Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart


Population and housing census
Malaysia 1991

Instruction manual for documents 1 and 2

Pejabat Pesuruhjaya Banci
Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
January 1991

[Enumerator's check list and index are not presented here.]

[Chapters A to E are not presented here.]

[p.51]

Chapter F

Procedures to fill document 2
(Particulars on identification, control and Part A: living quarters)

F1 Introduction

This chapter provides a detailed guideline on procedures to fill particulars on Identification, Control and Living Quarters.

F2. Identification Particulars

F2.1 Format
[The identification particular of the enumeration form is not shown here.]

F2.2 Purpose
This section is meant for filling in your EB Identification Particulars.
These particulars should be copied from the front cover of Document 1 (Section on Identification Particulars).
These particulars should be completed earlier as part of your Homework.

[p.52]

F3 Control Particulars

F3.1 Format
[The form is not shown here.]

F3.2 Purpose
This section is meant for filling in the basic information in relation to LQs. It consists of questions K1 - K5.

F3.3 Question K1 - Address
Particulars for K1 should be copied from column (2) of Document 1 (page 1-30) for all LQs concerned.
This information should be completed as part of your homework at the end of each day.

F3.4 Question K2 - LQ NO.
LQ No. should be entered in the box provided at the beginning of filling in Document 2.
The number to be recorded should be a three-digit and it can be obtained from column (1) of Document 1 (page 1 -30).

E3.5 Question K3 - What is the total number of persons who usually live in these living quarters?

This is the first question in Document 2 that you will ask the respondent.
You should record the number of persons who usually live in this LQ including new-born babies.

The number to be recorded should be a three-digit.

[p.53]

For LQs comprising more than one HH, make sure that the number of persons recorded should cover all HHs in that particular LQ.

Special Note: For institutional LQs (e.g., hostels, hospitals, etc.) all persons living in the LQ on Census Day should be regarded as usual population.

F3.6 Question K4 - Do all these persons usually eat together?
The aim of this question is to obtain the number of HHs in the LQ.
To obtain the number of HHs, you have to ask Question K4.

If the respondent answers "Yes", consider all these persons as belonging to one household and record "01" in the box provided.

If the respondent answers "No" proceed to ask:
"How do you make provision for food and other essentials of living?"

If they made separate provision for food and other essentials of living, consider each individual or group as one household by itself. E.g., if in a LQ, there are 2 groups making provisions for food separately, then record "02" in the box provided.
The number to be recorded should be a two-digit.

F3.7 Question K5 - Household number
This number should be a two-digit.
It refers to the HH you are interviewing. If it is the 1st HH, then record "01" in the box provided.
For LQs comprising more than one HH and you are interviewing the second HH, then record "02" in the box provided and so on.

[p.54]

Special Note - Vacant LQs
For vacant LQs, you should write as follows in the boxes provided:
[The example is not presented here.]

[p.55]

Special Note - LQs having more than one HH
A separate Document 2 should be filled for the second HH and subsequent HHs.
For the second HH and subsequent HHs, the Identification Particulars and information for only K1, K2 and K5 of the Control Particulars need to be filled.

These particulars should be the same as those which you have filled for the first HH except K5.

Boxes for Question K3 and K4 for the second HH and subsequent HH should be cancelled.

For the second HH and subsequent HHs, cancel the whole of Part A (Living Quarters Particulars) and start interviewing from Question B1.
Example showing how to fill in the Identification, Control and Living Quarters Particulars for the second HH is given in the following page.

[p.56]
[The example is not shown here.]

[p.57]
F4 Part A: Living quarters particulars

F4.1 Format
[The living quarters particulars of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

[p.58]
[General instruction for Part A is not presented here.]

[p.59]

Question A1

[Question A1 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain the stock or number of LQs by types.

Definition
A chart is provided on page 60 which shows the various categories of LQs and the explanation for each LQ categories is given on page 61 to 65.

[p.60]
[The chart showing the various categories of living quarters is not presented here.]

[p.61]

[i] Have been built or converted for living.

This category includes places or structures built specifically for the purpose of living or sleeping.

The structure need not be large or in perfect condition but it should be intended for living and sleeping.

Some structures may have been built for the dual purpose of living/sleeping and other purposes such as business. Normally, spaces used for living/sleeping purposes would be separated from the rest by partitions or walls as found in shophouses.

Some structures originally may not have been intended as living quarters, but have been converted as such. This conversion may occur by having additional partitions or walls for privacy or it may be renovated and equipped with bathing, cooking and toilet facilities. Caves which have been similarly converted should be included under this category.

The category "Have been built or converted for living" is classified into:

(a) Housing units
(b) Collective living quarters
(a) Housing Units
Housing units are classified into five (5) main types namely:

(i) House
(ii) Flat/apartment/condominium/shophouse
(iii) Room (with direct access to outside)
(iv) Improvised/temporary hut
(v) Others
[p.62]

House
This unit can be further subdivided into:

Detached House (Code 01)
A separate house with does not share a common wall with another house. (See Photo F1 and F2.)

Semi-detached House (Code 02)
One of two houses, which share a common wall, but have separate access to the outside. (See Photo F3)

Terrace, Row or Link, Townhouse (Code 03)
Houses built in rows of three or more. Each house has a common wall or walls adjoining with the next house. (See Photo F4)

This category also includes cluster houses which are attached to one another in various ways either at the front or at the back but not in the form of terrace houses.

Townhouse is similar to a double-storey terrace. The only difference is that each floor is being occupied by different occupants and it has its own separate access to the outside.

Longhouse (Sabah and Sarawak) (Code 04)
Refers to terrace house which is commonly found in the interior areas of Sabah and Sarawak. (See Photo F5.)

[p.63]

Flat/apartment/condominium/shophouse (Code 05 - Code 06)
A self-contained living quarters that is enclosed with a separate access to the outside and has its own cooking and bathing facilities. It may be found in a housing block (Code 05) or shophouse (Code 06). (See Photo F6 - F9.) It is important that you differentiate between a medium-rise apartment and a townhouse.

Room (with direct access to the outside) (Code 07)
It refers to a room inside or attached to a certain structure and has a direct access to the outside e.g., room in a shophouse, office, in/attached to a house, factory, etc.

Improvised/temporary Hut, etc. (Code 08)
This category is for interior living quarters generally considered as temporary and unfit for living. They are usually built of discarded materials e.g., planks, plywood, zinc, etc. and are normally found in urban areas or urban fringes, e.g., a cluster of huts at a construction site. (See Photo F10)

Others (Code 09)
This category should be marked if you are not able to classify the LQ into any of the above-mentioned categories (Code 01-Code 08), e.g., caves which have been converted for habitation and sleeping.

It includes all types of mobile LQs built, e.g., camps or mobile units like boats and "sampan".

Living quarters on rafts which are not mobile should be included in this category. It should be classified in either Code 01 or 02.

[p.64]

b) Collective Living Quarters (Code 10 - Code 16)
LQs in this category are meant for living by a large group of individuals and usually have some common facilities such as kitchen, toilet, bathroom, lounge and bed rooms. Examples of collective living quarters are hotel, hospital, hostel, social welfare homes, prison, temporary labor camp, etc.

Large collective LQs normally form one EB itself. Other separate LQs or LQs within the compound of the collective LQs should be enumerated separately.

Charitable, religious and social welfare institutions include old folks' homes and children's homes which need moral/financial support and homes for abandoned children; homes for the retarded, drug rehabilitation centers and reform schools, convents, etc.

Temporary labor camps are temporary places of abode in huts, camps and the likes which share communal facilities provided by the employer. The entire unit should be regarded as one labor camp. Common examples are public work camps, temporary homes for construction workers and camps for loggers.

If the workers are housed in permanent structures, e.g., staff quarters, estate workers' quarters, etc., it should be classified under "Housing Units".

Army barracks should be categorized under "Others".

Detailed information on the enumeration of collective living quarters is given in the "Instructions for Special Enumeration" (Document 16).

[p.65]

[ii] Not intended for living but was used for this purpose on Census Day (Code 17 - 20)

In this category, structures/spaces are built for other purposes, e.g., an office, school, market, stall, hut, etc. and have not been converted.

The structure originally may be intended for an office, stall or hut during the daytime but has been converted for living on Census Day.

There is also a possibility that empty spaces are used as LQs, e.g., the compound of a house or an open verandah.

The LQs in this category may be a natural shelter, e.g., caves which are not converted.

How to ask the question
Question A1 need not be asked. The answer can be obtained from observation.

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant box.
[p.66]

Reminder: If your answer is marked one of the codes from Code 10 to Code 20, you should end the interview at Part A and proceed to Part B - Household Particulars. You do not need to ask Questions A2 to A9.

[p.67-70]
[Photos F1 to F11 on types of living quarters are not presented here.]

[p.71]

Question A2
[Question A2 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to find out the main construction material used for the outer walls of the Living Quarters.

Definition
The main construction material refers to at least 40% of the total material used for the outer walls.

For category "Brick and Plank" (Code 3), a combination of these two materials should constitute at least 40% of the outer walls.

The category "Others" (Code 4) refers to other materials e.g., zinc, attap, bamboo, etc.

How to ask the question
This question need not be asked. The answer may be obtained by observation.

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant box.

[p.72]

Question A3

Purpose
This question is to obtain the actual year of completion of the construction of the LQ.

How to ask the question
Ask question as stated in questionnaire.

How to record the answer
Record the year given in the box provided.

If the respondent is unable to answer, try to probe and ask further questions as to whether the LQ was in existence during the Emergency Period (1948-1960), Independence Day (1957), 1970 and 1980 Census or any local significant event.

If the respondent is unable to give the exact year, try to estimate the "age" of the LQ and write on the dotted line.

If the respondent does not know the year of construction or the age of the LQ, then record "Not Known" on the dotted line.

For housing units within the same housing block (e.g., terrace houses), the year of construction of all units in the housing block should be the same.

If there is major renovation to the LQ (more than 50%), record the year in which the renovation was completed.

[p.73]

Question A4

[Question A4 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to obtain information on whether the LQ is occupied or vacant.

Definition
Occupied
The concept of occupied is categorized into:

(i) Occupied on Census Day (including those without occupants during enumeration) (Code 1)

(ii) Occupied but without occupants on Census Day (Code 2)

Code 1 refers to LQs being occupied by people on 14 August 1991 (Census Day) and includes LQs which are occupied on Census Day but no one was in when you visited the LQ.

Code 2 refers to LQs which are normally occupied but no one was in on 14 August 1991 (Census Day) for specific reasons such as away on tour, visiting relatives, friends, etc.

Vacant
LQ is classified vacant if it is not occupied and is not used for living on Census Day. This LQ may be vacant due to various reasons, namely:

[p.74]

(i) Newly completed/for rent or sale (Code 3)
This category includes all new LQs which are just completed pending occupancy or to be rented out for sale.

(ii) For repair/renovation (Code 4)
This LQ is vacant because it is under repair or being renovated.

(iii) Holiday resort/rest-house (Code 5)

This category refers to private housing units which are normally used as holiday houses.
It is usually found in holiday resorts e.g., beaches, hills, other places of tourist attraction.
Categorize these rest houses as "vacant" if no one was in on Census Day.

(iv) Dilapidated (Code 6)
This category includes all LQs unfit for living due to their dilapidated condition or waiting to be demolished.

(v) Others (Code 7)
This category includes seasonal workers' homes (e.g., huts in paid fields) and other seasons for being vacant.

How to ask the question
For occupied LQ, ask the following question:
"Is this Living Quarters occupied on Census Day?"

For vacant LQ, you need to observe and confirm with the neighbor.

How to record the answer

Mark the relevant box.
[p.75]

Reminder: During your visit, you may not find any occupants in the house. If so, this does not mean that the Living Quarters is vacant. The occupants may have gone out to work, visit friends, etc. and will be returning in the evening or night. Ask the neighbors when the occupants are expected to return so that you can visit the LQ when the occupants are in.

If from observation you find that the Living Quarters is not occupied, enquire from the neighbors whether the LQ is occupied/used as a sleeping place on Census Day.

No occupant during your visit does not mean that LQ is vacant. Revisit the LQ to meet the occupants.

After 4 revisits and you are still unable to meet with the occupants, try to obtain more information from the neighbor or the head of kampung or whoever can assist in giving the required information. Fill all these particulars in Document 2, i.e., in Parts A, B, C and Document 1.

For vacant LQs, fill the Control Particulars, Questions A1- A4 of Document 2 and Document 1. Proceed to the next LQ.

An example of how to complete Document 2 for vacant LQs is given below.

[The example from the enumeration form for vacant LQs is not presented here.]

[p.76]

Question A5

[Question A5 from the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to obtain information relating to the ownership status of the LQ.

Definition
The word "own" covers all LQs which are purchased through loan regardless of whether the loan has been paid up or not, by installment or it is still under mortgage.

Individual ownership
This includes LQs occupied by the owner himself/ herself or LQs which are rented from other individual owners.

(i) Self-owned (Code 1)
This category includes LQs occupied by the owner himself/ herself or the family or a relative of the owner who inherits the LQs.

(ii) Other individual owner (Code 2)
This category includes LQs rented by occupants from other individuals.

Non-individual ownership
This includes LQs owned by the government/statutory body/local authority, private companies, and non-individual owners.

[p.77]

(i) Government/ Statutory body (Code 3)
Included in this category are LQs owned by the government and statutory bodies, e.g., government quarters, NEB quarters, UDA flats, Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur, PKNS, etc. In most cases, the occupants have to pay rent to the authority.

However, there are LQs under FELDA housing schemes whereby the occupants are required to pay monthly installment to the authority. In such cases, the LQs should be classified under "Self-owned" (Code 1).

(ii) Private (Code 4)
Included in this category are LQs owned by private companies. It includes LQs provided by the employers to their employees, e.g., estate houses or houses owned by the private company and rented out to the public.

In some cases, if the LQs provided by the employer is owned by individuals, and the employer rents the LQs for his/her employees classify the LQs as "Other individual owner" (Code 2).

(iii) Others (Code 5)
This refers to categories other than the above-mentioned, e.g., owned by co-operatives, associations, etc.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as stated in the questionnaire.

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant box. If code 5 is marked, state the ownership status on the dotted line.

[p.78]

Question A6

[Question A6 from the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to find out the source of drinking water normally used by the HH members of the LQ.

Definition
For category "piped water", it refers to PVC or metal pipes which have a tap.

Remember that it also includes all types of piped water either from public supply or a private tank or channeled through a motor attached to the pipe. It can be categorized into two types:

(i) Piped water inside the living quarters (Code 1)
(ii) Piped water outside the living quarters (Code 2)

Category "Others" includes rain water, river water, canal, drain, etc.

How to ask the question

Ask question as stated in the questionnaire.
You can also obtain the answer by observation.

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant code box.

If more than one source of water supply is used, record only the principal/main category.
To ascertain whether the piped water is inside/outside the LQ, you need to ask the respondent or observe where the main tap is located.
If code 4 is marked, write on the dotted line the type of water supply for drinking.

[p.79]

Question A7

[Question A7 from the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to obtain particulars relating to the type of lighting used in the LQ.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as stated in the questionnaire.
You can also obtain the answer by observation.

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant code box.

If more than one type of lighting is used, you should use a priority scale to determine the answer, e.g., if electric as well as gas lamp are used, mark "Electric lamp". If pressure/gas lamp and oil lamp are used, mark "Pressure/Gas lamp".
The category "Others" includes candles, solar (original source generated from solar energy).
If code 4 is marked, state the type of lighting used on the dotted line.

[p.80]

Question A8

[Question A8 from the enumeration form is not presented here.]
Purpose
This question is to obtain information relating to the type of toilet facility used by the members of the LQ.

Definition

Types of toilet facility are as follows:

(i) Flush system (Code 1)
This type of toilet is fixed with a mechanical/automatic sewerage system. Human waste is flushed off with water by pressing or pulling the mechanical device.

(ii) Pour flush (Code 2)
This category differs from the mechanical pull-type in disposing off the waste. This pour flush type necessitates the user to pour waste into the sanitary bowl to dispose off the waste. It is also known as "Jamban Siram"

(iii) Bucket (Code 3)
This type uses a bucket to collect the waste. The bucket is portable and is usually cleaned by public/private authority.

(iv) Pit (Code 4)
This includes all pits dug into the ground to collect the human waste. They are commonly referred to as "Jamban Siam" or "Jamban Lubang". Cesspits should also be included under this category.

[p.81]

(v) Enclosed space over water (Code 5)
This is constructed over water so that the human waste fall direct into the water, i.e., it is constructed over drains, river, sea, pond, lake and swamps. This type of toilet should have a closed or semi-closed structure.

(vi) None (Code 6)
This includes all cases whereby the LQ does not have any toilet facility. The occupants of the LQ use swamps, river, bushes, etc. to dispose their human waste.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:

"What is the type of toilet facility normally used by the members of the LQ?"

How to record the answer

Mark "X" in the relevant code box.

If the answer is code 6, you need not ask question A9. Proceed to part B.

[p.82]

Question A9

[Question A9 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to find out whether the toilet facility is being shared with another LQ.

How to ask the question

Ask question as stated in the questionnaire.

How to record the answer

Mark "Yes" (Code 1) if sharing and "No" [Code 2] if otherwise.

Note:
You are to answer questions in chapter F of the training workbook (Document 14a).

[The index for chapter G is not presented here.]

[p.83]

Chapter G

Procedures to Fill Document 2

Part B: Household Particulars

[G1 Introduction, G2 Purpose, G3 Format, and G4 Guide to complete part B: household particulars are not presented here.]

[p.86]

G5 Concept and definition
Two important concepts/definitions which you must understand before you begin to interview your respondents are:

(i) Household
A household is made up of persons who may be related and/or persons unrelated who usually live together and make common provision for food and other essentials of living.
This household concept has been explained in detail on page 4 of this manual.

(ii) Head of household
The head of household is a member of the household who is living in the LQ on Census Day and is regarded as the head by the other members.
The head can be a male or female member of the household.

[p.87]

G6. How to ask questions and record answers

Question B1

[The enumeration form for B1 is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain a complete list of the names of usual members of each household.

How to ask the question
Before you introduce question B1, you have to ask the following question to determine the head of household.

"Who is the head of this household?"

It is to be noted that the head of household must live in the LQ on Census Day (i.e., between 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 to 7:00 morning on 14 August 1991).

You must explain the concept of "household" and "head of household" to your respondent.

Record the names of the head of household given by the respondent on the first line. The word "head" is already printed in Question B2. Then, proceed to ask the question as given below: "What are the names of all other persons who usually live in this household?"

How to record the answers

Write the names of the usual members of the household as given by the respondent.
[p.88]

Please follow the procedures for listing the order of usual household members as provided in Question B1.

Begin with the head of household and followed by:

(1) Spouse of head
(2) Unmarried children
(3) Married children and their families
(4) Father/mother of head
(5) Brother/sisters of head or spouse of head
(6) Other relatives
(7) Others (e.g., servant, tenant, boarder)

For categories (2) and (3) above you have to list according to age. Those older should be listed first to be followed by the younger members.

For category (3), you have to list all the members of the respective families before listing the members in the next category.

For LQs with one household, you are to make sure that all the total usual members listed in Question B1 is equal to the total you have earlier recorded in Question K3 for the same household. If there is a difference, please check with the respondent to reconcile the answers to Questions B1 and K3. This is to ensure that no one is missing out in the list.

For LQs with more than one household, make sure that the total usual members listed for all households in the LQ are equal to the total which you have recorded in Question K3. If there is any difference, reconcile the respective answers.

[p.89]

Special Note: Make sure that the following persons are also listed as usual household members although they did not live in the LQ on Census Day due to the nature of their work.

(i) Shift workers such as:

Factory worker
Nurse, doctor
Watchman, police, rukun tetangga member on duty
Telephone operator, waiter, hotel worker
Other shift worker

(ii) Fisherman, hunter

(iii) Taxi/lorry/bus driver and other related worker

(iv) Other persons temporary not at home
For all the above categories, any member is qualified to be listed as head of household if considered to be head by other member of the household.

Special Note: Household Exceeding 20 Members
If the number of usual members in a household exceeds 20 persons, please use a separate Document 2 and the following actions must be taken:
(i) Complete all information on Identification Particular.
(ii) Complete Questions K1, K2, and K5 of the Control Particular.
(iii) Cancel Questions K3, K4, and all of Part A-Living Quarters Particulars.

[p.90]
Special Cases Likely to Encounter

During the interview of a household, it is likely that you would encounter the following cases:

Case (a) - Head not living together with household on Census Day
A person who is usually considered as head of household not living with the household on Census Day.

Solution: Ask the respondent:
"Other than ____ (name of person regarded as head), who among the other members of the household can be considered as head and who lived together with the household on Census Day?"

Record the name given on the first line.

Case(b) - Children of head who are married and staying together.
Married child/children of head who are living together with their spouse and children.

How to list them?
Solution: List their names together with the spouse and children accordingly.
Example:

Head of household
Wife/husband of head
Unmarried children of head (begin with the eldest)
Married children of head
Wife/husband of married children (in-laws)
Grandchildren of head
[p.91]

Case(c) - Head with two wives and all living together
A household head with two wives and all of them live as one household.
Solution: List their names as given below:

Head
First wife
Children of first wife
Second wife
Children of second wife

Case(d) - Two or more families living together
Two or more families living together in a LQ (irrespective of whether they are related or not). Example:

Family I
Ali - Husband
Aminah - Wife
Asri - Child
Family II
Sazali - Husband
Samsiah - Wife
Salim - Sazali's father
Family III
Hashim - Husband
Hasmah - Wife

Solution; Ask about the eating arrangement of the above families.
If they make common provision for food and other essentials of living, list the names of all members of the three families as one household.

[p.92]

The listing order of the household members is given below:

Head in family I
Wife of head in family I
Child of head in family I
Members of family II
Members of family III

If they have separate eating and living arrangement then each of the family should form a separate household.

Family I as first HH
Family II as second HH and so on.
Please use separate Document 2 for each HH.

[p.93]

Question B2

[The enumeration form for B2 is not shown here.]

Purpose
The purpose of Question B2 is to obtain the relationship of the usual household members to the head of household.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given below:
"What is the relationship of ____ (name of usual member) to ____ (name of household head)?"

How to record the answers

Record in detail the answers given such as wife, husband, child, in-law, grandchild, brother, sister, and others.

Question B3

[The enumeration form for B3 is not shown here.]

Purpose
The purpose of Question B3 is to obtain the sex of each usual household member.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given below:
"What is the sex of ____ (name of usual member)?"
Do not assume the sex based on the name of the person.

[p.94]

How to record the answer.
Write "L" for male and "P" for female.

Question B4

[The enumeration form for B4 is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain a count of all persons during a reference period i.e., on Census Day.

The purpose of this question is also to ensure that the members listed in B1 are included in the persons count on Census Day.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given below:
"Was ____ (name of usual member) living in this living quarter on Census Day?"

For respondents who do not understand the concept of Census Day, please explain that it refers to a period of time between 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 to 7:00 morning on 14 August 1991.

This question is to be asked to all persons listed in Question B1.

If the respondent does not recall the reference period, you have to show the calendar in Document 7 (Thank You Card) where the Census Day is circled.

How to record the answer
If the answer is "Yes", mark [/], and if "No", mark [X].

[p.95]
Special Note

The following cases should be carefully noted:

Not in LQ between 12:00 midnight on 12 August 1991 to 7:00 morning on 14 August 1991 due to the nature of the job.

Any household member who is not present in LQ during the stated time due to work must be marked [/], i.e., to be treated as living in LQ.

Examples of such cases are:

(i) Shift workers such as:

Factory worker
Nurse, doctor
Watchman, police, rukun tetangga member on duty
Telephone operator, waiter, hotel worker
Other shift workers

(ii) Fisherman, hunter
(iii) Taxi/lorry/bus driver and other types of vehicle drivers

New born babies
If born before 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 and live in LQ, mark [/] for Question B4.
If born after 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991, mark [X] for Question B4.

Death
Persons who died before 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 need not be listed in B1.
Persons who died after 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 but lived in the LQ during the reference period, you must mark [/] for Question B4.
In principle, for cases of births and deaths, all persons who were alive at 12:00 midnight on 13 August 1991 must be counted.

[p.96]

Question B5
[The enumeration form for B5 is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to assign a person number to each household member who is given a tick [/] for Question B4.
The number will assist you to identify the household member who will be required to provide information on person particulars in Part C.

How to record the answer
Only those marked [/] for Question B4 are required to be assigned a person number.
The three-digit number to be given must be in ascending order.
Please make sure that the person number for the head of household is "001".

[p.97]

Question B6 - B10
[The enumeration form for B6 - B10 is not presented here.]

Question B6 - B10 are specifically for recording information related to visitors in each household.

Question B6
[The enumeration form for B6 is not presented here.]

Purpose
This is for recording all persons who were not usual members of a household but were living with a HH on Census Day. This category is know as "visitors" and it does not take into consideration whether or not they are related to the head of household.

Definition

Visitor
A visitor is a person who is visiting a household and lived in the LQ during the above stated time period. A visitor can be:
A person related to the head of household or any usual member in the household such as father/mother, brother/sister and other relatives.
An unrelated person such as friends and others.

[p.98]

How to ask the question
A guide to ask the question is given below:
"Other than the usual members of the household already listed, are there any other persons who lived here on Census Day?"

How to record the answer
If the respondents answer "Yes, ask for their names and record them in the space provided in Question B6.

Question B7
[The form for B7 is not presented here.]

The relationship to the household head is pre-printed below the question.

[p.99]

Question B8 - B10
[The form for B8 - B10 is not presented here.]
The purpose as well as how to ask the questions and record the answers for Question B8 - B10 are similar to Questions B3 - B5.

Make sure that all visitors listed in Question B6 are marked [/] in Question B9.
For visitors listed, assign person number in Question B10 which must be continued from the last person number which you have assigned to a usual household member in Question B5.

When you have completed Questions B1-B10, you should add up the number of persons with [/] in Questions B5 and B9, and enter this number in the column "Total number of [/] in B4 and B9". Make sure this column is filled in after you have asked Question B11 and have completed all particulars in B1 - B10 for those who have been missed out, if any. Make sure that this total figure is the same as the last person number already assigned in Question B5/B10.

[p.100]

Question B11

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to check and ensure that all usual HH members and other persons living in the household (e.g., visitors) on Census Day are completely listed in B1 and B6, especially:

(i) Babies and children
(ii) Elderly persons
(iii) Servants
(iv) Tenants and borders
(v) Usual members temporarily not in LQ due to work, study, leave, etc.
(vi) Visitors

How to ask the question

Ask the question as given in the questionnaire.

How to record the answer
If the respondent answers "Yes", tick [/] in the box provided and list their names in B1 and/or B6 and continue to complete information in B2 - B5 and/or B8 - B10. Their names should be added onto the list of names in B1 and/or B6 and the person number (in B5 and/or B10) should be in sequence.
If the respondent answers "No", tick [/] in the relevant box.

[p.101]

Question B12
[The form for B12 is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this summary is to obtain the number of persons living in a household on Census Day.

How to record the answer
You are required to record the answer by counting.
You are required to transfer the figure "Total number of [/] in B4 and B9" to the "Total" box provided in the summary (B12).
Count the number of ticks [/] for "Male" and "Female" separately under the column "Sex" in Questions B3 and B8. Record the figures in boxes marked "Male" and "Female", respectively.

Make sure the number of "Males" added to "Females" equals the figure shown in "Total".

All figures must be recorded in three-digits.
After completing Question B12, please proceed to Question B13.

[p.102]

Question B13
[The form for B13 is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain information relating to items/appliances accessible to members of each household.

Definition
The household is considered as having the items even if it is rented, bought on hire purchase provided by employer for use by the household members.

Please take note of the following:

(i) Motorcar
For the category "Motorcar", it includes van and four-wheel drive vehicles such as Land Rover, Trooper, Pajero and other similar vehicles for private use.

Special Note: For vehicles such as motorcar, motorcycle/scooter which are used for business only, they are not considered as items/appliances accessible for use by members of a household.

[p.103]

(ii) Bicycle
Bicycle includes all types except those with additional wheel support.

(iii) Motor boat

This is included if the boat is used for personal transportation. This category is applicable only Sabah (including the Federal Territory of Labuan) and Sarawak.

If an item is permanently out of order and cannot be used, it should not be included. However, if an item is only temporarily out of order and can be repaired, it must be included.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given below:
"Are the following items available for use to the member of this household?"

You must read out each category as listed.
For the category "motorcar" and "motorcycle/scooter", ask for the number of units.

How to record the answer
Mark "X" in the respective boxes in accordance with the answers given for the items named.
You are allowed to mark more than one answer, except for the categories "motorcar" and "motorcycle/scooter". When a respondent answers "Yes" to one or more of the above items, mark "X" in the appropriate box.
The box "None of the items mentioned above" can only be marked if all the items/appliances listed are not accessible to the household.

[p.104]
Note: You are to answer all questions in Chapter G of the training book (Document 14a).

[The index of Chapter H is not presented here.]

[p.105]

Chapter H
Procedures to Fill Document 2

Part C: Person Particulars

[The general instruction for Part C is not presented here.]

[p.109]

Question C1
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to record the answer
This number can be obtained from column B5 and/or B10.
Write this number in three-digit for each person as you have recorded in Question B5 and/or B10.

Question C2
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]
How to record the answer
Write the name of the member corresponding to the person number as recorded in Question C1.

[p.110]

Question C3
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to record the answer
You have to refer to the answers given for Question B2 and B7 in order to record the code for the answer to this question. Ensure that those listed in Question B6 (Visitors) are marked "X" in code box 11 for Question C3.
Not all the types of relationship are given specific codes. For example, Code 09 should be given to persons who state relationship with head as "uncle" or "niece/nephew".
For visitors in a household (that is, persons listed in Question B6), they will be given Code 11 without taking into consideration the relationship between the visitor with the head of household.

Question C4
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to record the answer
You have to refer to Question B3 and/or B8 to fill the code box for this question.
Ensure that the answer code you have marked is the same as the answer you have recorded in Question B3 and/or B8.

[p.111]

Question C5
Purpose

The purpose of this question is to get complete information on the date of birth for each individual.

How to ask the question
Ask this question as follows:
"What is the date of birth of ____ (name of member)?"

As far as possible you must get complete information on date of birth that is day, month and year.

How to record the answer
Write the information given on day, month, year in the relevant boxes provided.
[An example has been omitted]

[p.112]

Nevertheless, you may come across cases where respondent cannot give complete information on date of birth as in the following examples:
Example 1: If the respondent informs that he/she was born on Jun 1931 but do not know the day, write the answer as follows:
_ _ Date 06 Month 1931 Year

Example 2: If the respondent informs that he/she was born in 1925 but do not know day and month, write the answer as follows:
_ _ Date _ _ Month 1925 Year

Example 3: If the respondent does not know his/her date of birth at all (day, month and year), leave all the boxes blank. Then ask Question C6 to get the estimated age on Census Day (in completed years).
_ _ Date _ _ Month _ _ _ _ Year

[p.113]
Special Note: Information on date of birth is very important in census data collection. As far as possible, you must get complete and accurate information on date of birth.

Ask question C6 only if respondent cannot supply any information at all on his/her date of birth.

Question C6
[Question C6 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose

The purpose of this question is to get the estimated age in complete years for cases where the respondent cannot remember his/her date of birth.

How to ask the question
Ask this question as follows:
"How old is ____ (member's name) on 14 August 1991?'

Information required is age in completed years at last birthday on Census Day.

How to record the answer
Write information on age in 2-digit in the boxes provided.
If age is less than one year, (e.g., 3 months old) write age as "00".
If age is 99 years or more, write "99".

[p.114]

Special Cases:
For older and less educated persons, problems may arise for this question. If the information on age cannot be obtained with a direct question, it may still be obtained by probing, for example, by promoting the individual to recall important events such as, how many years he/she has been married, how many years he/she has lived in the kampung and so forth.

As a guide to estimate age, several important events in the history of Malaysia are given below:
Year

1914-1918 First World War
1931-1932 Recession time
1942-1945 Second World War (Japanese War)
1948 Declaration of Emergency
1957 Independence Day
1960 Emergency ended
1963 Formation of Malaysia
1974 Formation of Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur

You can also use local events which can assist you to estimate age such as occurrences of a serious food, fire, etc.

As a last resort, you can guess his/her age by comparing the physical appearance of the respondent with the appearance of his/her relatives whose ages are known.

Special note:
In any situation, you cannot leave both Question C5 and C6 blank. If information on the date of birth cannot be obtained, ensure that age in completed years is obtained in all cases.

[p.115]

Question C7
[Question C7 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to find out in which state/country the person was born.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as written in the questionnaire.

Do not change the question to the "Place of birth" because respondent may encounter difficulties in remembering the place of birth (that is, the name of the town, etc.). For persons who were born in Malaysia, you are to get the name of the state in which they were born. For persons who were born outside Malaysia, you are to get the name of the country in which they were born.

How to record the answer
Write the answer on the dotted line provided.
Then you are to refer to Code Card (Document 6), and to write the relevant code in the boxes provide.

Code 01-15 are for persons who were born in Malaysia.
Code 16-23 are for persons who were born in specific countries outside Malaysia.
Code 24 which is "Others" is for persons who were born in countries outside Malaysia other than those listed in the Code Card (codes 16-23).

[p.116]
Examples:
(a) If a person answered that he was born in Johor, you are to fill in the answer as follows:
01 Johor
(b) If a person answered that he was born in Indonesia, you are to fill in the answer for Question C7 as follows:
17 Indonesia

Special Note:
For persons who were born in Selangor before 1st February 1974, you are to ask them whether that place of birth is located in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur or Selangor. If the answer is Kuala Lumpur, you are to write "W.P. Kuala Lumpur" on the dotted line and enter Code "14" in the boxes provide.
For persons who were born in Sabah before 15 April 1984, you are to ask them whether that place of birth is located in the Federal Territory of Labuan or Sabah. If the answer is Labuan, you were to write "W.P. Labuan" on the dotted line and enter Code "15" in the boxes provided.

[p.117]

Question C8
[Question C8 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain the current marital status of every individual whether never married, married, widowed, divorced or permanently separated.

Definition

Never married (Code 1)
This category is for persons who reported that they never married.

Married (Code 2)
This category refers to persons who are still married at the time of interview.
Here marriage includes marriage by law or living together by common agreement.
Marriage by law is marriage according to laws of the country. For example, registered marriage, civil marriage, marriage through religious rites and social customs.
Living together is agreement between man and woman to live together as "husband and wife" but do not register with the authorities.
Also included in the category of "married" are persons who are separated from their partner temporarily. For cases whose separation is long and permanent, they are to be classified the status which they regard themselves to be.

[p.118]
Widowed (Code 3)
A widow is a person whose husband or wife has passed away.
If a person was a widow before but has remarried at the time of interview, you have to classify he/she is "married", i.e. Code 2.

Divorced/permanently separated (Code 4)
This category includes married couples who have been divorced by law or religious rites.
Couples who are separated for a very long time and are unlikely to be together again have to be regarded as permanently separated.

How to ask the question
You have to ask the question as follows to the respondent:
"Have ____ (member's name) been married/never married, widowed or divorced/permanently separated?"

How to record the answer

Record the answer given in the relevant box.

Special note:
This question should not be asked for those aged less than 10 years.
For persons who have been divorced or permanently separated but have not remarried, they cannot be included in category "Never married" (Code 1). They have to be included in the category "Divorced/Permanently separately" (Code 4).

[p.119]

Question C9
[Question C9 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain information about the ethnic group of each person.

Definition
The term "ethnic or dialectic group" refers to a group of persons bonded by common language, religion, customs or other such factors.

How to ask the question
You are to ask the question as follows:
"What is the ethnic or dialectic group of ____ (member's name)?"

In general, accept whatever answer is given by the respondent.
Do not make guesses by referring to the name, appearance, etc. of the person.
Example: If the respondent replies that he is a "Malay", answer should be entered as follows:
01 Malay

[p.120]

If the reply given by the respondent is too general, for example "Chinese" or "Indian", you should obtain more detailed information.
Example (a):
Wrong
_ _ Chinese
Right
51 Hokkien

Example (b):
Wrong
_ _ Indian
Right:
62 Malayali

[p.121]

Case-by-case guidelines
During the interview, you may encounter some problems in deciding the ethnic group of a person and the correct code to be given. The following are some guidelines provided for cases you may possibly encounter and how to solve these cases.

1. Mixed ethnicity
Persons of mixed ethnic origin may present some problems to you. There may be cases where the persons may not be certain of their ethnic origin.
You should encourage them to make a choice by asking for the ethnic origin of their language, religion, customs, etc., or to which ethnic group their parents consider themselves to have originated from.
As a final resort, record the ethnicity of the father.

2. Indonesia
i. For those who report themselves as Javanese, Boyan, Bugis, etc.
Record them as "Indonesian" and write Code 2 in the code box.
ii. For those of Indonesian origin (without considering citizenship) especially in Peninsular Malaysia, there are those who regard themselves as "Malay", while some consider themselves as "Indonesian".
For those who report themselves as Malay, write "Malay" on the dotted line and give Code 1.
For those who report themselves as Indonesian, write "Indonesian" and give Code 2.

3. Ceylonese/Sri Lankan
If the answer given by a respondent is "Ceylonese" or "Sri Lankan"
Confirm if they are Sri Lankan Tamil or Sinhalese. If the answer is "Sri Lankan Tamil", record as such and give Code 66, and if the reply is "Sinhalese", the give Code 67.

[p.122]

4. Pakistani
If a respondent says he is a "Pakistani", write "Pakistani" and give Code 69.
Do not record him as "Other Indian".

5. Punjabi
If a respondent says he is a "Punjabi", ask the respondent if he is a "Sikh" (Code 63) or Other Punjabi (Code 64).

6. Nepalese and Gurkha
If a person says he is a "Nepalese" or "Gurkha", you should record him as "Nepalese" or "Gurkha" and give Code 75 (Other Asian) and not as "Other Indian" (Code 70).

[p.123]

Special Note:
Other Asian (Code 75)
This category is for any Asian ethnic group which is not separately listed in the Code Card (Document 6).

Baba Chinese
The Baba Chinese are to be classified under whichever dialectic group they consider themselves to belong to. If they are unable to do so, they are then to be classified as "Other Chinese".

European (Code 77)
The category "Europeans" includes Australians, New Zealander, and Americans".

Chitty
Those who report themselves as "Chitty" should be classified as "Other Indians". (Code 70)

Others
This category is for those who cannot be placed in any of the categories which are listed in the Code Card (Document 6).

[p. 124]

Question C10
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is for collecting information relating to the religion of each person.

Definition
Religion is the identification or relationship of an individual to a set or system of beliefs and the practice of those beliefs.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as follows:
"What is the religion of ____ (member's name)?"

How to record the answer
In general, accept the answer given by the respondent and do not attempt to make any guesses.

It is possible for members in one household to belong to different religion.
A person who considers his religion as "Confucianism" or "Taoism", or traditional Chinese religion such as practicing ancestor worship, should be categorized as "Confucianism/Taoism/other traditional Chinese religions" (Code 5) and should not be recorded as "Others" (Code 7).

[p.125]

For Chinese, you may come across those who practice a few religious beliefs such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, ancestor worship, etc. For such cases, you should leave to the respondent to decide which one of the categories he selects for question C10.

The category "Others" in for those who belong to religions which are not classified under any of the given categories, for example, the "Bahai" religion.
"No religions" refers to persons who say that they do not have any religious beliefs.
It should be remembered that it is possible for a person to have religion which is not represented by an organized group. For example, worship of spirits or natural element is common practice among tribal group, e.g., the orang asli. Thus, this practice should be considered a religion and be recorded as "Tribal/folk religion".
You may sometimes encounter a problem in deciding whether an answer given by the respondent is a separate religion or a sub-group of two major religions. If in doubt, ask the respondent for further details. For example, the answer "Catholic" should be classified as "Christianity" (Code 2). Groups such as "Hare Krishnan" and "Sai Baba" should be classified as "Hinduism" (Code 3).

Note:
You are to answer questions C1 - C10 in Chapter H, training workbook (Document 14a) before you proceed to page 126 of this manual.

[p.126]

Question C11-C14

Purpose
The purpose of these questions is to obtain information for each person including:

The level of education, that is, whether the person has ever been to school or not, and whether he/she is currently attending school or has completed schooling.
The highest level of schooling completed/still attending.
The highest certificate obtained.

Question C11
[Question C11 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Definition
Schooling
The definition "schooling" means that a person has attended any of the educational institutions that provide formal education.

Formal education means that the educational system has:

i) Student registration
ii) Fixed curriculum
iii) Fixed educational centers
iv) Provided by permanent agencies.
[p.127]

Educational institutions include:

(i) Pre-school institution such as kindergarten
(ii) Schools (primary and secondary)
(iii) College/polytechnic
(iv) University

The educational institutions include public as well as private sector.

The following categories are excluded in formal education:

(i) In-service courses
(ii) Religious classes/hut
(iii) Self-study/education through mail, television, video, etc.
(iv) Schools or institutions which only provide basic training in skills such as business education, typing, tailoring, sewing, etc.
(v) Adult schools.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"Has ____ (member's name) ever been to school?"

How to record the answer
If the answer is "Yes", you are to mark (X) in Code 1 box.
If the answer is "Never attended school", you are to mark (X) in Code 2 box and go to Question C15.

[p.128]

Question C12

[Question C12 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Definition

"Current schooling" means that a person is currently attending one of the educational institutions that provide formal education.

"Completed schooling" means that a person has been to school and has completed his/her schooling at the time of interview.

Special note

For persons who are currently waiting for the examination results from the formal educational institutions, they are considered as currently schooling.

For persons who are attending part-time classes at the formal educational institutions, they are also considered as currently schooling.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:

"Is ____ (member's name) still schooling or has completed schooling?"

How to record the answer

You are to mark (X) in the Code 1 box if the answer is "Currently schooling" and Code 2 box if the answer is "Completed schooling".

[p.129]

Question C13

[Question C13 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to ask the question

Ask this question as follows:
"What is ____ (member's name) highest level of schooling completed/still attending?"

How to record the answer
If the person is still schooling/attending, you are to write the level he is currently attending, assuming that he would complete his current level at the end of the year/academic year.

[p.130]

If the person has completed his schooling at the time of interview, you are to get the level he/she has completed.

If the person has left school during a certain year without completing that level fully, mark the nearest level which he has completed fully.

For persons who have completed their schooling in Malaysia a long time ago and there are differences with the present-day educational system, you are to refer to Code Card (Document 6) to get the equivalent levels.

For persons who were educated overseas, you are to get the total years of study and to give the equivalent levels in the present-day educational system, e.g., for persons who have studied overseas for 8 years, you are to mark the equivalent level of schooling which if Form 2 (Code 9).

Reminder:
Matriculation class is assumed to be equivalent to Form 6 Upper (Code 14).
Vocational 1 is Sabah and Sarawak is equivalent to Form 4 (Vocational) in Peninsular Malaysia (Code 15) whereas Vocational 2 and 3 in Sabah and Sarawak are equivalent to Form 5 (Vocational) in Peninsular Malaysia (Code 16).
College category (Code 17) includes polytechnics.

[p.131]

Question C14

[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

Definition
The definitions of abbreviations as shown in the answer boxes are as follows:

SRP/LCE
Sijil Rendah Pelajaran/Lower Certificate of Education (For grades A, B and C only)

SPM/MCE/SC/4 Thanawi
Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia/Malaysian Certificate of Education/Senior Cambridge/4 Thanawi (Certificate of Islamic Education). (for grades 1, 2, and 3 only)

SPVM/SPM(V)/MCVE
Sijil Pelajaran Vokasional Malaysia/Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (Vokasional)/Malaysian Certificate of Vocational Education. (For grades 1, 2, and 3 only)

STPM/HSC/STA
Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia/Higher School Certificate/Sijil TiTinggi Agama

Diploma/Certificate
This category includes diploma and certificates obtained from colleges or polytechnics proceeding degree levels.

Degree
Including all degree levels which are first degree, Masters, Doctor of Philosophy, or the equivalent.

[p.132]

How to ask the question

Ask this question as follows:
"What is the highest certificate ____ (member's name) obtained?"

How to record the answer

Only the highest certificate is to be marked.

For persons who have certificates other than those given in the answer codes because of:

(i) The examination was taken some time in the past.
(ii) The examination was taken overseas.

Ask the respondent what the certificate is equivalent to the present-day Malaysian education system.

Mark in the box "None" (Code 1) if :
(i) The person has not passed any of the examinations.
(ii) The person is too young to sit for such examinations.

Reminder:
For persons who have Standard 6 certificate, mark Code 1.
The diplomas/certificates which were obtained after completion of first degree should be marked Code 7.
Advanced Diploma is equivalent to Degree which is Code 7.

Note: You are to answer questions C11 -C14 in Chapter H, Training Workbook (Document 14a) before you proceed to page 133 of this manual.

[p.133]

Question C15-C16

Purpose
The purpose of these questions is to find out current usual place of residence (on Census Day) and usual place of residence 5 years ago (i.e., on 14 August 1986) in order to determine whether a person has moved/migrated or not.

Question C15
[Question C15 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given in the questionnaire.
Explain that the "Place of Residence" refers to the house address where the person resides.

[p.134]
How to record the answer

This house (Code 1)
In most cases, the place where the person has been enumerated is also his/her usual residence on Census Day.
If the usual residence (house) on Census Day is the same as the house where the person has been enumerated, mark "X" in box beside Code 1 (i.e., this house).
If the usual place of residence is a collective living quarters, e.g., hostel, assume this place as "This House" (Code 1).

Other House (Code 2)
In some cases (e.g., visitors), the usual place of residence may not be the same as the place where they have been enumerated.

If the respondent replies that his current usual residence is different from the place where he has been interviewed (or enumerated), you are to mark "X" in the box beside Code 2 (that is, Other House).

If a person's current usual residence is Other house in Malaysia (in which case the person is only visiting the house where he has been enumerated on Census Day) you are to get the details of his current usual place of residence, which is:

a) Street Name/Residential Garden
You are to write the full address, that is, the name of the street (lane, etc) and Residential Garden, if any, in the space provided.

b) Town/Village Name
You are to write the name of the town or village in which the house is located and cross out whichever is not relevant.

For villages which are located in towns, you are to write the names of the village and town. Cross out "village" in (b).

[p.135]

If you are not sure whether the house is located in a town or not, as a guide you are to ask the respondent whether the garbage disposal service is handled by the local authority. If such service is carried out, assume that the house is located in the town.

c) Mukim/District (Kelantan)/Sub-district (Sarawak)
You are to write the name of mukim for all states except Kelantan. Write the name of District for Kelantan, and the Sub-district for Sarawak in the space provided.

d) Administrative District/Jajahan (Kelantan)
You are to write the Administrative District for all states except Kelantan. For Kelantan, you are to write the name of "Jajahan" in the space provided.

e) State/Country
You are to write the name of the state/country in the space provided.

If the current usual residence is other house outside Malaysia completed the name of Country in (e) only. Particulars (a) to (d) need not be filled.

Special note: In the case where persons are listed in Question B6 (visitors), you are to mark Code 2 in Question C15 and write the full address, that is, particulars (a) to (e).

[p.136-7]
[Examples 1 to 4 are not presented here.]

[p.138]

Question C16
[Question C16 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

How to ask the question
Ask the question as given in the questionnaire. Do not use your own words.
For a child whose age is less than 5 years (i.e., born after 14th August 1986), ask for the mother's usual place of residence at the time of his/her birth.

How to record the answer

This house (Code 1)
If the usual place of residence (house) 5 years ago was the same as the place where the person has been enumerated, you are to mark "X" in the box beside Code 1 (i.e., this house).

Same house, as in C15 (Code 2)
If the usual place of residence 5 years ago was different from the house where he has been enumerated but the same as the address in C15, particulars (a)-(e), you are to mark "X" in the box beside Code 2.

[p.139]

Other house (Code 3)
If the respondent replies that the usual place of residence 5 years ago was different from the address in C15 (Particulars (a) -(e)), you are to mark "X" in the box beside Code 3.
If the usual place of residence 5 years ago was in Malaysia, you are to complete particulars (a) - (e) in full.
For the case where the usual place of residence 5 years ago was outside Malaysia, you are to fill only particular (e) (i.e., Country)

Note: The method of filling in particulars (a) - (e) in Question C16 is the same as those explained for Question C15 above.

Reminder: Questions C15 - C16
All particulars related to address of other house, i.e., particulars (a) until (e) must be completed.
These detail particulars will enable us to code accurately during processing work in the office.

[p.140]

Question C17

[Question C17 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
The purpose of this question is to obtain information on the person's citizenship.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"What is the citizenship of ____ (member's name)?'

How to record the answer
You are to mark "X" in the relevant code box.
In general, accept the answer as given by the respondent.
Do not make any guesses.
You are to mark the code box for the State/Country based on the answer given by the respondent.
If the respondent replies "I am not a citizen of any country", you are to mark the code box "Others" (Code 7) and write "No country" on the dotted line provided.
For those who have applied for Malaysian citizenship, but still hold the citizenship of their original country, please mark their original citizenship.
If the respondent is not sure, ask for the color of his identification card. If a person holds a blue identification card, he is a Malaysian.

[p.141]

Note: You are to answer Question C15 - C17 in Chapter H, Training Workbook (Document 14a) before you proceed to page 142 of this manual.

[p.142]

Questions C18-C27

General Guidelines

Who should be asked?
(i) These questions (C18-C27) should be asked for persons aged 10 years and above, that is, those who were born before or on 14 August 1981.
Refer to Question C5 to find out the date of birth. For persons whose birth dates are 14 August 1981 or earlier, Questions C18-C27 must be asked.
If no information is provided for C5, refer to Question C6. For persons who are 10 years or more, Question C18 - C27 must be asked.

(ii) For Questions C25 and C26, if possible, obtain the information from the household members directly so that more detailed information may be given.

Reference Period
The reference period for Question C18-C27 refer to the 7 days prior to the day of the interview.

To determine the reference period, refer to the calendar provided in Document 7 (Thank You Card).

Example:
If the interview was conducted on 15 August 1991, the information required should be based on the period 8-14 August 1991.

[p.143]

Question C18

[Question C18 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To determine whether a person aged 10 years or above has worked or not during the period of 7 days prior to the interview.

Definition
"Working" means doing work for:
Pay/wages (cash or in-kind) for example, working as an officer in the government/private sector and received a salary or a worker harvesting padi and received padi as wages.
Own profit, for example, a farmer operating his own farm or a doctor in a private practice or a retailer/shopkeeper, etc.
Family gain, for example:
(i) A student who helps in his father's shop after school, without receiving wages; or
(ii) A housewife who helps her husband to harvest padi without receiving wages/salary.

Note:
Do not consider the following activities as work:
Housework such as cooking, cleaning own house and doing other household chores by a housewife for other family members.

[p.144]

How to ask the question
Ask this question as follows:
"Did ____ (member's name) work during the last 7 days?"

If the respondent is uncertain about the work concept, explain the work concept as given in Question C18.

How to record the answer
If the respondent answers "Yes" mark, "X" in the Code 1 box and go to Question C24.
If the respondent answers "No", mark "X" in the Code 2 box and ask Question C19.

Question C19
[Question C19 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To identify persons who consider themselves as not working because the time spent on working during the last 7 days before the interview was short. Usually these people do not hold regular jobs.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"Did ____ (member's name) work at least 1 hour during the last 7 days?"

How to record the answer
If the respondent answers "Yes", mark "X" in the Code 1 box and go to Question C24.
If the respondent answers "No", mark "X" in the Code 2 box and go to Question C20.

[p.145]

Question C20
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to determine whether a person who did not work during the last 7 days but still has a permanent job, farm, own business, or family business.
This person might not work for the time being because of:

i) Vacation leave
ii) Medical leave
iii) Bad weather or
iv) Temporary unemployment

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"Does ____ (member's name) have any work to return to?"

How to record the answer
IF the respondent answers "Yes", mark "X" in Code 1 box and go to Question C25.
If the respondent answers "No", mark "X" in Code 2 box and go to Question C21.

[P.146]

Question C21
[Question C21 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To determine whether a person who is not working has looked for work actively or is trying to establish a business.

Definition
Looking for Work
"Looking for work" means taking steps to find employment or establishing a business.
This refers to the following actions:

i) Register with the public or private employment offices.
ii) Visiting places where prospective employers recruit workers.
iii) Meeting with employers.
iv) Responding to job advertisements.
v) Writing letters of application.
vi) Make enquires at a union or similar institutions.
vii) Informing friends and/or relatives.
viii) Investigate possibilities to start a professional practice or a business or to be self-employed.

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"Did ____ (member's name) look for work during the last 7 days?"
[p.147]

How to record the answer
If the respondent answers "Yes", mark "X" in Code 1 box and go to Question C23.
If the respondent answers "No", mark "X" in Code 2 box and ask Question C22.

Question C22
[Question C22 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To find out the reason why the person did not look for work.

Definition
Believe there is no suitable job available (Code 01)
This is a personal opinion. Some respondents believe that there is no job or suitable job for them.

Bad Weather (Code 2)
A person who did not look for work might be prevented from doing so because of weather conditions such as heavy rain, drought, heat, etc.

[p.148]

Sick/Confinement (Code 03)
Illness or injury must be of a temporary condition. A person cannot be marked Code 03 solely on the basis that he/she has fallen ill/in confinement during the last 7 days before the interview data. You have to check with the respondent that he/she would have looked for work if he/she has not fallen ill.

Will start new job (Code 04)
This category refers to a person who is waiting to start a job (with pay/salary) scheduled to begin within 30 days from the date of interview. Do not mark "X" in this box for person who is waiting to begin his own business, farm, or professional practice.

Waiting for answers to job applications/have looked for work prior to the last seven days (Code 05)
Some respondents might have looked for work prior to the reference period. If they say that they are now awaiting results of applications made prior to the reference period, mark this code for them.

No qualification (Code 06)
Some respondents might feel that they do not have enough qualification to meet the job. As a result, they feel they are unemployable and so do not make an attempt to look for work.

Still Schooling (Code 07)
This refers to students who study full time or part-time at an institution or through correspondence at home.

Housewife (Code 08)
For persons who stay at home to look after the house. The person can be a male or female.

Going for further studies (Code 09)
A person could be waiting/making preparations to continue further studies and hence not interested in looking for work.

[p.149]

Handicapped/disabled (Code 10)
This category includes those who are unemployed or not interested in work due to either physical or mental handicap or disability.
This disability must be of a permanent nature. Disregard those who were temporarily disabled as a result of a mishap, and should be categorized under Code 03.

Not interested (Code 11)
This code is marked for persons who state that they are not interested to work.

Retired/too old (Code 12)
This code is meant for persons who said they have retired either by option or compulsion.
This category should include old people.

Too young (Code 13)
This category is for those who said they do not qualify for work because they are too young.

Others (Code 14)
If a person gives reason other than those started above, you should mark this code. This includes those who are waiting to begin their own business or professional practice.

How to ask the question

Ask this question as follows:
"What is the main reason ____ (member's name) did not seek for work?"

How to record the answer
Mark only one of the relevant boxes and go to Question C23.

[p.150]

Question C23
[Question C23 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to determine whether a person who did not work during the last 7 days has worked before.

How to ask the question
Ask the question as follows:
"Have ____ (member's name) ever worked before?"

How to record the answer
If the respondent answers "Yes", mark "X" in Code 1 box and if the answer is "No", mark "X" in Code 2 box.
After marking the relevant box for this question, stop the interview for this particular person.

Question C24
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
This question is to determine the number of hours worked during the last 7 days.

Definition
Number of hours worked refer to the time spent on the main job, additional work, secondary jobs, overtime work, etc.
For teachers, include also the time spent before/after school hours on activities such as preparing notes and checking work books.

[p.151]

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"How many hours did ____ (member's name) work during the last 7 days?"

How to record the answer
Write the number of hours in the boxes provided and go to Question C25.
Ensure that recorded number of hours worked refers to the number of hours worked during the period of the last 7 days.
As an example, if a person has regular work hours, that is, works 6 hours a day for 5 1/2 days a week, you should enter "33" (i.e., 6 hours * 5 1/2 days) in the boxes provided.

Question C25
[Question C25 of the enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To find out the occupation of a person who worked during the last 7 days before interview.

How to ask the question
To obtain complete information on occupation you should ask two questions, that is:
Question (a)
"What is ____ (member's name) occupation?"
Question (b)
"Please describe the duties/nature of work ____ (member's name) does?"

[p.152]

How to record the answer

Question 25(a)
Record the name of the position or occupation in detail. For example, store clerk, finance clerk, lorry driver, construction worker, lift attendant, rubber tapper, rubber estate manager, restaurant manager, primary school teacher, fisherman, shoe production worker in a factory, etc.

Avoid general terms such as clerk, driver, laborer, attendant, farmer, mechanic, teacher, etc.
If the respondent has two or more jobs, record the one which he spent most of his time.

Question 25(b)
Record the duties carried out by the respondent clearly. Avoid using general terms.
Examples of complete answers are as follows:
(i) Mixing cement and plastering walls.
(ii) Preparing and selling "nasi lemak at night market".
(iii) Making furniture in own workshop.
(iv) Tapping rubber in own estate.

[p.153]

Question C26
[The enumeration form is not presented here.]

Purpose
To find out the "industry" for person who worked during the last 7 days before interview.

Definition
Industry refers to the economic activity of the working place of a person. This includes agriculture, manufacturing, mining, services, etc.

How to ask the question
To obtain complete information on the industry at the place where a person works, two questions should be asked, that it:
Question (a)
"What are the activities/services/product of _____ (member's name) place of work?"
Question (b)
"What is the employer's name and address?"

[p.154]

How to record the answer

Question 26(a)

State clearly and precisely the activities/services/products of the place of work of the respondent.

Whenever possible explain in a few words, for example:

i) Factory that produces rubber shoes.
ii) Sewing clothes in own house.
iii) Repairing cars in own workshop.
iv) Selling food in coffee shop.
v) Selling food at "Night Market".
vi) Making furniture in factory.
vii) Planting paid in own farm.

Avoid using general terms such as manufacturing, selling, agriculture or production.
State industry for occupation which has been recorded in Question C25.

Question 26(b)
Obtain an answer for this question if the respondent is an employee or employer.
This question need not be answered for cases where the respondent is own-account worker in agricultural sector, such as gardener, rubber taper, paid farmer, etc.

Note: Examples for answers to Questions C25 and C26
To assist you in recording the answers to Questions C25 and C26 clearly and accurately, some examples are given as references on pages 155 and 156.

[p.155-6]
[The table of examples of occupation and industry which are commonly found in the urban area is not presented here.]

[p.157]

Question C27

Purpose
To determine the working status of a person in employment.

Definition
Employer (Code 1)
Person who operates business, industry, plantation or his own professional practice and employs one or more workers to help him.

Employee (Code 2)
Person who works for a government or private employer and is paid a salary, wage, commission or "tips".

Self-Employed (Code 3)
Person who operates business, industry, plantation or his own professional practice but does not employ any workers to help him.

Unpaid family worker (Code 4)
Person who works without receiving salary/wage in an industry, plantation or business that is being operated by a family member/relative.

[p.158]

How to ask the question

Ask the question as follows:
"What is the employment status of ____ (member's name)?"

How to record the answer
Mark "X" in the relevant box.
Employment status refers to the occupation as recorded in Question C25.

Examples on how to record answers to Questions C18 -C27
To assist you in recording the answers to Question C18 - C27, the following examples are given which relate to some selected occupations.

[Examples 1 to 5 are not presented here.]

[p.161]

Note: You are to answer Questions C18 - C27 in Chapter H, Training Workbook (Document 14a).

[Chapter I and Appendix 1 are not presented here.]