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Mexico 2000

Interviewer's Manual for the long form, XII Population and Housing Census, 2000.

[Pp. 1-6 were not translated into English. P. 7:]

2. Basic definitions

In order to do a good quality job you should know the definitions of dwelling, habitual residence, and household.

2.1 Dwelling
The principal purpose of the census is to count all the dwellings and the people who live in them, for this reason it is important that you visit all the dwellings in your area of work.

What is a dwelling? It is any place that is set off, normally, by walls and a roof made of any material, which is utilized to live, that is, eat and protect oneself from the environment, and where the people can enter or leave without passing through the interior of the rooms of another dwelling.

-Any area which is set off, and which, at the time of the census, is used to live, should be considered a dwelling, even if it was not constructed for habitation.
-In contrast, constructions that have been made to live in, but which, at the time of the census are used for other purposes (warehouse, local commerce, office, workshop or other), should not be considered dwellings.

There are two types of dwellings: private and collective. It is your job to enumerate the private ones; the collective dwellings will be enumerated by other personnel.

Private dwellings

One which serves as lodging for one or more people, who may or may not be relatives.
The types of private dwellings which you might find in your work area are explained next:

[P. 8]

Independent house

Does not share walls, a roof or a floor with another dwelling. Duplexes are considered independent houses.
[Drawings of three different types of dwellings.]

[P. 9]

Apartment in a building

Forms part of a group of dwellings that are joined together and share a wall, the roof, or a floor with another dwelling.

[Drawing of this type of dwelling]

Dwelling or room in a tenement house

Shares the wall, roof, or floor with another dwelling, and in addition, the occupants can share water or sanitation services.

[Drawing of this type of dwelling]

[P. 10]

Dwelling or room on the roof

This is only considered a dwelling when the room is inhabited and its occupants do not share food costs with the occupants of the apartment to which the room belongs. If it is not inhabited, it is not considered a dwelling.

[Drawing of this type of dwelling]

Premises not constructed for inhabitation

Places that were built for a purpose other than habitation, but that at the time of the visit are inhabited. For example: factories, lighthouses, workshops, warehouses, offices, etc.

[P. 11]

Mobile dwelling

Dwellings that can be transported from one place to another. For example: circus tents, railroad cars, trailers, boats, or any other. If, during the census, these are not inhabited, they are not considered dwellings.

[Drawing of a train car]

Refuge

A place that is improvised or adapted for living. For example: caves, sewers, drainage pipes, under a bridge, etc. These are only dwellings when they are inhabited.

[Drawing of a cave]

[P. 12]

Independent houses, apartments in buildings, and community dwellings or rooms can be inhabited or uninhabited at the time of the visit.

An uninhabited dwelling is one in which no one is living during the census period, and which is totally constructed and available for inhabitation.

Refuges, constructions that are incomplete or in ruins, tents, railroad cars, boats, trailers, or any vehicle which is not being utilized for living at the time of the visit is not considered an uninhabited dwelling.

A temporary-use dwelling is one which is only utilized seasonally or on the weekends, for rest, diversion or sickness, etc.

Collective dwelling

One which is meant to lodge people for reasons of health, education, rehabilitation, etc. and should comply with rules of communal living and behavior.
The types of collective dwellings are the following:

[Drawing of a hotel]

Hotel, motel, inn.
Boarding house, guest house, house of assisted living.
Hospital, insane asylum, clinic, health house.
Orphanage, hospice, asylum, retirement house, nursery.
Boarding school, student residence.
Convent, monastery, seminary, religious congregation.
Public shelter or dormitory.
Work camp, work barracks, petroleum platform.
Jail, prison, reformatory, juvenile prison, rehabilitation center for law breakers, correctional facility, penitentiary, penal colony.
Military headquarters, encampment, garrison, base, police, military or naval detachment.
Other (camp for refugees or victims, brothel).

[P. 13]

You should not enumerate these types of dwellings; other personnel are in charge of them.

2.2 Habitual Residence

In each home you should enumerate the habitual residents.

What is a habitual resident? It is every person who normally lives in the dwelling, that is, they sleep there, eat there, and have a living space there.

2.3 Household

The habitual residents of a dwelling form households.

What is a household? It is formed by one or more people who normally live in the dwelling, who sustain themselves from a single food budget, and may or may not be related.

There can be one or more households in a dwelling, and when there are more than one, you should record the information on different questionnaires.

[P. 14-52 were not translated into English. P. 53:]

5. Filling out the Questionnaire

This chapter gives instructions on how to fill out the questionnaire.

After writing, in the inventory, the number of dwellings that are on the property, initiate the questionnaire questions about the characteristics of the dwelling.

5.1 Dwelling Characteristics

The purpose of this section is to gain knowledge of all the construction materials, the number of rooms, and the services which the dwelling has, as well as other characteristics.

In the case of refuges, do not ask the characteristics of the dwelling. Initiate the interview in section II. Residents, households, and lists of persons.

1. Walls, 2. Roofs, and 3. Floors

With these questions one learns the material of which the walls, roofs, and floors of the dwelling are made. When they are made of different materials, circle the code for the material of which there is the most. If the quantity of the materials that the informant mentions is equal, circle the one that comes first in the options.

[Depiction of these three completed questions on the enumeration form]

[P. 54]

If they report a material that is not one of the options, circle the code for the material that is the closest to it. In some zones, the material can be known by other names, for example, "embarro" or "bajareque" is a supporting frame made of bars or canes with a covering of mud or clay, which is also known as "enjarre."

4. Kitchen

A dwelling has a kitchen, or room for cooking, if the food is prepared or heated in this room. This is a kitchen even if this room is also used as a bedroom, living room, dining room, or has other uses.
If the informant responds that they do not have a kitchen and that their dwelling is a single room, ask if they prepare their food in that room. If they do, consider them as having a kitchen.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a drawing of a bedroom also used as a kitchen]

When the food is prepared in a shed, under an awning, or in a space which does not have walls and only has a roof, mark that the dwelling does not have a room for cooking.

[Drawing of this type of cooking condition]

[P. 55]

5. Number of Rooms

Room is the space in the dwelling delimited, normally, by fixed walls and roofs of any material.

In the first question, only the rooms utilized for sleeping are considered.

In the second, include all the rooms in the dwelling: bedrooms, living room, dining room, living room-dining room, kitchen, living room ["estancia"], study, and service room.

Storerooms, granaries, commercial areas, stores, garages, or others, which are regularly used for sleeping, should be counted as bedrooms and be included in the total number of rooms. However, if no one sleeps there, do not count them in any of the questions.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a drawing of a storage shed]

Double check that the total number of rooms in the dwelling is more than or equal to the total number of bedrooms. If this is not so, clear up the situation with the informant and correct the corresponding figure.

6. Access to Water

This question distinguishes dwellings which have piped water from those that get water from a different source.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 56]

7. Water Supply

When there is piped water within the dwelling or outside of the dwelling but within the property, first ask how often they receive it, and if they receive it daily, if they receive it during all or part of the day.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

8. Toilet Facilities and 9. Exclusive Use

Toilet facilities or services are known by distinct names, such as those mentioned in the question. If in that area the toilet is known by a different name, mention it in asking the question.

[Depiction of these two completed questions on the enumeration form]

The dwelling does not have toilet facilities when the people do their business in the open air, that is, in the corral, in the bushes or cactus, in the garden, in a mud wall, etc.

10. Water Connection

The toilet facilities are considered to have a water connection when it has a lever or pedal that regulates the passage of the water. If it does not have a connection, and they pour water it, normally with a bucket, to eliminate the excrement, circle code 2.

11. Drainage

A dwelling has drainage when it has plumbing for the elimination of waste water (excrement) or dirty or soapy water from the washer, sprinkler, washbasin, etc.
The following are synonyms of drainage: public network, plumbing, drain, aqueduct, sewer, or drainpipe, among others.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

[P. 57]

12. Electricity

The dwelling has electric light when it is utilized to light the dwelling. Electricity can be from the public services, from a storage battery, from a private plant, or from a solar energy plant.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

13. Fuel

Fuel is that which is used to heat and cook the food. When more than one fuel is used, ask for the one which is used the most frequently.

When the dwelling only utilizes a microwave, circle code 5.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

14. Ownership

Within tenancy, only the dwelling property is considered, without giving importance to the land.

If the dwelling is the property of a person who lives in it, read the options: Are you paying for it?, Is it paid for?, Is it in a different situation?, and circle the code for which you get an affirmative answer. For this consider the following situations.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

The option Are you paying for it? Includes dwellings in which a debt or mortgage is being paid.

If the dwelling is in an agricultural communal farm [ejido] or community, and is the property of one of the residents of the dwelling, circle code 4, without asking if they are paying or if it totally paid for.

The option is it in a different situation? Includes other cases which are not found in the options. For example, dwellings that are in dispute or bank foreclosure, and those of squatters.

When the dwelling is not the property of any of the residents, read the options: Is it rented?, Is it borrowed, being cared for, or in a different situation?; in this last type are found, for example, intestate dwellings (the owner died without designating a new owner).

[P. 58]

15. Age

When there is doubt, or they respond "I do not know," help the informant to obtain an approximate date, such as by mentioning an important event, a historic date, the birth of a child, or something else.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

16. Goods in the Dwelling

If they declare that they have some good or device that is broken, ask if they intend to repair it; if the answer is yes, consider them as having it.

In the case of the telephone, also include cellular phones.

Do not include the devices or goods that are borrowed from the company or institution for which the person works, such as a cellular phone, computer, or automobile.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

17. Garbage Elimination

These questions discover the form of garbage elimination for the dwelling, that is, if they have a collection service, such as a truck, car or cart, as well as the times that this service comes by to pick up the garbage.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

[P. 59]

5.2 Residents, households, and list of people

The purpose of this section is to find the number of people who normally live in the dwelling and the number of households there are in it.

1. Number of People

Ask how many people live in the dwelling; for this, consider that a habitual resident is any person who normally lives in the dwelling, and sleeps, eats and gets shelter there.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

Only when the informant has doubts as to whom to consider as a resident, help him out with the following criteria:

Habitual residents are:

Newborns who have not yet arrived at the dwelling because they are in the hospital.

People who are temporarily absent because of vacations, hospitalization, business trips, school events, or any other cause.

[P. 60]

Domestic employees and their family members who sleep in the dwelling

People of foreign nationality who normally live in the dwelling.

People who cross the border daily to work in another country, as well as those who return to Mexico on the weekends.

People who, at the time of the interview, are present in the dwelling and do not have any set place to live.

[There are drawings to represent each of the above examples]

The following are not habitual residents:

People who are visiting and live in another dwelling.

People who have gone to live in other places to study, work, or for other causes.

Foreign diplomats and their families.

Domestic servants who do not sleep in the dwelling.

[P. 61]

If the previous criteria are not sufficient, ask where the person sleeps during the majority of the nights of the week; if the majority of the time they sleep in the dwelling where the interview is taking place, they are a habitual resident of the dwelling.

2. Common Expenses and 3. Number of Households

Within the dwelling people form households.
Remember that a household is formed by one or more people who normally live in the dwelling, who sustain themselves from a single food budget, and who may or may not be related. According to this definition:

All people who sustain themselves from the same food budget form a household.

[Drawing of a family in a kitchen]

In order to form part of a household, the person should be a resident of the same dwelling.

[Drawing depicting two households eating]

A household can be made up of:

a single person
only relatives
people who are relatives and others who are not
people who are not relatives.
[P. 62]

If in the dwelling there are two or more households, use different questionnaires for each one of them. In the first household, initiate the interview beginning with section I. Characteristics of the dwelling. For the other households, begin with the section list of people in the household. The data should be provided by an informant from each household; if in one of the households you do not find an informant, you can ask a person who lives in the same dwelling.

[Depiction of these two completed questions on the enumeration form]

If they report that there are guests or boarders who pay for lodging and share a common food budget among themselves, consider them as forming a household and record them on the same questionnaire. If they do not share expenses, they form different households and you should use a different questionnaire for each household.

The information corresponding to the owners of the dwelling, if they live there, should always be written on a different questionnaire, because they form a separate household from the guests.

4. List of People in the Household
Reach this question clearly, slowly, and completely so that you immediately obtain an answer. Record all the people who make up the household and who normally live in the dwelling, beginning with the head.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

The head of household is the person recognized as such by the rest of the members of the household. There should only be one head of household, and this person can be a woman or man.

[P. 63]

It is important that you write down only the people who form part of the household and are habitual residents of the dwelling on the list.

Mention the phrase that is in parentheses (include the servants who sleep there), in areas where you think they could have domestic employees.

When names are repeated, write the name, and in parenthesis the relationship that they have with the head of household, for example: Juan (son).

If the informant does not designate a head, write down the names as they are given to you.

If a newborn does not yet have a name, write newborn child and refer to him (her) in that way in the rest of the questions.

In the questionnaire you can list up to six people; when the household has seven or more, use another questionnaire to record the remaining people. On the second questionnaire, continue writing down the data from the list of people, and modify the number of the person(s) you write down: write the number 7, 8, 9 . . . and so forth, until finishing all the people in the household.

[Depiction of a completed second questionnaire for this item]

When you finish writing down the names of the people, circle the number that corresponds to the person who is giving the information.

Before beginning with the questions for each person, in the boxes for person 1, person 2, and so on, copy all the names from the list, respecting the order in which you wrote them. If, in the household, there are more than six residents, modify the people's numbers on the rest of the questionnaires.

[Depictions of question 4 in section 5.2 and top line of section 5.3, with corresponding names]

[P. 64]

5.3 Characteristics of the people

In this section information is obtained from the people who make up the household, such as sex, age, schooling, income, among others.

After copying the names of the people in the household, you should read, to the informant, the phrase "Now I am going to ask about . . . . " and say the name of the person who you previously recorded in the box, so that they know who they should be giving information about.

1. Relationship

We are interested in finding out the relationship that exists between the head and the rest of people who make up their household; for example: wife, son, grandfather, sister-in-law, godmother, friend, among others.

You should always ask about the relationship with the head of household and not with the informant, unless the informant is the head. Remember that there should only be one head of family and that this person can be a man or a woman.

For the first person of the list, do not read this question, only confirm that this person is the head and circle code 1. For the rest of the residents, mention the name of the person about whom you are going to ask.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

If they did not declare a head of household, ask the relationship to the first person on the list and circle code 1 for this person.

When the relationship to the head is other than spouse, companion, or child, write the relationship that they report on the line Other, for example: father, niece, granddaughter, brother-in-law, godson, among others. Do not write down proper names: "Sandra's aunt," "Manuel's grandmother," etc. Also write in this space non-family relationships with respect to the head. For example: not related, friend, no family relationship, etc.

[P. 65]

If on this question they report the relationship as "guest" or "border," record the person as such and continue asking about the data for this person.

When they use the word "companion," find out if they refer to a relationship between a couple. if so, circle code 2. If they are work, study, or living companions write friend or no relation under the option other.

When domestic servants live in the household, write down the name of the occupation that they have in the dwelling, for example: domestic employee, servant, nanny, housekeeper, gardener, driver or other. If there are also family members of those domestic servants, write, for example: son of the servant, mother of the doorkeeper, husband of the servant, or the relationship which corresponds to them.

2. Sex

If, by the name of the person, you know it is a man or a woman, or if you are seeking the data from the informant, do not ask the question. Simply mention the name of the person and the sex which corresponds to them, together with the question about age.

Example:

Sonia is a woman, how old is she in completed years?

If the name is uncommon (Andarani, Yuritzi, Erubey, Eder, among others) of if it is used for both men and women (Guadalupe, Rosario, Ines, Asuncion, Refugio, Concepción, Soledad, or others), ask what the sex of the person is. For example: "Is Refugio a man or a woman?"

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

3. Age

Make sure that they always give you the age of the person in completed years.

If the informant does not remember the age of some person, help them with some occurrence (marriage, birth of a child, year in school, among others) or ask them to consult their drivers license, their birth certificate, or another document where the date of birth appears, and help them to calculate the age.

When the person is less than one year old (is only hours, days, weeks, or less than 12 months old), write zeros in the spaces meant for it.

When the answer is imprecise, confirm or inquire about the age attained.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 66]

4. Place of Birth

If the entity declared is the same as where the interview is taking place, circle code 1. Here, in this state.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

If the informant reports a state or country other than the one in which the interview is taking place, write down the name in the space meant for this.

The names of the states of the republic are the following:

Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Coahuila, Colima, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Estado de Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas.

When the answer is other than the name of the state, that is, it corresponds to the name of a municipality or locality (for the Federal District, the name of a delegation or colony), ask to which state of the Mexican Republic, or to which country, it pertains, and record this.

If the answer is that the person was born in Mexico, or the city of Mexico, ask them to tell you if this is the Federal District or the state of Mexico.

5. Access to Social Security or Retirement Pensions

A person has the right to medical services when the company, factory, etc., for which he/she works pays a public or private health institution for the service; also when the person pays the IMSS [Mexican Institute of Social Security], or when the rights to this service are for the family members that the worker designates.

These people can have the right to medical services in institutions such as the IMSS, the ISSSTE [State Workers' Institute of Social Security and Social Services], Mexican Petroleum [Pemex], the Defense Department, or the Navy, among others.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 67]

A person can have rights to service in more than one health institution; if this is the case, circle the codes of the affirmative responses.

In asking this question, keep in mind the following:

When the person pays the IMSS for the right to medical services (voluntary or optional insurance), circle code 1.

If any of the people in the home has the right to medical services in the USA or in any other country, circle code 5.

When the transactions are underway for a person to receive medical attention, consider them as already having this right, and circle the corresponding code.

If the informant reports that the person is a post-secondary student and has the right to medical service, circle the code for the option that they report.

If the person is right holder of some state social security institution, such as ISSSET, ISSSEMyM [Institute of Social Security and Social Services for the State of Mexico and Municipalities], ISSSTESON [State of Sonora Worker's Institute of Social Security and Social Services], write the answer under the option other institution.

When the person has the right to medical services in an institution other than those that appear in this question, write the answer in the option, other institution.

6. Type of Disability

A disabled person is one who has some physical or mental limitation, which limits their ability to carry out activities in their house, school, or job, such as walking, dressing, bathing, reading, writing, hearing, etc.

This question obtains information from people who have long term or permanent disabilities or limitations.

Long term disabilities are those that exist for more than six months, or which are expected to last for at least that long.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

When a person has more than one limitation or disability, circle the codes of the affirmative responses. The following people can be considered to have disabilities:

[P. 68]

Those who cannot, or are limited in, moving or walking due to a partial or total lack of legs, or those who, having complete legs, cannot move them; they generally need help from other people, from a wheel chair, walkers, or an artificial foot or leg. This includes invalids, people with polio, people who have had one or both legs (or a portion of them) amputated, among others.

Those who cannot, or are limited in, using their arms or hands due to a partial or total lack of arms, hands, or fingers; or those people who, having both their arms, have lost the ability to move them, such that they cannot grab or move objects, push, throw, pull, dress, bathe, or perform other actions; those with one hand/arm are an example.

Those who cannot hear with one or both ears, those who only hear high pitched noises, or those who use any kind of hearing aid. For example, those who only hear with one ear, and those who only hear when they are spoken to very loudly.

Those who cannot speak. In this case, do not include babies who are not yet able to talk.

Those who are blind, those who see with only one eye, and those who only distinguish large shapes, or shadows.

People with mental retardation, who learn slowly, those who have Down syndrome, etc.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

Any physical or mental disability or limitation other than the previous should be registered as it is reported to you, in the space write the disability.

If, after having read through the options, they report that the person does not have any disabilities, circle code 8 and go on to question 8. use of health services.

7. Cause of Disability

When a person has more than one disability that limits them, ask which one creates the most difficulties in carrying out their daily activities, and what caused it.

In option 1, include people who were born that way because of causes that originated during the pregnancy and at the time of birth, be they hereditary or not.

[P. 69]

In option 3, include all causes originated by accidents that occurred anywhere; for example, at work, in the street, in the home, or in other places. Also include acts of violence as accidental causes (assaults, fights, police action, war, and others).

Any cause different than the options presented should be written under by other causes.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

8. Use of Health Services

By means of this question we find out which hospital, clinic, or place people go to when they have health problems.

In this question take into account the following:

When they answer that the person goes for medical checkups, treatment, vaccinations, or rehabilitation to different places, ask where they are normally attended and circle the corresponding code.

When they give you very general responses, such as the name or number of the clinic, ask if it is part of IMSS, to ISSSTE, to the Secretary of Health, or other [institution], and circle the corresponding code.

If the people go to state social security institutions such as ISSSET, ISSEMyM, ISSSTESON, write the answer under the option "In some other place."

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 70]

When they report that they go to the DIF (Integral Development of the Family), the Red Cross, the Green Cross, the Amber Cross, a medical clinic, midwife, Promotora or any other type of charitable institution, write the answer under the option "In some other place."

The people who report that they go to a folk healer, witchdoctor or herbal healer, or a similar person, should be included under the option "Does not receive services."

These questions are only for people age 5 and above.

9. Entity or Country of Residence in 1995

If the entity declared is the same as where they interview is being carried out, circle code 1. Here, in this state and continue with question 11. Municipality of residence in 1995.

When they answer with the name of a municipality (delegation), locality (colony), or city, ask to which state of the Mexican Republic, or to which country, it belongs, and record this. When you are unsure about the name of the state or the country, write what they tell you in the space In another state.

If the person lived in a state other than that of the interview, write the name in the space for "in another state".

When the answer is Mexico, or Mexico city, ask them to clarify if this refers to the Federal District or to the state of Mexico.

If the person lived in another country, write the name, ask the reason for the emigration, and continue with question 12 Indigenous language.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

10. Reason for the emigration

Ask for the reason why the person stopped living in the state or country where they lived in January of 1995. If the reason is something other than those listed, circle code 8, other reason.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

11. Municipality of residence in 1995

If the municipality is the same as that of the interview, circle code 2, but if it is a different municipality, write it in the corresponding space.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

[P. 71]

If the informant mentions the name of a locality (colony for the Federal District), find out the name of the municipality (delegation) to which it pertains. When they do not know the name of the municipality (delegation), write down what they report in the space In some other municipality or delegation.

Remember that this question should not be asked when you have written the name of a country in question 9, entity or country of residence in 1995.

12. Indigenous Language

This information is collected with three questions. The first is to find out if the person speaks a dialect or indigenous language and you should always ask it even when you believe that in your area of work indigenous languages are not spoken. If the person speaks one, ask the name of the language and write it down; if you do not know how it is spelled, write it as it sounds; with the third question find out if the person also speaks Spanish.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

Foreign languages, such as English, French, Italian, or others, are not indigenous languages.
In a case in which they respond Chontal, ask if it is from Oaxaca or from Tabasco and write down the answer.

13. Literacy

A person knows how to read and write when they can read and write at least a message in any tongue or language.

Keep in mind that a person does not know how to read nor write if they can only write their name, a few words, or numbers.

With responses, such as "I read a little," "not much," "more or less," or "I have bad handwriting," it is necessary to ask if they really can read and write a message.

If, because of an accident or advanced age, the person cannot read or write, but they knew how to do so, consider them as knowing how.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

Even if the person does not know how to read and write, always ask the questions for attendance and schooling.

[P. 72]

14. School Attendance

If the person goes to school to study in any of the following educational levels: preschool, primary, secondary, preparatory or high school, technical or commercial school, professional (university, technological, school for teachers, among others), masters or doctorate (post-graduate), or rather, to the open school system, or adult education, consider them as attending school.

If they go to courses for literacy (only to learn to read and write), beauty, carpentry, handicrafts, etc., consider them as not attending school.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

15. Reason for Leaving School

This question is only for those people, ages 5 to 29, who do not currently go to school.

Ask the principal reason for which a person between the ages of 5 and 29 left school and did not continue their studies.

When the person has never gone to school, circle code 0 and go on to question 19. Religion. Any other cause that does not match one of the options should be written out on the line Other reason.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 73]

16. Schooling

Record the last year or grade that the person passed in school and circle the code of the corresponding level; keep in mind the following in answering the question:

If the person is attending a grade in school, write down the previous year or grade that they passed.

If the person finished studying in fewer years, register the grades or years passed, as if they had attended the regular or a different schooling system of education. For example, when they have finished secondary school in the National Institute for the Education of Adults (INEA) in one year, record three years in option 3.Secondary.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

When they declare semesters, trimesters, etc. write the equivalent in years attained; for this, take into account the following equivalencies: 2 semesters, 3 four-month periods, 4 trimesters, and 6 two-month periods each equal 1 year.

For example, if a person is attending the fourth semester of high school this means that they have not yet finished the second year, thus, write one year for this level.

If they mention that the person studies or studied high school and, as part of this study, a technical major, write the number of years passed under option 4.Preparatory or high school.

If they give you the name of a school ("Unitec", "Conalep", technological or other) or that of a degree (accountant, architecture, social work, nursing, etc.), ask if their studies are at a technical or professional level and record the number of years passed in the corresponding option.

Don't count trained hairdressers, special training and specialty courses. Only for medical specialties (pediatrics, cardiology, among others) should the number of years passed be recorded under the option Masters or doctorate.

[P. 74]

-If the person has done some number of years of a doctorate, add these to the number of years that the masters lasted and write the total number of years under this level.

-If the person studied in another country, ask them to tell you what educational level they studied in, as well as the number of years, and record this in the corresponding level.

17. Scholastic History

When, in question 16, schooling, you have written a quantity in the options for teaching school, technical, commercial, or professional major, ask what studies they had to complete in order to enter into this degree and circle the corresponding code.

If, in order to study in a post-secondary teaching school or in some subject specialty, the prerequisite was basic teaching school, circle code 2. Finished secondary.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

18. Name of the Career

When they report teaching, technical, commercial, professional, masters or doctoral studies, write the name of the career that the person studies or studied: elementary school teacher, electronics technician, topographical technician, topographical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, degree in Spanish language, masters in demography, doctorate in statistics, among others.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

[P. 75]

19. Religion

When the religion is other than Catholic, write it as it is reported. If the answer is "Christian", or "Evangelical", or "Protestant", ask the name of the denomination, congregation, or religious group to which they belong and write this in the space for other religion.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

20. Ethnicity

This question identifies those people who consider themselves to be indigenous.
This question can be adapted, depending on the indigenous groups that there are in your region.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

Example:

In the Tarasca plateau, in Michoacan, you can ask, "Is Adolfo Purepecha, Nahuatl, or from some other indigenous group?"

In the Chiapas heights, the question would be, "Is Raul Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Tojolabal or from some other indigenous group?"

In the Nayarita mountains you can ask, "Is Erubey Cora, Huichol, Nahuatl, or from some other indigenous group?"

In the Yucatan you can ask, "Is Viely Maya or from some other indigenous group?"

[P. 76]

The following questions should be asked of all people 12 years old or above.

21. Marital Status

This question is meant to find out if the person currently lives in a consensual union, is separated, married, single, or in some other situation, in accordance with the conjugal or marital laws or customs of the country. You should ask the question even if you think that the person is very young.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

In Questions 22 To 30 we learn about the women and men 12 complete years of age or older who worked the week prior to the date of the interview, as well as the characteristics of the work they performed

22. Condition of Activity and 23. Verification of Activity

These questions identify those people who worked the previous week, as well as those who did not work.

For the purposes of the census, a person worked the week before the census if, for at least one hour, they carried out activities for the production or elaboration of some product or for performing some service. It is also considered work if they carried out agricultural or livestock activities for family consumption.

[Depiction of these two completed questions on the enumeration form]

[P. 77]

Ask the question regarding condition of activity of all people 12 years old or older, to find out if they worked, had a job but did not work, sought work, are a student, dedicated themselves to household chores in their own home, are retired or drawing a pension, are permanently unable to work, or simply did not work.

Take into account that option 1. Did you work? and 2. Do you have a job, but did not work? are for people who had a job during the previous week.

[2 Drawings representing option 1]

When you ask did you work? And they respond that the person works on household chores in their own household, circle the code for option 5. Did you dedicate yourself to household chores?

If the person did not work because they were on vacation, was on medical leave, the machinery was broken, there were no basic materials, or they were waiting for the rainy season to begin to plant, consider the person as having a job, but did not work.

[2 Drawings representing this last condition]

[P. 78]

Ask the question verification of activity only of people who did not have a job the previous week (options 3 thru 6 and 8 for the question condition of activity).

This question is asked in order to find out if the person carried out any of the activities mentioned, regardless of whether they spend very little time doing them, earn little or nothing, carry them out on the street, in private homes, or in their own house.

In reading this question, change what is in parentheses to what the person reported in condition of activity.

Example

Besides being a student, did Lorenzo help with a family business during the past week?

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

In mentioning the options you can use examples from your region.

Once you have recorded in condition of activity that the person worked (option 1) or had a job but did not work (option 2) last week, or that they carried out some activity included in verification of activity, options 1 thru 5, continue with questions 24 thru 30 in order to find out the type of work that they performed.

For people who reported in the question on condition of activity that during the past week they had a job but did not work (option 2) ask for the characteristics of the work that they normally do.

[P. 79]

24. Occupation or Trade

The occupation is captured in the following two questions:

In the first, write what the person did in their work during the previous week; that is, the chores or activities that they carried out.

In the second, record the name of the occupation, trade, or position in the activity that the person carried out during the previous week.

[Two depictions of this completed question on the enumeration form, and two related drawings]

Record the information from the informant just as they report it to you, following the order of the questions, even if they first mention the name of the occupation and then what the person did in their job. For example, if, in asking what they did, they say that they are a taxi driver, confirm with the informant what they do as a taxi driver, and then write drives a taxi under the first question and taxi driver under the second.
Try not to record imprecise chores or general activities, such as supervises, teaches, sells, etc., nor general posts or trades such as employee, manual laborer, supervisor, since this does not allow us to know occupation.

[P. 80]

Write down the tasks and the trade or position as is indicated in the following:

Tasks Trades or positions
Supervises cashiers in a supermarket Cashier supervisor
Gives swimming lessons Swim instructor
Sells fruit in the street Traveling fruit salesperson

If a person carried out more than one job during the previous week, ask for the information on the occupation that the informant recognizes as their principle employment.

25. Job Situation

This question is meant to learn if, in their job, the person is an employee, manual laborer, day laborer, unskilled laborer, owner, own-account worker, or unpaid worker in the family business or land.

If a person was contracted to work in a business, company, or government, and in return for this job they received payment, they are an employee or manual laborer.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

Some people who work in exchange for payment in agriculture or in construction are considered day laborers or unskilled laborers.

If the person has their own business, they can be an owner or an own-account worker. Owners are those who, during the previous week, had one or more employees whom they paid; on the other hand, an own-account worker does not contract personnel, even though they could have received help from other people without having paid them.
Those people who helped or worked without receiving payment are known as unpaid workers in the family business or land. These people can work or help in stores, workshops, orchards, farms, plots or in the care and raising of animals for family consumption.

[P. 81]

This option also includes unpaid workers who are not family members of the owner of the business.

When the informant appears uncertain, ask other questions to obtain the required response, such as "Do you work for anyone?," "Do they pay you?," "Do you just help in the job, but the don't pay you?," "Do you work in your own business?".

26. Work Benefits

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

With this question we find out the work benefits that employees, manual laborers, day laborers, and unskilled laborers receive from the company, factory, or other place where they worked last week.

If any of these people has more than one job, ask them to describe all of the work benefits they receive.

27. Hours Worked

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

If the person only states the hours that they worked per day, ask how many days they worked last week in order to obtain the total number of hours worked.

If the person did more than one job, sum up the hours dedicated to each one of them and record the total.

Include the time the person spent on activities related to their job as part of the hours worked. For example, buying materials, preparing the food that they sell, or promoting the sale of some product or service to clients.

When there is some doubt in determining the number of hours that a person worked, ask what time they arrive at work, what time they leave, and the number of days that they worked; if their work schedule is not continuous, don't include the time that the person takes to eat.

In all cases, always record an answer, even if it is approximate or an average.

[P. 82]

28. Income from Work

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

With this question we find out the amount of money that the person earns weekly, twice-monthly, monthly, or yearly from their job.

If they report that the person worked more than one job, add up what they earn in each one of them and record the total.

When the person hesitates to give an answer because what they earn is variable or they don't remember the exact amount, ask them to give you a figure even if it's approximate or an average.

If the informant responds that the person earns the minimum wage, ask how much that is, and if they don't know, consider the minimum monthly salary for your city to be $ [blank], for which you should verify with the informant if they receive this amount and how often they receive it.

29. Economic Activity

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

The economic activity of the place where the person worked last week is captured with two questions.

In the first question, record the place where the person worked last week; the answer can be "in the country, "in the factory," "in the office," "in the street," "in a hospital," "in a private home," "in their home," "outside of the market," "outside of the school," etc.

In the second question, record what the company, institution, business, premises, or place where the person worked last week does or is dedicated to.

In this question they may respond that "they plant," "they manufacture," "they provide services," among other things. For this reason, find out what is planted, what is manufactured or what kinds of services are performed. For example, planting corn, manufacturing shirts, selling clothing, selling tacos, fixing cars, making handicrafts, cutting hair, etc.

Keep in mind that in factories and workshops goods are made with different materials such as iron, wood, and plastic, among others. Because of this reason, ask for the material with which they are made. For example, if they make boxes, find out if they are made of cardboard, of wood, or of plastic.

[P. 83]

When the person worked doing household chores for other people or in another house, record what the person did.

Example:

Occupation Where they worked What they do
Servant In another person's house Chores in another person's house
Gardener In another person's house Take care of the garden in another person's house

Do the same for people who work on their own in the street or don't have a fixed or permanent place to work; that is, record what they do. For example, puts flooring in other people's houses, sells shellfish in the street, sings in busses, takes care of cars in the street, sells clothing from house to house, etc.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form, and a related drawing]

If the person had more than one job, record only the economic activity of the workplace where they performed their principal occupation.

30. Place of Work

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

If the municipality or delegation reported is the same as where the interview is being conducted, circle code 1. Here, in this municipality or delegation and continue with question 31.

If the person's job is in a different municipality than the interview, record the one that they report to you and ask for the state or country that it belongs to.

When the state reported is the same as where the interview is being conducted, circle code 3. Here, in this state.

[P. 84]

If they give you the name of a neighborhood or locality and the informant doesn't know what municipality it belongs to, record it as they report it to you in the space for "in another municipality or delegation" and ask for the entity (state).

If the answer is Mexico or Mexico City, ask them to clarify whether they mean the Federal District or the state of Mexico.

When the person does their job in different municipalities because they don't have a fixed place of work, such as can be the case with own-account workers, record the municipality of delegation where they regularly work. If the informant doesn't know what one this is, record doesn't have a fixed place of work, in the space for In another municipality or delegation.

31. Other income

This question applies to all people 12 completed years of age or older, to identify those who receive money from retirement or a pension, help from family members who live in and outside of the country, from governmental or private institutions.

[Depiction of this completed question on the enumeration form]

Keep in mind that money received and recorded in this question does not have to be returned or paid. Furthermore, verify that you only record the amount received for one person.

If they state that the person receives money from family members who are part of the same household, don't record it.

For the answers where you get an affirmative response, ask for the amount and how often they receive it and record, in pesos, the answer in the spaces provided.

My daughter sends me 100 dollars every two months, and last time I exchanged them for 900 pesos.

[Drawing of a woman leaving the telegraph office with cash.]

[P. 85]

Ask questions 32 to 37 of all women of 12 completed years of age or older.

32. Number of Children, 33. Deceased Children, 34. Surviving Children

With these questions we want to know the total number of daughters and sons born alive for women 12 completed years of age and older, as well as the total number of deceased daughters and sons and the number of daughters and sons who are currently alive, even though they may not live with the mother.

[Depictions of these three questions on the enumeration form]

You should ask these questions even though the woman may be single or very young. If necessary, you can tell the informant that in some states in the country women begin having children when they are very young.

Consider as a child born alive those children who, upon being born, showed some movement, crying, breath, heartbeat, etc., even though they may have later died.

When they report abortions or stillborn children, don't count them in the total of daughters and sons or in deceased children.

35. Data of birth, 36. Survival, and 37. Age at death

[Depictions of these three questions on the enumeration form]

With these questions you obtain the date of birth of the last daughter or son who was born alive, if this daughter or son is currently living and, if they've died, their age when they died.

If, for the date of birth, the person only remembers the month but not the year, record a 9 in each of the boxes for month and year. If they remember the year but not the month, record the complete year and 99 in the boxes for month.

[P. 86]

When the last daughter or son is deceased, ask their age at the time of death and only record one piece of information, whether it be in days, months, or years. If the informant doesn't remember at what age this daughter (son) passed away, record 99 in the boxes for days.

5.4 International migration

The objective of this section is to find out the number of people who left to go live in another country in the last five years, even though it may have been for a short time or they may have already returned.

People who enter or leave the country for vacation, work assignment, visits to relatives or another reason that doesn't entail a change of residence are not considered migrants.

1. International migration condition, 2. Number of people, 3. Migrating people, and 4. List of people

[Depictions of these four questions on the enumeration form]

If they report more than four international migrants, use another questionnaire.

5. Residency condition, 6. Sex, 7. Age and 8. Place of origin

Ask if the person recorded was living in the household when they left the last time, their sex, their age in completed years when they left, and what state of the Republic they were living in when they left the country.

[Depictions of these four questions on the enumeration form]

[P. 87]

For question 6, keep in mind the criteria mentioned in question 2. Sex of III. Characteristics of the people.

Keep in mind that you should record the age of the person when they left the country in completed years.

If they state that the place where the person was living was Mexico or Mexico City, clarify with the informant whether they are referring to the Federal District or the state of Mexico.

9. Date of emigration, 10. Country of destination, 11. Country of residence, and 12. Data of return

Continue, asking for the month and year that the person went to live in another country and the name of it [the other country].

If the person has gone to live in another country various times during the last five year, record the information corresponding to the last time.

[Depictions of these four questions on the enumeration form]

Furthermore, ask for the country where the person currently lives; if it is in the Mexican Republic, ask for the month and year that they returned.

If the person only remembers the month but not the year of the date of emigration or return, record a 9 in each of the boxes for month and year. If they remember the year but not the month, put 99 in the boxes for month and record the complete year.

[Pp. 88-108 were not translated into English]