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1980 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia

Instruction Manual for the Second Stage - Forms 1, 3 and 4

[Pages 1 - 51 were omitted]

[p. 52]

Section 4: Household form

Purpose of the Household form:

Form 3 is to be used to gather information on each household. It is a form in which the people in the household are listed. By firstly listing the people, finding out whether they were sleeping the household on Census Night (night of June 10 and early morning of 11), and giving them a person number, you are preparing the way to fill in the persons forms (Form 4).

The household form also collects information on tenancy and household items and income.

[The portion that outlines administrative detail is not presented here.]

Questions 1-2

[An image displaying questions 1-2 of the census form is omitted here.]

These questions are to be filled in after you have finished work for the day. The address is taken from Column 4 of the House-listing Book. When filling in the address, be careful that you keep within the box allowed for the address. Do not write carelessly. (See Section 6 - Homework).

[p. 53]

Questions 3-5

[An image displaying questions 3-5 of the census form is omitted here.]

These questions are the first ones to be filled in by you during the actual interview. After you have clipped a household form to your file, you are to mark the following:

a. Mark on Question 3 whether this is the first form or a second or subsequent form. You will note that there is room on each form for listing twenty people. If there are more than 20 people in the household, you are to use a second form to list the remainder. When using a second form, you are to mark the 2+ box and Question 4 and 5. You are not required to show totals on the second form used or to mark Questions 17-21. The total number of persons in the household on Census Night (on the night of 10 June and early morning of 11) is to be filled in and marked on the first form only, that is, Question 17 on the first form will show the totals including those people listed on subsequent forms used.

b. Write in Questions 4 and 5, the living quarters and household numbers and then mark in the boxes provided. The household number is the number assigned to a household within a Living Quarters. If there are 2 or more households in the Living Quarters, and you are interviewing the second household, you are to mark box 2. In a Living Quarters which contains 10 or more households, for household number 1 to 9 write the household number in Question S and mark in the corresponding boxes. For household number 10 and above, you are to write only the household number in Question 5; do not mark any boxes.

[An image displaying questions 6-8 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 54]

Question 6
In question 6, you are to list the names of all the people who are members of this household. Include all persons whom the respondent feels are the members of the household. Ask the questions as given below:

a. What is the name of the head of this household?

b. What are the names of all other persons who belong to this household?

The household is defined as a group of persons who live together and make common provision for food and other essentials of living. The people in the group may be related or unrelated or a combination of both. A household may consist of only one person or it may be a multi-member household.

The head of household is the person who is regarded as such by the rest of the household. In some cases, it will not be clear who the head of the household is (e.g. students sharing the same accommodation and cooking together). In these cases, it does not matter who is made head. The person you are talking to may be the most convenient.

You are to list the names of the members in the order given below:
1. Head of household
2. Spouse of head
3. Unmarried children of head, in order of their ages, beginning with the eldest.
4. Married son/daughters and their families listed in the order: husband/wife, children
5. Father/mother of head or of spouse of head
6. Brother/sister of head or of spouse of head
7. Other relatives of head
8. Servant, lodgers, boarders and other persons not related to the head

You will note that the immediate family of the head of the household is to be listed first. Other families then follow. If the daughter of the head of household is married as is living in the household with her husband and children, list her with her husband and children and not as a child of the head.

In the case where two wives of the head of the household and their children are present in the same household, the following listing order is to be followed:
Head of household
Wife number 1
Children of wife number 1
Wife number 2
Children of wife number 2

If among these there are married couples or persons otherwise related in groups 6 to 8 of the listing order, they should be arranged in the same manner as indicated for families of married children 940. Be sure to include children, however young, who live in the unit, taking particular care to include infants. If there are babies just born without names, list them as: "Baby of [respondent]"

The listing is only for one household as defined earlier. Thus, as you come to a second family group or non-relatives in the listing, ask about their living arrangement before listing further. They should be treated as a separate household, if they have their own living arrangements, for example, cooking separately.

[p. 55]

Question 7
The head of the household is marked on the first line against the name of the person who is regarded as such. As the names of all the other members are listed, determine the precise relationship of each person to the head of the household by asking: "What is the relationship of [respondent] to the head of the household?" Write on the line for each person the relationship - e.g. wife/husband of head, son, daughter, step-son, daughter-in-law, aunt, uncle, nephew, grandmother, servant, etc. At this point of the interview you need not refer to the Enumerators Code Card {Form 14(a)/14(b)/ 14(c)} which also shows the relationship code to head of household in respect of question 3 for the Persons Form. For question 7 in the Household Form you need only record what the respondent tells you about the relationship of the various members to the head.

In cases where two or more unrelated persons are living in one household, designate one as head and the other members as partners or friends.

Question 8
This is a straightforward question. Indicate the sex of each person by the letters M for males, and F for females.

[An image displaying questions 9-10 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 56]

Question 9
You are to show in this column, those members of the household who slept in the living quarters on Census Night (i.e. on the night of June 10 and the early morning of 11).

For every person listed in Question 6, ask where they slept on Census Night. If they slept in this living quarters, you are to tick them in Question 9.

At this state of the interview you should ask the respondent for the list of people who have slept with the household on Census Night. In the Census Publicity Campaign, members of the public have been asked to record the names of persons who will be sleeping the Living Quarters on Census Night. You should therefore cross-check the list that you have made in Question 9 against the list of names recorded by the respondent. If there are differences, these should be reconciled with the respondent.

The following special cases should be specially noted:

a. Any member of the household who was away from the household on Census Night on regular night work or night duty should be ticked in Question 9. For example, Rukun Tetangga members on duty, night shift workers like nurses, factory workers, watchmen, etc.

b. If a member of the household was away for several days and would not be counted elsewhere, he should be ticked in Question 9. For example, he was away at sea fishing or at work in the jungle (e.g. collecting firewood, jungle produce).

c. Babies born before midnight of Census Night should be ticked, and babies born after midnight should not be ticked.

d. Persons who died before midnight of the Census Night should not be listed in Question 6. If they are, they should be deleted.

e. Persons who died after midnight should be listed in Question 6 and should be ticked in Question 9. Make sure that people who died after midnight are nevertheless included in the Census. The census counts everybody who was alive at midnight on June 10/11.

f. Note that nay person who produces an enumeration pass is not to be ticked in Question 9.

After you have ticked off the persons who slept in the Living Quarters on Census Night, check that the person whose name is designated as head of the household has a tick in this column. If the head of the household does not have a tick in this column, you should find out from the respondent who could be considered as the head of the household within the list of persons who have been ticked off. With this new information, you should then designate the new person as the head of the household and revise all relationships in terms of the new head.

Question 10
In this column you are to number serially (starting from 001) all the people with a tick in Question 9. This number is called the person number.

[An image displaying question 11 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 11
Count up the ticks in Questions 9 and write in the number of males, females and total persons in the relevant boxes, in Question 11.

[p. 57]

[An image displaying questions 12-14 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 12
It is also possible that people other than the normal household members slept with the household on Census Night. In Question 12, you are to list the names of any friends or other visitors who slept in the Living Quarters on Census Night. Please note that visitors may or may not be related to the head of the household. You must ask specifically about friends and visitors. These visitors must be listed together with the household they are/were visiting.

Make sure that they have not already been included in the listing in Question 6 by mistake. If they are, you are to delete them in Question 6 and include them in Question 12.

Question 13
Indicate the sex of each of the visitors in Question 13 using the letters M or F.

Question 14
Number all the visitors serially, continuing from where you left off in Question 10.

[An image displaying questions 15-17 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 58]

Question 15
Count up to the total number of visitors from Question 13 and write in the number of males, females and total person in the appropriate boxes.

Questions 16-17

Add together the totals in Questions 11 to 15 to obtain a grand total of all the people who were in the household on Census Night. Check this total with the respondent. Mark the relevant boxes in Question 17 to indicate the grand total (total of males plus females).

Questions 18-20

Questions 18, 19 and 20 are to be asked of households, occupying Living Quarters of Codes 1 to 17 only. The Living Quarters Codes are obtained from the Housing Census and shown in the House-listing Book (Stage 1) column 2.

[An image displaying question 18 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 18
Ask the question as given: If the respondent says "yes" to Question 18a, that is if the household is a tenant household paying rent for accommodation, you are to mark "yes" and skip to Question 19. You are to ask Question 18b only if they say "no" to Question 18a.

In Question 18b; mark "yes" if the housing unit belongs to the household you are interviewing. This includes households who are currently paying installments for purchasing the unit. If there are other arrangements for example free housing, then mark "no".

[p. 59]

Question 19

[An image displaying question 19 of the census form is omitted here.]

The question is to be asked as phrased: "Does your household have any of the following items?".

Multiple answers are allowed in this question. Whenever a respondent says "yes" to any or more of the above items mark the appropriate box. The household is considered as having the items even if it is only hired or bought on hire purchase and not fully paid for.

Take special note of the following:

a. In the case of the motorcar, land rover/van, motorcycle/scooter and bicycle, ask the respondents the number they have, and mark the relevant box.

b. A transistor radio is to be considered as a "radio".

c. A stereo set with radio is to be considered as "radio". However, a stereo set without radio should not be included.

d. Car radio, record player and cassette deck should not be included as radio.

e. Wrist watches are not to be included under the item "clock".

f. Sewing machines can include both manual and electric.

g. Newspapers should be an item available on regular basis i.e. daily or weekly.

h. It is important that you only include vehicles which are intended for private use and not for business use.

i. If items are permanently out of order or spoilt, they should not be included. However, if they are only temporarily out of order, they must be included.

[p. 60]

[An image displaying question 20 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 20 intends to obtain information on the average monthly household income class of the respondent's household. The income should be that of the usual members of the household only and should not include the income of visitors. This question must be the last question in the interview. You should ask all the questions on the household form, expect question 20 and then go on to the persons form (Form 4) and when you have completed all the required persons forms for the household, then only should you ask question 20. After you have read question 20 to the respondent, you must also read the notes to this question in the Enumerator's Code Card {Form 14(a)/14(b)/14(c)}. These notes provide some guidance to the respondent as to what items should be included in deriving the estimate of this household income. The detailed concept to household income is very complex, and for Census purposes, it is not possible to go into all the details. Below, we set out the main points which should provide you with enough information to enable you to explain and to help the respondent in estimating his household income class:

a. For Census purposes, the estimate of household income should be based on the average monthly household income for the last 12 months.

b. Household income should include both cash and non-cash income. The following items should be included:

1. Wages and salaries (before deductions for income tax, E.P.F. etc. and should include allowances, bonuses, tips, overtime payments and monetary value of free food and lodging).

2. Net Income from self-employment (from business or agricultural holdings).

[p. 61]

3. Property Income (e.g. interest, dividends, net rent from agricultural, and other lands).

4. Transfer receipts (e.g. royalties, pensions, alimonies, scholarships, and other remittances).

5. Monetary value of consumption from own crops, fruits, poultry and farm animals, and from trading stock.

6. Free food and lodging.

7. Rental value of own house if staying in own house.

c. For Census purposes, the income of a household must include income earned by all household members who regularly earn income.

d. Income for the purpose of the Census means earned income. In other words, income earned by the household within the last 12 months which may or may not have been received by the household should be included.

e. In estimating the net income from self-employment i.e. from business or agricultural holdings in which the business is in the form of a partnership or in the case of a joint agricultural holding, the share of the business income earned by household members only should be included.

Question 21

[An image displaying question 21 of the census form is omitted here.]

You are to mark in the type of Living Quarters Code as part of your homework. See Section 6 (Homework).


Section 5: Persons Form

Purpose of the persons form (Form 4)

This form is to be used to record information for individual persons. A separate Persons Form must be filled in for every person listed in the Household Form (Form 3) as having slept with the household on Census night, that is, those who were ticket in Question 9 and listed in Question 12 of Form 3.

Please note that you need not fill in a Persons Form for the following categories of persons: persons living in big hotels, mental hospitals, prisons, travelers by road or rail, persons afloat and homeless persons. These persons will be enumerated using Form 33.

When to fill in the Persons Form

Immediately after you have completed Question 19 of the Household Form for the household, you are to begin the Persons Forms. Work logically. Refer to Question 10 and 14 of the Household Form. Complete a Persons Form for every person that you have numbered serially.

After filling in the last Persons Form for each household, you are to ask Question 20 of the Household Form.

Format of Persons Form

The Persons Form is divided into 2 parts. Questions 1-24 are to be asked of everybody regardless of age. However, Questions 25-44 are to be asked only of those people who are 10 years of age and over.

You are to work out from Questions 4-6 whether or not the person is 10 years of age and over. If the person is less than 10 years of age, your interview for that person will end at Question 24.

[Portions of page 62 and pages 63-64 have been omitted]

[p. 65]

[An image displaying questions 1-3 of the census form is omitted here.]

Questions 1-3

These questions are straightforward. The information is already on the Household Form, but should be asked again as a check.

In Question 2, shade the appropriate box, whether the person is male or female.

In Question 3, you are required to transfer the information on the relationship to head of household from Column 7 in Form 3 and those listed in Column 12 which are the visitors of the household. In the first place write the relationship as given in Column 7 in Form 3 on the line provided in Question 3.

Then you are required to mark the code box with the relevant relationship code. Refer to the list of codes given in the Enumerator's Code Card (Form 14(a)/14(b)/14(c)). Give careful thought to the codes you are assigning. Not every type of relationship is given a special code, as some may be grouped. For example, an "uncle" or "niece" of the head, will both be given code 09 (Other persons related to Head). A "friend" or "servant" will be assigned code 10 (Other persons unrelated to Head).

In the case of visitors to the household (persons listed in Question 12 of the Household Form), they should be assigned code 11, even if the visitor is related to the head of the household.

Remember also that it is possible for more than one member of the household to have a particular code. For example, if there are 4 unmarried children of the Head present, they would all be given code 03.

[p. 66]

Questions 4-6

[An image displaying questions 4-6 of the census form is omitted here.]

Questions 4-6 are concerned with the person's age. Age is probably the most important characteristic of a person. It is thus worthwhile spending a little time in getting the most accurate information possible.

Question 4
The information needed for question 4 is the age in completed years, and the number of months between the person's last birthday and Census Day. Write the information on age in completed years and months from last birthday on the lines provided. If the person is less than 1 year old, record the age as '00' years. If a person is 100 or over years of age, we will consider him to be '99', as this is the highest age you will record.

For older persons and for persons not so well educated, difficulty may be encountered with this question. If the person has an I.C. (or other documents) handy, he may use them to answer the question.

If the information on 'age in completed years' cannot be obtained by direct question, the information may still be obtained by asking probing questions, for example, by stating some important events in the person's life like number of years married, years lived in this kampung, etc.

[p. 67]

A calendar of notable events is also supplied to you (see Form 14(a)/14(b)/14(c)). If you can relate some important event in the person's life with an event in your calendar, you may be able to make a reasonable guess at the person's age. A simple example would be the following:

You ask a woman whether she was married before the Japanese came. She might say that she got married just after they left. You then ask her whether she was a very young woman when she married. She then may give you some idea that her age at marriage was about twenty in 1945, then her present age (in 1980) must be about 55.

An even better calculation could be made if you know the age of her eldest child.

You may be able to ask a person to show you how old he was at the time of an event on your calendar. He could do this by pointing out a child who is about the same size as he was then. If he was about 10 years old in (say) 1930 then he must be about 60 years old in 1980.

As a last resort, you may have to make a guess using the appearance of the informant and the appearance or known ages of his relative as a guide.

Under no circumstances are you to leave Question 4 blank. However, where information on months is not obtainable, this may be left blank. But you must note that information on completed years must be obtained in all cases. After writing the age in completed years, you are also to mark the code boxes for this question. Since there are only 2 digits in this case, you must mark the first digit in the 't' row and the second digit in the 'u' row. Those aged below 10 must have a '0' box marked in the 't' row. Therefore, age nine is marked as '09' , age six is marked as '06' and so on.

Question 5
Information on date of birth for each person in the household may be obtained from documents such as identity card, birth certificate, etc. or even directly from the respondent. In some cases particularly for older persons, the respondent may know his age but not the year of birth In this case, calculate the date (year of birth) from the age given. Record the information on day, month and year on the lines provided.

[p. 68]

Sometimes the respondent disputes the date of birth given in the documents and he gives a different date which he believes to be true. In such cases, enter the date of birth given by him. (However, the age of the person must be reconciled with the birth date if the age was derived from the date in the document). If the person has no documents and does not know his date of birth, you will not be able to record the answer fully. Once you have obtained the date of birth, shade the relevant code boxes provided.

There are 3 steps to marking the date of birth:

1. Firstly, if the day is given, check to see if it is before 11th or 11th and after. If it is before 11th then mark the box labeled, 'Before 11th ' and if it is the latter case, mark the box '11th/After 11th'.

2. Secondly, mark in the month in the appropriate box numbered from 1 to 12. Thus, if a person was born in April, mark the '04' box, as -this is the fourth month of the year.

3. Thirdly, mark the year of birth. You will only mark the last 2 digits of the year, e.g. '49' instead of '1949: Even for cases where persons are born in the last century (i.e. 1800s) you should ignore the first two digits and only consider the last two digits. For example, if a respondent was born in 1895, the boxes 9 and 5 should be marked. Note that there are two rows of code boxes, one for the first digit, and the other for the second digit.

Question 6
If the person is a Chinese and Question 5 has not been obtained in full, the additional information has to be obtained based on the Chinese calendar. Try to obtain as much detail as possible. Twelve animals in the twelve-year cycle and their equivalents in Chinese characters will be found in the Code Card (Forms 14(a)/14(b)/ 14(c)). Write the answer in the space provided.

[An image displaying question 7 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 69]

Question 7
The word 'ethnic group' refers to a group of people who are bound together by common ties of language, religion, custom, etc.

Ask the question as given, and do not make assumptions. Generally accept the answer given, unless it is plainly absurd. Choose the appropriate code from the Enumerator's Code Card (Form 14(a)/ 14(b)/14(c)) and record on the Persons Form in the following way: (i) Write the code in the boxes provided (ii) Write the description of the ethnic group along the line provided to the right of the boxes and (iii) Mark in the code in the coding boxes provided in Question 7.

The Enumerator's Code Cards i.e. Forms 14(a), 14(b) and 14(c) list the various sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak respectively.

It should be noted that in the case of Peninsular Malaysia, persons who report themselves as one of the indigenous groups of Sabah and Sarawak should be coded as 'Other Malay Race' (Code 09). The category 'Other Indigenous' refers to Orang Asli/Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia other than those listed (Codes 03-07).

For Sabah, all persons who report themselves as one of the indigenous groups and categories as listed in Form 14(b) should be assigned the code '01' (Pri-Bumi). Please note that the indigenous groups of Sarawak also come under this category.

In the case of Sarawak, it should be noted that the ethnic groups 'Jisayah', 'Xedayan' and 'Murut' refer to those who come from Sarawak only. The indigenous groups of Sabah found in Sarawak are to be categorized under 'Other Indigenous' (Code 12 in Form 14(c)).

Those people of mixed ethnicity may present you with a problem. Some of them are uncertain about the ethnic group they belong to. You must encourage them to make a choice by asking them to consider from which ethnic group they take their language, religion, custom, etc. or to which of their parent's ethnic group they consider themselves as belonging. As a last resort, record the father's ethnicity.

To help code the Chinese sub-ethnic groups, the Code Card shows the Chinese characters for the several groups. If you have difficulty, show the person the card and ask him to choose the correct grouping.

[p. 70]

The following is a guide to several problem cases that may arise during your work:

a. Persons who report themselves as a Javanese, Boyanese, Bugis, etc. are to be recorded as Indonesians. (Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak). In Sabah, they should be recorded as Pri-Bumi.

b. Not all Indonesian-born people report themselves as Malays. Many of them regard themselves as Indonesians and should be recorded as such. (Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak). In Sabah they should be recorded as Pri-Bumi.

c. The sub-groups Hokchiu and Hokchia are to be coded as 'Foochow' (Sarawak). In Sabah, these sub-groups are included in 'Other Chinese'. The sub-group Henghua is under 'Hokkien' (Sabah).

d. If a person answers 'Ceylonese' (for 'Sri Lankan'), check if they are 'Sri Lankan Tamil' or 'Other Sri Lankan'. Do not include 'Sri Lankan Tamils' as Indian Tamils'. In other words, if the respondent's answer is only 'Tamil', ask the respondent whether it is Indian Tamil or Sri Lankan Tamil (Peninsular Malaysia). Those who say they are 'Singhalese' should be classified as 'Other Sri Lankan: (Peninsular Malaysia).

e. Do not include Pakistanis as 'Other Indian'. There is a separate category 'Pakistanis' which refer to 'West Pakistanis'. Thus, if the answer is only 'Pakistanis' ask whether it is East or West Pakistanis. East Pakistanis are referred to as 'Bangladeshi', which is a separate category in the list (Peninsular Malaysia).

f. Not all Punjabis are Sikhs. If a respondent is a Punjabi other than a Sikh, record him as 'Other Punjabi' (Peninsular Malaysia).

g. Nepalese and Gurkhas should be recorded as Other Asian and not as 'Other Indian' (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak).

h. 'Other Asian' also refers to Other Asian ethnic groups which are not shown separately in the list (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak).

i. Straits-born Chinese (Babas) would be classified under whatever dialect group they identify themselves with. If they are unable to, they would be classified under 'Other Chinese' (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak).

j. 'European' also includes Australians and New Zealanders (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak).

The category 'Others' is for all people who do not fit into the Codes as specified (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak).


[An image displaying question 8 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 8
The religion of a person refers to the identification or affiliation of the person with a set or system of religious or spiritual beliefs and practice.

You are to ask the question as given and do not make assumptions. Generally accept the answer given and shade the appropriate box. It is possible for members of one household to belong to different religions.

The category 'No Religion' refers to the people who say they do not have any religious belief. It should be noted that the religion may or may not be represented by an organized group. For example, worship of spirit and nature is to be considered as 'religion' and recorded in the category "Tribal/Folk Religion".

Those who describe themselves as Confucianists or Taoists or belonging to other traditional Chinese religion for example, ancestor worship, should be recorded in the category, 'Confucianism/ Taoism and Other Traditional Chinese Religion' and not in the 'Other' category.

The category 'Other' is for persons who belong to a particular religion which does not fit into any of the categories. It also includes persons who are unsure about which religion they belong to.

You may sometimes have difficulty in deciding whether the answer given is a separate religion or just a sub-group within the main religion. If you are in any doubt, ask the respondent for further information.

[p. 72]

Questions 9-10

[An image displaying question 9-10 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 9
Ask the question as shown on the questionnaire. For those aged below 12 years, you are asked to mark the first box.

Question 10
This question will only be answered by those aged 12 years and above.

For persons who possess brown identity cards or cards of other colors, other than specified above, that is blue, red and green, will be put under the box "Others".

The "none" box is applicable for persons who do not possess any identity card.

[An image displaying questions 11-13 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 73]

This question should be asked as shown on the form. If a person says 'yes' you are to then ascertain whether he or she is currently attending school or has completed schooling. The 'Completed' box is thus to be marked for persons who had been to school, even if only for a few years, but is currently not attending school.

A person has been to school if he/she has attended any regular educational institution, public or private, for systematic instruction at any level of education. The term 'school' should be confined to educational institutions which provide formal/systematic instruction. Instructions in particular skills which is not part of the recognized educational structure should be excluded.

Schools should include: primary, secondary, and tertiary (University/College). The following should be excluded: in-service-courses, religious classes (unless those which provide secular education), adult education, self-study or correspondence courses, and other (e.g. education through radio or television, sewing class, etc.).

If a person is currently attending college or university, mark the box 'Currently attending', (Teachers are not to be marked 'Currently attending' unless they are currently being trained to be a teacher in a college or university).

Question 12
This question is to be asked of persons who had ever been to school, that is, both who are currently attending school and those who had completed schooling.

We are interested in only the highest level a person has completed, thus only one box is to be marked. If the person is not currently attending a school, you are to mark the level he/she had completed. If the person is currently going to school record the level he is currently attending, assuming that he would complete the level at the end of the year. If the person had left school during a year and did not complete that year, you are to mark the next level down, that is, the level which he did complete.

Persons who completed their schooling a long time ago or who were educated overseas may sometimes give an answer which you cannot fit into the boxes. The only solution is to ask them what they consider to be the present-day or Malaysian equivalent. Matriculation class is to be equated to the level 'Upper 6'.

The boxes presented in the question give the various levels (or Forms) in the current Bahasa Malaysia and English language streams. A table is attached which sets out the equivalent levels in other language streams and the pre-1954 English language equivalents. (See Form 14(a)/ 14(b)/14(c)).

Note that Vocational 1 in Sabah and Sarawak is equivalent to Form 4 (Vocational) in
Peninsular Malaysia. Vocational 2 and 3 in Sabah and Sarawak are equivalent to Form 5 (Vocational) in Peninsular Malaysia. For Sabah, Senior Middle III in the Chinese Medium school is to be equated to Form 5.

[p. 74]

Question 13
You are to ask in this question the highest qualification a person has. Only the highest certificate which a person has received is to be marked.

There may be cases where the names of the certificates of respondents are not the same as given in the question. This may be because the examination was taken some time in the past or is an Overseas examination. As in Question 12 you are required to find out what the certificate is equivalent to in terms of the present-day Malaysian certificates. For example, a professional qualification may be equivalent to a degree. You are to ask the person what he considers to be the equivalent for his certificate.

The abbreviations shown stand for the following:

S.R.P./L.C.E. = Sijil Rendah Pelajaran/Lower Certificate of Education.

S.P.M./S.P./M C.E./S.C. = Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia/Malaysian Certificate of Education/School Certificate.

S.P.V.M./M.C.V.E. = Sijil Pelajaran Vokesyenal Malaysia/Malaysian Certificate of Vocational Education.

S.T.P./H.S. C. = Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan/Higher School Certificate.

In the case of Sarawak, the Sarawak Local Junior Certificate is to be equated to S.R.P./L.C.E.

If a person has obtained a diploma after getting a degree (post-graduate diploma) you are to mark 'degree' and not diploma. Only if a person has a diploma without getting a degree is he to be marked under 'Diploma: Persons who obtained certificates higher than Bachelor degrees, e.g. Masters, PhD. etc. are to be marked in the box 'Degree'.

Mark 'None' if the person has not passed any of the examinations. This will include those who are too young to sit for such examinations.

[An image displaying questions 14-15 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 75]

Question 14
Question 14 attempts to obtain information on whether a person has undergone or is currently attending vocational training. For this question, we are interested in getting information on vocational training on a formal as well as informal basis. It should include vocational schooling, as well as training in skills which a person has received or is currently receiving from various training institutes, such as MARA T1Jlining Institute, Agricultural and Industrial training Institutes, Youth Training Centers and other training
Centers in the private sector. Examples of such training are tailoring courses, electrician courses, apprenticeships or on-the-job training in skills which will enable a person to be specialized in a vocation or job.

Note that formal training in fields such as Accountancy, Hotel Management, which is part of the syllabuses of Universities, MARA Institute of Technology and other Colleges, should not be regarded as vocational training.

Question 15
In Question 15, the field of vocational training a person has received or is currently receiving is sought. You are to refer to the code card (Form 14(a)/14(b)/14(c)) to obtain the appropriate box corresponding to the field the respondent mentions. The categories presented are broad and you are to mark the box which is closest to the field mentioned by the respondent.

As a guide to marking the right code, examples for each category represented by the codes are listed below:

Code [and] Field of Vocational Training

1 Building and Woodworking

Carpentry, bricklaying, cement work, sawmilling, plumbing, etc.

2 Metal Work including Automotive Repair and Maintenance Work

Mechanics, fitters, mechanical technician, welding, motor mechanics, engine/machine repair, etc.

3 Electrical and Electronics Work including Radio and TV repair work

Electrical technician, electrical installation, air conditioning and refrigeration, electrical wiring, wireman, Radio/TV engineering, Radio/TV servicing, radio and electronics, etc.

4 Commercial Work

Book-Keeping, marketing, Secretarial course, type writing, shorthand, etc.

5 Agricultural work including Logging

Poultry rearing, agriculture, farm mechanization.

6 Service Work, including Hotel and Catering, Beauty Culture/Hairdressing, Tailoring and Dressmaking

Beauty culture/hairdressing, needlework, fashion designing, tailoring, domestic science, cooking, handicraft, etc.

7 Painting, Printing, Draftsman's Work

Spray painting, book binding, printing, architectural draftsmen, etc.

8 Others

Coblery, photography, copper tooling, blacksmith, shipping, surveying, rotan work, and others.

[p. 76]

[An image displaying questions 16-18 of the census form is omitted here.]

Questions 16-18 obtain information on the person's birth place and are quite straightforward.

Question 16: Only if the person does not know the place of birth at all are you to mark the 'Unknown' box.

Question 17: If a person answers 'Kuala Lumpur' you are to mark the box 'Federal Territory '.

Question 18 is to be asked only of those who were not born in Malaysia. Note that the countries India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh are categorized together. Taiwan is to be included under the category 'Other Countries'.

[p. 77]

[An image displaying questions 19-20 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 19
This question obtains data on the total length of time the person has lived in Malaysia.

In calculating the length of time, ignore temporary absences which are less than a year, such as a short term job transfer, study leave, etc. However, if the length of stay was interrupted by long periods living in another country, this should be taken away from the total time.

The meaning of the figures against each of the boxes is as follows:

Less than 1 year - Less than one year
1 year - One year or more but less than two years
2 years - Two years or more but less than three years
3 years - Three years or more but less than four years
4 years - Four years or more but less than five years
5 years - Five years or more but less than six years
6-9 years - Six years or more but less than ten years
10 years - Ten years or more but less than eleven years
11-20 years - Eleven years or more but less than twenty-one years
21 years and above - Twenty one years and over.

Note that if the person has lived in Malaysia all his life without long periods out of the country the box you mark will be the same as his age

[p. 78]

Question 20
This question obtains information on the number of years the person has been living in this locality. A locality is a kampung, town, estate, etc. It is any area with a name.

The person may have lived in the locality for some time (perhaps he has always lived here) but he may not have lived in this house for all that time. It is quite common for a person to live in several houses in the one kampong or town. In marking down the years in the locality you are to ignore moves to different houses in the same locality.

In large towns there may be a number of kampungs or suburbs within the boundaries of the town. Movements between these kampungs or between suburbs are to be ignored. For purposes of this question, the person is considered to have always lived in the one place i.e. the town.

The meaning of the figures against each of the boxes is the same as those explained for Question 19.

Note - If the person is only a visitor you are still to mark the appropriate box.

[An image displaying questions 21-22 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 79]

Question 21
This question and the next are to find out where the person last lived before coming to this locality. In this question you are to mark one of the 3 boxes.

The first box is meant for persons who have previously lived in another locality within Malaysia.

The second box is for persons who have always lived in this locality i.e. since they were born.

Question 22
You are to record here the name of the locality where the person previously lived. If the name of a kampung is given you are to find out whether the kampung is in a town or not and you are to record it under (i) if it is not in a town or under (ii) if it is in a town. If the respondent replies that the kampung is in a town, you are to record the name of the town, mukim, Administrative District and the State in which the kampung is located. If the respondent replies that the kampung is not in the town, then skip (b) and proceed to record the name of the Mukim, Administrative District and the State in which the kampung is located.

On the other hand, if the respondent replies that a certain town was his place of previous residence, then skip (a) and proceed to record the name of the Town, Administrative District and the State in which the town is located.

[An image displaying question 23 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 23
This question asks for the reason why a person moved from a kampung/town where they
had previously lived to the locality they are currently residing in. You are to refer to the code card (Form 14(a)/14(b)/14(c)) for marking the appropriate box. Only one box is to be marked. It would be helpful if the following reasons are read out to the respondent so that he/she can choose the relevant reason.

[page 80]

The codes represent the following categories:

1. On work transfer.
2. To look for a job; believe no suitable work available in previous locality.
3. Starting on a job offered.
4. For better income.
5. To participate in a Rural Development Project.
6. Educational Reasons.
7. Marriage.
8. Following Family.
9. Shifting cultivation.
10. Others

The category 'on work transfer' is applicable only for persons who moved because of a transfer order by the firm/agency or the Government; and it does not involve resignation from a previous job. If a person moved because of a new job offer, you are to mark 'Starting on' a new job'. These include persons who moved to start on a first job.

If a person moves immediately after marriage, to the husband's or wife's place of residence, the box for 'marriage' (Code 7) should be marked. But, if a respondent is following his/her spouse on work transfer or for a new job, the category 'Following Family' (Code 8) is to be marked. This also applies to children moving with the family. The category 'Educational Reasons' (Code 6) should include persons who move to another locality to attend an educational institution, for example, a College or University.

[An image displaying question 24 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 24
For Census purposes, a person is considered blind if he cannot read written particulars shown a yard away from him.

Deafness is to be regarded as a handicap if the condition does not enable the person to attend 'normal' schools or is unable to secure a job.

If a person is physically handicapped, but he is neither blind nor deaf/dumb he should be
put under the box 'Others'.

The box 'None' is for persons who do not have any physical handicaps.

[p. 81]

Questions 25-44 are to be asked of persons who are 10 years of age and above.

Questions 25-34 record information on work or employment of a person. Be sure to explain to the respondent that you are only concerned with the period of 7 days prior to the day of interview.

[An image displaying questions 25-28 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 25
If the person worked for pay or profit for at least 1 day during the last 7 days you are to mark the "yes" box.

Question 26
This question is to be asked if the answer to Question 25 is "no". If the person helped in the family business or farm for at least 1 day during the last 7 days you are to mark the 'yes" box, even though he may not be receiving a regular wage.

[p. 82]

Question 27
This question is to be asked if the answer to Question 26 is 'yes".

Question 28
This question is to be asked if the answer to Question 26 is "no". Although, the person did not work during the last 7 days he could still have a regular job, work on a farm, enterprise or family business to return to. He could be temporarily away because of sickness, holidays, bad weather, labor dispute, temporary layoff, etc.

[An image displaying questions 29-30 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 29
This question is to be asked if the answer to Question 28 is "no". You are to mark the "yes" box only if the person was actively looking for a job or work and it means that he has taken one or more of the following steps:

(i) Registered at an employment office/labor exchange.
(ii) Has answered advertisements/advertised.
(iii) Contacted prospective employers.
(iv) Informed friends/relatives to look out for job opportunities.

You must check with the respondent to make sure that the person has taken one or more of the above steps whenever you obtain a "yes" to this question.

[p. 83]

Question 30
This question is to be asked if the answer to Question 29 is "no". You are to ask the respondent the reason why he was not looking for work during the last 7 days. Write down the reason in the space provided, and mark the appropriate code.

These codes are as follows:
Schooling - 01
Housework 02
Believe no suitable job available - 03
Bad weather - 04
Illness/Confinement - 05
New job to start soon - 06
Going for further studies - 07
Disabled - 08
Not interested - 09
Waiting for answers to job applications/have looked for work prior to last 7 days - 10
No qualifications - 11
Retired - 12
Too young - 13
Others - 14

A respondent should not be coded 05 just because he/she was ill or in confinement during the last 7 days. You must make sure that the respondent would have looked for work if he/she had not been ill/in confinement.

[An image displaying question 31 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 31
Employment status refers to the status of an economically active person with respect to his employment, that is, whether he is an employer, employee, own-account worker or an unpaid family worker.

You are to mark the person's employment status in the job that he held in the 7 day reference period. If the person was unemployed throughout the whole of the reference period, mark the person's status in his previous job. A separate box is provided for those who were looking for their first job.

[p. 84]

"Employer" -a person who runs his own business, farm or profession (which may be self-owned or otherwise) and employs one or more persons to help him .

"Employee" - a person who works for a private or public employer for wages, salary, commission, tips, piece-rates or pay in kind.

''Own-Account Worker" - a person who runs his own business, farm or profession but does not employ others to help him.

"Unpaid Family Worker" - a person who works a specified minimum amount of time (more than 3 hours a day) without pay on a farm or business operated by a related person living in the same household.

"Looking for 1st job" - a person who was looking for his 1st job and did not do any work during the 7 day reference period.

[An image displaying question 32 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 32
This question refers to the person's principal occupation. "Principal Occupation" refers to the occupation in which the respondent spent most of his time. Should the time spent in, say, 2 occupations be the same, the one which brings in more income is the principal occupation. In the very unlikely situation where the time spent and the income earned are the same, leave it to the respondent to decide which one is the principal occupation.

You are to record here the principal occupation in which the person was engaged during the 7 day reference period. If the person was unemployed record his previous occupation.

It is important that you obtain the exact type of work done by the respondent. Avoid general terms such as driver, helper, farmer, mechanic, Government worker, etc. In these cases you are to find out the kind of helper or driver or mechanic. For example, a driver may be a lorry driver, a taxi driver or a chauffeur. Use two or more words whenever possible to describe the exact type of work done by the respondent.

A person's job designation may not be always adequate by itself. In such cases, additional information describing the nature of his work would be required for purposes of classification.

You may sometimes find difficulty in translating occupations given in various dialects/ languages into the Bahasa Malaysia/English equivalents. In such cases, you can record the words actually used by the respondent; for example, words like mandore, serang, amah, or Hang-kong can be translated in the office at a later stage.

[p. 85]

[An image displaying questions 33-34 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 33
This question is straightforward. It is meant to assist in the classification of industry should the information given in Question 34 is inadequate.

Question 34
This question is concerned with the industry in which the person worked during the 7 day reference period. It refers to the industry of the respondent's principal occupation.

The industry of a person refers to the activity of the establishment, (for example, firm, factory or shop) where the person worked during the 7 day reference period. In practice, knowledge of the type of product produced and the type of service performed by the establishment would give you an idea of the type of activity. If the person was unemployed during that period you are to record the previous industry in which he worked.

The kind of industry carried on at the place where the person worked during the reference week must be recorded clearly and exactly. Avoid the use of general terms, such as, manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, construction, estate, mining, factory, Government service, etc. Use two or more words to describe in more detail the industry, for example, manufacturing of shoes, wholesale grocery, retail book store, road construction, rubber estate, tin mining (dredging), palm oil factory, Department of Statistics, would be more useful for purposes of classification.

If the company for which the person works is engaged in several different types of industries, you are to record the industry which is carried out at the particular place where the person worked during the reference week.

[An image displaying question 35 of the census form is omitted here.]

[p. 86]

Question 35a
This question is concerned with what the person did for most of the last 12 months. If he worked, you are to record his employment status (whether as an employer, employee, own-account worker or unpaid family worker) and the broad type of industry he was engaged in for most of the time (such as, padi, logging/timber, fishing, rubber, other agriculture, manufacturing/construction, commerce, transport/communication, services and others).

You are to note that Question 35 is concerned with the person's main activity over the last 12 months whereas Questions 25-34 are confined to the 7 days just before the date of interview.

For the employment status categories refer to Question 31 for their definitions.

The remaining categories are defined as follows:

Looking for work -This is meant for those who had been looking for work most of the time during the 12 month reference period.

Housework -Record here those persons whose main activity was to look after the children and keep house. They may also have helped in a family business or farm (such as, helped to plant padi, tap rubber, etc.). However, as long as they spent most of their time looking after the house you are to record them in this category.

Student -This is for students who attended school.

Others -This is for all other persons.

Question 35b
For those persons who worked for most of the last 12 months the broad industry in which they worked are as follows:

Padi - Persons who were engaged in padi planting for most of the time should be marked in this' box. This includes persons involved in home processing of padi.

Logging/Timber - This box is for persons who worked in forest felling, cutting bamboo and cane, looking after forest tree nurseries and timber tracts, etc. (persons working in sawmills should be marked in the manufacturing box).

Fishing - This box is for all types of fishing, that is, ocean, coastal, inland.

Rubber - Include in this box all persons who worked in rubber estates, in smallholdings, in rubber processing on estates and smallholdings, and in any other work connected with the growing, collection and processing of rubber.

Other Agriculture - All persons who were in agricultural activities other than the 4 mentioned above are to be marked in this box.

Manufacturing/Construction - This box includes all kinds of manufacturing (food, clothing, furniture, machinery, etc.). It is also used for persons in the building industry. As such, a person who is engaged in an industry which makes something or is involved in building something will be marked in this box.

[p. 87]

Commerce - This category is for persons who were involved in selling something. This may be wholesale or retail. It also includes persons who were working in banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions.

Transport/Communications - Persons who are involved in any kind of transport work are to be included here (e.g. railways, buses, taxis, trishaws, shipping, air transport). Also included are persons engaged in storage and warehousing.

Persons working in postal services, telephone, telegraph and cable services are also to be marked in this box.

Services - Include persons in the Government service, in the police and military services, in education and in medical and health services. Also include the legal service, business consulting, entertainment, hotels, barbers and other service activities.

Others - This is for all activities which are not included in the above categories. Persons in mining and quarrying will come under this category.

[An image displaying question 36 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 36
This question is concerned with the languages the person can speak. A person can speak a language if he is able to take an active part in simple everyday conversation in that language. If it is restricted to a few words of greetings or command, he is not able to converse in that language.

Care should be taken with Bahasa Malaysia because of the wide range of abilities in speaking the language among Non-Malays. As such two boxes have been allocated to Bahasa Malaysia -'Fluent Bahasa Malaysia' is for people who can speak the language well (i.e. fluently). 'Elementary Bahasa Malaysia' is for those who have only an elementary knowledge of the language.

All Chinese dialects are to be included in the box 'Chinese'. However, all Indian languages other than Tamil are to be included in the 'Other Languages' box.

An additional category 'dumb' is also available for dumb persons.

Multiple marks are allowed in this question.

[p. 88]

[An image displaying question 37-39 of the census form is omitted here.]

Questions 37 and 38

These questions measure the person's ability to read and write. If the person can only read and write a few words you should not record him as having the ability to read and write. It is important to ask the question as stated, that is, whether a person can read a newspaper or letter and whether he can write a simple letter. Persons who answer 'No' to Question 37 need not be asked Question 38.

In some cases you may find that it is rather silly to ask these questions of those who have attended secondary school, college, etc. To avoid this, you can ask these questions only of those who have never attended school or has only been to primary school. If the person has had secondary education and above, you can straight away mark the 'yes' boxes in Questions 37and 38. However, in any case of doubt, you should always ask the question.

Question 39
If the person can write (that is, a ''yes'' mark in Question 38) you are to record in what languages he can write. One or more marks may be made in this question. Thus you are to mark against the boxes for all the languages the person mentions.

Note: The ability to write Bahasa Malaysia may be either in Rumi or Jawi. Either one is

[p. 89]

[An image displaying questions 40-42 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 40
In this question, the current marital status is asked.

You should mark the 'Never Married' box for persons who reported themselves as not having been married. Persons who are currently 'Single' but whose marriages have been dissolved should not be marked in this category.

Marriages should include those which are either registered or accepted by social custom. Therefore persons in consensual and stable 'de facto' unions should be regarded as married.

A person who is presently married, that is whose marriage still exists is to be marked as 'Currently married'. If a person was previously widowed or divorced, but has since remarried, you are to classify him/her as 'Currently married'.

'Currently married' persons should also include those who are separated from their spouses temporarily. In cases of longer or more permanent separations, the person should be classified according to what he/she regards his/her status to be. If the separation is too long, however (e.g. more than 10 years) and there is no possibility of reconciliation, the person should be marked in the category 'Divorced/permanently separated'.

A person is classified as 'Divorced' if the marriage has been dissolved either legally or by social custom or by mutual consent.

Question 41
This question is to be asked of all ever-married persons. Persons who are 'Currently married' should be asked the question as worded. For widowed and divorced persons, you are to ask whether their last marriage was the first one.

[p. 90]

Question 42
This question tries to obtain the age in completed years at the time when a person got married for the first time. The question is also to be asked of all ever married persons.

There may be some recall problems for older persons. An attempt should be made to obtain 'Age at first marriage' as correctly as possible. If answers such as "13 or 14" are given, or where an answer could not be given for older persons, refresh their memories by asking for 'Age at which they had their first child' or even 'Years of marriage'. If the event happened during a year in which a notable event happened, this may help in getting a more exact age.

For this question, it will be a good idea if the instructions to the question on 'Age' of a person be followed, and the calendar of important events used.

[An image displaying questions 43-44 of the census form is omitted here.]

Question 43
This question is to be asked only of ever-married woman, that is, all women above 10 years of age who answered 'Yes' to Question 40.

If the woman answers 'No' to Question 43, the interview is ended for the woman. This question is not the same as "Do you have any children" where a woman may include adopted or step children. If a woman has given birth to any child who had been given away for adoption or taken care of by someone else, the 'Yes' box should be marked.

[p. 91]

Question 44
In Question 44a, information is needed on the total number of children which a woman has ever given birth to alive. Stillbirths, that is, children born dead should be excluded. Adopted children and step-children should also be excluded. However, children born to the woman who had been given away should be included.

If the woman has been married more than once, be sure that you count the children from all the marriages. You are interested in the total number of children born to the woman.

Question 44b asks for the number of children who are still living at the time of the Census. Be sure to include children who have grown up and moved away as well as children given away for adoption, who are still alive. Check that the number should not be more than that given for Question 44a. Check with the respondent and adjust whichever is correct if such a discrepancy arises.

It is also very important to enter '0' (zero) in 44a if the respondent says that she has not given any birth or given any live births. Similarly, you should enter '0' (zero) in 44b if the respondent says that none of her children are still living. If for some reason you are not able to get an answer, write NA (not available) in 44a or 44b. Do not leave 44a and 44b blank.

[Pages 92 - 94 have been omitted.]