somewhere else exists where sewer is flushed to a river, hanging toilet or some place.

-Pour flush toilet: uses a water seal, but unlike a flush toilet, it uses water poured by hand for flushing (no cistern is used)

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Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP): The primary features of VIP latrines consist of an enclosed structure (roof and walls) with a large diameter (110mm), PVC vertical ventilation pipe running outside the structure from the pit of the latrine to vent above the roof. They often will have concrete slabs containing the latrine hole.

Pail/bucket: This is a bucket in a residential area and is emptied or drained by pouring water to flush out contents or by disposing the contents somewhere else.

If the respondent answers that they use the bush, the fields, or a cleared corner of the compound, the interviewer will record none and skip to q37

Question 37 wants to know from the respondent if the toilet facility is for the HH members only=1, or for other households, which is code 2.

Question 38 deals with the kind or type of refuse disposal facilities the household use. Interviewer will ask the kind of refuse disposal and record the appropriate answer given by respondent. If answer is none, skips to next section.

A household may have several methods of disposal. Ask the main commonly method of rubbish/refuse disposal.

Collected by government: Refers to collection services provided by the Government i.e. local Council and Government.

Government bin refers to the provision of a bin by the government.

Disposal within compound: Pit dug for holding rubbish. The rubbish may be treated chemically to decompose it.

Question 39 is about the amount spent on refuse disposal in the last month. The interviewer should ask the respondent and record the answer in the space provided in Naira.

[Sections on non-farm enterprises, meals away from home expenditures, food expenditures, aggregate food consumption, non-food expenditures, food security, other income, social safety nets, shocks, deaths, contact information, and all the sections of agricultural questions are omitted here.]