Mexico 1970 Enumerator's Instructions
Enumerator's Manual, General Census of Population and Housing, 1970.
In order for all the data to faithfully represent the situation of the country at a given moment, it is necessary to choose what is called a "census moment," which in the case of the IX General Population Census of 1970 will be "midnight" of the 28th of January, that is, the exact beginning of the 28th, that is, 12 midnight of the 27th all people who were alive in this moment should be enumerated, without exception therefore: the following should be enumerated:
All children who were born before 12 midnight on the 27th. All people who died after 12 midnight of the 27th.
Do Not Enumerate:
People who died before this hour. Children who died after this hour.
Each person should be enumerated in their habitual domicile or place of residence. This place of habitual residence is usually the place the person will indicate as an answer to the question:
Where do you live?
As a rule, this will be the place where the person habitually sleeps. People who do not have a place of habitual residence will be enumerated in the dwelling or place in which they are found in the moment of the enumeration.
In the case of people who are temporarily absent from their habitual residence or domicile for a period of 6 months or more, they should be considered in the following way:
a) If they are of legal age (21 or older) they should be enumerated in the place that the enumerator finds them. [Drawing]
b) If they are minors (less than 21 years old) they should be enumerated in the habitual domicile or residence of the family to whom they pertain, and on which they depend economically, and their information should be given by the people who are present in that residence. [Drawing]
If the temporary absence from the habitual domicile or residence has been for a period of less than 6 months, the people will be enumerated in their habitual domicile or residence.
If the people, be they above or below legal age, have been resigned to sanatoriums, asylums, prisons, orphanages, mental hospitals, leper colonies, convents, seminaries, etc., they will be enumerated in these places, without taking into account the time that they have been absent from their previous place of residence.
The preceding rules should apply to all people, including active military and naval personnel, people in the foreign services, people who are in group quarters, and those who are in other countries for reasons of study, work, etc.
1. Servants should be enumerated in the place or domicile in which they habitually sleep.
2. The caretakers, guards, keepers, or administrators of lighthouses, factories, workshops, residences, group quarters - any class of building - who live in them, should be enumerated in those places, because this is where they actually have their habitual residence.
3. Tourists or visitors who reside outside the country should not be enumerated under any circumstances. Residents of other countries who carry out economic activities in places along the Mexican border should not be enumerated, even when they cross the border daily.
4. Foreigners who form part of the foreign services of other countries should not be enumerated under any circumstances.
Following the preceding rules:
All persons, be they Mexicans or foreigners, who habitually reside in the country, should be enumerated, no matter what their nationality.
Dwelling means a room or group of rooms in which one or more people sleep and generally prepare their food in an independent manner.
The dwelling could have been originally built for a variety of purposes:
2. For any other purpose, having been transformed and fixed up, totally or partially, for habitation.
Keep in mind that, occasionally, dwellings exist within warehouses, factories, businesses, schools, house or building terraces, etc.
Any type of construction or installation should be considered a dwelling for the purposes of the census, as long as it is inhabited, even when the occupants are absent at the moment of the census.
In general, for the purposes of the census, family means a group of people who, related or not, live together under the same roof, around a marriage or around one of the parents (man or woman), as long as this person lives with one or more single children.
The family is commonly made up of:
A Head of Family and a Wife or Companion
[Drawing of man] "this is the head" [Drawing of woman] "this is the wife or companion"
And by Their Single Sons or Daughters
[Drawing] "This is a son or daughter"
However, if other family members inhabit the same dwelling (uncle, mother-in-law, etc.) they should also be considered members of the family.
[Drawing] "Also related"
The same goes for those who live in the dwelling without any relationship with the head of family (servants, guests, etc.)
[Drawing] "Not related"
If any of these other relatives or people without relation who inhabit the same dwelling live with their spouse or with single sons or daughters, they should be considered to be a separate family.
The married children who inhabit the same dwelling as their parents and single siblings, along with their wife or kids, should be considered a separate family.
The case might arise that in a dwelling that two (or more) families inhabit, there are also people living there who are related to the head of family of both families. In this case, the person can be considered a member of either family, but they should only be annotated once. For example: a sister of the head of the first family, who is also the aunt of the head of the second family, can be considered a member of either of these, but she should only be counted one time.
In the case of people who are not related; these people will be considered to form part of either of the 2 families, but they should only be annotated one time.
There are some exceptions to the general definition which defines the family as a group of people who live together, under a single roof, around the marriage of one of the parents. for example, there are cases in which an aunt with whom 3 single nephews live, in which the aunt should be considered as the head of family and the nephews as people who are "also related," with the head of family.
There can also be a case in which 3 single brothers live together; in this situation, one of them should be considered the head of family, and the rest as "also related."
When two or more people who are not related (students, friends, etc.) live in the same dwelling, each of them should be annotated as "a single person" in the questionnaire for that dwelling. For the purposes of the census, they do not constitute a family; therefore, there is no head.
Annotate the complete address of the dwelling.
In the localities where there are no streets, or where the streets have no name, write the name of the place or hamlet, village, etc., and some other detail when there is more than one house; for example: "El Alamo Ranch," or perhaps: "First house on the road to Tres Cruces," etc.
Remember that in a dwelling in which you have to use two questionnaires, on the second questionnaire fill out only this box within the "Dwelling Characteristics" section, and write a number 1 in the first questionnaire and a number 2 in the second, next to the word "location."
Occupants and families
Write down the total number of people who habitually live in the dwelling. Do not forget to include the little children. Also, write down the number of families who live in the dwelling.
Keep in mind the definitions of dwelling and of family that have been given.
Bathroom, Kitchen and other Rooms
[Depiction of enumeration form; section on bathroom, kitchen and other rooms.] In all cases, the three questions should be asked and the three answers written down. In the first two, mark the answer with an X. In the last question clearly write the number of other rooms that the dwelling has.
In the cases where there is a common bathroom for the occupants of various dwelling, the bathroom should not be written into any of the questionnaires.
The dwelling is considered owned when it is being paid for in payments, as long as it is the property of any of the people who inhabit the dwelling. It is not owned when the dwelling is rented, borrowed or provided as part of a job, as in the case of a watchman, doorman, caretaker, etc.
In a case in which the floors are mostly of dirt, make an X in the corresponding circle. If they are covered with some other material, be it wood, tile, cement, or any other type, make an X in the circle corresponding to "others."
[3 Drawings, followed, respectively, by these words:] Piped water within the dwelling. Piped water outside the dwelling but inside the building. Piped water in a public faucet or hydrant.
When the answer is "Yes" to the first question, do not ask the next two questions. When the answer is "No," ask the second question. If the answer to the second question is "No," ask the third question.
Radio and Television
Mark with an X if there is a radio and television in the dwelling (separated or in one single unit), or if there is only a radio or only a television. Include those which run off of electricity, as well as those that run off of batteries (such as those known as "transistors.")
[Drawings of "meat," "eggs," "fish," "milk," and "wheat bread."]
Write down the number of days during the preceding week in which each of the aforementioned foods were consumed. Do not consider those which were consumed outside of the dwelling.
This refers to the week of the 19th to the 25th of January; the number of days cannot be more than 7 for any line.
First and last name of the enumerated, family ties or relationships, and sex.
The boxes for this column say:
[Depiction of enumeration form; section: "first and last name of the enumerated, family ties or relationships, and sex."]
In order to annotate the data which is asked for in the three boxes of column 1, the enumerator should take into account whether the dwelling is inhabited by one family, or by more than one family. In a case in which there is more than one family in a single dwelling, first write down the data corresponding to all the members of the first family, then the data for all the members of the second family, and so on.
The order that should be followed for writing down the data for each family should be the following:
Write the first and last name of the head of family, who can be a man or a woman, and mark the circle corresponding to "is the head," as well as the circle for their corresponding sex.
Then, write the first and last name of the wife or companion, and then the names of the single sons or daughters, from oldest to youngest, marking with an X the circles corresponding to the family tie or relationship that they have with the head of their family, as well as their sex.
Then write the first and last names of the people who are also related with the head of the family (mother, uncle, mother-in-law, nephew, etc.) and, for these people, mark with an X the circles corresponding to "also related," as well as their sex.
Finally, write the first and last names of the people who inhabit the dwelling and have "no relation" with the head of family (servants, guests, etc.), marking with an X, for these people, the circle corresponding to "no relation," as well as their sex.
Remember that there are some names that are common for both women and men, such as: Guadalupe, Trinidad, Refugio, etc. In these cases, take special care in marking the sex.
This is the only data that will be written vertically (from top to bottom). The following questions should be asked for each person in a horizontal fashion (from left to right), until you have finished with them, before continuing on to the next.
Never fail to write an answer to this question.
[Drawing] Write down the age of the person in attained years for persons older than one year, that is, the number of years they completed on their last birthday.
[Drawing] For children less than one year old, obtain the age in attained months.
In the case of children less than 1 month old, mark the corresponding circle with an X.
If the exact age is not known, as occurs for some older people, ask: "What year were you born?" If that date cannot be obtained either, try to associate the age which they had at the time of an important occurrence. For example: the beginning of the Revolution of 1910, the Expropriation of the Petroleum Industry in 1938, etc.
Place of Birth
[Drawing] Keep in mind that this question relates to the state, territory, federal district, or foreign country in which each person was born, and not to the municipality, delegation, city, town, villa, etc. When the person was not born in the federal entity or state in which the interview is taking place, write down the name of the state or foreign country in which they were born. For example: Guanajuato, Morelos, Quintana Roo, Spain, etc.
Place of Residence
This regards finding out the amount of time that the person has been living in the federal entity (be it state, territory, or federal district), not in the municipality, delegation, city, town or villa, etc., in which the interview is being carried out.
For those people who have lived their whole lives in this federal entity, the circle in front of "always" should be marked.
For people who have lived less than one year in that federal entity or state, the circle in front of "less than one year" should be marked.
For people who have lived in this federal entity for one year or more, write, in the corresponding space, the number of years that they have lived in the federal entity.
The people who have "not" always lived in that state should be asked: "in which state of the republic or foreign country did you live before?" clearly write the name of this state or foreign country.
Some people could have changed from entity or country of residence more than one time; in that case, write the name of the most recent entity or country in which they lived before.
If a person, at some period in their lives, went to live in some other state or country (not including vacations or trips), and returned to this state, the amount of time that has passed since they returned to live in the state should be considered the time of residence; the name of the state or of the foreign country where they lived immediately before should be written.
Ask each person what their religion is, keeping in mind that the members of a family can have different religions.
Remember that for the religion "protestant or evangelist," the following should also be marked: Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Pentecostal, Sunday-Ist ["Sabatista"], Quaker, Jehovah Witness, Seventh-Day Adventist, Anglican, Christian Scientist, Lutheran, Calvinist, Episcopalian, etc.
Under "other" the following religions should be marked: Mohammed, Buddhist, Taoist, Shintoist, Confucius, Islamic, Muslim, Brahman, Orthodox, etc.
The circle in front of "none" should be marked for the people who declare that they do not have a religion, or who, even though they are believers, do not follow the norms or precepts of any specific religion.
This involves finding out what the person wears on their feet the majority of the time. For all children less than one year old, the circle corresponding to "barefoot" should always be marked.
When a person declares that, "Yes," they do speak an indigenous language, clearly write the name of that language; examples: Nahuatl, Otomi, Mayatarasco, Zapoteco, etc.
In a case in which the person speaks several indigenous languages, write down their maternal language.
Don't forget to ask if they also speak Spanish (Only for those who declared that they speak an indigenous language.)
For children that have not yet learned to talk, mark the circle corresponding to "No," does not speak the indigenous language.
Finish here if the person is less than 6 years old, and continue on if the person is 6 years old or above.
In order to write the answer to this question, if there is any doubt, keep in mind the following:
In order to mark the first circle, it is necessary that the person know how to read and write. People who only know how to sign, write their name, or a few random words or numbers, or who can only recognize the letters of the alphabet, or a few random words, are not considered able to read or right. In this case, one of the circles in front of "can only read," or "can only write," or "cannot read or right," should be marked, as it corresponds to them.
Do not deduce the answer to this question by their level of instruction. Some people who, years ago, attended some level of primary instruction, might in actuality not know how to read or write.
Level of instruction
In this box, the grade or years finished and passed at each level should be written, and not just the last years finished.
Example: for a person who finished and passed six years of primary, three of secondary, two of preparatory, and five of Law School, the Annotations should be done in the following way. [Depiction of enumeration form; section: "Level of Instruction."]
Read everything that is in bold type. Even though some people did not attend secondary, prevocational, preparatory, or vocational school, they might have had "other type of instruction."
[Depiction of enumeration form; section: "Level of Instruction."] Example: A person who has finished and passed all of primary and up to the 3rd [year] of Shorthand Secretary.
[Drawing] Remember that this refers to school or academic years finished and approved at each level.
In a special case in which one person carried out two different types of studies, which correspond to the same cycle or level, for example: "Secondary," and "Radio and television technician," or "Economics degree" and "Management degree," the one which is written down will only be the one which the interviewee considers as principle or which was required for the superior studies of the interviewee.
This question relates to finding out the number of people, age 6 and above, who currently attend an institution of learning on a regular basis, be it a school, college, institute, university, etc., as well as the year of study they are in.
[Drawing] Frequently, adults attend centers of study; therefore, ask this question of all people 6 years old or above.
For people who declare that "Yes," they do go to school, the year that they attend at the corresponding level should be written down; for example: if a person attend the fourth year of primary, a "4" should be written on the line which says "in _____ of primary."
If the answer is third year of Civil Engineering, write this answer completely on the line corresponding to "Other," in this way: [Depiction of enumeration form; section: "School Attendance."]
In this part, only one answer should be written. When in doubt, utilize the criteria for column 9.
In some upper level areas of study, the studies are done by semester; in this case the equivalence in years should be written.
When people are in a vacation period, but expect to return to school, write down the year or grade that they will be entering when the vacation ends.
[Drawing] Do not forget to include the children who just entered the first year of school.
Stop here if the person is below 12 years of age and continue if the person is 12 years old or above.
Only for Women
This question should be asked of all women 12 years old or above, even if it appears to you that, because of their age, this question does not correspond to them.
This regards finding out: how many children, born alive, has the women had during all her life. All should be included, even if they died shortly after birth, or no longer live with her.
This regards finding out the marital status of all people, men or women, 12 years old or above in the census moment.
To clear up any possible doubt, the following definitions should be kept in mind:
1. A person civilly and religiously married is one who has entered into marriage in accordance with the civil law and by any religion, and lives with their spouse; that is to say, that has not been widowed, nor has divorced or separated.
2. A person who is civilly married only is one who has entered into marriage only by law and who lives with their spouse; that is to say, that has not been widowed, nor has divorced or separated.
3. A person religiously married only is one who has entered into marriage only by religion and who lives with their spouse; that is to say, that has not been widowed, nor has annulled their marriage, nor has separated.
4. A person who lives in a consensual union is one who lives a marriage-like life with another person as if they were married, without having entered into a civil or religious marriage.
5. A widow is one who has lost their spouse or companion to death, and has not remarried, nor lives in a consensual union.
6. A divorced person is one who, having been civilly married, separated themselves by way of a divorce decree dictated by the competent authority, and has not remarried, nor lives in a consensual union.
7. A separated person is one who lives separately from their spouse or companion after having been married or having lived habitually with another person as if they were married.
8. A single person is one who has never been married and has never lived habitually with another person as if they were married (consensual union).
Activity during the Preceding Week
The question should be read out loud, and then each of the alternatives should be read slowly, until finding the one to which the person responds affirmatively. The alternatives should always be read.
Keep in mind that the question refers specifically to what the person did the preceding week.
It is considered that:
[Drawing] "Worked one hour or more during the week for pay, a salary, or for myself," if the person did any type of job, such as laborer, journeyman, boss, entrepreneur, employee, or self-employment, in exchange for an income, at least one hour out of the week.
[Drawing] "Worked in family business fifteen hours or more during the week, without pay," if the person worked for at least 15 hours during the week on a farm, workshop, business, or other type or economic activity directed or owned by a member of their family, without receiving pay.
[Drawing] "Has a job, but does not work," a person who, having a job, employment or business, did not attend work during the previous week because of illness, vacation, accident, or other type of permission, absence without permission, or interruption of the job because of bad weather, strike, machine malfunction, etc.
[Drawing] "Does not have work (unemployed)," will be marked for people who, in the week before the census, did not have work and considered themselves as unemployed, be it that they were seeking work, or that they did not seek work because they believed that they would not find it.
[Drawing] "Dedicated themselves exclusively to household chores," the person who exclusively worked in the home, that is to say, they did not have any paid work (not even for one hour), nor did they help in a company or business of a member of their family, or if they did, it was for less than 15 hours without receiving pay, during the week before the census. Be very careful -- often women tend small businesses, take products to sell in the market, or help their husband in agricultural plots, or in the making of crafts. The tendency exists to consider these people as dedicated to domestic chores, which is a serious error. Assure yourself that the markings in this circle are for people who only do household chores in their own home. Servants who work for a salary should not be included here, rather the first circle should be marked for them.
[Drawing] "In a different situation" This circle will be marked with an X for people who are not in any of the previous situations, but rather are students, retired, renters or receiving a pension, incapacitated for work, etc.
This question should be asked of all people age 12 and above.
[Drawing] Seeking work is understood to mean having asked friends or relatives for work, having applied for a job, having registered with job placement agencies, gone to various syndicates, etc., with the intention of finding work.
If the person was seeking work, ask for the number of weeks that they have been doing so. Add up all the weeks that have transpired since they began to seek work and include the weeks in which they did not do so because they were awaiting the results of previous applications, or because they were sick or on a trip, etc.
Lastly, ask if the person has ever worked, and mark the answer with an X.
Months worked in 1969
The questions for column 15 should be asked of all people 12 years old or older, even if they did not work the previous week. Remember that these questions refer to the year 1969.
Do not forget that those people who, during part or all of the year, helped a member of their family in an economic activity without receiving pay are also considered to have worked, as well as women who cared for a small business or carried out a regular economic activity.
A person who worked in 1969 should be asked: "How many months did you work during the year?" Consider all the months of 1969 in which the person carried out a job or jobs, whatever those jobs may have been.
The answer can never be more than 12 months.
Definition of job or principal employment
Columns 16, 17, and 18
Be very careful, since these three columns refer to the job or principal employment of the people who worked all or part of the year 1969, and involve "that job or employment from which they derived the greatest part or all of their income during the time that they worked in the year 1969."
In case of a difficulty in applying the previous criterion, write down the characteristics of the job or employment that the interviewee considers as principal.
The position in the job, the class of activity and the principal occupation should always refer to that job or employment that is considered principal in the year 1969.
Position at work in 1969
This question refers to the situation or category of the person in relation to their job or principal employment. Read the question and each of the alternatives until finding the position in which the person found themselves.
Following are the definitions for each of the positions:
[Drawing] "Works in a family business without receiving pay"
A person who, during the months that he/she worked in 1969, worked at least 15 hours per week without receiving pay in a farm, workshop, business, or other type of economic activity directed or owned by a family member. Examples: the wife of a worker of common land, who helps him in the field labor; the relative of the owner of a store, who helped him in his business, etc.
[Drawing] "Worked as a boss, manager, or employer"
A person who, during the year 1969, worked in their own business or company (solely or associated) or independently exercised a profession, occupation, or office, always when they employed one or more people in relation to their business, office, or profession, and gave them pay or salary in cash. Examples: a medic who worked in his/her private office and employed a nurse or a secretary; the owner of a factory who employed laborers, etc.
[Drawing] "Works as a journeyman or farm laborer"
A person who worked in agriculture or livestock, and who carried out predominantly manual labor, in exchange for a daily wage or salary in cash. Examples: a person who worked by day in the harvesting of corn; a person who worked for a salary milking cows, etc.
[Drawing] "Works as a laborer or employee"
A person who worked in exchange for pay or salary in cash in service to a boss, business, or institution. Examples: a construction worker, a secretary, etc.
[Drawing] "Self Employed"
A person who has their own business, profession, office or occupation (solely or associated) without being at the orders of a boss and without utilizing laborers or employees for pay or salary, although they could have family who worked without pay or apprentices without pay. Examples: a taxi driver, a person who sold fruit in the market, etc.
To mark the circle in front of "worker of common land [ejidatario] it is necessary that the person have had at least three characteristics: 1) That he/she have had the legal character of worker of common land; 2) That they have had a common land parcel; and 3) That their work on that land have supplied the majority of their income in 1969. If they were without one of these characteristics this circle should not be marked; for example: if they did not have the legal character of common land worker, or they had not received their parcel of common land, or if they did not use it despite having it, etc. In these cases the position that corresponds to employment or principal job should be marked, and not that of "worker of common land."
Type of activity in 1969
To write down the answer to the first question, remember the following rules:
a) When dealing with a business, establishment, company, agricultural or livestock farm, or private office, write down their complete name. Examples: Mexican Aviation Company, The Palm Ranch, Universal Electronics, Iris Optical, The New Medal, Inc., The Mansion Hotel, etc.
b) When dealing with a governmental agency, write the specific name of the dependence or institution. Examples: Mexican Social Security Institution, Public Works Secretary, State Treasury, etc.
c) When dealing with an agricultural or livestock farm or common farm without a name, write "livestock ranch" or "agricultural common-farm," depending on the case.
d) When the person works in a private home, as in servants, cooks, washpersons, etc., write down, "private home."
e) In the case of some seamstresses, washerwomen, people who make food or candy in their home by order or for sale, who work in their own homes, write: "works in own domicile."
f) For people who work for themselves in the street (washing cars, traveling salesmen, dancer, newspaper salesmen, etc.), write: "in the street."
In cases not predicted, write what the person tells you.
The second question is very important. Read it out loud and with the greatest clarity: what does this company, business, or institution dedicate itself to?
Read the examples out loud as well.
This involves writing what they dedicate themselves to; what the individual (if they are self-employed), establishment, business, or company in which they work, produces or sells, or what services they provide.
Draw a diagonal line in the place of the answer to the second question of column 17, when the answer to the first question is:
a) The name of a governmental agency, except in cases of institutions of teaching of the Secretary of Public Education.
b) "Private House."
[P. 51 has four drawings]
Examples of answer to the two questions in column 17:
Where did you have your principle
job or employment in 1969?
What did this company, business,
or institution dedicate itself it?
1. "Orient Wood"
2. Livestock farm
Raising and selling of wool livestock
3. "Rosita" clothes store
4. "La Norteña" tortilla makers
Sale of food to the public
5. Private house
Principal occupation in 1969
This deals with the office, job, or profession that the person carried out in the place where the person had their job or principal employment.
The occupation should be written down in a precise and complete form. Examples: milker, tractor driver, television repair technician, construction worker, personnel supervisor, passenger vehicle driver, car keeper, servant, bilingual secretary, public accountant, waiter, etc.
In the cases in which the occupation cannot be defined with a specific name, the type of work which the person did in their job should be written with the greatest detail.
Do not write generic names such as employer, mechanic, or [unintelligible], but rather specific names such as "shop clerk," "automobile mechanic," "typing secretary." Write with the greatest detail possible.
In some cases, professionals carry out jobs which are different from their specialty, or the name of the occupation which they have is different from the name of their profession; in these cases write down the name which is given as the principal occupation. For example: for a lawyer who has the position of sales manager, write down "sales manager," or for a professor who works in a government agency as a "primary school inspector," write down this last profession.
Earnings in 1969
Ask this question of all who are 12 years old or above.
This question refers to the total cash income, that is to say, the sum of all the income of the people in terms of earnings, salaries, commissions, tips, interest, dividends, yields, scholarships, income derived from self-employment - with costs subtracted -, etc., deducting what was spent on taxes, Social Security quotas, pensions, [Unintelligible] normally received in 1969.
These incomes can refer to a week, a month, or all year. The enumerator will write down the answer in the line that corresponds to the period to which the income refers. For example, if the [P. 55]person declares to have received $80.00 per week, the following will be written down: In a normal week: 80.
An answer should only be written on one of the three lines.
In those cases in which the period to which the income refers is not a week, nor month, nor year, calculate the income referring to one of the periods included in the questionnaire. For example: if they declare to have earned $500.00 twice a month, write $1000.00 on the line corresponding to one month: or in a normal month: 1000.